Sample records for biotite

  1. A Report on a Biotite-Calcic Hornblende Geothermometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春明; 潘裕生; 王凯怡; 张健


    This paper presents a biotite-calcic hornblende geothermometer which was empirically calibrated based on the garnet-biotite geothermometer and the garnet-plagioclase-hornblende-quartz geobarometer, in the ranges of 560 800°C (T) and 0.26?1.4 Gpa (P) using the data of metadolerite, amphibolite, metagabbro, and metapelite collected from the literature. Biotite was treated as symmetric Fe-Mg-AlVI-Ti quaternary solid solution, and calcic hornblende was simplified as symmetric Fe-Mg binary solid solution. The resulting thermometer may rebuild the input garnet-biotite temperatures well within an uncertainty of 50°C. Errors of 0.2 Gpa for input pressure, along with analytical errors of 5% for the relevant mineral compositions, may lead to a random error of 16°C for this thermometer, so that the thermometer is almost independent of pressure estimates. The thermometer may clearly discriminate different rocks of lower amphibolite, upper amphibolite and granulite facies on a high confidence level. It is assumed that there is a ferric iron content of 11.6% in biotite, and that the iron content in calcic hornblende may be calculated according to the method of Dale et al. (2000). This thermometer can be used for medium- to high-grade metabasites and metapelites.

  2. Effect of neutron and proton radiations on magnetization of biotite

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    Abdurakhimov, A U; Sharipov, S M; Yugaj, V P; Granovskij, A B; Radkovskaya, A A


    One analyzes curves of field dependence of magnetization of biotite measured in the initial state under 4.2 K temperature subsequent to irradiation of 14 MeV energy and 1.2 x 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2 dose neutrons and by 3 MeV energy and 2.2 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 dose protons, as well as, subsequent to annealing under 1000 deg temperature during 15 min. Irradiation by neutrons and protons was determined to result in increase of magneto-ordered phase content in biotite and, thus, in increase of magnetization of specimen. It is accounted for by formation of oxides in melt radiation thermal peaks and by freezing of high-temperature phase states corresponding to magnetite or solid solution of magnetite and hematite there. Thermal treatment does not change content of magneto-ordered phase in specimens

  3. Leaching of Fluoride from Biotite Mica in Soil: Implications for Fluoride in Shallow Groundwater


    Kularatne, K. U. K. S.; Pitawala,H. M. T. G. A.


    Leaching of F − from biotite was investigated at room temperature by performing a series of short-term leach tests. The leaching of F − from biotite structure strongly depends on its weathering stage. Results of this study suggest that high concentration of F − is leached from highly weathered biotite, compared to fresh biotite. Results of dissolution experiments confirm that the organic acids in soil promote the leaching of F − from biotite compared to inorganic acids. Citric acid which is a...

  4. Argon diffusion from biotite at high temperature and pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 贾命命; 李彬贤; 陆全明; 谢鸿森; 侯渭


    t The experiments of argon diffusion dynamics for biotite were carried out at 700 -1000℃ and 0.5 - 2,0 GPa and the diffusion coefficient and activation energy using different models have been calculated. The results indicate that the pressure does affect the argon diffusion and its effect is opposite to that of temperature. When p increases, the activation energy increases and diffusion coefficient decreases. The relation between pressure, closure temperature and cooling rate has been obtained. It is postulated that in low T and high p conditions, the argon diffusion from the environment to the system could occur and incur the appearance of the external argon in minerals.

  5. Is there tetrahedral Fe/sup 3 +/ in biotite

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    Dyar, M.D.; Burns, R.G.; Rossman, G.R.


    Tetrahedral Fe/sup 3 +/ has been observed in Moessbauer and optical studies of Al-deficient micas, including synthetic ferri-annites, annites from banded iron formations and phlogopites from deep-seated rocks. In such samples Si + Al < 4 (per 11 0), and 0.10-0.67 formula units of Fe/sup 3 +/ fill the tetrahedral sites in the structure. The authors also discovered several Al-rich biotites which contain small amounts of Fe/sub tet//sup 3 +/ based on their spectroscopic data. Fe/sup 3 +/ appears to be displacing some of the Al/sup 3 +/ into the octahedral site. Examination of the literature shows nine other cases of Fe/sub tet//sup 3 +/ in trioctahedral 1M micas where Si + Al > 4. Traditionally, the effects of cation substitutions on the physical properties have been considered to be dependent on the size difference between the octahedral and tetrahedral layers of the structure. Much attention has focused on the substitution of the larger Fe/sup 2 +/ for Mg/sup 2 +/ and other cations in the octahedra of relatively simple synthetic compositions. However, in the natural micas studied here high fO/sub 2/ and high proportions of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, and Ti/sup 4 +/ in the compositions raise the issue of structural readjustments based on substitution of small cations into the structure. In our samples, the average octahedral cation size is 0.67 A. If many small octahedral cations are incorporated into the structure during biotite formation, considerable octahedral flattening and (in response) tetrahedral rotation must occur to stabilize the mica. Perhaps the high degree of tetrahedral rotation allows accommodation of the larger Fe/sub tet//sup 3 +/ instead of Al/sub tet//sup 3 +/.

  6. DTA Characters of Biotites of Different Genetic Types and Their Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A new method is proposed to determine the genetic types of granites.Based on detailed DTA measurements on biotite in granites from south China and the Sanjiang area,characteristic thermal properties are presented for biotites of different origins.Mechanisms are discussed for the differences in thermal behavior of biotite in terms of chemical composition,crystal structure,ordering and polytypism.These characteristic thermal parameters of biotite can be used to shed light on granie genesis with the advantages of rapidness ,simplicity and economy.

  7. Implications of micro-compositions of garnet and biotite from high-grade meta-pelites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on detailed studies on the compositional zoning of garnet and biotite in pelitic rocks from the Jingshan group of granulite facies in north Jiaodong, P-T pseudosections with isopleths of Fe/(Fe + Ms) in garnet and biotite were calculated in the KFMASH system for two representative rocks of sillimanite-garnet-cordierite-biotite gneiss (Vbi/Vs > 1 ) and sillimanite-garnet gneiss ( Vbi/Vg< 0.2) using the software THERMOCALC and the internally consistent thermodynamic dataset. With a comparison of the calculated Fe/(Fe + Mg) values in garnet and biotite in the peak P-T fields constrained by peak mineral assemblages with the measured ones,it is concluded that the coarse garnet crystals with diffusion zoning from high grade meta-pelites can preserve their peak compositions even when they have experienced a cooling event, and that biotite crystals surrounded by felsic minerals in biotite-rich rocks with Vbi/Vs> 1 can nearly preserve their peak compositions, and biotites in garnet-rich rocks with Vbi/Vg< 0.2 cannot preserve their peak compositions due to the influence of grain-boundary fluid.

  8. Reactions to define the biotite isograd in the Ryoke metamorphic belt, Kii Peninsula, Japan (United States)

    Wang, Ge-Fan; Banno, Shohei; Takeuchi, Keiji


    Two types of biotite isograd are defined in the low-grade metamorphism of the Wazuka area, a Ryoke metamorphic terrain in the Kii Peninsula, Japan. The first, BI1, is defined by the reaction of chlorite+K-feldspar= biotite+muscovite+quartz+H2O that took place in psammitic rocks, and the second, BI2, by the continuous reaction between muscovite, chlorite, biotite and quartz in pelitic rocks. The Fe/Mg ratios of the host rocks do not significantly affect the reactions. From the paragenesis of pelitic and psammitic metamorphic rocks, the following mineral zones were established for this low-pressure regional metamorphic terrain: chlorite, transitional, chlorite-biotite, biotite, and sillimanite. The celadonite content of muscovite solid solution in pelitic rocks decreases systematically with the grade of metamorphism from 38% in the chlorite zone to 11% in the biotite zone. Low pressure does not prohibit muscovite from showing the progressive change of composition, if only rocks with appropriate paragenesis are chosen. A qualitative phase diagram of the AKF system relevant to biotite formation suggests that the higher the pressure of metamorphism, the higher the celadonite content of muscovite at BI1, which is confirmed by comparing the muscovites from the Barrovian and Ryoke metamorphism.

  9. The Effects of Germanium Biotite Supplement as a Prophylactic Agent against Respiratory Infection in Calves

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    Myunghwan Jung1, Bock-Gie Jung2, Seung Bin Cha1, Min-Kyoung Shin1, Won-Jung Lee1, Seung Won Shin1, Jin-A Lee2, Yeon-Kwon Jung3, Bong-Joo Lee2 and Han Sang Yoo1*


    Full Text Available Germanium biotite, a natural mineral, is comprised of mainly silicate. This mineral showed activities of increase in feed efficiency and non-specific immunostimulation in previous studies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prophylactic effects of germanium biotite against respiratory diseases in calves as a feed supplement and investigate the possibilities of the substitution of antibiotics with germanium biotite as feed additive. To achieve these purposes, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 were experimentally inoculated into the calves. After challenge, germanium biotite showed a lower cumulative clinical score (CCS than the control group. In accordance with these clinical results, enhanced clearance of BHV-1, a low infection rate of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1, tempered superficial lesions, and moderated histopathological signs were observed in the germanium biotite group, compared with the control group. The results of the present study indicated that germanium biotite had prophylactic effects against bovine respiratory disease and could be a candidate for a new alternative feed supplement in calves, through its effects as a non-specific immune stimulator.



    KURT, Hüseyin; Kerim KOÇAK; ASAN, Kürşad; KARAKAŞ, Mustafa


    Biotite granitoid contain mainly quartz, biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, muscovite as main phases with minor amphiboles, and apatite, zircon, allanite and chlorite and serisite as accessory components. In contrast, enclaves are composed mainly of plagioclase, amphibole, augite, biotite, with accessory sphene, zircon and calcite and epidote. The granitoids including enclaves with metaluminous composition, display chemical and mineralogical characteristics of S-type granitoids, such as peralu...

  11. Post-collisional adakitic biotite plagiogranites from Guangtoushan pluton (Mianxian, central China): Petrogenesis and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; LI Yongfei


    The post-collisional Guangtoushan pluton intruded into the Mianlue suture, Central China. Geochemi-cally, the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites show many close compositional similarities to high-silica adakites from the supra-subduction zone setting, but tend to have a higher concentration of K2O (3.22%-3.84%). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattems are characterized by high ratios of (La/Yb)N, concave-upward shapes of the heavy rare earth element (HREE), and a lack of significant Eu anomalies. In conjunction with high abundances of Ba and Sr, as well as low abundances of Y and HREE, these pattems suggest a feldspar-poor, garnet±amohibole-rich fractionation mineral assemblage. Coupled with previous studies, we suggest that the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites were likely to be caused by subducting slab break-off during the late orogenic stage in the West Qinling orogenic belt.

  12. Activity-composition relationship in Tschermak's substituted Fe biotites at 700°C, 2 kbar (United States)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, E.; Redhammer, Günther; Tippelt, Gerold; Amthauer, Georg


    The reaction-displacement technique was applied to the end-member reaction annite = sanidine + magnetite + H2 in order to determine the activity of the annite component ( a Ann) in iron biotites with variable degrees of the Tschermak's substitution ([6]Fe + [4]Si = [6]Al + [4]Al). Based on the simplified relation a Ann = f H 2/ foH2 ( foH2 = hydrogen fugacity of the end-member reaction at P, T), two types of experiments were performed at 700°C / 2 kbar: Type I used Fe-Al biotites of known starting composition together with sanidine + magnetite + H2O. This assemblage was exposed to various f H 2 conditions ( f H 2 molar volumes of mixing for the annite (Ann) - siderophyllite (Sid) binary. The data are consistent with a molar volume of annite of 15.46 ± 0.02 Jbar 1 and of 15.06 ± 0.02 Jbar 1 for siderophyllite. The experimentally determined activity - composition relation shows that biotites on the join annite - siderophyllite deviate negatively from ideality. A symmetric interaction parameter WAnnSid is sufficient to represent the data within error. This was constrained as: W AnnSid = 29 ± 4 kJmol 1. This is in contradiction to empirical interaction parameters derived from natural assemblages for this binary that predict positive deviation from ideality. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.


    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  14. Wall-Rock alteration of biotite hornfels at the Tyrnyauz deposit, Russia (United States)

    Gramenitskiy, E. N.


    A new zonation type of W-Mo-bearing altered biotite hornfels at the Tyrnyauz deposit is reported. The review of zonation indicates a subsequent transition into the mobile state of CaO, MgO, FeO, and Al2O3 and retention of volume owing to dissolution or deposition of quartz as an excess mobile mineral. The main features of zonation are similar to those in acid leaching columns; the input of strong CaO base into the outer zone is unusual.

  15. Biofilm Formation and Adaptation by Pseudomonas fluorescens on both Biotite and Glass Coupons Under Varying Fe-Nutrient Availability (United States)

    Grant, M.; Helms, G. L.; Shi, Z.; Thomashow, L.; Keller, C. K.; Harsh, J. B.


    We isolated an efficient weathering strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens from the rhizosphere of a White Pine (Pinus strobus) seedling. We grew it in a drip-flow biofilm reactor using both Fe-abundant and Fe-deficient media on either a glass or biotite coupon. Our working hypothesis was that the bacterium would respond to Fe deficiency by enhancing biotite weathering through an increase in the relative amount of polysaccharides in the biofilm compared to the Fe-abundant treatment. Because Fe is necessary for biofilm development, we hypothesized that biomass production on the biotite surface would exceed that on a Fe-free glass slide only in the Fe-deficient medium. We quantified total biomass, specific number of viable cells (SNVC), and the concentrations of K, Mg, and Fe in the biofilm. High-resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the biofilm matrix in terms of relative biofilm constituent concentrations. Compared with biofilms grown on glass, biofilms grown on biotite had higher total biomass and SNVC irrespective of Fe supply, with a near doubling of both the biofilm biomass from 0.43 to 0.76 mg cm-2 and SNVC from 1.52 × 107 to 3.24 × 107 CFU cm-2 mg-1 when Fe was deficient, and an increase in biomass from 1.94 to 2.46 mg cm-2 and in SNVC from 8.39 × 107 to 1.96 × 108 CFU cm-2 mg-1 when Fe was sufficient. Similarly with Fe deficient, the cation concentrations in biofilms grown on biotite vs. glass increased 2.14 and 2.46 times for K and Mg, respectively, and 7.01 times for Fe. When Fe was sufficient, the concentrations of cations increased 1.24, 2.07, and 3.77 times for K, Mg, and Fe, respectively. Based on NMR spectra, no significant change in biofilm chemistry occurred between the glass and biotite systems whether Fe was deficient or not. However, we did observe an increase in the ratio of the integrated areas corresponding to the carbohydrate and protein NMR regions, increasing

  16. The use of biotite trace element compositions for fingerprinting magma batches at Las Cañadas volcano, Tenerife (United States)

    Sliwinski, J. T.; Ellis, B. S.; Dávila-Harris, P.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.


    Accurate identification of individual volcanic events in the field is crucial for constraining eruption volumes and calculating recurrence intervals between eruptive episodes. Due to complexities of pyroclastic transport and deposition and intra-unit textural variability, such identification can be challenging. We present a novel method for fingerprinting ignimbrites via trace element chemistry (V, Co, Nb) in biotite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Using samples from the alkaline magmatic series of Tenerife, we are able to demonstrate (1) clustering of previously characterized units into distinct, homogeneous groups based on V, Co, and Nb concentrations in biotite, despite the presence of extreme variation and zonation in other trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb) that indicate complex petrogenetic processes, and (2) biotite compositions are similar throughout a deposit and relatively independent of stratigraphic height or juvenile clast texture (crystal-rich vs crystal-poor). Our results show that trace elements in biotite can be used to fingerprint eruptions and correlate geographically separated volcanic deposits, including those preserved in offshore turbidite records.

  17. Scales of equilibrium and disequilibrium during cleavage formation in chlorite and biotite-grade phyllites, SE Vermont (United States)

    McWilliams, C.K.; Wintsch, R.P.; Kunk, M.J.


    Detailed electron microprobe analyses of phyllosilicates in crenulated phyllites from south-eastern Vermont show that grain-scale zoning is common, and sympathetic zoning in adjacent minerals is nearly universal. We interpret this to reflect a pressure-solution mechanism for cleavage development, where precipitation from a very small fluid reservoir fractionated that fluid. Multiple analyses along single muscovite, biotite and chlorite grains (30-200 ??m in length) show zoning patterns indicating Tschermakitic substitutions in muscovite and both Tschermakitic and di/trioctahedral substitutions in biotite and chlorite. Using cross-cutting relationships and mineral chemistry it is shown that these patterns persist in cleavages produced at metamorphic conditions of chlorite-grade, chlorite-grade overprinted by biotite-grade and biotite-grade. Zoning patterns are comparable in all three settings, requiring a similar cleavage-forming mechanism independent of metamorphic grade. Moreover, the use of 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology demonstrates this is true regardless of age. Furthermore, samples with chlorite-grade cleavages overprinted by biotite porphyroblasts suggest the closure temperatures for the diffusion of Al, Si, Mg and Fe ions are greater than the temperature of the biotite isograd (>???400 ??C). Parallel and smoothly fanning tie lines produced by coexisting muscovite-chlorite, and muscovite-biotite pairs on compositional diagrams demonstrate effectively instantaneous chemical equilibrium and probably indicate simultaneous crystallization. These results do not support theories suggesting cleavages form in fluid-dominated systems. If crenulation cleavages formed in systems in which the chemical potentials of all major components are fixed by an external reservoir, then the compositions of individual grains defining these cleavages would be uniform. On the contrary, the fine-scale chemical zoning observed probably reflects a grain-scale process consistent with a

  18. Distinctive Reactivities at Biotite Edge and Basal Planes in the Presence of Organic Ligands: Implications for Organic-Rich Geologic CO2 Sequestration. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijie; Jun, Young-Shin


    To better understand how scCO2-saturated brine-mineral interactions can affect safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we studied the effects of organic ligands (acetate and oxalate) on biotite dissolution and surface morphological changes. The experimental conditions were chosen to be relevant to GCS sites (95 °C and 102 atm CO2). Quantitative analyses of dissolution differences between biotite edge and basal planes were made. Acetate slightly inhibited biotite dissolution and promoted secondary precipitation. The effect of acetate was mainly pH-induced aqueous acetate speciation and the subsequent surface adsorption. Under the experimental conditions, most of acetate exists as acetic acid and adsorbs to biotite surface Si and Al sites, thereby reducing their release. However, oxalate strongly enhanced biotite dissolution and induced faster and more significant surface morphology changes by forming bidentate mononuclear surface complexes. For the first time, we show that oxalate selectively attacks edge surface sites and enhances biotite dissolution. Thus, oxalate increases the relative reactivity ratio of biotite edge surfaces to basal surfaces, while acetate does not impact this relative reactivity. This study provides new information on reactivity differences at biotite edge and basal planes in the presence of organic ligands, which has implications for safe CO2 storage in organic-rich sites.

  19. Correlation between magnetic fabrics, strain and biotite microstructure with increasing mylonitisation in the pretectonic Wyangala Granite, Australia (United States)

    Lennox, P. G.; de Wall, H.; Durney, D. W.


    The Wyangala Granite is a foliated, porphyritic Silurian granite from the Palaeozoic Circum-Pacific type Eastern Lachlan Orogen (ELO) of Australia. It is a paramagnetic ilmenite-bearing, S/marginal I type two-mica- to mainly biotite-granite with different biotite contents and local chlorite alteration. Very highly strained quartz-epidote bands are present. In this contribution, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is compared with independently measured intensity and 3D style of strain, biotite microstructure and degree of mylonitisation for low-strain granites with weak S-foliations, through medium-strain protomylonitic granites with moderate S- and C-foliations to a high-strain altered granite with a strong single foliation. The samples are further analysed for possible contributions from sample heterogeneity, magmatic flow and 'sub-magmatic' deformation. A good correlation, P‧AMS ~ 1.02 + 0.04 ln P‧(e)Qtz, is obtained between site-average degree of AMS (P‧AMS) in the granite and degree of finite-strain anisotropy (P‧(e)Qtz) from aspect ratios of quartz aggregates in S-foliations in hand specimen and outcrop (P‧AMS 1.03-1.14, P‧(e)Qtz 1.4-19). The magnetic fabric ellipsoids agree with a kinematic regime between neutral and pure oblate predicted by the March model. The observed quartz strains, however, exceed the AMS March strains and are near neutral, plano-linear character. The geological factors that may have contributed to these differences include intra- and inter-crystalline deformation of biotite and bimodality in S and C. Magmatic fabric is not clearly evident in either the AMS or the biotite data. New data for synkinematic oligoclase, low-titanium biotite and low-sodium K-feldspar show that conditions during deformation were approximately transitional greenschist-amphibolite facies: i.e., well below solidus. This agrees with published age data that put the granite emplacement in an extensional, back-arc setting in already deformed

  20. Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in silicic magmas erupted at Lassen Volcanic Center, California (United States)

    Underwood, S.J.; Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.


    Hydrogen isotope ratio, water content and Fe3 +/Fe2 + in coexisting amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in volcanic rocks can provide insight into shallow pre- and syn-eruptive magmatic processes such as vesiculation, and lava drainback with mixing into less devolatilized magma that erupts later in a volcanic sequence. We studied four ~ 35 ka and younger eruption sequences (i.e. Kings Creek, Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags, and 1915) at the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), California, where intrusion of crystal-rich silicic magma mushes by mafic magmas is inferred from the varying abundances of mafic magmatic inclusions (MMIs) in the silicic volcanic rocks. Types and relative proportions of reacted and unreacted hydrous phenocryst populations are evaluated with accompanying chemical and H isotope changes. Biotite phenocrysts were more susceptible to rehydration in older vesicular glassy volcanic rocks than coexisting amphibole phenocrysts. Biotite and magnesiohornblende phenocrysts toward the core of the Lassen Peak dome are extensively dehydroxylated and reacted from prolonged exposure to high temperature, low pressure, and higher fO2 conditions from post-emplacement cooling. In silicic volcanic rocks not affected by alteration, biotite phenocrysts are often relatively more dehydroxylated than are magnesiohornblende phenocrysts of similar size; this is likely due to the ca 10 times larger overall bulk H diffusion coefficient in biotite. A simplified model of dehydrogenation in hydrous phenocrysts above reaction closure temperature suggests that eruption and quench of magma ascended to the surface in a few hours is too short a time for substantial H loss from amphibole. In contrast, slowly ascended magma can have extremely dehydrogenated and possibly dehydrated biotite, relatively less dehydrogenated magnesiohornblende and reaction rims on both phases. Eruptive products containing the highest proportions of mottled dehydrogenated crystals could indicate that within a few days

  1. The failure of a slope cut into the weathering profile developed over a porphyritic biotite granite (United States)

    Raj, J. K.


    At about 1.00 a.m. on 24 September, 1981, at km 24.5 of the Kuala Lumpur-Karak highway, there occurred a failure of a 26 m high slope cut into the weathering profile developed over a porphyritic biotite granite. The failure, which is best classified a slump-flow, occurred some 5.7 years after the end of excavation and involved the downslope movement of about 2000 m 3 of weathered bedrock material (mainly gravelly silty sands) and a few coreboulders. Continued movement of failed material through minor slumping and gulleying led to eventual exposure of the failure surface which was mainly located along a relict fault plane striking parallel to, and dipping 48° towards, the highway. Failure occurred as a result of several converging factors; the triggering factor being ground vibrations set up at the time of passing of three large trucks. Conditions of instability, however, were already present in the slope materials through infiltration of rainwater that led to saturation and the loss of apparent or effective cohesion. Infiltration had been encouraged by clearing of vegetation at the top of the cut and the creation of a track along its western edge some 6 months prior to failure. Infiltration was also encouraged by rainfall patterns with the failure occurring after some 29 days with almost continuous daily rainfall; this wet period being preceded by an unusual 27 days of no rain. It is concluded that stability assessments of slope cuts in weathering profiles over granitic bedrock need to take into consideration not only shear strength parameters, but also local climatic and other environmental factors, including likely triggering factors.

  2. Formation and preservation of biotite-rich microdomains in high-temperature rocks from the Antananarivo Block, Madagascar (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Berger, Alfons; Gueydan, Frédéric


    Highly restitic rocks from the Antananarivo Block in northern Madagascar are investigated in this study in order to unravel processes of H2O-rich biotite formation in HT rocks. Polyphase metamorphism and melt migration occurred at 0.6 GPa and 850 °C. Biotite remains stable together with orthopyroxene and makes up to 45 vol% of the rock. In addition, three well-characterised and delimited microdomains having different textural, chemical and petrological characteristics are preserved. Thermodynamic models using the specific bulk compositions of the domains are in agreement with petrological observations. These rocks provide evidence that the lower crust may be strongly heterogeneous, locally associated to the formation of hydrous restites controlled by episodes of melt production and melt escape. This has significant consequences for understanding of the lower crust.

  3. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York (United States)

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.


    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  4. A Previously Unrecognized Example of the Shock-Induced Breakdown of Biotite to Garnet from the Steen River Impact Structure, Canada (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.


    The novel shock-induced transformation of biotite to almandine garnet accompanied by fluid release and Fe-oxidation is reported from those grains adjacent to shock veins in crystalline basement rocks of the Steen River impact structure.

  5. Chlorite, Biotite, Illite, Muscovite, and Feldspar Dissolution Kinetics at Variable pH and Temperatures up to 280 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lammers, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Summary Sheet silicates and clays are ubiquitous in geothermal environments. Their dissolution is of interest because this process contributes to scaling reactions along fluid pathways and alteration of fracture surfaces, which could affect reservoir permeability. In order to better predict the geochemical impacts on long-term performance of engineered geothermal systems, we have measured chlorite, biotite, illite, and muscovite dissolution and developed generalized kinetic rate laws that are applicable over an expanded range of solution pH and temperature for each mineral. This report summarizes the rate equations for layered silicates where data were lacking for geothermal systems.

  6. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada) (United States)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David


    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  7. The catalytic effect of sodium and lithium ions on coupled sorption-reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Veblen, David R.; Moses, Carl O.; Raeburn, Stuart P.


    Large single crystals of biotite and near-endmember phlogopite were reacted with aqueous solutions bearing 20 μM Cr(VI) and different concentrations of NaCl, LiCl, RbCl, CsCl, NaClO 4, and Na 2SO 4. Solutions were maintained at 25 ± 0.5°C, 1 atm, and pH = 4.00 ± 0.02. Samples were extracted from the reaction chamber at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 h. The edges and basal planes of the reacted micas were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for major elements and Cr. XPS analyses of biotite show trivalent chromium on edge surfaces but no detectable chromium on the basal plane. XPS analyses of near-endmember phlogopites that were reacted in the same experiments as biotite showed no detectable Cr on either the basal plane or edge surfaces. Increasing Na and Li salt concentrations increased the rate of coupled sorption-reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface, where the order of effectiveness was NaCl ˜ NaClO 4 > Na 2SO 4 > LiCl. In contrast, no Cr was detected on mica edges after reaction in RbCl and CsCl solutions. Comparison of equimolar NaCl and LiCl experiments indicate that the active agent is Na and Li, not ionic strength or the anion. Sulfate tends to block the reaction more so than chloride. We conclude that it is the substitution of hydrated cations for interlayer K in biotite that enhances the heterogeneous reduction of chromate at the biotite edge-fluid interface.

  8. Reviews in Garnet—Biotite Geothermometer:Its Versions,Inherent Problems of Accuracy and Precision,and Perspective for Further Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春明; 潘裕生


    This paper briefly introduces twenty-one versions of garnet-biotite Fe-Mg exchange geothermometry,points out the sources of systematic errors inherent in geothermometry.The sources lie in that:(1) ideal Fe-Mg mixing in garnet and biotite is assumed;(2)non-ideal properties of bot garnet and biotite are not considered completely;(3) minor elements-Mn, Ca in garnet,and AlⅥ,Ti,Mn in biotite are almost neglected;(4)effects of pressure on equilibrium,although little,are almost not taken into consideration,and experiments were conducted at one fixed pressure;(5)the data used for egression analysis is too scarce in quantity;(6)internal consistency of the data used for empirical calibration is not fully guaranteed;(7) the authors take energy parameters W's(Margule's parametrs)independent of pressure and temperature,though the former are actually the functions of the latter items;and (8)the most important composition-activity relationship is not consistent with the mineral compositions used for calibration.Furthermore,it is believed that empirical calibrations cannot avoid the following problems;(1) effect of retrograde metamorphism;(2)inconsistent data set;(3)effect of pressure on temperature estimation;and (4)effect of Fe3+ calculation.Exact experimental work should be done in order to accurately calibrate the geotermometer in which the Margule's parameters should be treated as the functions of pressure,temperature,and mineral compositions.

  9. Effects of germanium biotite supplement on immune responses of vaccinated mini-pigs to foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge. (United States)

    Jung, Myunghwan; Park, Hong-Tea; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Shin, Seung Won; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Sung, Kyung Yong; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Kim, Byounghan; Yoo, Han Sang


    Since the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea in 2010-2011, a trivalent vaccine has been used as a routine vaccination. Despite the high efficacy of the trivalent vaccine, low antibody formation was reported in the pig industry and there is considerable concern about the ability of the vaccine to protect against the Andong strain responsible for recent outbreaks in South Korea. To overcome these problems, immunostimulators have been widely used to improve vaccine efficacy in South Korea, although without any scientific evidence. Based on the current situation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of germanium biotite, a feed supplement used to enhance the immune system, on the immune responses to FMD vaccination through the Andong strain challenge experiment in trivalent vaccinated pigs. Following the challenge, the germanium biotite-fed pigs showed high levels of IL-8 in serum, and increased cellular immune responses to stimulation with the Andong strain antigen compared to nonsupplemented pigs. In addition, higher FMD virus (FMDV) neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the germanium biotite-fed group than in the nonsupplemented group before the challenge. The findings of this study indicate that germanium biotite supplement might enhance immune responses to the FMD vaccine in pigs.

  10. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo


    Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.

  11. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush


    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  12. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal. (United States)

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F


    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area.

  13. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy) (United States)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten


    The fluorine and chlorine exchange on the hydroxyl site in micas is used to monitor changes in fluid composition (Munoz 1984). Most studies assume that the OH-site does not contain vaccancies, since the vast majority of studies use analytical techniques that does not allow to directly measure the OH- content of the mica. Nevertheless, studies have shown that significant amounts of O2- are present, and its concentration increases with temperature and titanium content. This feature was intrepreted as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks (Dyar et al. 1993, Cesare et al. 2008). Here, we present OH, F, Cl data for biotite from contact aureoles from biotite-schist to partially molten sillimanite-cordierite schists. OH-F-Cl content of biotites were analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and major elements were analyzed by EMP. Samples were collected in the mid-crustal Western Adamello contact aureole (Italian Alps, Floess and Baumgartner, 2013). For that purpose we used biotite standards with water content constrained by Thermal Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) see Bauer and Vennemann 2014, at a level of precision of 0.1-0.2 wt% (2SD). SIMS measurements typically have a precision of 0.1wt% (2SD), corresponding to the homogeneity of the internal standard at the SwissSIMS laboratory. OH- content decreases in samples with increasing peak temperature and Ti content (Ti range for biotites of 0.15-0.42 p.f.u for all samples). Nevertheless, within each individual sample, OH- is not a function of Ti. Ti variations are about 0.4 p.f.u., which is ten times the analytical uncertainty of the EMP analysis (0.004 p.f.u., 1SD). Water content is constant within analytical precision for each sample. The mean of OH- measurements is 3.41 p.f.u. in biotite and garnet grade samples, whereas those of samples in the partially molten zone have values of 3.27 p.f.u. We do not see any correlation with XMg or F and Cl. Hence, we

  14. Experimental study on dehy- dration melting of natural biotite-plagioclase gneiss from High Himalayas and implica- tions for Himalayan crust anatexis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Here we present the results of dehydration melting, melt morphology and fluid migration based on the dehydration melting experiments on natural biotite- plagioclase gneiss performed at the pressure of 1.0-1.4 GPa, and at the temperature of 770-1028℃. Experimental results demonstrate that: (ⅰ) most of melt tends to be distributed along mineral boundaries forming "melt film" even the amount of melt is less than 5 vol%; melt connectivity is con-trolled not only by melt topology but also by melt fraction; (ⅱ) dehydration melting involves a series of subprocesses including subsolidus dehydration reaction, fluid migration, vapor-present melting and vapor-absent melting; (ⅲ) ex-periments produce peraluminous granitic melt whose com-position is similar to that of High Himalayan leucogranites (HHLG) and the residual phase assemblage is Pl+Qz+Gat+Bio+Opx±Cpx+Ilm/Rut±Kfs and can be compa-rable with granulites observed in Himalayas. The experi-ments provide the evidence that biotite-plagioclase gneiss is one of source rocks of HHLG and dehydration melting is an important way to form HHLG and the granulites. Addition-ally, experimental results provide constraints on determining the P-T conditions of Himalayan crustal anatexis.

  15. Altération des biotites dans les roches cuprifères de Salobo A3, Serra dos Carajàs (Brésil).2. Association du cuivre aux phyllosilicates secondaires


    Toledo-Groke, M.C.; Parisot, Jean-Claude; Melfi, A.J.; Boulangé, Bruno


    Dans les gisements cuprifères de Salobo 3A (Serra dos Carajas - Brésil) les biotites saines sont totalement dépourvues de cuivres. Il est montré que dans les phyllosilicates secondaires issus de l'altération météorique de ces biotites la phase minéralogique la plus riche en cuivre est représentée par un produit appelé "biotite altérée". Dans le cas où se forme une smectite, celle-ci présente un enrichissement en cuivre moins important. La kaolinite issue de la transformation secondaire de ces...

  16. 40Ar* loss in experimentally deformed muscovite and biotite with implications for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of naturally deformed rocks (United States)

    Cosca, M.; Stunitz, H.; Bourgeix, A.-L.; Lee, J.P.


    The effects of deformation on radiogenic argon (40Ar*) retentivity in mica are described from high pressure experiments performed on rock samples of peraluminous granite containing euhedral muscovite and biotite. Cylindrical cores, ???15mm in length and 6.25mm in diameter, were drilled from granite collected from the South Armorican Massif in northwestern France, loaded into gold capsules, and weld-sealed in the presence of excess water. The samples were deformed at a pressure of 10kb and a temperature of 600??C over a period 29 of hours within a solid medium assembly in a Griggs-type triaxial hydraulic deformation apparatus. Overall shortening in the experiments was approximately 10%. Transmitted light and secondary and backscattered electron imaging of the deformed granite samples reveals evidence of induced defects and for significant physical grain size reduction by kinking, cracking, and grain segmentation of the micas.Infrared (IR) laser (CO2) heating of individual 1.5-2.5mm diameter grains of muscovite and biotite separated from the undeformed granite yield well-defined 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 311??2Ma (2??). Identical experiments on single grains separated from the experimentally deformed granite yield results indicating 40Ar* loss of 0-35% in muscovite and 2-3% 40Ar* loss in biotite. Intragrain in situ ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages (??4-10%, 1??) of deformed muscovites range from 309??13 to 264??7Ma, consistent with 0-16% 40Ar* loss relative to the undeformed muscovite. The in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages of deformed biotite vary from 301 to 217Ma, consistent with up to 32% 40Ar* loss. No spatial correlation is observed between in situ 40Ar/39Ar age and position within individual grains. Using available argon diffusion data for muscovite the observed 40Ar* loss in the experimentally treated muscovite can be utilized to predict average 40Ar* diffusion dimensions. Maximum 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained by UV laser ablation overlap those

  17. 40Ar* loss in experimentally deformed muscovite and biotite with implications for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of naturally deformed rocks (United States)

    Cosca, Michael; Stunitz, Holger; Bourgiex, Anne-Lise; Lee, John P.


    The effects of deformation on radiogenic argon (40Ar*) retentivity in mica are described from high pressure experiments performed on rock samples of peraluminous granite containing euhedral muscovite and biotite. Cylindrical cores, ~15 mm in length and 6.25 mm in diameter, were drilled from granite collected from the South Armorican Massif in northwestern France, loaded into gold capsules, and weld-sealed in the presence of excess water. The samples were deformed at a pressure of 10 kb and a temperature of 600 degrees C over a period 29 of hours within a solid medium assembly in a Griggs-type triaxial hydraulic deformation apparatus. Overall shortening in the experiments was approximately 10%. Transmitted light and secondary and backscattered electron imaging of the deformed granite samples reveals evidence of induced defects and for significant physical grain size reduction by kinking, cracking, and grain segmentation of the micas.

  18. Examination of chloritization of biotite as a tool for reconstructing the physicochemical parameters of mineralization and associated alteration in the Zafarghand porphyry copper system, Ardestan, Central Iran: mineral-chemistry and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    Aminroayaei Yamini, Maryam; Tutti, Faramarz; Aminoroayaei Yamini, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Jamshid; Wan, Bo


    The chloritization of biotite and stable isotopes of silicate have been studied for the Zafarghand porphyry copper deposit, Ardestan, Iran. The studied area, in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, contains porphyry-style Cu mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration within the Miocene (19-26 Ma, Zircon U-Pb age) granodioritc stock and adjacent andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks (ca. 56 Ma, zircon U-Pb age). The primary and secondary biotite that formed during potassic alteration in this porphyry and these volcanic host rocks are variably chloritized. Chloritization of biotite pseudomorphically is characterized by an increase in MgO, FeOt, and MnO, with decreasing in SiO2, K2O, and TiO2. Based on the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (Am Mineral 90:316-328, 2005) and Al-in-chlorite geothermometer of Cathelineau (Clay Miner 23:417-485, 1988), crystallization temperatures of primary biotite representative of magmatic conditions and later chloritization temperature range from 617° to 675 °C ± 24 °C and 177° to 346 °C, respectively. Calculated isotopic compositions of fluids that chloritized primary and secondary biotite display isotopic compositions of 1.1 to 1.7 per mil for δ18O and -19.9 to -20.5 per mil for δD consistent with meteoric water. Sericite, barren, and A-type-quartz veins from phyllic alteration were produced by mixed magmatic and meteoric water with δ18O values from -2.8 to 2.5 and δD values of ˜ -23 per mil; the narrow range of δD values of the propylitic epidote may be due to a meteoric water with δ18O values from 0.8 to 1.6 and δD values from -14.6 to -16.9 per mil.

  19. Dating Magmatic Hornblende and Biotite and Hydrothermal Sericite by Laser Probe Technique:Constraints on Genesis of Wangershan Gold Deposit, Eastern Shandong Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianwei; Vasconcelos P M; Zhou M F; Duzgoren-Aydin N S


    The Wangershan gold deposit and spatially related Shangzhuang granite, eastern Shandong Province, have been precisely dated by 40 Ar/39 Ar laser incremental heating technique. Magmatic hornblende and biotite, collected from the Shangzhuang granites, yielded well-defined and reproducible plateau ages at 128. 1-127.5 and 124.4-124. 1 Ma (2σ), measuring the cooling ages of the intrusion at ca. 500 ℃ and 300-350 ℃, respectively. Hydrothermal sericite extracted from auriferous vein gave high-quality plateau ages between (120. 6±0.3) Ma and (120. 0±0. 4) Ma (2σ). Given the similarity of the closure temperature for argon diffusion (300-350 ℃ ) in the sericite mineral to the homogenization temperature of primary fluid inclusions in the quartz from gold ores, and the intergrowth of sericite with native gold, present 40Ar/39 Ar sericite ages can be reliably interpreted in terms of the mineralization age for the Wangershan deposit. 40 Ar/39 Ar hornblende and biotite ages permit an estimate for the cooling rate of the Shangzhuang granite at about 50 ℃/Ma. There are abundant intermediate-mafic dikes in most gold camps of eastern Shandong, whose ages of formation have been previously constrained mainly at 121-119 Ma. The temporal association between the Shangzhuang granite, the Wangershan gold deposit, and the widespread dikes confirms that intrusive activity, gold mineralization, and dike emplacement in this region were broadly coeval, reflecting significant continental lithosphere thinning and resulting crustal extension of Early Cretaceous in eastern China.

  20. Experimental Observations of the Patterns of Fungi-Mineral Surfaces Interactions with Muscovite, Biotite, Bauxite, Chromite, Hematite, Galena, Malachite, Manganite and Carbonate Substrates. (United States)

    Claeys, P.


    In an in vitro experimental work, mineral substrates of muscovite, biotite, bauxite, chromite, hematite, galena, malachite, manganite and carbonate were exposed to free fungal growth and interaction in Petri dishes under open conditions. All of the experimental minerals were examined by XRD for identity and purity. The 12-week experiment resulted in significant alteration of the mineral substrates. SEM, EDX, and XRD analysis showed secondary mineral biomineralization represented by different crystal morphologies of Ca- and Mg- oxalates (weddelite: CaC2O4·2H2O, whewellite CaC2O4·H2O and glushinskite: MgC2O4·2H2O), struvite: (NH4) MgPO4·6H2O, gypsum CaSO4.2H2O, and possible dolomite. Metals bioleached from the substrates included: Fe, Pb, S, Cu, Al as single crystals or aggregates, amorphous layers, amorphous aggregates, and linear forms influenced by the fungal filaments. Bauxite and manganite showed the strongest cases of bioleaching where Fe and Al were fungally extracted and deposited as separate mineral species from the Al-Fe oxides mixture, while Ca and S were extracted from the manganite substrate and deposited as gypsum. The bioleached metals were either deposited on the mineral substrates, attached to fungal filaments, embedded in the fungal mycelium or in the extracellular polysaccharide substance (EPS) layer. The EDX microanalysis of the fungal hyphae frequently revealed metal content adsorbed on the hyphae sheath surface. During the short period of the experiment, fungal interaction with the mineral surfaces produced significant biomechanical and biochemical bioweathering features: strong pitting of the mineral surfaces, exfoliation, tunnelling, dissolution, honeycomb-alveolar structures, perforations, fragmentation, and cementation. One important aspect of these interactions is the strong affinity of fungal hyphae to mineral surfaces. The fungi engulfed whole blocks of minerals in the hyphal network, irrespective of mineral surface topography with

  1. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data (United States)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.


    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  2. Biotite and chlorite weathering at 25 degrees C: the dependence of pH and (bi)carbonate on weathering kinetics, dissolution stoichiometry, and solubility; and the relation to redox conditions in granitic aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmstroem, M.; Banwart, S. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Duro, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Ingneria Quimica; Wersin, P.; Bruno, J. [MBT Technologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain)


    We have studied the kinetics and thermodynamics of biotite and chlorite weathering in the pH range 2biotite dissolution and the formation of secondary solubility controlling minerals, such as Fe(III)-hydroxide, Na-clay, quartz and gibbsite is used to explain experimental equilibrium concentrations of silicon, iron, aluminium and magnesium. The model predict redox potentials in the range of -200-400 mV at neutral pH and qualitatively agrees with field data reported in the literature. We use observed iron release rate to make conservative estimates of timescales of 1. the depletion of molecular oxygen from deep aquifers (810{sup 2}-10{sup 2} year); and 2. the development of characteristic Fe(III) concentrations (10{sup -5} M in 10{sup -}1 years). The Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals formed during these experiments are similar to the fracture-filling-material observed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Such clays can provide reducing capacity to a repository. They can help maintain anoxic conditions by consuming oxygen that enters the repository during the construction and operation phases thereby helping maintain the redox stability of the repository regarding canister corrosion. The half-life of oxygen trapped in the repository at the time of closure depends on the rate of oxygen uptake by Fe(II) minerals, sulfide minerals and organic carbon. Fe(II)-clay minerals are important to the redox stability of a repository, as well as providing a sorption barrier to radionuclide migration. 107 refs, 52 figs, 35 tabs.

  3. The influence of bedding angle on acoustic emission characteristics in biotite granulite%层理倾角对黑云变粒岩声发射特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振琦; 邓文学; 张鹏海; 王培涛; 张添文; 杨天鸿


    In order to study the influence of bedding angles on acoustic emission (AE) characteristics, the AE experiments on the biotite granulite specimens with the bedding angles of 0°, 45°and 90°were conducted. The biotite granulite specimens were taken from Sijiaying open pit mine in Luan County, Hebei province, China. Under the uniaxial compression condition, the spatial and temporal distribution of AE events, the change of the box dimension and the characteristics of the energy release were studied. The research results have shown that:1) The evolution laws of AE events in the specimens with the bedding angles of 0°and 90°were similar, while the evolution laws of AE events in the specimens with the bedding angle of 45°were significantly influenced by the fracture modes; 2) With the increasing of the bedding angles, the number of specimens in which box dimension reduction occurred before the failure was decreasing, and AE energy was prone to releasing in a sudden way. The findings have aca-demic value to the research on revelation of mechanism of disintegration with acoustic emission.%为研究层理倾角对岩石声发射特征的影响,将取自河北滦县司家营铁矿露天坑的层状黑云变粒岩分别加工成层理倾角为0°,45°,90°的3种试件,并进行单轴压缩条件下的声发射试验。通过对不同层理倾角岩石声发射事件时空分布、盒维数以及能量释放特征的分析发现:层理倾角为0°和90°的岩石均发生劈裂破坏且具有相似的声发射事件时空分布规律;层理倾角为45°的岩石以剪切破坏为主,声发射事件时空分布规律与破裂模式有关;随着层理倾角的增大,临近破坏时盒维数降低现象出现的可能性会降低,并且声发射能量释放方式由匀速释放向阶跃式释放转变。研究成果对于利用声发射手段深入揭示层状岩石破裂机制具有一定的学术价值。

  4. 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite geochronology of the Bulfat Igneous Complex, Zagros Suture Zone, NE Iraq: New insights on complexities of Paleogene arc magmatism during closure of the Neotethys Ocean (United States)

    Aswad, Khalid J.; Ali, Sarmad A.; Al. Sheraefy, Ruaa M.; Nutman, Allen P.; Buckman, Solomon; Jones, Brian G.; Jourdan, F.


    In NE Iraq, the eastern edge of the Arabian plate is overlain by arc rock allochthons whose genesis and tectonic emplacement were related to the consumption and closure of the Neotethys Ocean. This paper demonstrates the occurrence of unrelated Paleogene arc rocks in two adjacent allochthons. The Bulfat Igneous Complex at Wadi Rashid (NE Iraq) is an intrusion within the Upper Allochthon Albian-Cenomanian Gimo-Qandil sequence suprasubduction zone assemblage. A thrust separates this allochthon from the underlying Lower Allochthon of the Eocene-Oligocene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic-sedimentary arc rocks. The Bulfat Igneous Complex at Wadi Rashid consists of gabbro and granitic composite intrusions in which components mingle down to a small scale. Textural relationships in the Bulfat Igneous Complex rocks indicate emplacement at high crustal levels with rapid cooling, which is consistent with amphibole geobarometry indicating crystallisation pressures between 250 and 300 Mpa. Ti-rich igneous pargasite and Ti-rich igneous Fe-biotite from gabbroic and granitic components yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 39.23 ± 0.21 and 38.87 ± 0.24 Ma respectively. These ages agree within analytical error and suggest coeval emplacement and rapid cooling of mafic and felsic magmas in the Eocene, in an event that was distinct and much younger than the host Albian-Cenomanian rocks. This igneous event was unrelated to formation of Cenozoic rocks in the underlying, tectonically separate, lower allochthon. The trace element signatures of the Wadi Rashi volcanic rocks show volcanic-arc characteristics for the granites and the gabbroic rocks resemble E type MORB. The presence of Eocene arc-related rocks in two allochthons suggests complexity in Paleogene subduction systems, with possibly two subduction zones operating at that time.

  5. Cristallochimie des biotites ferro-alumineuses dans le système Na2O-K2O-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO3-SiO2-H2O-HF. Analyse par spectrométries vibrationnelles et Mössbauer.


    Boukili, Boubker



  6. Preparation and Swelling Properties of pH Responsive Psyllium-Graft-Poly(Acrylic Acid)/Biotite Superabsorbent Composites%欧车前胶-g-聚丙烯酸/黑云母高吸水性树脂的合成与溶胀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建科; 王文波; 王爱勤


    A series of novel psyllium gum-g-poly(acrylic acid)/biotite superabsorbent composites with various biotite contents were prepared by the solution polymerization,using ammonium persulfate as the initiator and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker.The swelling kinetics of superabsorbent composites with various contents of biobite in distilled water and the swelling behaviour in saline solutions were investigated systematically.Biotite participating in graft polymerization was confirmed by FT-IR spectra and the swelling test.Results indicate that the introducing biotite into psyllium gum-g-poly(acrylic acid) remarkably improves the water absorbency in distilled water and NaCl solutions,also exhibits a pH sensitivity and the excellent reswelling capabilities.Therefore,the superabsorbent composites may be considered as an excellent candidate for agriculture and horticulture applications or as pH-responsive materials.%以欧车前胶(PSY)、丙烯酸(AA)和黑云母(BT)为原料,N,N′-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(MBA)为交联剂,过硫酸铵(APS)为引发剂,采用水溶液聚合法制备了欧车前胶接枝聚丙烯酸复合黑云母(PSY-g-PAA/BT)高吸水性树脂。考察了不同含量BT树脂在蒸馏水和盐水中的吸水倍率和溶胀行为。红外光谱和溶胀性能测试结果表明,BT参与了接枝聚合反应,BT的引入明显改善了树脂在蒸馏水和盐水溶液中的吸水倍率,PSY-g-PAA/BT复合高吸水性树脂具有良好的pH敏感性。

  7. Biofilm adaptation to iron availability in the presence of biotite and consequences for chemical weathering (United States)

    Bacteria in nature often live within biofilms, exopolymeric matrices that provide a favorable environment that can differ markedly from their surroundings. Biofilms have been found growing on mineral surfaces and are expected to play a role in weathering those surfaces, but this role is not well und...

  8. In situ observation of biotite (001) surface dissolution at pH 1 and 9.5 by advanced optical microscopy


    Chiara Cappelli; Daniel Lamarca-Irisarri; Jordi Camas; F. Javier Huertas; van Driessche, Alexander E.S.


    Laser confocal differential interference contrast microscopy (LCM-DIM) allows for the study of the reactivity of surface minerals with slow dissolution rates (e.g., phyllosilicates). With this technique, it is possible to carry out in situ inspection of the reacting surface in a broad range of pH, ionic strength and temperature providing useful information to help unravel the dissolution mechanisms of phyllosilicates. In this work, LCM-DIM was used to study the mechanisms controlling the biot...

  9. Anomalous Seismic Velocity Drop in Iron and Biotite Rich Amphibolite to Granulite Facies Transitional Rocks from Deccan Volcanic Covered 1993 Killari Earthquake Region, Maharashtra (India): a Case Study (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Tripathi, Priyanka; Vedanti, Nimisha; Srinivasa Sarma, D.


    65 Ma Deccan Volcanic Province of western India forms one of the largest flood basaltic eruptions on the surface of the earth. The nature of the concealed crust below this earthquake prone region, which is marked by several low velocity zones at different depths has hardly been understood. These low velocity zones have been invariably interpreted as fluid-filled zones, genetically connected to earthquake nucleation. While carrying out detailed geological and petrophysical studies on the Late Archean basement cores, obtained from a 617 m deep KLR-1 borehole, drilled in the epicentral zone of 1993 Killari earthquake region of the southern Deccan Volcanic Province, we came across several instances where we observed remarkable drop in measured P-wave velocity in a number of high density cores. We provide detailed petrographic and geological data on 11 such anomalous samples which belong to mid-crustal amphibolite to granulite facies transitional rocks. They are associated with a mean P-wave velocity of 6.02 km/s (range 5.82-6.22 km/s) conforming to granitic upper crust, but in contrast have a high mean density of 2.91 g/cm3 (range 2.75-3.08 g/cm3), which characterise mid to lower crust. This velocity drop, which is as much as 15 % in some cores, is primarily attributed to FeOT enrichment (up to about 23 wt%) during the course of mantle-fluid driven retrogressive metasomatic reactions, caused by exhumation of deep-seated mafic rocks. Presence of Iron content (mainly magnetite), widely seen as opaques in thin sections of the rocks, seems to have resulted into sharp increase in density, as well as mean atomic weight. Our study indicates that the measured V p is inversely related to FeOT content as well as mean atomic weight of the rock.

  10. Microstructural records of multiple retrograde local H2O supplement in the pelitic gneiss, Lützow-Holm Complex at Akarui Point, East Antarctica


    Nakamura, Aya; Kitamura, Masao; Kawakami, Tetsuo


    The alkali-feldspar and biotite in the sillimanite-biotite-garnet gneiss from East Antarctica preserves characteristic microstructural evidence of multi-stage H2O supplement during the retrograde metamorphism. The first microstructural evidence is the "zoned feldspar, " in which the mesoperthitic zone, the anti-perthitic zone, and lamella-free plagioclase zone coexist within a single crystal. They are occasionally found next to biotite, and are always depleted in orthoclase (Or) component tow...

  11. Petrography and mineral chemistry of the composite Deboullie Pluton, northern Maine, USA: implications for the genesis of Cu-Mo mineralization (United States)

    Loferski, P.J.; Ayuso, R.A.


    Biotite and apatite mineral chemistry, particularly halogen abundances and ratios, are used to investigate the relation of the two contrasting parts of the Deboullie composite pluton (syenite-granodiorite) located in northern Maine. Biotite mineral chemistry helps to classify the weakly developed porphyry-style mineralization (Cu-Mo) associated with syenitic rocks of the Deboullie pluton. Biotite and apatite occur within the matrix of the rocks and within small multiphase inclusions hosted by clinopyroxene. The inclusions are interpreted to be crystallized melt inclusions rather than solid inclusions, that were trapped by clinopyroxene during growth. The multiphase inclusions consist of K-feldspar + quartz + biotite + apatite + magnetite. On a regional scale, biotite compositions from granitic plutons in Maine do not vary in a systematic manner. -from Authors

  12. Investigating the role of microbes in mineral weathering: nanometre-scale characterisation of the cell-mineral interface using FIB and TEM. (United States)

    Ward, Michael B; Kapitulčinová, Dana; Brown, Andrew P; Heard, Peter J; Cherns, David; Cockell, Charles S; Hallam, Keith R; Ragnarsdóttir, K Vala


    Focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation in combination with subsequent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis are powerful tools for nanometre-scale examination of the cell-mineral interface in bio-geological samples. In this study, we used FIB-TEM to investigate the interaction between a cyanobacterium (Hassallia byssoidea) and a common sheet silicate mineral (biotite) following a laboratory-based bioweathering, incubation experiment. We discuss the FIB preparation of cross-sections of the cell mineral interface for TEM investigation. We also establish an electron fluence threshold (at 200keV) in biotite for the transition from scanning (S)TEM electron beam induced contamination build up on the surface of biotite thin sections to mass loss, or hole-drilling within the sections. Working below this threshold fluence nanometre-scale structural and elemental information has been obtained from biotite directly underneath cyanobacterial cells incubated on the biotite for 3 months. No physical alteration of the biotite was detected by TEM imaging and diffraction with little or no elemental alteration detected by STEM-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental line-scanning or by energy filtered TEM (EF-TEM) jump ratio elemental mapping. As such we present evidence that the cyanobacterial strain of H. byssoidea did not cause any measurable alteration of biotite, within the resolution limits of the analysis techniques used, after 3 months of incubation on its surface.

  13. Magnetic petrology of the Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites, southern portion of the Carajás Domain – Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleilson Oliveira Gabriel


    Full Text Available The Água Azul and Água Limpa granodiorites (AAGrd and ALGrd, respectively outcrop in the extreme southern of the Carajás Domain as two elongated bodies following the EW regional trend and were previously included in the Xingu Complex. The ALGrd consists mainly of biotite-amphibole granodiorites and muscovite-biotite granodiorites, with subordinate amphibole-biotite tonalites; the AAGrd contains dominant epidote-amphibole-biotite granodiorites, epidote-amphibole-biotite tonalite and restricted (amphibole-epidote-biotite monzogranites. These rocks show geochemical signatures like of archaean sanukitoids. The magnetic susceptibility (MS values obtained in the ALGrd (average 17.54 × 10-4 SIv and AAGrd (average 4.19 × 10-4 SIv are relatively low. The main opaque minerals are magnetite and hematite, and ilmenite is lacking in these rocks. The ALGrd contains titanite associated with magnetite, while the AAGrd contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, and goethite. In the ALGrd, magnetite is more developed and large than in the AAGrd, justifying its highest values of MS. The oxidation of magnetite (martitization and the alteration of sulfides to goethite, occurred at low temperatures. The positive correlation between MS values and the modal content of opaque, amphibole, epidote + allanite and quartz + K-feldspar, as well as the negative correlation of MS with biotite and mafic observed in these units, reveal a trend of MS increasing in the direction: amphibole tonalites/amphibole granodiorites à biotite granodiorites/biotite monzogranites. The geochemical data confirm this fact, with a negative correlation between the MS values and Fe2O3T, FeO, and MgO, reflecting, for the two units, an upward trend in MS values parallel to magmatic differentiation. The geochemical and mineralogical affinities between these rocks and sanukitoids of the Rio Maria Domain suggest conditions of the oxygen fugacity between HM and FMQ buffers for the studied granitoids

  14. Mode of formation of gold-bearing mineralization on top of the boboras (Galicia, Spain) - The combined role of mechanical instabilities, strain localization and vein formation.


    Gloaguen, Eric; Chauvet, Alain; Branquet, Yannick; Bouchot, Vincent; Vigneresse, J.L.


    International audience; The Galician Hercynian segment constitutes the core of the Ibero-Armorican orogenic arc, characterized by few tectonic units that record three main phases of deformation (D1 to D3). Four generations of granite, syn- to post-D3 intruded the major tectonic units. From older to younger, we find: i) syn-kinematic biotite-rich granodiorite (G1); ii) syn-kinematic two micas granites (G2) ; iii) biotite-dominant granites (G3) and iii) late-kinematic biotite-rich granodiorite ...

  15. Development of modal layering in granites: a case study from the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsty; McCarthy, William; Hunt, Emma


    Modal layering in igneous rocks uniquely record dynamic processes operating in magma chambers and also host a large proportion of Earth's strategic mineral deposits. This research investigates the origin of biotite modal layering and primary pseudo-sedimentary structures in felsic magmas, by using a combination of Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) analysis and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) to determine the mechanisms responsible for the development of these structures in the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland. The Carna Pluton is a composite granodiorite intrusion and is one of five plutons comprising the Galway Granite Complex (425 - 380 Ma). Prominent 30 cm thick modal layers are defined by sharp basal contacts to a biotite-rich (20%) granite, which grades upward over 10 cm into biotite-poor, alkali-feldspar megacrystic granite. The layering strikes parallel to, and dips 30-60° N toward the external pluton contact. Pseudo-sedimentary structures (cross-bedding, flame structures, slumping and crystal graded bedding) are observed within these layers. Petrographic observations indicate the layers contain euhedral biotite and fresh undeformed quartz and feldspar. Throughout the pluton, alkali-feldspar phenocrysts define a foliation that is sub-parallel to the strike of biotite modal layers. Together these observations indicate that the intrusion's concentric foliation, biotite layers and associated structures formed in the magmatic state and due to a complex interaction between magma flow and crystallisation processes. Biotite CSDs (>250 crystals per sample) were determined for nine samples across three biotite-rich layers in a single unit. Preliminary CSD results suggest biotite within basal contacts accumulated via fractional crystallisation within an upward-growing crystal pile, likely reflecting the yield strength of the magma as a limiting factor to gravitational settling of biotite. This is supported by the abrupt decrease in mean biotite crystal size across

  16. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their singleminerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  17. High grade metamorphism in the Bundelkhand massif and its implications on Mesoarchean crustal evolution in central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; S B Dwivedi


    The Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC) in the central part of the Bundelkhand massif preserves a supracrustal unit which includes pelitic (garnet–cordierite–sillimanite gneiss, garnet–sillimanite gneiss, biotite gneiss and garnet–biotite gneiss) and mafic (hornblende–biotite gneiss and garnetiferous amphibolite) rocks. Granulite facies metamorphism of the complex initiated with breaking down of biotite to produce garnet and cordierite in the pelitic gneisses. Geothermobarometric calculations indicate metamorphic conditions of 720°C/6.2 kbar, followed by a retrograde (687°C/4.9 kbar) to very late retro-grade stages of metamorphism (579°C/4.4 kbar) which is supported by the formation of late cordierite around garnet. The P–T conditions and textural relations of the garnet–cordierite-bearing gneiss suggest a retrograde cooling path of metamorphism.

  18. Heavy mineral distribution in the surficial sediments from the eastern continental margin of India and their implications on palaeoenvironment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    and titanite), garnet, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene, tourmaline, zircon, monazite, biotite, kyanite and staurolite are present in variable proportions. Hydraulic fractionation (size, shape, density) and selective chemical decompositiom of unstable...

  19. Experimental study of gold activation-transportation in the process of potash metasomatism-alteration ——North China platform gold deposit taken as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yurong; HU; Shouxi


    Chemical reactions of plagioclase, biotite and their single minerals, as well as a mineral mixture of (plagioclase +biotite+quartz), with KCl and (KCl+KHCO3) solutions were carried out at 150400℃ and 5080 MPa. Experiments show that alkaline fluid promotes plagioclase’s changing into potash feldspar, while acid fluid helps plagioclase, potash feldspar and biotite alteration form chlorite and sericite. After chemical reaction the acidity-alkalinity of solutions often changes reversely. It was observed that gold dissolved from the tube wall and recrystallized on the surfaces of biotite and pyrite. Therefore the transportation and enrichment of gold are related to the elementary effect of the fluid-mineral interfaces. Fe3+-Fe2+, as an oxidition-reduction agent, and volatile components Cl? and CO2 play important roles in the reaction process.

  20. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak


    Robabeh Jafari; Moosa Noghreeian; Mohammad Makizadeh


    Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak) which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Access...

  1. Geochemistry of the granitic rocks from the Kwandonkaya Complex, northern Nigeria (United States)

    Imeokparia, E. G.

    The Kwandonkaya Complex forms one of the most prominent and typical ring structures in the Centre of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Lithologically, it is composed of amphibole and biotite granites emplaced within Archean basement gneisses and migmatites. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of this complex suggest that it was derived from crustal source materials. Trace elements are high in Rb, Li, F, Sn, Nb, W and low in Sr and Ba compared to the world average for rocks of similar composition indicating a high degree of fractionation. However, the {K}/{Rb} ratios and petrographic evidence indicate that recrystallization may have redistributed the elements after the initial solidification of the rocks particularly in the biotite granites; and that the distribution of tin may have been initially controlled by crystal-silicate melt equilibra. Tin probably preferentially entered the aqueous phase during the late stages of solidification. It was the interaction between this phase and early formed minerals that led to greisenization and tin-tungsten mineralization. Although total rock chemical composition show no marked trends the composition of the biotites and hornblende define a trend in the compositional triangle Fe 3+Fe 2+Mg. When the biotites are related to the experimentally studied ternary system KFe 33+AlSi 3O 12(H-1)KFe 32+AlSi 3O 10(OH) 2KMg 3AlSi 3O 10(OH) 2 and coupled with the estimated position of biotite solid solutions for different oxygen buffers, the trend suggests that oxygen fugacities in the magmas during biotite formation were slightly higher than those defined by the Fe 2SiO 4SiO 2Fe 3O 4 buffer. The ratio of ferric to ferrous iron in pairs of the minerals from the Kwandonkaya Complex is the same for both hornblende and biotite and suggests crystallization in a closed but buffered environment.

  2. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville-B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure (United States)

    Townsend, Gabrielle N.; Gibson, Roger L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Bartosova, Katerina


    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ± fibrolite ± garnet ± tourmaline ± pyrite ± rutile ± pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite-K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase-quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ± biotite ± garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ± epidote ± amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middle- to upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafic source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites.

  3. Origin and tectonic implications of the ∼200 Ma, collision-related Jerai pluton of the Western Granite Belt, Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Jamil, Azmiah; Ghani, Azman A.; Zaw, Khin; Osman, Syamir; Quek, Long Xiang


    Triassic granitoids (∼200-225 Ma) are widespread in the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The Main Range granite is the biggest batholith in the Western Belt composed of peraluminous to metaluminous granite and granodiorite and displays typical ilmenite-series characteristics. Jerai granitic pluton occurs at the northwestern part of the Main Range granite batholith. The Jerai granite can be divided into three facies: (i) biotite-muscovite granite; (ii) tourmaline granite; and (iii) pegmatite and aplopegmatite. Biotite-muscovite granite accounts for 90% of the Jerai pluton, and the rest is tourmaline granite. Geochemical data reveal that pegmatite and tourmaline granite are more differentiated than biotite-muscovite granite. Both pegmatite and tourmaline granite have a higher SiO2 content (70.95-83.94% versus 69.45-73.35%) and a more pronounced peraluminous character. The U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jerai granite gave an age ranging from 204 ± 4.3 Ma, 205 ± 4 Ma and 205 ± 2 Ma for pegmatite biotite-muscovite granite and tourmaline granite, respectively. The biotite-muscovite Jerai granites are similar to S-type Main Range granite, but the tourmaline granite has a signature of late-stage hydrothermal fluid interaction such as tourmaline quartz pods, the accumulation of large pegmatitic K-feldspar, pronounced peraluminous character, higher SiO2 content. Age evidence of these two granitic facies suggest that they are from the same magma.

  4. Mineral Chemistry and Pressure and Temperature Estimates of Metasedimentary Rocks of the Araxá Group in the Region of Morrinhos, South of Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rafael Beltran Navarro


    Full Text Available In the Morrinhos region, Goiás state, Brazil, the rocks of the Araxá Group have mineral assemblages related to themetamorphic peak which occurred in this region and is typical of the amphibolite facies (kyanite zone. These rocks areassociated with the initial stage of the main ductile deformation that occurred in this area. Thermobarometric calculations,including the associations, garnet + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite; garnet + plagioclase +biotite + muscovite + kyanite;garnet + plagioclase + biotite + muscovite + amphibole, with quartz in excess, indicate that the metamorphic peak occurredat temperatures of approximately 610ºC and pressures in the order of 10 kbar. The P-T path is probably clockwise and is inagreement with the tectonic conditions observed in collisional settings.

  5. The Durulgui rare-metal granite‒pegmatite system in the eastern Transbaikal region: Petrological and geochronological aspects (United States)

    Zagorsky, V. E.


    The Durulgui granite‒pegmatite system unites the Dedova Gora granite massif and pegmatite field with the Chalotskoe beryl deposit. New geochronological data on micas from porphyric biotite granites, fine-grained biotite granites, two-mica granites, and Be-bearing pegmatites are discussed. The plateau age of 128.5(±1.5)-131.2(±1.5) should be considered as indicating the formation time of the granite‒pegmatite system as a whole. The age of the system implies the possibility of its formation owing to several magmatic pulses. This assumption concerns porphyric and fine-grained biotite granites and two-mica and muscovite granites, the contact between which is locally sharp. At the same time, the succession "two-mica granites → muscovite granites → granite‒pegmatites → microcline pegmatites → microcline‒albite pegmatites → albite pegmatites" demonstrates gradual facies transitions between rocks, which indicates their emplacement during a single magmatic pulse.

  6. Subsolidus physical and chemical mixing of granite and gabbro during mylonitization, South Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Rachel Walcott, C.; Craw, Dave


    At Dromedary Massif, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a suite of coarse-grained granite dykes cross-cuts a gabbro pluton which has been partially metamorphosed at amphibolite facies. During regional deformation, strain has been inhomogeneously distributed through the gabbro pluton and has been concentrated in granite dykes. In zones of relatively high strain, the granite dykes have developed a mylonitic fabric. A high strain gradient between granitic mylonite and metagabbroic host rock has induced isochemical mylonitization of the margin of the host. This grain size reduction allowed chemical diffusion between granitic and metagabbroic mylonites, resulting in a marginal zone of biotite-rich mylonite with intermediate composition. Biotite-rich mylonite decoupled from metagabbroic mylonite and flowed with granitic mylonite. Continued folding and transposition of granitic mylonite and biotite-rich mylonite has produced compositionally banded mylonite zones through thorough and irreversible mixing of the two lithologies.

  7. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.


    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  8. The Shahewan rapakivi-textured granite – quartz monzonite pluton, Qinling orogen, central China: mineral composition and petrogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Shahewan pluton consists of four texturally different types of biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite. In the porphyritic types alkali feldspar occurs as euhedral or ovoidal megacrysts that are often mantled by one or more plagioclase shells, and as smaller grains in the groundmass. Quartz, plagioclase (An20–28, biotite, and hornblende occur as inclusions in the alkali feldspar megacrystsand, more abundantly, in the groundmass. Euhedral quartz crystals in the groundmass are not as common and well developed as in typical rapakivi granite. Compared to typical rapakivi granites, the mafic minerals (biotite and hornblende are rich in Mg and poor in Fe, and the whole rock is low in Si, K, F, Ga, Zr, LREE, Fe/Mg, and K/Na. The rocks of the Shahewan pluton are thus regarded as rapakivi-textured quartz monzonites and granites but not true rapakivi granites.

  9. Geochemistry and Geochronology U-Pb SHRIMP of granites from Peixoto de Azevedo: Alta Floresta Gold Province; Geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) de granitos da regiao de Peixoto de Azevedo: Provincia Aurifera Alta Floresta, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues da; Barros, Marcia Aparecida Sant' Ana; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Pinho, Francisco Edigio Cavalcante; Tavares, Carla; Rocha, Jhonattan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Rocha, Mara Luiza Barros Pita; Vasconcelos, Bruno Rodrigo; Dezula, Samantha Evelyn Max, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia


    The analysis of petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data of granites in the Peixoto de Azevedo region, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the eastern portion of the Alta Floresta Gold Province, led to the recognition of two granitic bodies bounded by regional major faults and shear zones. In the northwestern portion a body with featured as biotite granodiorite, coarse-grained, with porphyritic to inequigranular texture, metaluminous to peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and magnesium character. In the southeastern portion of the area, a biotite monzogranite coarse-grained, with equigranular to porphyritic texture, slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and dominantly of ferrous character. U- Pb dating (SHRIMP) showed that the biotite monzogranite has an age of 1869 ± 10 Ma, similar to the Matupa Intrusive Suite, while the biotite granodiorite has an age of 1781 ± 10 Ma, that is the age expected to Peixoto Granite. Both units show patterns of rare earth elements with enrichment of light over heavy and negative Eu anomaly (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.6 to 17.31 and ratios Eu/EU{sup ⁎} between 0.46 – 0.72 for biotite monzogranite and La{sub N}/Yb{sub N} » 7.13 to 29.09 with ratios Eu/Eu{sup ⁎} between 0.25 - 0.40 for the biotite granodiorite). Trace elements pattern for both present negative anomalies of Ba, P, Ti and Nb indicating an evolution from mineral fractionation and subduction related sources. In this paper, it is suggested that the monzogranite Matupa was developed in mature arc tectonic environment. For the Peixoto Granite, two hypotheses are suggested: (a) it was developed in younger magmatic arc environment associated with the Colider Magmatism or (b) it was generated in extensional tectonic environment during the Columbia Super continent break up. (author)

  10. Tree-mycorrhiza symbiosis accelerate mineral weathering: Evidences from nanometer-scale elemental fluxes at the hypha-mineral interface (United States)

    Bonneville, Steeve; Morgan, Daniel J.; Schmalenberger, Achim; Bray, Andrew; Brown, Andrew; Banwart, Steven A.; Benning, Liane G.


    In soils, mycorrhiza (microscopic fungal hypha) living in symbiosis with plant roots are the biological interface by which plants obtain, from rocks and organic matter, the nutrients necessary for their growth and maintenance. Despite their central role in soils, the mechanism and kinetics of mineral alteration by mycorrhiza are poorly constrained quantitatively. Here, we report in situ quantification of weathering rates from a mineral substrate, (0 0 1) basal plane of biotite, by a surface-bound hypha of Paxillus involutus, grown in association with the root system of a Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris. Four thin-sections were extracted by focused ion beam (FIB) milling along a single hypha grown over the biotite surface. Depth-profile of Si, O, K, Mg, Fe and Al concentrations were performed at the hypha-biotite interface by scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX). Large removals of K (50-65%), Mg (55-75%), Fe (80-85%) and Al (75-85%) were observed in the topmost 40 nm of biotite underneath the hypha while Si and O are preserved throughout the depth-profile. A quantitative model of alteration at the hypha-scale was developed based on solid-state diffusion fluxes of elements into the hypha and the break-down/mineralogical re-arrangement of biotite. A strong acidification was also observed with hypha bound to the biotite surface reaching pH mycorrhiza accelerate the biotite alteration kinetics between pH 3.5 and 5.8 to ˜0.04 μmol biotite m -2 h -1. Our current work reaffirms that fungal mineral alteration is a process that combines our previously documented bio-mechanical forcing with the μm-scale acidification mediated by surface-bound hypha and a subsequent chemical element removal due to the fungal action. As such, our study presents a first kinetic framework for mycorrhizal alteration at the hypha-scale under close-to-natural experimental conditions.

  11. Lithological effects in soil formation and soil slips on weathering-limited slopes underlain by granitic bedrocks in Japan


    Wakatsuki, Tsuyoshi; Matsukura, Yukinori


    Soil slips occur every few years due to heavy rains on biotite granite (Gb) and hornblende biotite granite (Ghb) slopes in the Taga Mountains, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The occurrence density of soil slips per unit area is 2.7 times greater in the Gb slopes than that in Ghb slopes. We examined the chemical, mineral, physical, and mechanical properties of two soil profiles on soil-slip scars in these slopes to study the effect of bedrock mineral composition on the density of soil slips. For a...

  12. Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, M.; Bauer, S.J.; Chester, F.M.; Handin, J.; Hopkins, T.W.; Johnson, B.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Mardon, D.; Russell, J.E.


    During the final year of the grant, we have investigated (1) why the strengths of rocks decrease with increasing temperature and in the presence of water through study of the fracture process in Westerly granite and Sioux quartzite specimens deformed in extension (some in true tension), (2) frictional strengths of rocks at high temperatures, (3) the stability of boreholes in fractured rock, and (4) slip in biotite single crystals (in that biotite is probably the weakest and most ductile of the common constituents of crystalline rocks.

  13. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.


    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  14. Authigenic layer silicate minerals in borehole Elmore 1, Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, USA (United States)

    McDowell, S. Douglas; Elders, Wilfred A.


    A combined petrographic/X-ray/electron microprobe and energy dispersive system investigation of sandstone cuttings from borehole Elmore # 1 near the center of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field has revealed numerous regular variations in the composition, texture, mineralogy and proportions of the authigenic layer silicate minerals in the temperature interval 185° C (411.5 m depth) to 361° C (2,169 m). At temperatures near 190° C, dolomite/ankerite+calcite-bearing sandstones contain an illite/mixed layer phase with 10% expandable layers (dolomite/ankerite zone). In shale, the percentage of expandable layers in the mixed layer phase changes from 10 15% at 185° C to 5% at 210° C (494 m). In the interval 250° C (620 m) to 325° C (1,135 m), the calcite+pyrite+epidote-bearing sandstones contain a layer silicate assemblage of chlorite and illite (chlorite-calcite zone). In the shallower portions of this metamorphic zone, the illite contains 0 5% expandable layers, while at depths greater than 725 m (275° C) it is completely free of expandable layers. On increasing temperature, the white mica shows regular decreases in SiIV, Mg and Fe, and increase in AlIV, AlVI, and interlayer occupancy, as it changes gradually from fine-grained illite (=textural sericite) to coarse-grained recrystallized phengitic white mica. In the same interval, chlorite shows decreases in AlVI and octahedral vacancies and an increase in total Mg+Fe. The sandstones range from relatively unmodified detrital-textured rocks with porosities up to 20% and high contents of illite near 250° C to relatively dense hornfelsic-textured rocks with trace amounts of chlorite and phengite and porosities near 5% at 325° C. Numerous complex reactions among detrital (allogenic) biotite, chlorite, and muscovite, and authigenic illite and chlorite, occur in the chlorite-calcite zone. Biotite appears, and calcite disappears, at a temperature near 325° C and a depth of 1,135m. The biotite zone so produced persists

  15. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Roermund, H.L.M. van; Zhang, L.; Spiers, C.


    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U–Th–Pbmonazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominan

  16. Evidence for primordial superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, R.V.; Cahill, T.A.; Fletcher, N.R.; Kaufmann, H.C.; Medsker, L.R.; Nelson, J.W.; Flocchini, R.G.


    Microscopic crystalline monazite inclusions showing giant halo formation in biotite mica have been analyzed by the method of proton-induced x-ray emission. The observed x-ray energy spectra are best explained by the presence of a number of superheavy elements. (AIP)

  17. Evaluation of Geothermal Potential of Range Bravo 17 and the Shoal Site, Naval Air Station, Fallon. (United States)


    is almost completely argillized and sericitized. The porphyritic rhyolite contains up to 30% phenocrysts of quartz, sani- dine, and/or albite in a...groundmass of the same minerals, plus 0.5% biotite. Some of the porphyritic rhyolite exhibits propylization, argillization , sericitization, and/or

  18. Delineation of structures favourable to groundwater occurrence employing seismic refraction method — A case study from Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sundararajan; Y Srinivas; M Narasimha Chary; G Nandakumar; A Hanmantha Chary


    The contacts associated with an outlier in biotite gneiss and sandstones near Tiruvuru, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh which are generally favourable for groundwater occurrence were investigated employing refraction seismic method. Results were examined by correlating the signals with local geology, bore well data and other available information in order to improve the reliability of interpretation.

  19. Differences of granitic weathering at the northern and southern feet of Dabie Mountains, Central China: Implication for tectonic and climatic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Haijin(续海金); MA; Changqian(马昌前); LIU; Fan(刘凡); YANG; Kunguang(杨坤光)


    Two weathering profiles of Yanshanian granites on the southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains were investigated. The results showed that, on the southern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the weathering profile of the Sikongshan biotite monzonitic granite was eroded with remarkable loss of alkila, calcium and silicon, and richness of aluminium during hydrolysis process and in acidic mediums. Feldspar and biotite, major rock-forming minerals, were altered to illite→(vermiculite→1.4 nm transition minerals) →kaolinite→halloysite. However, on the northern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the Hepeng biotite orthogranite weathering profile was stable, without silicon depletion, but with remarkably enriched iron and noncrystalline during oxidizing process and in feebly acidic-neutral mediums. The major rock-forming minerals such as feldspar and biotite in the Hepeng weathering profile were weathered to smectites and halloysite→noncrystalline. The above results reveal that weathering differences of the granites between southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains may be related to climatic environments and tectonic movements. The southern foot, in hot and rainy environments, was uplifted by tectonics and was intensively leached. The soils in the southern slope were under acidic conditions. In contrast, the northern foot was slightly leached in hot and droughty environments, and the soils were under feebly acidic-neutral conditions.

  20. 西藏南部花岗岩类中重结晶的黑云母与板块碰撞的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Recrystallized biotite occurs in granitoid rocks from some plutens in the Lhagoi Kangri and Kangdese belts in southern Xizang. These plutons are characterized by well-developed micro-fractures, orientational arrangement of dark minerals showing gneissose structures to varing extents. This is consistent with the fact that K-Ar ages of crystallized biotite (30--17 my) are much younger as compared with the host rooks. Recrystallized biotites are mostly recognized along the tectonic suture line between the Indian plate and the Eurasian continental plate, i.e., in the neighborhood of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its north bank as well as in the Lhagoi Kangri Ranges.The authors postulate that when drifting north-northeastward, the Indian sub-continental plate was conteracted by the Kangdese belt as a result of the subduction of the Indian plate underneath the Eurasian Continental plate, causing a dramatic increase instress on the southern side, i.e., near the tectanic suture line, of the rock belt followed by the rising of temperature which resulted in the recrystallization of biotite in some plutons.

  1. Informe preliminar sobre los estudios de la petrografia del extremo occidental de Galicia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensdregt, C.F.


    The extreme western part of Galicia around Cape Finisterre and Cape Toriñana, consists of pre-migmatic metamorphic rocks, partly migmatised, intruded by syn- and posttectonic granites. The pre-migmatic rocks are of sedimentary origin (biotite schists or gneisses) and of probable igneous origin (auge

  2. Magnetofabrics of ultrahigh-pressure gneisses from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project: Retrogression of ferromagnetic gneisses (United States)

    Grimmer, J.-C.; Qi, X. X.; Xu, Z. Q.


    In order to better understand retrograde processes during exhumation of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured on UHP-gneisses from the 5138 m deep CCSD-mainhole. The Sulu UHP-gneisses are composed of variable proportions of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, and white mica with variable contents of garnet, chlorite, epidote, amphibole, and accessory phases such as zircon, apatite, and Fe-Ti-oxides. 111 samples from 21 oriented core pieces from the uppermost 1800 m of the CCSD-mainhole were measured for their AMS. The mean susceptibilities (Kmean) of the gneisses vary from 0.1x10-3 to 37.2x10-3 SI. Some core pieces outline a large intra-sample variation of Kmean. The anisotropies (Ṕ) of the gneisses vary from 1.05 to 1.62. 83% of the samples display positive shape factors (T) and thus oblate AMS-ellipsoids. Magnetic foliations coincide with metamorphic foliations dipping to the ENE with variable dip angles. The orientations of the principal susceptibility axes show no systematic variation with Kmean at the intra- and inter-sample scale. The average gneiss density is 2.67±0.12 g/cm3. The main carrier of susceptibility is biotite for the paramagnetic gneisses (Kmean 5x10-3 SI). Variation diagram of Kmean versus density outlines a well-constrained positive correlation for paramagnetic gneisses since higher contents of biotite augment both density and Kmean. For the ferromagnetic gneisses the correlation is also well constrained and positive since higher contents of magnetite augment both density and Kmean. Cogenetic gneisses with a large intra-sample variation of Kmean are in particular suitable to better understand possible genetic links between the para- and ferromagnetic gneisses. These particular samples outline diffuse, but nevertheless negative correlations between Kmean and the density corroborating decomposition of magnetite and concomitant biotite formation. Since no impact on the orientation of

  3. Radioelemental, petrological and geochemical characterization of the Bundelkhand craton, central India: implication in the Archaean geodynamic evolution (United States)

    Ray, Labani; Nagaraju, P.; Singh, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Roy, Sukanta


    We have carried out radioelemental (232Th, 238U, 40K), petrological and geochemical analyses on granitoids and gneisses covering major rock formations of the Bundelkhand craton, central India. Our data reveal that above characteristics are distinct among granitoids (i.e. pink, biotite and grey granitoids) and gneisses (i.e. potassic and sodic types). Pink granitoid is K-feldspar-rich and meta-aluminous to per-aluminous in character. Biotite granitoid is meta-aluminous in character. Grey granitoid is rich in Na-feldspar and mafic minerals, granodiorite to diorite in composition and meta-aluminous in character. Among these granitoids, radioelements (Th, U, K) are highest in pink granitoid (45.0 ± 21.7 ppm, 7.2 ± 3.4 ppm, 4.2 ± 0.4 %), intermediate in biotite granitoid (44.5 ± 28.2 ppm, 5.4 ± 2.8 ppm, 3.4 ± 0.7 %) and lowest in grey granitoid (17.7 ± 4.3 ppm, 4.4 ± 0.6 ppm, 3.0 ± 0.4 %). Among gneisses, potassic-type gneisses have higher radioelements (11.8 ± 5.3 ppm, 3.1 ± 1.2 ppm, 2.0 ± 0.5 %) than the sodic-type gneisses (5.6 ± 2.8 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.5 ppm, 1.4 ± 0.7 %). Moreover, the pink granitoid and the biotite granitoid have higher Th/U (6 and 8, respectively) compared to the grey granitoid (Th/U: 4), implying enrichment of Th in pink and biotite granitoids relative to grey granitoid. K/U among pink, biotite and grey granitoids shows little variation (0.6 × 104, 0.6 × 104, 0.7 × 104, respectively), indicating relatively similar increase in K and U. Therefore, mineralogical and petrological data along with radioelemental ratios suggest that radioelemental variations in these lithounits are mainly related to abundances of the radioactive minerals that have formed by the fractionation of LILE from different magma sources. Based on present data, the craton can be divided into three distinct zones that can be correlated with its evolution in time and space. The central part, where gneisses are associated with metavolcanics of greenstone belt, is

  4. Structural and alteration controls on gold mineralization the of the amphibolite facies Detour Lake Deposit, Canada (United States)

    Dubosq, Renelle; Schneider, David


    The 15M oz Detour Lake deposit is a Neoarchean orogenic gold ore body located in the northern most region of the Abitibi district within the Superior Province. The mine is an open pit design in the high strain zone of the Sunday Lake Deformation Zone (SLDZ). The ductile-brittle SLDZ parallels the broadly E-W Abitibi greenstone belt and the deposit is situated in a dilation zone between volcanoclastic rocks of the Caopatina Assemblage and Lower Detour Lake Formation, consisting of ultramafic talc-chlorite-sericite schist. The Upper Detour Lake Formation consists of pillowed and massive flows and hyloclastic units crosscut by minor felsic to intermediate dykes. All of the formations are sub-vertical, north-dipping units with stretching lineations indicating dip-slip motion. The Detour deposit differs from other classic ore deposits in the dominantly greenschist facies Abitibi Subprovince by possessing an amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblage of actinolite-biotite-plagioclase-almandine. Consequently, the typical indicator minerals used to identify alteration and mineralization, such as secondary biotite, may not be useful. Petrological and geochemical analyses have revealed at least four populations of biotite: 1) large euhedral crystals located within quartz-carbonate veins, 2) small, euhedral zoned crystals present as alteration haloes, 3) very small, anhedral to subhedral indistinct crystal present in mafic volcanic host rock, and 4) large euhedral crystals defining the main metamorphic foliation in the metasediments. Extensive examination of mineral assemblages, alteration products, and vein structure in rock core across barren and mineralized zones has documented over a dozen vein types which can be grouped into two main categories: 1) sulfidized quartz-carbonate veins associated with biotite alteration and 2) late carbonate veins. Gold grades do not prove to be dependent on vein type but rather on the host rock composition: the highest ore grades are present

  5. Prograde infiltration of Cl-rich fluid into the granulitic continental crust from a collision zone in East Antarctica (Perlebandet, Sør Rondane Mountains) (United States)

    Kawakami, Tetsuo; Higashino, Fumiko; Skrzypek, Etienne; Satish-Kumar, M.; Grantham, Geoffrey; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi


    Utilizing microstructures of Cl-bearing biotite in pelitic and felsic metamorphic rocks, the timing of Cl-rich fluid infiltration is correlated with the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from Perlebandet, Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica. Microstructural observation indicates that the stable Al2SiO5 polymorph changed from sillimanite to kyanite + andalusite + sillimanite, and P-T estimates from geothermobarometry point to a counterclockwise P-T path characteristic of the SW terrane of the SRM. In situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for U-Pb dating of zircon inclusions in garnet yielded ca. 580 Ma, likely representing the age of garnet-forming metamorphism at Perlebandet. Inclusion-host relationships among garnet, sillimanite, and Cl-rich biotite (Cl > 0.4 wt%) reveal that formation of Cl-rich biotite took place during prograde metamorphism in the sillimanite stability field. This process probably predated partial melting consuming biotite (Cl = 0.1-0.3 wt%). This was followed by retrograde, moderately Cl-bearing biotite (Cl = 0.1-0.3 wt%) replacing garnet. Similar timings of Cl-rich biotite formation in different samples, and similar f(H2O)/f(HCl) values of coexisting fluid estimated for each stage can be best explained by prograde Cl-rich fluid infiltration. Fluid-present partial melting at the onset of prograde metamorphism probably contributed to elevate the Cl concentration (and possibly salinity) of the fluid, and consumption of the fluid resulted in the progress of dehydration melting. The retrograde fluid was released from crystallizing Cl-bearing partial melts or derived externally. The prograde Cl-rich fluid infiltration in Perlebandet presumably took place at the uppermost part of the footwall of the collision boundary. Localized distribution of Cl-rich biotite and hornblende along large-scale shear zones and detachments in the SRM supports external

  6. Further support for a Cretaceous age for the feathered-dinosaur beds of Liaoning,China:New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Yixian and Tuchengzi Formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We report new 40Ar/39Ar dating results obtained from total fusion and incremental-heating analyses of sanidine and biotite from three tuffs found interbedded within the fossil-bearing deposits of Liaoning, northeast China. The first is a new sample of the Bed 6 Sihetun tuff from the Yixian Formation, previously dated by our team as middle Early Cretaceous, and recently considered by Lo et al., partially reset due to metamorphism from a nearby basaltic sill. The second is the Yixian Bed 9 tuff from Hengdaozi considered by Lo et al. to be unaffected by metamorphism and whose age, based on total fusion 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite, argues for a Jurassic age for the Yixian Formation.The third tuff is a previously undated tuff from the upper part of the underlying Tuchengzi Formation. Single crystal total fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of the Sihetun sanidine showed homogeneous radiogenic Ar, Ca/K ratios, excellent reproducibility and gave a mean age of 125.0 ± 0.18 (1SD) ±0.04 (SE) Ma. Single sanidine crystal total fusion 40Ar/39Aranalyses of the Hengdaozi tuff gave a mean age of 125.0 +0.19 (1SD) ± 0.04 (SE) Ma, which is indistinguishable from the Sihetun tuff. The Tuchengzi Formation tuff gave a mean age of 139.4 ± 0.19 (1SD) ± 0.05 (SE) Ma. Detailed laser incremental-heating analyses of biotite from Sihetun, Hengdaozi, and Tuchengzi tuffs show disturbed Ar release patterns and evidence of trapped argon components. We conclude from these analyses that the total fusion dates on biotite by Lo et al. are erroneously old and isotopic dating of both biotite and sanidine from tuffs of the Yixian Formation point to a middle Early Cretaceous age. The upper part of the Tuchengzi Formation can be referred to the Early Cretaceous.``

  7. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  8. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Jafari


    Full Text Available Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, sphene, epidote, allanite, tourmaline and opaque. The presence of hydrous minerals like hornblende and biotite in these rocks indicate that the corresponding magma initially contained >3 wt% H2O (wet magma. The occurrences of garnet and andalusite minerals suggest assimilation process. Primary textures in these rocks are granular, granophyre, and poikilitic. Secondary textures are perthite, myrmekite, sericitization, chloritization and kaolinitization. Later hydrothermal activities and tectonic strains are factors for presence of perthite texture in leucogranite. K amount for sericitization of feldspars come from the K-feldspars and chloritization of biotite. Transformation of biotite to muscovite indicates the act of K rich fluid in later stages. On the basis of chemical analysis on the intrusive rocks, it is shown that the magma was calc-alkaline, metaluminous-peraluminous and medium-K to high-K. Study of major elements in Harker diagrams indicates Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing of SiO2 and K2O and Na2O increase indicating that fractional crystallization may have played an important role in the formation of granitoid rocks from Nezam-Abad.

  9. Petrography and geochemistry of precambrian rocks from GT-2 and EE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, A.W.; Eddy, A.


    During the drilling of GT-2 and EE-1, 27 cores totaling about 35 m were collected from the Precambrian section. Samples of each different lithology in each core were taken for petrographic and whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses. Whole-rock analyses are now completed on 37 samples. From these data four major Precambrian units were identified at the Fenton Hill site. Geophysical logs and cuttings were used to extrapolate between cores. The most abundant rock type is an extremely variable gneissic unit comprising about 75% of the rock penetrated. This rock is strongly foliated and may range compositionally from syenogranitic to tonalitic over a few centimeters. The bulk of the unit falls within the monzogranite field. Interlayered with the gneiss is a ferrohastingsite-biotite schist which compositionally resembles a basaltic andesite. A fault contact between the schist and gneiss was observed in one core. Intrusive into this metamorphic complex are two igneous rocks. A leucocratic monzogranite occurs as at least two 15-m-thick dikes, and a biotite-granodiorite body was intercepted by 338 m of drill hole. Both rocks are unfoliated and equigranular. The biotite granodiorite is very homogeneous and is characterized by high modal contents of biotite and sphene and by high K/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ contents. Although all of the cores examined show fractures, most of these are tightly sealed or healed. Calcite is the most abundant fracture filling mineral, but epidote, quartz, chlorite, clays or sulfides have also been observed. The degree of alteration of the essential minerals normally increases as these fractures are approached. The homogeneity of the biotite granodiorite at the bottom of GT-2 and the high degree of fracture filling ensure an ideal setting for the Hot Dry Rock Experiment.

  10. Conduit margin heating and deformation during the AD 1886 basaltic Plinian eruption at Tarawera volcano, New Zealand. (United States)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Kennedy, Ben; von Aulock, Felix W; Lavallée, Yan; Damby, David E; Vasseur, Jérémie; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B

    During explosive eruptions, a suspension of gas and pyroclasts rises rapidly within a conduit. Here, we have analysed textures preserved in the walls of a pyroclastic feeder dyke of the AD 1886 Tarawera basaltic Plinian fissure eruption. The samples examined consist of basaltic ash and scoria plastered onto a conduit wall of a coherent rhyolite dome and a welded rhyolitic dome breccia. We examine the textural evidence for the response of the wall material, built of ∼75 vol.% glass and ∼25 vol.% crystals (pore-free equivalent), to mass movement in the adjacent conduit. In the rhyolitic wall material, we quantify the orientation and aspect ratio of biotite crystals as strain markers of simple shear deformation, and interpret juxtaposed regions of vesiculation and vesicle collapse as evidence of conduit wall heating. Systematic changes occur close to the margin: (1) porosity is highly variable, with areas locally vesiculated or densified, (2) biotite crystals are oriented with their long axis parallel to the margin, (3) the biotites have greater aspect ratios close to the margin and (4) the biotite crystals are fractured. We interpret the biotite phenocryst deformation to result from crystal fracture, rotation and cleavage-parallel bookcase translation. These textural observations are inferred to indicate mechanical coupling between the hot gas-ash jet and the conduit wall and reheating of wall rock rhyolite. We couple these observations with a simple 1D conductive heating model to show what minimum temperature the conduit wall needs to reach in order to achieve a temperature above the glass transition throughout the texturally-defined deformed zone. We propose that conduit wall heating and resulting deformation influences conduit margin outgassing and may enhance the intensity of such large basaltic eruptions.

  11. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd( t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd( t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  12. 桂北新元古代两类过铝花岗岩的地球化学研究%Geochemical studies on two types of Neoproterozoic peraluminous granitoids in northern Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文春; 李献华; 李正祥; 周汉文; 李寄嵎


    The Neoproterozoic granitoids in northern Guangxi consist ofbiotite granodiorite and biotite granitoids. The geochemical characteristics indicate that biotite granodiorite is equivalent to cordierite-bearing peraluminous granitoids (CPG), while biotite granitoids are similar to muscovite-monzonitic granite (MPG). Biotite granitoids are the result of partial melting of mature crust, and the formation of biotite granodiorites are related to the mixing of mantle plume-derived mafic magma and crustal-derived peraluminous biotite granitic magma. The formation of these two types of Neoproterozoic peraluminous granitoids is irrelevant to the compressional structures caused by collisional orogney which led to crustal thickening, but relevant to extensional structures caused by the ascent of mantle plume which led to the breakup of Rodinia supercontinent.%广西北部新元古代花岗岩类岩石包括黑云母花岗闪长岩和黑云母花岗岩。地球化学特征表明,黑云母花岗闪长岩与含堇青石的过铝花岗岩(CPG)相当,而黑云母花岗岩则类似于白云母二长花岗岩(MPG)。黑云母花岗岩类是成熟地壳岩石部分熔融作用的产物,而黑云母花岗闪长岩类的形成与地幔柱起源的镁铁质岩浆和地壳起源的过铝质黑云母花岗岩浆之间的混合作用有关。这两类新元古代过铝花岗岩的形成与碰撞造山导致地壳加厚的挤压性构造无关,而与导致Rodinia超大陆裂解的地幔柱上升诱发岩石圈伸展的张性构造相联系。

  13. Evidence of pre-Gondwana tectono-thermal event from the Bhilwara Supracrustal units of Rajasthan, north-west India (United States)

    Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli; Rakshit, Nibedita; Nasipuri, Pritam


    In the Indian subcontinent, two pre- Gondwana (pre- Pan African) orogenies are mostly recorded and well-studied from the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt: (i) >1.1 Ga and (ii) ~950 Ma. During the ~950Ma orogeny, the pre-existing granulites have been re-melted under granulite facies conditions at ~8 kbar, 800-850ºC in the sillimanite stability field with formation of garnet-orthopyroxene in the restites. In this study we report garnet-sillimanite bearing and garnet-staurolite-kyanite bearing supracrustal rocks from the Bhilwara Supergroup in Rajasthan, N-W India. Peak assemblage in the garnet-sillimanite bearing metapelite is: garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz. Garnet porphyroblasts contain sillimanite-biotite bearing inclusion trails. Matrix foliations consist of biotite, sillimanite, quartz. Peak pressure-temperature calculated for garnet formation are ~7-8 kbar, 800ºC. Garnet is replaced along the margins by biotite during retrogression. Within garnet-staurolite-kyanite schist, peak assemblage is formed of garnet-staurolite-biotite-kyanite quartz, where garnet and staurolite occur as porphyroclasts and the matrix foliations are formed of kyanite-biotite-quartz. Mineral assemblages and compositions in the rock indicate peak pressure-temperature >8 kbar, 600ºC. The ages of the metamorphic events at sillimanite and kyanite facies are not well-constrained. However since the Bhilwara supracrustal units occur close to the Grenvillian orogenic belt at Sandmata Complex, the timing of the peak metamorphism can be constrained at ~1.0 Ga. Garnet-sillimanite-bearing assemblages noted in the Bhilwara Supracrustal Belt, has also been noted from the Grenvillian belts in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. So the question that needs to be addressed is whether the Grenvillian orogenic belt recorded form the Sandmata Complex in Rajasthan and that of the Eastern Ghat Belt had been a continuous orogenic belt? Such possibilities can be addressed by establishing detailed structural

  14. Metamorphic constraints on the Caledonian Upper Allochthon of Central Norway - the Gula Complex staurolite-garnet-kyanite mica schist (United States)

    Engvik, A. K.; Grenne, T.; Lutro, O.; Meyer, G. B.


    Petrological studies of staurolite-garnet-kyanite-biotite schist and garnet-muscovite schist of the Gula Complex provide constraints on the metamorphic evolution of the Caledonian Upper Allochthon in the eastern Trondheim Region, Central Norway. The biotite schist contains conspicuous porphyroblasts of Fe-rich staurolite (Mg#=0.21-0.24), garnet (Alm64-71Prp13-19Grs3-11Sps7-20) and kyanite, set in a fine-grained, well foliated matrix of biotite (Mg#=0.57- 0.62), quartz, minor plagioclase (An19-31) and locally muscovite. The muscovite schist is fine to medium grained with a muscovite-quartz dominated matrix, including garnet (Alm54-70Prp10-14Grs12-25Sps1-11), biotite (Mg#=0.56-0.57), minor plagioclase (An31-45) and clinozoisite. P-T modeling based on thermobarometric calculations and construction of P-T pseudosections illustrates that significant mineralogical heterogeneity in the high grade mica schists arise from only modest geochemical heterogeneities in the original pelitic rocks. Based on garnet ±staurolite ±kyanite ±muscovite +biotite +plagioclase +quartz-assemblages, peak metamorphism reached 680 °C with pressures estimated to 1.01 ±0.11 GPa for the garnet-muscovite schist, and 0.86 ±0.12 GPa for the staurolite-garnet-kyanite-biotite schist. A clockwise P-T path is constrained by secondary mineral reactions; the replacement of kyanite to fibrous sillimanite indicates decompression below 0.65 GPa at elevated temperatures. Growth of foliation-parallel chlorite reflects cooling below 640 °C. Chlorite formation proceeded during cooling and decompression towards 550 °C and 0.4 GPa. Peak metamorphic conditions are associated with a strong N-S trending regional foliation, and the initial uplift continued within the same strain regime. The documented high grade metamorphism and subsequent decompression and retrogression of the Gula Complex metapelites prevailed during the mid-Silurian continent-continent collision and Caledonian burial and exhumation of the

  15. Mineral composition control on inter-mineral iron isotopic fractionation in granitoids (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; He, Yongsheng; Bao, Leier; Zhu, Chuanwei; Li, Shuguang


    This study reports elemental and iron isotopic compositions of feldspar and its coexisting minerals from four Dabie I-type granitoids to evaluate the factors that control inter-mineral Fe isotopic fractionation in granitoids. The order of heavy iron isotope enrichment is feldspar > pyrite > magnetite > biotite ≈ hornblende. Feldspar has heavier iron isotopic compositions than its co-existing magnetite (Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite = +0.376‰ to +1.084‰, Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite = +0.516‰ to +0.846‰), which can be attributed to its high Fe3+/Fetot ratio and low coordination number (tetrahedrally-coordinated) of Fe3+. Δ56Femagnetite-biotite of coexisting magnetite and biotite ranges from 0.090‰ to 0.246‰. Based on homogeneous major and iron isotopic compositions of mineral replicates, the inter-mineral fractionation in this study should reflect equilibrium fractionation. The large variations of inter-mineral fractionation among feldspar, magnetite and biotite cannot be simply explained by temperature variation, but strongly depend on mineral compositions. The Δ56Feplagioclase-magnetite and Δ56Fealkali-feldspar-magnetite are positively correlated with albite mode in plagioclase and orthoclase mode in alkali-feldspar, respectively. This could be explained by different Fe-O bond strength in feldspar due to different Fe3+/∑Fe or different crystal parameters. The Δ56Femagnetite-biotite increases with decreasing Fe3+/∑Febiotite and increasing mole (Na + K)/Mgbiotite, indicating a decrease of β factor in low Fe3+/∑Fe and high (Na + K)/Mg biotite. High-silica leucosomes from Dabie migmatites with a feldspar accumulation petrogenesis have higher δ56Fe values (δ56Fe = 0.42-0.567‰) than leucosome that represents pristine partial melt (δ56Fe = 0.117 ± 0.016‰), indicating that accumulation of feldspar could account for high δ56Fe values of these rocks. High δ56Fe values are also predicted for other igneous rocks that are mainly composed of

  16. 我国某地含褐钇钶矿碱性花岗岩的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The fergusonite alkaline granite referred to in this paper is a complex consisting of acmite-augite riebeckite granite, riebeckite granite and biotite riebeckite granite. Its principal rock-forming minerals include acmite-augite, riebeckite, quartz, perthite and biotite, with fergusonite, zircon, magnetite and galena as its accessary minerals. Astrophyllite and thorite are abundant in a late alkali granite dike. Petrochemically, it is rich in K, Na, Si, and such rare metals as Nb, Ta, Y, Yb, Zr and Hf, but depleted in Al and Ca. In comparison with that found in other types of granite, the fergusonite in the alkaline granite has higher ferromagnesian components, thorium, niobium, but lower rare earths and tantalum.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of the Los Cuartos granite, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, northwest of Argentina: its integration to the regional magmatic layout; Petrologia y geoquimica del granito Los Cuartos, Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, noroeste de Argentina: integracion al esquema magmatico regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.P.; Bellos, L.I.


    Los Cuartos Granite crops out on the western flank of the Cumbres Calchaquies, east of Tafi del Valle, Tucuman Province, Argentina. It has a granitic to granodioritic composition, of two micas, being biotite dominant. The granite is medium grained and inequigranular, with rare K-feldspar megacrysts. It contains host-rock xenoliths with different degrees of assimilation. The granite intrusion produced contact metamorphism in the surrounding basement, with development of andalucite porphyroblasts and poikiloblastic biotite. The granite is calk-alkaline and peraluminous, and is K- and P-rich and Ca- and Napoor compared to other granitoids of the region. The pluton shows late-tectonic features with regard to the regional deformation. The granite possibly intruded during the Ordovician (Famatinian Cycle) and its emplacement was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture. Los Cuartos Granite and other intrusive bodies of the region share similar petrographical, geochemical, structural and geochronological characteristics. (Author).

  18. New Rb-Sr mineral ages temporally link plume events with accretion at the margin of Gondwana (United States)

    Flowerdew, M.J.; Daly, J.S.; Riley, T.R.


    Five of six Rb-Sr muscovite mineral isochron ages from the Scotia Metamorphic Complex of the South Orkney Islands, West Antarctica, average 190 ± 4 Ma. The muscovite ages are interpreted to date foliation-formation and thus also accretion and subduction at the Gondwana margin. Coincident picrite and ferropicrite magmatism, indicative of melts from deep-seated depleted mantle, permits a causative link between accretion and the arrival of the Karoo – Ferrar – Chon Aike mantle plume in the Early Jurassic. Three biotite Rb-Sr mineral isochron ages are consistently younger and average 176 ± 5 Ma. The biotite ages may record post-metamorphic cooling or more likely retrogressive metamorphic effects during uplift.

  19. The Goodman swell: a lithospheric flexure caused by crustal loading along the Midcontinent rift system (United States)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Sims, P.K.


    Rb-Sr biotite ages of Archean and Early to Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks in northern Wisconsin and adjacent Upper Peninsula of Michigan describe a regionally systematic pattern related to differential uplift. An "age low' occurs in northern Wisconsin where values range from 1070-1172 Ma for rocks with crystallization ages of 1760 to 1865 Ma. These values overlap with the main episode of mafic igneous activity (1090 to 1120 Ma) along the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). We interpret these low biotite ages as registering closure due to cooling below the 300??C isotherm as a consequence of uplift and rapid erosion of an area that we are informally naming the Goodman swell. We interpret the swell to be a forebulge imposed on an elastic crust by loading of mafic igneous rocks along and within the axis of the MRS. -from Authors

  20. Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry of Dongtian Gold Deposit in Western Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Yunkai uplifted area is one of the important metallogenic areas in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, in which many gold, silver, tungsten, tin, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and iron deposits were found. Dongtian gold deposit in the middle of Yunkai uplifted area, western Guangdong Province, is chosen as an example of those deposits. Comparative studies on the chondrite-normalized REE patterns and ΣREE, LREE/HREE, δEu, δCe, NLa/Yb, and NLa/Sm of auriferous quartz veins, altered gneiss-type gold ores, Caledonian gneissic biotite granite, and Late Yanshanian granite porphyry were made. The results indicate that the source of the metallogenic materials of the auriferous quartz veins and the altered gneiss-type gold ores are the same, and both of them come from the gneissic biotite granite. Metallogenic epoch of the deposit is estimated to be Caledonian period.

  1. Low-temperature magnetic anisotropy in micas and chlorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Bender Koch, Christian; Lorenz, Wolfram E A;


    of magnetic susceptibility. Because diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibility are both linearly dependent on field, separation of the anisotropic contributions requires understanding how the degree of anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility changes as a function of temperature. Note that diamagnetic...... of approximately 6.3-8.7 for individual samples of muscovite, phlogopite and chlorite on cooling from RT to 77 K and between 11.2 and 12.4 for biotite. A decrease in temperature enhances the paramagnetic anisotropy in a mineral. Biotite exhibits a relatively stronger enhancement due to the onset of magnetic......Phyllosilicates, such as micas and chlorite, are common rock-forming minerals and often show preferred orientation in deformed rocks. In combination with single-crystal anisotropy, this leads to anisotropy of physical properties in the rock, such as magnetic susceptibility. In order to effectively...

  2. Kabbaldurga-type charnockitization: A local phenomenon in the granulite to amphibolite grade transition zone (United States)

    Raith, M.; Staehle, H. J.; Hoernes, S.


    In the deeply eroded Precambrian crust of South India and Sri Lanka, a series of spectacular exposures shows progressive development of coarse-grained charnockite through dehydration of amphibolite grade gneisses in different arrested stages. At Kabbaldurga, charnockitization of Archaean grey biotite-hornblende gneisses occurred about 2.5 Ga ago and evidently was induced by the influx of external carbonic fluids along a system of ductile shears and the foliation planes. The results of oxygen isotope thermometry and of geothermobarometry in adjacent areas indicate a P-T regime of 700 to 750 C and 5 to 7 kb. The decrease of water activity in the fluid infiltrated zones caused an almost complete breakdown of hornblende and biotite and the new growth of hypersthene. Detailed petrographic and geochemical studies revealed marked changes in mineralogy and chemistry from granodioritic to granitic which document the metasomatic nature of the process.

  3. Carbonatite magmatism of the southern Siberian Craton 1 Ga ago: Evidence for the beginning of breakup of Laurasia in the early Neoproterozoic (United States)

    Savelieva, V. B.; Danilova, Yu. V.; Bazarova, E. P.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kamenetsky, V. S.


    Apatite and biotite from dolomite‒ankerite and calcite‒dolomite carbonatite dikes emplaced into the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rock complex in the southern part of the Siberian Craton are dated by the U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) and 40Ar-39Ar methods, respectively. Proceeding from the lower intercept of discordia with concordia, the age of apatite from calcite‒dolomite carbonatite is estimated to be 972 ± 21 Ma and that for apatite from dolomite‒ankerite carbonatite, as 929 ± 37 Ma. Values derived from their upper intercept have no geological sense. The ages obtained for biotite by the 40Ar-39Ar method are 965 ± 9 and 975 ± 14 Ma. It means that the formation of carbonatites reflects the earliest phases of the Neoproterozoic stage in extension of the continental lithosphere.

  4. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India (United States)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro


    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Cafluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  5. The Formation of Yanshanian Granitic Magma in Dabie Mountains:Dehydration or Aquifer Melting with Tiantangzhai and Jiuzihe Granites as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; ZHAO Zhenhua; QIU Jiaxiang; WANG Renjing; XU Jifeng


    There are large-areas of late Yanshanian granites in the Dabie Orogen, but the formation mode of the relevant granitic magma is still under discussion. Taking the typical Yanshanian granites in the North Dabie Block The TG and JG as examples, the Writers endeavor to discuss contain aspects of the formation mode of the granitic magma by studying the characteristics of the chemical compositions of biotite and amphibole of the granites and petrological features of enclaves in the intrusions, in the light of recent results of experimental petrology on dehydration melting and aquifer melting. It is suggested that: (1) Some biotites in the Tiantangzhai and the JGs and their enclaves were residual minerals; (2) Some of the amphiboles could be new-born minerals, and others, residual ones.(3) the banded bodies in granites were residuals of anatexis. (4) The TG and JG were formed by aquifer melting, and the South Dabie Block could be the important source region of water.

  6. The effects of retrograde reactions and of diffusion on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allaz, Julien; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons


    Effects of metamorphic reactions occurring during decompression were explored to understand their influence on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas. Monometamorphic metasediments from the Lepontine Alps (Switzerland) were studied. Collected samples reached lower amphibolite facies during the Barrovian....../K and Cl/K ratios) did not change and the resulting ages can be interpreted unambiguously. In mineral separates containing two white micas, Ca/K and Cl/K ratios were variable, reflecting non-simultaneous laboratory degassing of the two heterochemical Ar-reservoirs. These ratios were used to identify each...... Ar reservoir and to unravel the age. In a chlorite-margarite-biotite-calcschist equilibrated near 560 °C and 0.65 GPa, biotite, margarite, and muscovite all yield ages around 18 Ma. At slightly higher grade (560-580 °C, 0.8-0.9 GPa), the assemblage muscovite-paragonite-plagioclase is at equilibrium...

  7. Metagabbro associated with the shear zone on Prins Karls Forland (Svalbard, Arctic) (United States)

    Maraszewska, Maria; Manecki, Maciej; Czerny, Jerzy; Schneider, David; Myhre, Per Inge; Faehnrich, Karol; Barnes, Christopher


    Prins Karls Forland (PKF) is a N-S elongated island situated west of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago, High Arctic. The northern part of the island is dominated by siliciclastic metasediments regionally metamorphosed to greenshist facies assemblages during one distinct stage of tectonism. Amphibolite facies garnet-mica schists, mica schists, quartzites and carbonate-silicate rocks exhibiting evidence of at least two distinct, strong deformation episodes (including mylonitization) locally outcrop on the east coast of PKF, termed the Pinkie Unit. A ~1 km wide shear zone containing ductile to brittle structures and distinct outcrops of greenstones (metagabbros and greenschists), associated with magnetite ore, separates these two contrasting tectonic units. Ten samples of greenstones were collected on the slopes of Lauratzonfjellet and Boureefjellet for petrologic and geochemical analyses. Despite intense localized shearing, the metagabbros are undeformed and preserve coarse crystalline, magmatic texture, which is locally poikilitic. The primary magmatic assemblage consists of brown hornblende, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals, with accessory apatite and titanite. No relicts of pyroxenes are preserved. Formation of secondary uralite, sericite and chlorite is observed. Metamorphic assemblage consists of actinolite pseudomorhs after hornblende, epidote, and second generation biotite. Blue amphibole is observed in one sample from Boureefjellet; greenschists from Boureefjellet also contain fibrous blue amphibole, as well as garnets, actinolite, epidote and biotite. Some rocks sampled on Boureefjellet are more strongly deformed and exhibit probably two stages of metamorphism: amphibolite facies metamorphism resulting in blue amphibole-garnet assemblage followed by greenschist facies metamorphism resulting in actinolite-epidote-biotite paragenesis. Parallel and overlapping patterns on chondrite-normalized REE diagrams and spider diagrams indicate that these

  8. Metamorphic P-T-t path retrieved from metapelites in the southeastern Taihua metamorphic complex, and the Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the southern North China Craton (United States)

    Lu, Jun-Sheng; Zhai, Ming-Guo; Lu, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Hao Y. C.; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Wu, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Tai-Ping


    The Taihua metamorphic complex in the southern part of the North China Craton is composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, amphibolites, metapelitic gneisses, marbles, quartzites, and banded iron formations (BIFs). The protoliths of the complex have ages ranging from ∼2.1 to ∼2.9 Ga and was metamorphosed under the upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions with NWW-SEE-striking gneissosity. Metapelitites from the Wugang area have three stages of metamorphic mineral assemblages. The prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage (M1) includes biotite + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts. The peak mineral assemblage (M2) consists of garnet porphyroblasts and matrix minerals of sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + ilmenite + rutile + pyrite. The retrograde mineral assemblage (M3), biotite + plagioclase + quartz, occurs as symplectic assemblages surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts. Garnet porphyroblasts are chemically zoned. Pseudosection calculated in the NCKFMASHTO model system suggests that mantles of garnet porphyroblasts define high-pressure granulites facies P-T conditions of 12.2 kbar and 830 °C, whereas garnet rims record P-T conditions of 10.2 kbar and 840 °C. Integrating the prograde mineral assemblages, zoning of garnet porphyroblasts with symplectic assemblages, a clockwise metamorphic P-T path can be retrieved. High resolution SIMS U-Pb dating and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements of the metamorphic zircons demonstrate that metapelites in Wugang possibly record the peak or near peak metamorphic ages of ∼1.92 Ga. Furthermore, 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite in metapelites suggests that the cooling of the Taihua complex may have lasted until ∼1.83 Ga. Therefore, a long-lived Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event may define a slow exhumation process. Field relationship and new metamorphic data for the Taihua metamorphic complex does not support the previous

  9. The thermal history of the Lhasa Block, South Tibetan Plateau based on FTD and Ar-Ar dating

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, T F; Lo Chong Huah; Chung, S L; Tien, R L; Xu, R; Deng, W


    Twelve basement samples were collected from South Tibet Plateau for FTD and Ar-Ar analysis to demonstrate their uplifting history since Cenozoic era. The preliminary results from different minerals with different closure temperatures, including apatite and zircon for fission-track dating, and K-feldspar, biotite for Ar-Ar dating, show that at least four stages of thermal history can be recognized in the studied area.

  10. Mikroskopische Studien ueber Gesteine aus den Molukken. 1. Gesteine von Ambon und den Uliassern. Mit einem französischen Résumé

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder van der Kolk, J.L.C.


    Dans le traité précédent j’ai décrit les types les plus caractéristiques parmi les échantillons de roche recueillis par M. MARTIN pendant ses voyages dans les Moluques. Ainsi il s’agit des Granites à biotite, des Péridotites, des Dacites, des Andésites à pyroxène, des Brèches volcaniques et aussi de

  11. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA)


    Behzad Mehrabi; Ebrahim Tale Fazel; Ali Nokhbatolfoghahai


    The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA) in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm). Th...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20112218 Kang Zhiqiang (College of Earth Sciences,Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004,China);Feng Zuohai Reliability Comparison of Al-in-Hornblende and Biotite Barometer-A Case Study of Guposhan - Huashan Granite in North Guangxi(Journal of Guilin University of Technology,1674-9057, 45-1375/N,30(4),2010,p.474-479,3 illus.,3tables 14refs.)

  13. Tests of Rock Cores Scott Study Area, Missouri (United States)


    little potassium feldspar is present in these cores. The bulk composition of this rock is quartz, plagio - clase feldspar (near oligoclase), chlorite...rhyolite porphyry, containing quartz and equal amounts of potassium and plagio - clase feldspar. Piece 22 of PC-2 (Figure 4.8) and Piece 22 of DC-5 (Figure...representative of this type. The bulk composition was Plagio - clase, orthoclase, quartz, biotite, and chlorite. About one-third of the pieces of the core

  14. Petrology of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Southern Norway) and the role of fractional crystallization in the genesis of Proterozoic rapakivi-like granites.


    Bogaerts, Michel; Scaillet, Bruno; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline


    In south-western Norway, the Sveconorwegian orogenic thickening (1024–970 Ma) is followed by an important post-collisional magmatism (950–930 Ma), divided in two suites (Vander Auwera et al., 2003): the Anorthosite–Mangerite–Charnockite suite (AMC suite) and the Hornblende–Biotite Granitoids suite (HBG suite). The HBG suite displays a continuous trend from gabbronorites to granites. This paper presents the petrography and geochemistry (major and trace elements, Sr–Nd isotopes) of the Lyngdal ...

  15. Search for superheavy-element decay in samples of Madagascar monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, B.H.; O' Kelley, G.D.; Stoughton, R.W.; Halperin, J.


    Two samples of Madagascar monazite from the same geological formation as the biotite studied by Gentry et al. were examined by using a neutron multiplicity counter capable of detecting binary or ternary spontaneous fission decay in any element. No events characteristic of spontaneous fission decay of superheavy elements were found. Derived limits indicate that if superheavy elements were present, then their spontaneous fission half-lives must be extremely long or their concentrations extremely small. (AIP)

  16. 花崗岩中のカリ長石および黒雲母の微生物風化


    上島, 雅人; 田崎, 和江


    Microorganisms are influential in environmental earth materials. Elemental circulation, environmental changes and the Earth evolution have been associated with microorganisms. In this study, biomineralization of clay minerals and biodegradation of K-feldspar and biotite in granite were identified by XRD, optical microscope, SEM-EDX, TEM and atomic absorption. Bioweathering experiments were carried out using thin section of granite in freshwater with iron bacteria (Toxothrix and Gallionella...

  17. Igneous Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore-Forming Processes in the Land's End Granite, Nanjizal


    Eik, Marte


    This study addresses the hydrothermal alteration and mineralization related to a system of tourmaline-quartz veins intersecting biotite-granite in Nanjizal, in the Land s End granites of the cornubian batholith. Nanjizal is an important site as it is one of the few locations in the southern segment of the Land s End Granite where magmatic-hydrothermal tin mineralizations have been mined. The aim is to identify the alteration-patterns and their correlation with hydrothermal ore-forming events ...

  18. Petrogenesis of the igneous Mucajaí AMG complex, northern Amazonian craton — Geochemical, U-Pb geochronological, and Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints (United States)

    Heinonen, A. P.; Fraga, L. M.; Rämö, O. T.; Dall'Agnol, R.; Mänttäri, I.; Andersen, T.


    The ca. 1525 Ma igneous Mucajaí anorthosite-monzonite-granite (AMG) complex in northern Brazil is a rare manifestation of Mesoproterozoic intraplate magmatism in the northern Amazonian Craton. The complex comprises a two-phase rapakivi granite batholith with subordinate quartz-fayalite monzonites and syenites and the closely associated Repartimento anorthosite. Zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) geochronology reveals that the anorthosite (1526 ± 2 Ma), monzonite (1526 ± 2 Ma), and the main-phase biotite-hornblende granite (1527 ± 2 Ma) of the complex intruded the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.94 Ga) country rocks simultaneously at ~ 1526 Ma and that the more evolved biotite granite is marginally younger at 1519 ± 2 Ma. Intraplate magmatism in the Mucajaí region was relatively short-lived and lasted 12 million years (1529-1517 Ma) at maximum. The Nd (whole-rock, ID-TIMS; ɛNd from - 1.9 to - 2.8), Hf (zircon, LAM-ICP-MS; ɛHf from - 2.0 to - 3.1), and O (zircon, SIMS; δ18O from 6.1 to 7.0‰) isotopic compositions of the studied rocks are fairly uniform but still reveal a small degree of isotopic heterogeneity in the Paleoproterozoic crust enclosing the complex. The small isotopic differences observed in the two types of rapakivi granites (biotite-hornblende granite and biotite granite) may result either from an isotopically heterogeneous lower crustal source or, more likely, from contamination of the granitic magma derived from a lower crustal source during prolonged residence at upper crustal levels.

  19. Amphiboles from the kyanite-garnet amphibolite in the Tonaru metagabbro mass, Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku, Japan


    カビール, エムデイ ファズレー; 高須, 晃; 松浦, 弘明; 蔵谷, 樹


    The Tonaru metagabbro mass occurs as a large lenticular body in the highest-grade (oligoclase-biotite zone) portions of the Sambagawa schists in the Besshi district. The Tonaru mass consists of diopside amphibolite and garnet-epidote amphibolite accompanied by small amounts of eclogite and marble. Kyanite-garnet amphibolites from the Tonaru metagabbro mass are composed of amphibole (calcic-amphibole; magnesiohornblende, actinolite, tremolite and tschermakite), zoisite, kyanite, garnet, phengi...

  20. Geochronology and Tectonic Evolution of the Lincang Batholith in Southwestern Yunnan, China


    Hongyuan Zhang; Junlai Liu; Wenbin Wu


    Geochronological research of the Lincang Batholith is one key scientific problem to discuss the tectonic evolution of the Tethys. Two granitic specimens were selected from the Mengku-Douge area in the Lincang Batholith to perform the LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb dating based on thorough review of petrological, geochemical, and geochronological data by the former scientists. Rock-forming age data of biotite granite specimen from Kunsai is about 220 Ma, the Norian age. However, the west sample from Men...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20082178 Cheng Liangjuan(College of Re- sources and Environmental Sciences,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095, China);Li Fuchun Adsorption of Silicate Bacteria on Surface of Orthoclase and Biotite and Its Selectivity(Geological Journal of Chi- na Universities,ISSN1006—7493,CN32—1440/P,13 (4),2007,p.669—674,4 illus.,21 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:silicates,bacteria

  2. Behavior of Cs in Grimsel granodiorite. Sorption on main minerals and crushed rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muuri, Eveliina; Ikonen, Jussi; Matara-aho, Minja; Voutilainen, Mikko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Holgersson, Stellan [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry; Martin, Andrew [Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste), Wettingen (Switzerland)


    In this study the sorption of cesium was investigated on four different minerals; quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and biotite as well as granodiorite obtained from the Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The experiments were conducted in the presence of the weakly saline Grimsel groundwater simulant by determining the distribution coefficients using batch sorption experiments and PHREEQC-modelling across a large concentration range. In addition, the purity of the minerals was measured by XRD and the specific surface areas by BET method using krypton. The distribution coefficients of cesium were largest on biotite (0.304±0.005 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M). Furthermore, the sorption of cesium on quartz was found to be negligibly small in all investigated concentrations and the sorption of cesium on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar behavior against a concentration isotherm with distribution coefficients of 0.0368±0.0004 m{sup 3}/kg and 0.18±0.04 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. Finally, cesium sorption behavior on crushed granodiorite followed the trend of one of its most abundant mineral, plagioclase with distribution coefficient values of 0.107±0.003 m{sup 3}/kg in 10{sup -8} M. At low concentrations (<1.0.10{sup -6} M) cesium was sorbed on the frayed edge sites of biotite and once these sites are fully occupied cesium sorbs additionally to the Type II and Planar sites. As a consequence, the sorption of cesium on biotite is decreased at concentrations >1.0.10{sup -6} M. Secondly cesium sorption on potassium feldspar and plagioclase showed similar non-linear behavior with varying concentration. The results were used to assist the interpretation of cesium diffusion process in the 2.5 year in-situ experiment carried out in the underground laboratory at Grimsel test site in Switzerland (2007-2009).

  3. Does numerical modelling of apparent partial loss Ar/Ar age spectra of hornblende give the correct thermal history of terranes? Insights from the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola orogen (Russia) (United States)

    de Jong, K.


    We investigate the validity of numerical modelling of hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age spectra obtained from the same sample by step-heating with: 1) a defocused laser on 1.5 mm diameter discs micro-sampled from polished petrographic thin sections with a microscope-mounted drill, and 2) a resistance-heated furnace using handpicked mineral separate. Micro-sampling enables to obtain parts of mineral grains without zoning or included phases from targeted sites. Three samples were analysed: a tonalitic gneiss and a biotite-bearing amphibolite, from the same outcrop-1, and a biotite-free amphibolite from neighbouring outcrop-2. The material is from the Neoarchaean Murmansk terrane in the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. Hornblendes from the biotite-bearing gneiss and amphibolite (outcrop-1) yielded 40Ar/39Ar age spectra with progressively increasing step ages, whereas the biotite-free amphibole (outcrop-2) gave flat age spectra for both drilled disc and separate. These so-called staircase-type age spectra have been classically interpreted by partial loss of radiogenic argon by diffusion processes during younger thermal reworking. We applied numerical modelling tools (Double-Pulse, MacArgon) based on diffusion theory and that assume thermally activated loss of radiogenic Ar from so-called lower retentive lattice sites by solid-state volume diffusion. Modelling results suggest that staircase-shaped age spectra of our Neoarchaean hornblende are due to argon losses of 40-50% during reheating to 450 ± 25° C in Palaeoproterozoic time, and that flat spectra imply a thermally undisturbed Neoarchaean isotope system. These results would imply that neighbouring samples would have experienced sharply contrasting thermal histories. Hornblende with apparent partial loss age spectra is exclusively obtained from samples in which

  4. Heavy minerals and provenance of the paleozoic suffi formation, Western desert, iraq.


    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي الجبوري; Hassan, Zeki M.


    Heavy minerals analyses were carried out on 10 samples from the clastic Suffi Formation (the Ordovician-Carboniferous unit in the western Iraqi desert). The suite of minerals consists mainly of opaque minerals including pyrite, ilmenite, magnetite and hematite and the non-opaques is represented by zircon, tourmaline, cutile, garnet, epidote, kyanite, staurolite, leucoxene, chlorite and biotite. The nature and occurrence of the above heavy minerals association reflect a source area of the crys...

  5. K/Ar chronologies of tephra units from the Middle Jurassic Sundance, and Late Early Cretaceous Mowry and Shell Creek Formations, Big Horn Basin, WY (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Meyer, E. E.; Johnson, G. D.


    The Middle Jurassic Sundance and Late Early Cretaceous Shell Creek and Mowry Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, contain an extensive record of altered tephra. These tephra are likely related to contemporary volcanic activity in the Sierra Nevada and various Coast Range terranes to the west and provide valuable chronometric control on the sedimentary record within a portion of the Sevier-aged and later Cordilleran foreland basin. In addition, several of these altered tephra (bentonites) provide a valuable economic resource. Despite the prominence of these strata across the basin, few isotopic ages have been reported to date. Here we present new K/Ar ages on biotite phenocrysts from those tephra occurrences as a chronometric check on samples that contained zircons with significant Pb loss, that preclude more precise U/Pb age determinations. A bulk biotite sample extracted from an altered tuff in the Lower Sundance Formation gives an age of 167.5 × 5 Ma. This tuff occurs just above a dinosaur track-bearing peritidal sequence. Bulk biotite ages from the lower Shell Creek Formation give an age of 100.3 × 3 Ma and are statistically indistinguishable from biotite grains dated at 103.1 × 3 Ma extracted from the economically important 'Clay Spur' bentonite found at the top of the Mowry Shale. This work provides important new chronometric constraints on a portion of the Medial Jurassic to Late Early Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, and may be useful in understanding the regional tectonics that helped shape the development of the Sevier foreland basin and Western Interior Seaway.

  6. Fluid induced microstructures in granulites from the Reynolds Range, central Australia (United States)

    Prent, Alexander; Beinlich, Andreas; Raimondo, Tom; Putnis, Andrew


    Fluids play a major role in the evolution of the Earth's crust, driving metamorphic reactions, facilitating transport of mass and heat, and changing the physical properties of rock. Shear zones present in intraplate orogens are ideal natural laboratories to study the relationship of fluid-driven rock weakening to deformation, and thus the impact of fluid availability on the tectonic reworking of continental interiors. Here we present preliminary observations from the Aileron Shear Zone (ASZ), Reynolds Range, central Australia, a major crustal-scale thrust of the Palaeozoic Alice Springs Orogen (ASO). This study focuses on the effects of fluids on the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of deep crustal rocks collected from a transect running through the ASZ. The ASZ is thought to have been of major importance during exhumation of the ASO, and exhumes a partly retrogressed suite of felsic and metasedimentary granulite facies gneisses. Hydration reactions associated with retrogression resulted in the partial replacement of orthopyroxene and numerous myrmekite textures associated with plagioclase and mica. In undeformed samples, orthopyroxene (En56 Fer44) rims are partly replaced by a zoned sequence of biotite (Phl70 Ann30), sub-parallel rims of magnetite, biotite and K-feldspar (Or87). Deformed samples gradually show an increase in dynamic recrystallization of quartz, with fully recrystallized bands of foam texture quartz defining the foliation together with biotite. Quartz and minor biotite replacement then dominates the mineral assemblage with increasing strain. The presence of fluid-driven mineral replacement reactions in undeformed samples suggests that hydration predates shearing and exhumation, and furthermore, that strain may have been localised in areas of intense hydration and rock weakening. Retrograde reactions and myrmekite textures suggest the availability of a silica-saturated fluid. Additional mass-balance calculations will be applied to constrain the

  7. Obtaining Unique, Comprehensive Deep Seismic Sounding Data Sets for CTBT Monitoring and Broad Seismological Studies (United States)


    southeast along the granulite belt in the Belomorian (White Sea) megablock. There were no records from the White Sea area from the Quartz profile. The...and garnet- biotite gneisses, amphibolites, and amphibolitic gneisses. Metamorphism corresponds to amphibolite and partly granulite facies...conditions. Dating giving an age of 3,300 Ma was obtained for crystalline schists of granulite facies. This is regarded as the age of the earliest

  8. LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of Longxianggai pluton in Dachang of Guangxi and its geological significance.%广西大厂笼箱盖复式岩体的LA-MC-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁婷; 王登红; 侯可军; 李华芹; 黄惠明; 蔡明海; 王东明


    The Longxianggai pluton is a multiple-intruded in the middle of the Dachang ore field of Guangxi. Although the former researchers had carried out some dating on the rock intruded in some stages, so far systematic chronology study about its multi-stage magmatic intrusions has not done. Based on analyzing the interior structures of zircons by the CL technology, in-situ zircon U-Pb dating was performed with LA-MC-ICP-MS and reliable 2O6 Pb/238 U age data in fine-grained zircon were obtained. The results show that Longxianggai pluton was formed in three staged, that is, 103. 8 ~ 102Ma,96. 6-93. 86Ma and 91 -85. Ima, and 96. 6 ~93. 86Ma is the main magmatic period. In the first stage, medium-fine-grained biotite granite with porphyritic (96. 6 ±2. 5Ma) and fine-grained biotite granite with porphyritic (94.3 ±2. 2Ma) was formed. In the second stage, medium-fine-grained equigranular biotite granite (96. 1 ±2. Oma). In the third stage, the porphyraceous biotite granite (93. 86 ±0. 84Ma) was formed. The boundary between the rocks is clear and has no chilled margin, which indicates that magmatism forming Longxiagngai pluton is a continuous pulse process. The formation of zinc-copper ore body and tin-polymetallic ore body is closely related with the second magmatic period of the Longxianggai pluton and the mineralization process was completed in a short time. This information period of the Longxianggai pluton is the same as the large-scale mineralization of 110 ~ 80Ma in eastern China, and its digenesis and mineralization may be related to lithosphere extension.

  9. Sorption and desorption of cesium on rapakivi granite and its minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitti, T.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    Batch sorption experiments of cesium were performed for rapakivi granite and its main minerals, and also for some fracture minerals. The main minerals quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende were magnetically separated from crushed rapakivi granite. The fracture minerals were chlorite, dolomite and kaolinite. Sorption was studied in fresh and saline reference waters containing cesium in the range of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -3} mol/l. The distribution ratios for rapakivi granite generally decreased with an increasing Cs concentration and an increasing ionic strength. For fresh rapakivi granite, the sorption behaviour was rather complex in both fresh and saline reference waters, being complex for the other alteration stages only in saline water. Sorption increased unexpectedly when the initial cesium concentration was raised to 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4} mol/l. The sorption on rapakivi granite was non-linear, especially in saline water. Sorption was reversible for rapakivi granite. The sorption on the minerals proved to be very non-linear, especially on biotite. Sorption was also reversible for biotite and kaolinite. For the other minerals, sorption was irreversible to some degree. As to the sorption of cesium investigated by studying thin sections of rapakivi granite and their autoradiograms, the most dominating mineral was biotite. The water analyses made during the sorption experiment revealed the exchange of potassium and cesium. The corresponding changes were difficult to detect in saline water. Calculation of the R{sub d} values for the rock, based on the R{sub d} values of minerals and the portions of minerals in the rock, yielded smaller distribution ratios than the values determined for the rock. (orig.)

  10. Silicification of pelitic schist in the Iwakuni-Yanai area of the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan: Origin of competent layers in the deep crust (United States)

    Terabayashi, M.; Yamamoto, H.


    Bright-layer reflections have been imaged at about 15-20 km depth in fore-arc region of southwest Japan, and most of the epicenter distributes above the bright-layer (Ito, 1999). To understand the cause of a seismic bright-layer with the mechanism of large inland earthquake, we studied the low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan. The Ryoke belt in the Iwakuni-Yanai area is underlain by Jurassic accretionary complex and their metamorphosed equivalents. They were intruded by Cretaceous granitic rocks. Five metamorphic zones can be difined by mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks as a regional metamorphism before the intrusion; chlorite, chlorite-biotite, biotite, cordierite and sillimanite zones from north to south (Ikeda, 1993). Silicified rocks have been found in pelitic schist of the biotite zone and northernmost part of the cordierite zone. The pelitic schist is dark in color but silicification turned it to be pale gray or milky white. Silicified pelitic schist is mainly composed of fine-grained quartz and minor muscovite and biotite. The silicified pelitic schist forms layers or lenticular bodies several to fifty meters in thickness. The boundary between silicified rock layer and underlying pelitic schist is fairly distinct but that between the overlying pelitic schist is gradual. Quartz veins crossing high angles with schistosity were preferentially developed in the silicified rock layers, while schistosity-parallel quartz veins, which underwent plastic flow, were observed in the pelitic schist. En echelon quartz vein and fishnet-like quartz veins are characteristic of silicified rock layers. This mode of occurrence of quartz veins indicates competence of silicified rock layers relative to pelitic schist. Rock boundary with high competence contrast is probably a good reflector of seismic waves. Bright-layer reflections would arise from silicified rock layers if those are distributed in the deep crust to a considerable extent.

  11. The Landforms of Granitic Rocks: An Annotated Bibliography (United States)


    rock faces develop on granitic inselbergs; and 4) old age : pediments are dominant in the landscape, relief is low, tors develop as residu- als in...scale. The rock is a coarse-grained, biotite-hornbleade granite, forms tors and is post- tectonic and late Hercynian in age . The climate is humid...source of the salts. Brook, G. A. 1978. A new approach to the study of inselberg landscapes. Zeitschrift fir Geo- morphologie , Supplement 31, pp. 138

  12. Post-collisional magmatism: Consequences of UHPM terrane exhumation and orogen collapse, N. Qaidam UHPM belt, NW China (United States)

    Wang, Mengjue; Song, Shuguang; Niu, Yaoling; Su, Li


    Exhumation of subducted slabs and extensional collapse of orogens are the main tectonic processes in ancient and modern continental collisional zones. Magmatism during these two processes may play important roles in understanding reworking and growth of the continental crust. We report here that a series of plutonic magmas, including intrusions of two-mica granite, tonalite, granodiorite, biotite monzogranite, porphyritic biotite granite and diorite, as well as contemporaneous mafic dykes, have been recognized in Dulan eclogite-bearing terrane, the North Qaidam ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt. The magmatism represented by these plutons is temporally ~ 20-30 million years (Mys) younger than the UHPM age, lasting for ~ 40 Mys and derived from different sources with different mechanisms. The magmatism was initiated by exhumation of UHPM terranes during which strongly-peraluminous two-mica granite and metaluminous tonalite were produced respectively by decompression melting of the exhumed UHPM upper and lower continental crust, respectively. The genesis of mafic magmatic enclave (MME)-hosting granodiorite with a clear hybrid signature and coeval biotite monzogranite reflected the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle by extension of lithosphere during the orogen collapse. It was induced by detachment of the subducted lithospheric mantle, which then brought heat and mantle material into continental crust and triggered the partial melting of the exhumed UHPM continental crust, and gave rise to mixing of crustal and mantle melts. Porphyritic biotite granite reflects a late melting event of continental crust. Diorite marked by high magnesium content represents mantle melts with slight crustal contamination, which implies that the orogen has been unrooted and collapsed completely. The post-collisional magmatism of the North Qaidam belt provides an improved understanding for the late thermal and tectonic evolution of a UHPM continental collision zone.

  13. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

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    Breiter Karel


    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  14. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd study of granite-charnockite association in the Pudukkottai region and the link between metamorphism and magmatism in the Madurai Block (United States)

    Sekaran, M. Chandra; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Balakrishnan, S.


    Pudukkottai region in the northeastern part of the Madurai Block exposes the garnetiferous pink granite that intruded the biotite gneiss. Charnockite patches are associated with both the rock types. Rb-Sr biotite and Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron ages indicate a regional uplift and cooling at ˜550 Ma. The initial Nd isotope ratios (\\varepsilon _{ {Nd}}t=-20 to -22) and Nd depleted-mantle model ages (TDM = 2.25 to 2.79 Ga) indicate a common crustal source for the pink-granite and associated charnockite, while the biotite gneiss and the charnockite within it represent an older crustal source (\\varepsilon _{ {Nd}}t= -29 and TDM = > 3.2 Ga). The Rb-Sr whole-rock data and initial Sr-Nd isotope ratios also help demonstrate the partial but systematic equilibration of Sr isotope and Rb/Sr ratios during metamorphic mineral-reactions resulting in an `apparent whole-rock isochron'. The available geochronological results from the Madurai Block indicate four major periods of magmatism and metamorphism: Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, mid-Neoproterozoic and late-Neoproterozoic. We suggest that the high-grade and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preceded by magmatism which `prepared' the residual crust to sustain the high P- T conditions. There also appears to be cyclicity in the tectono-magmatic events and an evolutionary model for the Madurai Block should account for the cyclicity in the preserved records.

  15. A method for intercalibration of U-Th-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar ages in the Phanerozoic (United States)

    Villeneuve, Mike; Sandeman, Hamish A.; Davis, William J.


    The increasing analytical precision of 40Ar- 39Ar geochronological data and its use in studies that combine U-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar data has necessitated derivation of a means to intercalibrate ages between the two isotopic systems. The primary determinants inhibiting accurate cross calibration are uncertainty in decay constant values and uncertainty in 40Ar∗/ 40K (usually presented as apparent age) for 40Ar- 39Ar standards, notably those derived from the Fish Canyon Tuff. By utilizing a monazite- and biotite bearing Oligocene ash flow tuff (MAC-83) as the primary standard material, precise U-Th-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar ages can be derived. Because both isotopic systems should reflect closure during the instantaneous eruption event, the 24.21 ± 0.10 Ma 207Pb/ 235U age should match the age resulting from 40Ar- 39Ar biotite analysis. This forced equivalence will partly offset the effects of decay constant uncertainty. Furthermore, by co-irradiating Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine with MAC-83 biotite, the apparent age for Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine is back-calculated to 27.98 ± 0.15 Ma, relative to the MAC-83 207Pb/ 235U age. Hence, intercalibration between the two isotopic systems in a relative sense can be accomplished, allowing for a direct and valid comparison of ages. It is also shown that forcing equivalence of the two isotopic systems minimizes the effect of decay constant uncertainty for samples of Phanerozoic age.

  16. Oxygen isotope, fluid inclusion, microprobe and petrographic studies of the preCambrian granites from the southern Wind River range and the Granite Mountains, central Wyoming, U.S.A.: Constraints on origin, hydrothermal alteration and uranium genesis (United States)

    Cheang, K. K.

    The Granite Mountain is comprised of the granite of Long Creek Mountain and the volumetrically dominant granite of Lankin Dome. Average delta 018 O values in per mil deg/00 of the granite of Long Creek Mountain is 8.2 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 4) and average delta 018 8.5 + or - -0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), values of the two phases from the granite of Lankin Dome are: biotite granites = delta 018 8.5 + or 0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), leucocratic graphite = 8.4 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 12). The average delta 018 values for Louis Lake Batholith are: hornblende-biotite granodiorite = 7.3 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 13) and leucocratic biotite granite = 7.7 + or - 0.1 deg/00 (N = 6). It is concluded from the whole rock oxygen isotopic, mineralogical, chemical and strontium isotopic data that the unaltered granites in the Granite Mountains were probably derived from a uranium enriched source with some peraluminous metasedimentary component which favoured the preconcentration of uranium and thorium, whereas the Louis Lake Batholith was formed by partial melting of igneous source materials that are not strongly enriched in uranium.

  17. Polychronous (Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene) emplacement of the Mundwara alkaline complex, Rajasthan, India: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, petrochemistry and geodynamics (United States)

    Pande, Kanchan; Cucciniello, Ciro; Sheth, Hetu; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Purohit, Ritesh; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Shinde, Sapna


    The Mundwara alkaline plutonic complex (Rajasthan, north-western India) is considered a part of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Deccan Traps flood basalt province, based on geochronological data (mainly 40Ar/39Ar, on whole rocks, biotite and hornblende). We have studied the petrology and mineral chemistry of some Mundwara mafic rocks containing mica and amphibole. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement of the complex at middle to upper crustal levels. We have obtained new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 80-84 Ma on biotite separates from mafic rocks and 102-110 Ma on whole-rock nepheline syenites. There is no evidence for excess 40Ar. The combined results show that some of the constituent intrusions of the Mundwara complex are of Deccan age, but others are older and unrelated to the Deccan Traps. The Mundwara alkaline complex is thus polychronous and similar to many alkaline complexes around the world that show recurrent magmatism, sometimes over hundreds of millions of years. The primary biotite and amphibole in Mundwara mafic rocks indicate hydrous parental magmas, derived from hydrated mantle peridotite at relatively low temperatures, thus ruling out a mantle plume. This hydration and metasomatism of the Rajasthan lithospheric mantle may have occurred during Jurassic subduction under Gondwanaland, or Precambrian subduction events. Low-degree decompression melting of this old, enriched lithospheric mantle, due to periodic diffuse lithospheric extension, gradually built the Mundwara complex from the Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene time.

  18. The chemical, mechanical, and hydrological evolution of weathering granitoid (United States)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.; Hilley, George E.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Moon, Seulgi; Olson, Christopher A.


    Surprisingly few studies connect the chemical, mechanical, and hydrological evolution of rock as it weathers to saprolite and soil. We assess this coevolution in granodiorite from Monterey Peninsula, California, by measuring changes in bulk chemistry, mineralogy, volumetric strain, the oxidation state of Fe in biotite crystals, tensile strength, abrasion rate, connected porosity, and hydraulic conductivity in samples covering a range of weathering grades. We identify the oxidative dissolution of biotite as the key chemical reaction because of the volumetric expansion that accompanies formation of altered biotite and precipitation of ferrihydrite. We show how the associated accumulation of elastic strain produces an energy density that is sufficient to support rock fracturing over length scales equivalent to constituent crystals. The resulting intragranular and intergranular cracking profoundly reduces tensile strength and increases the abrasion rate, connected porosity, and hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix. These changes increase the rate of plagioclase weathering, and ultimately the rock disintegrates into grus and clay. Major changes in rock properties can occur with only minor element leaching, and the threshold behavior of weathering that arises from the coevolution of chemical, hydrological, and mechanical properties may be difficult to capture using simplified weathering models that fail to incorporate these properties. Our results, which combine the mechanical and hydrological evolution of weathering rock with more common measurements of chemical changes, should help to more accurately model the effects of, and mechanical and hydrological feedbacks upon, chemical weathering of rock.

  19. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins (United States)

    Volkert, R.A.


    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  20. Geochemistry and 207Pb/ 206Pb zircon ages of granitoids from the southern portion of the Tamboril-Santa Quitéria granitic-migmatitic complex, Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province (NE Brazil) (United States)

    de Araujo, Carlos E. G.; Costa, Felipe G.; Pinéo, Tercyo R. G.; Cavalcante, José C.; Moura, Candido A. V.


    The Tamboril-Santa Quitéria Complex is an important Neoproterozoic granitic-migmatitic unit from the Ceará Central Domain that developed from ca. 650 to 610 Ma. In general the granitoids range in composition from diorite to granite with predominance (up to 85%) of granitic to monzogranitic composition with biotite as the main mafic AFM phase. Geochemical and 207Pb/ 206Pb evaporation zircon geochronology studies were applied in a group of these abundant monzogranitic rocks from the region of Novo Oriente in the southern portion of the Ceará Central Domain. In this area the granitoids are weakly peraluminous biotite granitoids and deformed biotite granitoids of high-K calc-alkaline and ferroan composition, which we interpreted as primary magmas (segregated diatexites) derived from the partial melting of crustal material. The close temporal relation of this magmatism with local eclogitic and regional high temperature metamorphism in Ceará Central Domain point out to an orogenic setting, arguably emplaced during the collisional stage. Subordinate coeval juvenile mantle incursions are also present. This crustally derived magmatism is the primary product of the continental thickening that resulted from the collision between the rocks represented by the Amazonian-West African craton (São Luiz cratonic fragment) to the northwest and the Paleoproterozoic-Archean basement of the Borborema Province to the southeast along the Transbrasiliano tectonic corridor.

  1. A study of small-scale foliation in lengths of core enclosing fault zones in borehole WD-3, Permit Area D, Lac du Bonnet Batholith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejeckam, R.B.


    Small-scale foliation measurements in lengths of core from borehole WD-3 of Permit Area D of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith have defined five major mean orientation sets. They strike NW, N and NE. The orientations (strike to the left of the dip direction/dip) of these sets are as follows: Set I - 028/74 deg; II - 001/66 deg; III - 100/58 deg; IV - 076/83 deg; and V - 210/40 deg. The small-scale foliations were defined by different mineral types such as biotite crystals, plagioclase, mineral banding and quartz lenses. Well-developed biotite foliation is commonly present whenever well-developed plagioclase foliation exists, but as the strength of development weakens, the preferred orientations of plagioclase foliation do not correspond to those of biotite. It is also noted that the foliations appear to strike in directions orthogonal to the fractures in the fracture zones in the same depth interval. No significant change in foliation orientation was observed in Zones I to IV. Set V, however, whose mean orientation is 210/40 deg, is absent from the Zone IV interval, ranging from 872 to 905 m. (auth)

  2. Metamorphism of the Basement of the Qilian Fold Belt in the Minhe-Ledu Area, Qinghai Province, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金郎; 魏光华; 王庆树


    The basement of the central Qilian fold belt exposed along the Minhe-Ledu highway consists of psammiticschists, metabasitic rocks, and crystalline limestone. Migmatitic rocks occur sporadically among psammitic schist andmetabasitic rocks. The mineral assemblage of psammitic schist is muscovite + biotite + feldspar + quartz + tourmaline ±titanite ± sillimanite and that of metabasitic rocks is amphibole + plagioclase + biotite ± apatite ± magnetite ± pyroxene ±garnet ± quartz. The migmatitic rock consists of leucosome and restite of various volume proportions; the former consistsof muscovite + alkaline feldspar + quartz ± garnet ± plagioclase while the latter is either fragments of psammitic schist orthose of metabasitic rock. The crystalline limestone consists of calcite that has been partly replaced by olivine. The olivinewas subsequently altered to serpentine. Weak deformations as indicated by cleavages and fractures were imposed promi-nently on the psammitic schists, occasionally on metabasitic rocks, but not on migmatitic rocks. The basement experiencedmetamorphism up to temperature 606-778C and pressure 4.8-6.1 kbar (0.48-0.61 GPa), equivalent to amphibolite-granulite facies. The peak of the metamorphism is marked by a migmatization which occurred at several localities alongthe studied route 587-535 Ma ago. The basement also recorded a retrograde metamorphism of greenschist facies, duringwhich biotite, garnet, amphibole, and pyroxene were partly altered to chlorite.

  3. The role of clay minerals in the reduction of nitrate in groundwater by zero-valent iron. (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Chon, Chul-Min; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kim, Yongje; Khan, Moonis Ali; Song, Hocheol


    Bench-scale batch experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of using different types of clay minerals (bentonite, fuller's earth, and biotite) with zero-valent iron for their potential utility in enhancing nitrate reduction and ammonium control. Kinetics experiments performed with deionized water (DW) and groundwater (GW) revealed nitrate reduction by Fe(0) proceeded at significantly faster rate in GW than in DW, and such a difference was attributed to the formation of green rust in GW. The amendment of the minerals at the dose of 25 g L(-1) in Fe(0) reaction in GW resulted in approximately 41%, 43%, and 33% more removal of nitrate in 64 h reaction for bentonite, fuller's earth, and biotite, respectively, compared to Fe(0) alone reaction. The presumed role of the minerals in the rate enhancement was to provide sites for the formation of surface bound green rust. Bentonite and fuller's earth also effectively removed ammonium produced from nitrate reduction by adsorption, with the removal efficiencies significantly increased with the increase in mineral dose above 5:1 Fe(0) to mineral mass ratio. Such a removal of ammonium was not observed for biotite, presumably due to its lack of swelling property. Equilibrium adsorption experiments indicated bentonite and fuller's earth had maximum ammonium adsorption capacity of 5.6 and 2.1 mg g(-1), respectively.

  4. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

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    Ekaterina Ivanova


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

  5. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima. (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro


    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the (137)Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of (137)Cs (10(-11) ~ 10(-9 )molL(-1) of (137)Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed "weathered biotite" (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed (137)Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of (137)Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed (137)Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  6. Field Features And Mode Of Emplacement Of Pegmatites Of Keffi Area North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into 1 Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and 2 Granitoids orthogneisses hosted pegmatites and the granites into 1 the Bakin Ayini biotite granites 2 the Angwan Madugu biotite-muscovite granites and 3 the Sabongida biotite-muscovite granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from 400-2000m and 2-20m respectively some are huge isolated sill-like and flat-lying whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow ranging in length 40-1000m and width 1-4m crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones which suggest passive emplacement

  7. Preliminary thermal expansion screening data for tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A.R.


    A major variable in evaluating the potential of silicic tuffs for use in geologic disposal of heat-producing nuclear wastes is thermal expansion. Results of ambient-pressure linear expansion measurements on a group of tuffs that vary treatly in porosity and mineralogy are presente here. Thermal expansion of devitrified welded tuffs is generally linear with increasing temperature and independent of both porosity and heating rate. Mineralogic factors affecting behavior of these tuffs are limited to the presence or absence of cristobalite and altered biotite. The presence of cristobalite results in markedly nonlinear expansion above 200{sup 0}C. If biotite in biotite-hearing rocks alters even slightly to expandable clays, the behavior of these tuffs near the boiling point of water can be dominated by contraction of the expandable phase. Expansion of both high- and low-porosity tuffs containing hydrated silicic glass and/or expandable clays is complex. The behavior of these rocks appears to be completely dominated by dehydration of hydrous phases and, hence, should be critically dependent on fluid pressure. Valid extrapolation of the ambient-pressure results presented here to depths of interest for construction of a nuclear-waste repository will depend on a good understanding of the interaction of dehydration rates and fluid pressures, and of the effects of both micro- and macrofractures on the response of tuff masss.

  8. Metamorphism of cordierite gneisses from Eastern Ghat Granulite Terrain, Andhra Pradesh, South India (United States)

    Murthy, D. S. N.; Charan, S. Nirmal


    Cordierite-bearing metapelites of the Eastern Ghat granulite terrain occur in close association of Khondalites, quartzites, calc-silicate rocks and charnockites. Rocks occurring between Bobbili in the north and Guntur in the south of Andhra Pradesh are studied. The association of the mineral and textural relationships suggest the following metamorphic reactions: Garnet + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, hypersthene + sillimanite + quartz = cordierite, sillimanite + spinel = cordierite + corundum, and biotite + quartz + sillimanite = cordierite + K=feldspar. Generally the minerals are not chemically zoned except garnet-biotite showing zoning when they come in close contact with one another. The potential thermometers are provided by the Fe-Mg distribution of coexisting biotite-garnet and cordierite-garnet. Conflicting interpretation of the P/T dependence of these reactions involving cordierite are due to H2O in the cordierite. The presence of alkali feldspar-quartz assemblage which is common in these gneisses will be constrained from melting only if H2O activity is less than 0.5. The piezometric array inferred is convex towards the temperature array, indicating a rapid and isothermal crustal uplift probably aided by thrust tectonics.

  9. Discovery of khondalite series from the western segment of Altyn Tagh and their petrological and geochronological studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The khondalite series, which are characterized by aluminum-rich gneisses (schists) consisting of sillimanite-garnet-biotite-monzonite gneiss, garnet-biotite-monzonite gneiss, graphite-sillimanite-biotite schist, and garnet-amphibole two-pyroxene granulites occurring as lenses and layers within gneisses (schists), were discovered in Tula area of western segment of Altyn Tagh. The petrology and geochemistry indicate that the protoliths of aluminum-rich gneisses (schists) are aluminum-rich pelitic and pelitic arenaceous sedimentary rocks, the protoliths of basic granulites are continental tholeiitic basalts. Therefore, the khondalite series may be produced at continental margin. They had suffered granulitic facies metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-850℃ and pressures of 0.8-1.2 GPa. The U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic dating of zircons provided the ages of 447-462 Ma representing the ages of peak granulitic metamorphism. The U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from aluminum-rich gneisses yielded older upper intercept ages which reflect the times of older materials derived from source rocks of the gneiss protoliths.

  10. Discovery of khondalite series from the western segment of Altyn Tagh and their petrological and geochronological studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建新[1; 张泽明[2; 许志琴[3; 杨经绥[4; 崔军文[5


    The khondalite series, which are characterized by aluminum-rich gneisses (schists) consisting of sillimanite-garnet-biotite-monzonite gneiss, garnet-biotite-monzonite gneiss, graphite-sillimanite-biotite schist, and garnet-amphibole two-pyroxene granulites occurring as lenses and layers within gneisses (schists), were discovered in Tula area of western segment of Altyn Tagh. The petrology and geochemistry indicate that the protoliths of aluminum-rich gneisses (schists) are aluminum-rich pelitic and pelitic arenaceous sedimentary rocks, the protoliths of basic granulites are continental tholeiitic basalts. Therefore, the khondalite series may be produced at continental margin. They had suffered granulitic facies metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-850℃ and pressures of 0.8-1.2 GPa. The U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic dating of zircons provided the ages of 447-462 Ma representing the ages of peak granulitic metamorphism. The U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from aluminum-rich gneisses yielded older upper i

  11. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the δ18OQuartz-Feldspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  12. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the Δ18OQuariz-Feidspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  13. Single Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of the Guandimiao and Wawutang Granitic Plutons in Hunan, South China and Its Petrogenetic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weifeng; CHEN Peirong; ZHOU Xinmin; HUANG Hongye; DING Xing; SUN Tao


    The Guandimao and Wawutang plutons are located at the center of Hunan, South China.The former is mainly composed of biotite monzonitic granites/granodiorites and two-mica monzonitic granites, but the latter only consists of biotite monzonitic granites. The zircon ages of 203.0±1.6 Ma (biotite monzonitic granites) and 208.0±3.2 Ma (two-mica monzonitic granites) for the Guandimao pluton and 204±3 Ma for the Wawutang pluton obtained with the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicate that they were formed during the late Indosinian. In consideration of other geochronological data from Indosinlan rocks of South China and adjacent regions, it is inferred that the two plutons were derived from crustal materials by decompressional melting in a post-collisional tectonic setting during spontaneous thinning of the thickened curst. Moreover, the inherited zircon age of 1273±k57 Ma from the Wawutang pluton indicates that the source of the two plutons is related to the early Proterozoic crustal basement.

  14. Petrology of metabasites in the south of Arousan, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat


    Full Text Available Metagabbro, metadiabase and metabasalt of the Chah Palang and Me'raji mountains associated with Lower Paleozoic metamorphites are situated in the south of Arousan. Metabasites of these areas are relatively similar in terms of mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. Rock-forming minerals of the Me'raji metabasites are feldspar, amphibole, biotite, sphene, epidote, chlorite ± calcite. Metagabbro and metadiabase of the Chah Palang area are similar to the Me'raji metabasites in mineralogy and geochemistry. Volcanic rocks are overlain by metagabbros and consist of plagioclase, biotite, sphene, sanidine, chlorite, epidote and iron oxides. The rigid dykes, which are found in the volcanic units are associated with metagabbros and mineralogically are similar to the metavolcanics. Amphibolitic dykes are composed of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with preferred orientation. Metabasites show limited range of differentiation. Me'raji metabasites are basalt and trachy-basalt in composition, whereas the Chah Palang ones present basalt and trachy-basalt composition. Similar to metabasites of the other parts of Iran, the studied basic rocks demonstrate alkaline to transitional chemical characteristic and are formed in an extensional environment by low-degree partial melting of a garnet-spinel peridotite. Metamorphic episodes have changed the studied rocks to amphibolite and greenschist, but the primitive igneous textures are preserved.

  15. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia (United States)

    Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James


    The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. δ34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2

  16. The petrogenesis of the Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Lower plate post-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England (United States)

    Simons, B.; Shail, Robin K.; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.


    The Early Permian Cornubian Batholith was generated during an extensional regime following Variscan convergence within the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England. Its component granites can be classified, using mineralogical, textural and geochemical criteria, into five main types, all of which are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1): G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz). G1 granites formed through up to 20% muscovite and minor biotite dehydration melting of a metagreywacke source at moderate temperatures and pressures (731-806 °C, > 5 kbar). Younger G3 granites formed through higher temperature, lower pressure (768-847 °C, < 4 kbar) biotite-dominated melting of a similar source. Partial melting was strongly influenced by the progressive lower-mid crustal emplacement of mafic igneous rocks during post-Variscan extension and a minor (< 5%-10%) mantle-derived component in the granites is possible. Two distinct fractionation series, G1-G2 and G3-G4, are defined using whole-rock geochemical and mineral chemical data. Variations in the major elements, Ba, Sr and Rb indicate that G1 and G3 granites underwent 15%-30% fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, alkali feldspar and biotite to form more evolved G2 and G4 granites, respectively. Decreasing whole-rock abundances of Zr, Th and REE support the fractionation of zircon, monazite, apatite and allanite. Subsolidus alteration in G2 and G4 granites is indicated by non-primary muscovite and tourmaline and modification of major and trace element trends for G3-G4 granites, particularly for P2O5 and Rb. Topaz (G5) granites show low Zr, REE and extreme enrichment in Rb (up to 1530 ppm) and Nb (79 ppm) that cannot be related in a straightforward manner to continued differentiation of the G1-G2 or G3-G4 series. Instead, they are considered to represent partial melting, mediated by granulite facies fluids, of a biotite-rich restite following extraction of G1 and/or G3 magmas; they do

  17. Geology and ore deposits of the Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colorado (United States)

    Harrison, J.E.; Wells, J.D.


    The Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colo., forms part of the Front Range mineral belt, which is a northeast-trending belt of coextensive porphyry intrusive rocks and hydrothermal veins of Tertiary age. More than $4.5 million worth of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium was produced from the mines in the area between 1859 and 1954. This investigation was made by the Geological survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The bedrock in the area is Precambrian and consists of igneous rocks, some of which have been metamorphosed , and metasedimentary rocks. The metasedimentary rocks include biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss that is locally garnetiferous, sillimanitic biotite-quartz gneiss, amphibolite, and lime-silicate gneiss. Rocks that may be metasedimentary or meta-igneous are quartz monzonite gneiss and granite gneiss and pegmatite. The granite gneiss and pegmatite locally form a migmatite with the biotitic metasedimentary rocks. These older rocks have been intruded by granodiorite, quartz, and granite pegmatite. During Tertiary time the Precambrian rocks were invaded by dikes and plugs of quartz monzonite porphyry, alaskite porphyry, granite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, bostonite and garnetiferous bostonite porphyry, quartz bostonite porphyry, trachytic granite porphyry, and biotite-quartz latite-porphyry. Solifluction debris of Wisconsin age forms sheets filling some of the high basins, covering some of the steep slopes, and filling parts of some of the valleys; talus and talus slides of Wisconsin age rest of or are mixed with solifluction debris in some of the high basins. Recent and/or Pleistocene alluvium is present along valley flats of the larger streams and gulches. Two periods of Precambrian folding can be recognized in the area. The older folding crumpled the metasedimentary rocks into a series of upright and overturned north-northeast plunging anticlines and synclines. Quartz monzonite

  18. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA (United States)

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.


    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblende±biotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclase±biotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartz±plagioclase±muscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with

  19. CO2-Brine-Iron-bearing Clay Mineral Interactions: Surface Area Changes and Fracture-Filling Potentials in Geologic CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.


    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) is a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. The injected CO2 in GCS sites can induce dissolution of rocks and secondary mineral formation, potentially change the physical properties of the geological formations, and thus influence the transport and injectivity of CO2. However, most of the relevant studies are based on hydrological transport, using simulation models rather than studying actual interfacial chemical reactions. The mechanisms and kinetics of interfacial reactions among supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock surfaces at the molecular scale and their impacts on CO2 leakage have not been well understood. This research investigated the effects of various environmental factors (such as temperature, pressure, salinity, and different metal ion and organic-containing brine) on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of clay minerals. In this work, iron-bearing clay mineral, biotite [K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2], was used for model clay minerals in potential GCS sites. Both fluid/solid chemistry analysis and interfacial topographic studies were conducted to investigate the dissolution/precipitation on clay mineral surfaces under GCS conditions in high salinity systems. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interfacial surface morphology changes were observed. Shortly after a CO2 pressure of 102 atm is applied at 95oC, in situ pH of solutions was 3.15 ± 0.10. The early intrinsic dissolution rates of biotite were 8.4 ± 2.8 × 10-13 and 11.2 ± 3.0 × 10-13 mol Si m-2s-1 in water and NaCl solution, respectively. At the early stage of reaction, fast growth of fibrous illite on biotite basal planes was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surfaced. Later, the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed

  20. Mesoproterozoic suturing of Archean crustal blocks in western peninsular India: Implications for India-Madagascar correlations (United States)

    Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Santosh, M.; Wilde, S. A.; Tsunogae, T.; Itaya, T.; Windley, B. F.; Sajeev, K.


    The Kumta and Mercara suture zones welding together Archean crustal blocks in western peninsular India offer critical insights into Precambrian continental juxtapositions and the crustal evolution of eastern Gondwana. Here we present the results from an integrated study of the structure, geology, petrology, mineral chemistry, metamorphic P-T conditions, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes of metasedimentary rocks from the two sutures. The dominant rocks in the Kumta suture are greenschist- to amphibolite-facies quartz-phengite schist, garnet-biotite schist, chlorite schist, fuchsite schist and marble. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite schist from the Kumta suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 11 kbar at 790 °C, with detrital SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages ranging from 3420 to 2547 Ma, εHf (t) values from - 9.2 to 5.6, and TDMc model ages from 3747 to 2792 Ma. The K-Ar age of phengite from quartz-phengite schist is ca. 1326 Ma and that of biotite from garnet-biotite schist is ca. 1385 Ma, which are interpreted to broadly constrain the timing of metamorphism related to the suturing event. The Mercara suture contains amphibolite- to granulite-facies mylonitic quartzo-feldspathic gneiss, garnet-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss, garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss, garnet-biotite-hornblende gneiss, calc-silicate granulite and metagabbro. The textural relations, mineral chemistry and thermodynamic modelling of garnet-biotite-kyanite-gedrite-cordierite gneiss from the Mercara suture indicate peak metamorphic P-T conditions of ca. 13 kbar at 825 °C, followed by isothermal decompression and cooling. For pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages vary from 3249 to 3045 Ma, εHf (t) values range from - 18.9 to 4.2, and TDMc model ages vary from 4094 to 3314 Ma. The lower intercept age of detrital zircons in the pelitic gneisses from the Mercara suture ranges from 1464 to 1106

  1. Age and Thermal History of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa (United States)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Mundil, R.; Nomade, S.; Merkle, R.


    The Bushveld Complex (BC) is one of the largest, most economically important and well-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world. Despite plentiful radioisotopic studies over the past 30 years, the age and emplacement chronology of the BC are not well-constrained. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar data from the UG-2 chromitite layer yield consistent plateau ages around 2042 Ma (IUGS 1977 constants; 28.02 Ma for FCs here and throughout), implying either a slow cooling rate or systematic error when compared with the available Pb/Pb ages of 2059 to 2061 Ma (Nomade et al., 2004, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 161: 411-420). We are acquiring 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb data to evaluate the rapid emplacement and cooling suggested by petrological and heat-conduction studies (Cawthorn and Walraven, 1998, J. Petrol. 39: 1669-1687). Biotite and hornblende are present as intercumulus phases in gabbros and also in ubiquitous pegmatoid veins cutting the mafic and ultramafic rocks. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results from both the eastern and western limbs of the BC show biotite integrated ages clustering between 2030 and 2050 Ma, slightly older than hornblende plateau ages (2030-2040 Ma). Biotites are locally subject to discordance suggestive of 39Ar recoil redistribution with an interlayer alteration phase; as in other such cases the integrated ages are more consistent and sensible whereas plateau ages are in some cases impossibly old. Biotite from an Fe-rich ultramafic pegmatoid in the western limb (Karee Mine) yields duplicate ~100% concordant plateaux spectra that average 0.8% older than the average of 4 hornblende plateaux. The cause of this apparent discordance (biotite age > hornblende age) is not understood although it is possible that the biotites have unusually high closure temperatures due to large diffusion radii related to the coarse (~5 mm) grain size. Initial ID-TIMS U/Pb single-zircon analyses indicate an age of 2058 Ma for the late-stage Nebo Granite, as displayed by concordant ages on crystals pre

  2. Unraveling eclogite-facies fluid-rock interaction using thermodynamic modelling and whole-rock experiments: the in-situ eclogitization of metapelites from Val Savenca (Sesia Zone, Western Alps) (United States)

    Jentsch, Marie; Tropper, Peter


    A common feature of HP and UHP terranes is the subduction of crustal rocks to great depths. Previous investigations have shown that this process is triggered by fluids present during an eclogite-facies metamorphic overprint. An examples is exposed in the metapelites at Val Savenca in the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Italy where Alpine eclogite-facies metamorphism and fluid flow led to partial transformation of Variscan amphibolite-eclogite facies metapelites (garnet + biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz) to zoisite ± jadeite + kyanite + phengite + quartz. This transformation took place under P-T conditions of 1.7 - 2.1 GPa at 600°C and low a(H2O) of 0.3-0.6. The replacement of plagioclase by jadeite + zoisite + kyanite + quartz takes place also along former fractures. Biotite is replaced by the assemblage phengite + omphacite ± kyanite adjacent to former plagioclase, otherwise by phengite + rutile/titanite. Garnet and clinopyroxene show variable compositions depending in which micro-domain (plagioclase or biotite) they grew. The extreme development of microdomains can best be studied by thermodynamic pseudosection modelling of individual microdomains using stoichiometric mixtures of protolith minerals from this domain and the program DOMINO (De Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010). The aim of these calculations was: 1.) to reproduce the observed mineral assemblage and 2.) to provide constraints on the amount of fluid present in the transformation. The results so far indicate that the amount of fluid was very low, otherwise paragonite would have formed instead of jadeite and reproduction of the observed mineral assemblage has only been partly successful so far since biotite is still stable in the calculations. In addition to understand the role of fluids in the mineralogical and textural transformation piston-cylinder experiments with a fresh, natural orthogneiss granulite from the Moldanubic Unit in upper Austria with the assemblage garnet + biotite + K

  3. Systematics of hydrothermal alteration at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit - implications for ore genesis, structure and exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden (United States)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Jansson, Nils J.; Stephens, Michael B.; Majka, Jarosław


    The Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit was mined for base and precious metals during several centuries, until its closure in 1992. The deposit is located in a 1.9 Ga ore district in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, south-central Sweden. Both the ores and their host rock underwent polyphase ductile deformation, and metamorphism under amphibolite facies and later retrograde conditions at 1.9-1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian orogenic system). This study has the following aims: (i) Classify styles and intensities of alteration in the hydrothermally altered zone at Falun; (ii) identify precursor rocks to hydrothermally altered rocks and their spatial distribution at the deposit; (iii) evaluate the chemical changes resulting from hydrothermal alteration using mass change calculations; and (iv) assess the pre-metamorphic alteration assemblages accounting for the observed metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks at Falun. Results will have implications for both the ore-genetic and structural understanding of the deposit, as well as for local and regional exploration. Metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks include biotite-quartz-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and, more proximally, quartz-anthophyllite-(biotite-cordierite/almandine), biotite-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and biotite-almandine-(anthophyllite). The proximal hydrothermally altered zone corresponds to intense chlorite-style alteration. Subordinate dolomite or calcite marble, as well as calc-silicate (tremolite, diopside) rocks are also present at the deposit. Metavolcanic rocks around the deposit are unaltered, weakly sericitized or sodic-altered. Immobile-element (e.g. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, REE) systematics of the silicate-rich samples at and around the deposit suggest that the precursors to the hydrothermally altered rocks at Falun were predominantly rhyolitic in composition, dacitic rocks being subordinate and mafic-intermediate rocks

  4. Petrography, mineral chemistry and lithochemistry of the albitite and granite-gneissics rocks of anomaly 35 from Lagoa Real uranium province; Petrografia, quimica mineral e litoquimica do albitito e das rochas granito-gnaissicas da anomalia 35, provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Camila Marques dos


    In the northwestern portion of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (LRUP), located in south-central Bahia, it is located one of the most promising uranium anomalies Brazil (an35, Gameleira I deposit), the reserves and proximity to the Cachoeira mine. Other anomalies of this sector (eg. 31 AN and AN34), are also considered strategic for the content of radioactive minerals and REE. The objective was to develop a study of a representative drill core of an35, where the main rocks PULR are present. The research focused on the mineralogical and chemical changes observed in the passages of a lithology to another, from the rock to the meta granitic albitites, through gneiss and transitional rocks, and making comparisons with similar lithologies sampled on testimonies of AN31 and 34. The granites are classified as hypersolvus coarse alkali-feldspar granite and are variably deformed. The main mineral assemblage in granites are perthitic orthoclase+hedenbergite+ quartz +hastingsite + biotite, and zircon, apatite, ilmenite and titanite are accessories. The reddening of these rocks are characterized by feldspars sericitization and hematitization and the presence of 'vazios'. The gneisses are mainly gray and reach milonitic to protomilonitics terms. These rocks have characteristics of subsolidus changes as swapped rims and metasomatic perthites. The tardi-magmatic association (amphibole+biotite) indicates final crystallization or late influx by superficial fluids resulting in an increase in water and volatiles, such as F and Cl in the system, which must also have carried rare-earth elementsGranites have geochemical affinity with A-type ferroan granite, A2, reduced and are post-collisional. Their patterns of incompatible elements and rare earths are comparable to Sao Timoteo Granite, but their petrographic features indicate that it is a less common granite facies. Albitites were classified as garnet albitites, magnetite albitites and biotite albitites. Contacts between

  5. Zircon LA-ICP MS U-Pb Age, Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopic Compositions and Geochemistry of the Triassic Post-collisional Wulong Adakitic Granodiorite in the South Qinling, Central China, and Its Petrogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; WANG Juan; LI Yongfei


    The Indosinian post-collisional Wulong pluton intruded into the Mesoproterozoic Fuping Group, South Qinling, central China. In the southern part of the pluton, some mafic enclaves have sharp or gradational contact relationships with the host biotite granodiorite. Geochemistry, zircon LA-ICP MS (laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) U-Pb chronology and Sr- Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the pluton are reported in this paper. The biotite granodiorite shows close compositional similarities to high-silica adakite. Its chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong HREE depletion (Yb = 0.33-0.96 10-6 and Y = 4.77-11.19×10-6), enrichment of Ba (775-1386×10-6) and Sr (643-1115×10-6) and high Sr/Y (57.83-159.99) and Y/Yb (10.99-14.32) ratios, as well as insignificant Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.70-0.83), suggesting a feldspar-poor, garnet±amphibole-rich residual mineral assemblage. The mafic enclaves have higher MgO (4.15- 8.13%), Cr (14.79-371.31×10-6), Ni (20.00-224.24×10-6) and Nb/Ta (15.42-21.91) than the host granodiorite, implying that they are mantle-derived and might represent underplated mafic magma. Zircon LA-ICP MS dating of the granodiorite yields a 20.6Pb/238U weighted mean age of 208±2 Ma (MSWD=0.50, 1σ), which is the age of emplacement of the host biotite granodiorite. This age indicates that the Wulong pluton formed during the late-orogenic or post-collisional stage (≤242±21 Ma) of the South Qinling belt. The host biotite granodiorite displays 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7059-0.7062, Isr = 0.7044-0.7050,143Nd/144Nd = 0.51236-0.51238, εNd(t)=-2.26 to-2.66,2.6Pb/2.4pb=18.099-18.209,207Pb/2.4pb=15.873-15.979 and 2.8Pb/204pb=38.973-39.430. Those ratios are similar to those of the Mesoproterozoic Yaolinghe Group in the South Qinling. Furthermore, its Nd isotopic model age(~1.02 Ga) is consistent with the age (~1.1 Ga) of the Yaolinghe Group. Based on the integrated geological and geochemical studies, coupled with previous

  6. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.


    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  7. Isotopic evidence of Middle Proterozoic magmatism from Bombay High Field: Implications to crustal evolution of western offshore of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Rathore; A R Vijan; M P Singh; B N Prabhu; Anand Sahu


    Precambrian granitic basement rocks obtained from well BH-36 of Bombay High Field, western offshore of India has been studied both by Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating methods. Seven basement samples chosen from two cores have yielded whole rock Rb-Sr isochron age of 1446 ± 67Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7062 ± 0.0012. This age has been interpreted as the formation/emplacement time of the granite. Two biotite fractions of different grain size separated from a sample CC6B2T have yielded Rb-Sr mineral isochron age of 1385 ± 21 Ma. However, these fractions when studied by K-Ar dating method have yielded slightly higher but mutually consistent ages of 1458 ± 43Ma and 1465 ± 43Ma, respectively. Further, two biotites separated from additional samples CC5B9T and CC6B3B have yielded K-Ar ages of 1452 ± 42Ma and 1425 ± 40Ma with an overall mean age of 1438 ± 19Ma. This mean K-Ar age is indistinguishable from whole rock Rb-Sr isochron as well as mineral isochron age within experimental error. The similarity in the whole rock and biotite ages obtained by different isotopic methods suggests that no thermal disturbance has occurred in these rocks after their emplacement/formation around 1450Ma ago. The present study provides the evidence for the existence of an important Middle Proterozoic magmatic event around 1400-1450Ma on the western offshore of India which, hitherto, was thought to be mainly confined to the eastern Ghats, Satpura and Delhi fold belt of India. This finding may have an important bearing on the reconstruction of Proterozoic crustal evolution of western Indian shield.

  8. Foliation development and reaction softening by dissolution and precipitation in the transformation of granodiorite to orthogneiss, Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, U.S.A (United States)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yi, K.


    Textures, microstructures, and patterns of chemical zoning in minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, lead to the interpretation that foliation development was facilitated by retrograde hydration reactions in the presence of an aqueous fluid. Incomplete replacement of the metastable magmatic minerals K-feldspar + hastingsite + magnetite produced foliation-defining biotite + epidote + quartz. These reaction products did not replace K-feldspar - hastingsite interfaces; rather, either biotite or epidote replaced the amphibole, and plagioclase replaced K-feldspar. Biotite and epidote precipitated syntectonically in discrete layers that define the foliation in the orthogneiss, whereas quartz precipitated primarily in ribbons, further enhancing the fabric. Metastable REE-rich igneous titanite also dissolved, and was incompletely replaced by REE-poor, Al-bearing metamorphic titanite. The similar concentrations of the REE in epidote and titanite show that the REE released by titanite dissolution were precipitated locally as the allanite component in adjacent grains of epidote. The entire process was syntectonic, with most grains showing multiple overgrowths in the direction of extension as defined by stretched xenoliths. Sufficient U was present in the titanite overgrowths to allow SHRIMP dating of cores, mantles, and rims. These results suggest at least three retrograde Alleghanian events of growth in a span of ???30 m.y. Thus the dissolution - transportation - precipitation process not only describes the reaction mechanism but also leads to the redistribution of reaction products into nearly monomineralic layers, thus contributing to metamorphic differentiation and to the development of the foliation. The resulting orthogneiss was much weaker that the granodiorite protolith, owing to this reaction and textural softening.

  9. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong


    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  10. On the genetic classification and tectonic implications of the Early Yanshanian granitoids in the Nanling Range, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XianHua; LI WuXian; LI Zheng-Xiang


    Early Yanshanian (Jurassic) granitoids are widespread in the Nanling Range of South China, and are associated with numerous non-ferrous and rare metal mineral deposits. These granitoids consist mainly of slightly peraluminous biotite monzogranites and K-feldspar granites that are closely associated in time and space with subordinate amphibole-bearing granites and muscovite- and garnet-bearing granites. In most previous studies, the biotite-bearing granites were classified as crustal transformation-type (corresponding to the S-type) granites which were interpreted to be derived from the regional Paleoproterozoic meta-sedimentary rocks. In this paper, we re-analyze the geochemical characteristics of a number of representative Early Yanshanian Nanling granitoids. There exists a clear negative correlation between SiO2 and P2O5 for the studied granitoids. The Early Yanshanian Nanling granitoid suites (including amphibole-bearing granodiorites→biotite monzogranites→K-feldspar granites→two-mica (muscovite) granites) are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous I-type or fractionated I-type granites. They were derived predominantly from Proterozoic igneous protoliths. The juvenile crust and/or newly mantle-derived materials might also have been involved in some of these granites. In addition, the I- and fractionated I-type granites are closely associated in time and space with minor amount of A-type felsic and mafic volcanic and intrusive rocks as well as alkaline rocks. All these rocks constitute a typical assemblage of anorogenic, intraplate magmatism, suggesting a dominant lithospheric extensional regime for the Nanling Range and neighboring region during the Early Yanshanian period.

  11. Post-peak, fluid-mediated modification of granulite facies zircon and monazite in the Trivandrum Block, southern India (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Clark, Chris; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.; Santosh, M.; Hand, M.; Evans, Noreen; McDonald, Brad


    The quarry at Kottavattom in the Trivandrum Block of southern India contains spectacular examples of fluid-assisted alteration of high-grade metamorphic rocks. Garnet-biotite gneiss has undergone a change in mineral assemblage to form submetre scale orthopyroxene-bearing patches, later retrogressed to form an amphibole-bearing lithology. These patches, often referred to as arrested or incipient charnockite, crosscut the original metamorphic foliation and are typically attributed to passage of a low aH2O fluid through the rock. Whilst this conversion is recognised as a late stage process, little detailed chronological work exists to link it temporally to metamorphism in the region. Zircon and monazite analysed from Kottavattom not only record metamorphism in the Trivandrum Block but also show internal, lobate textures crosscutting the original zoning, consistent with fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation during formation of the orthopyroxene-bearing patches. High-grade metamorphism at the quarry occurred between the formation of metamorphic monazite at ~585 Ma and the growth of metamorphic zircon at ~523 Ma. The fluid-assisted alteration of the garnet-biotite gneiss is poorly recorded by altered zircon with only minimal resetting of the U-Pb system, whereas monazite has in some cases undergone complete U-Pb resetting and records an age for fluid infiltration at ~495 Ma. The fluid event therefore places the formation of the altered patches at least 25 Myr after the zircon crystallisation in the garnet-biotite gneiss. The most likely fluid composition causing the modification and U-Pb resetting of zircon and monazite is locally derived hypersaline brine.

  12. Precise revision of the garnet-muscovite geothermometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Chunming; (吴春明); ZHAO; Yingjun; (赵英俊)


    The garnet-muscovite geothermometer was refined through empirical calibration by using natural rocks metamorphosed under the physical conditions of 238—1306 MPa and 490—700℃. Input temperatures and pressures were determined through simultaneously applying the garnet-biotite geothermometer and the garnet-biotite-plagioclase-quartz barometer, assuming that all FeO in muscovite and garnet be ferrous. Garnet was treated as the asymmetric quaternary solid solution, and muscovite as the symmetric binary solid solution. Input muscovite compositions include Fe atoms between 0.03—0.19 and Mg atoms between 0.04—0.16 on the basis of 11 oxygen atoms, and input garnet compositions include spessartine fractions between 0.01—0.289, grossular fractions between 0.028—0.273, and the Fe/Mg ratio between 3.387-18.986. The resulting garnet-muscovite geothermometer reproduces temperatures within (50℃ compared with the garnet-biotite thermometer. Total random error of ±37℃ of the new thermometer may stem from the pressure uncertainty of ±200 MPa, and uncertainties of ±5% of Fe and Mg components in muscovite, and ±5% of Fe, Mg, Mn and Ca components in garnet, altogether. When there exist 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% Fe3+ in muscovite, respectively, the computed garnet-muscovite temperatures will be 1—6℃, 2—12℃, 3—16℃, 5—24℃ and 7—29℃, respectively, lower than those obtained when assuming that all FeO be ferrous. The new garnet-muscovite geothermometer can efficiently reflect temperature change of typical prograde sequences and contact aureole rocks, and may be applied to low- to high-grade and low- to high-pressure metamorphic rocks.

  13. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Andersson, L.


    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  14. Rare metal granites and related rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipchuk, K.Ye.


    Full Text Available Two rare metal leucocratic granites, Perga and Kamennaya complexes, can be distinquished on the Ukrainian shield. The Perga complex consists of medium- and coarse grained, mainly porphyric, biotite, riebeckite and aegirine granites, granite porphyries, microclinites and albitites with rare metal mineralization (genthelvite, phenacite, tantalite, cassiterite and wolframite etc.. Granites from several stocks (up to 30 km2 in the northwestern part of the shield, situated along the fracture zone, restricted the large Korosten pluton of rapakivi granites to the northwest. The age of these granites (Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods on zircon and monazite practically coincide with the age of rapakivi granites being 1750 Ma. Within the Korosten complex of rapakivi granites we consider that zinnwaldite granites, which are characterized by fluorite and topazine mineralization, represent the final phase of pluton. These granites differ from the Perga ones by their low content of rare metals. The Kamennaya Mogila complex lies in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian shield. It consists of biotite and muscovite-biotite, medium- and coarse-grained (also porphyric, and occasionally greisining granites with rare metal mineralization (cassiterite, columbite, molybdenite, wolframite and beryl. Granites form several stocks (5-30 km2 situated 10-30 km to the west-northwest of the South-Kalchik gabbro-syenite-granite pluton. Granitoids in both of these complexes have similar isotopic ages (1800 Ma. Leucocratic subalkaline granites (the Novoyanisol type are known within the pluton itself, occupying an intermediate position between the above mentioned in terms of mineral and geochemical composition. The gabbro-syenite-granite formation of the Nearazov region has a substantial similarity to the anorthosite-rapakivi-granite formation. In this respect the relation of each of them to rare metal granites is rather remarkable. This relation is, most probably, not only spatial, but

  15. Constraints on the thermal history of the Blue Ridge in northernmost Virginia: [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age dating results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunk, M.J.; Lyttle, P.T.; Schindler, S.J.; Burton, W.C. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))


    [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age dating techniques have been used to analyze hornblende, phlogopite, white mica, biotite, and K-feldspar mineral separates from Middle and Late Proterozoic crystalline basement and from Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian cover rocks in the Blue Ridge anticlinorium. Regionally, both cover and basement rocks contain a variably developed overprint fabric, the Blue Ridge-South Mountain cleavage, commonly defined by white mica. Petrographic analysis indicates a maximum metamorphic overprint of lower greenschist facies that locally produces biotite. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra of hornblende from crystalline basement units suggest ages ranging from about 1 Ga to about 920 Ma. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar age spectra of most cleavage-defining white mica are sigmoidal in shape suggesting the presence of multiple generations of white mica, the last of which probably grew below the blocking temperature for retention of argon in muscovite ([approximately]350 C). Interpretation of these complex spectra suggest that most of the cleavage-defining white mica may have formed below [approximately]350 C during the Late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. However, these complex age spectra, together with age spectra from cleavage-defining phlogopite from a marble in the Fauquier Formation and biotite in the Late Proterozoic Robertson River Igneous Suite suggest the existence of an earlier episode of white mica growth of Middle Paleozoic age that has not been thermally reset or totally recrystallized. High temperature release steps can be interpreted to represent times of cooling through closure during the Middle Paleozoic. Low-temperature steps of these same age spectra suggest final closure or partial resetting of the samples at about 200 Ma or less and are interpreted to represent the effects of Mesozoic rifting.

  16. A microstructural and argon laserprobe study of shear zone development at the western margin of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, western Himalaya (United States)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Kelley, Simon P.; Magennis, Lochlann

    A sample of banded amphibolite from the western margin of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif as Sassi has been studied using microstructural and 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe techniques to investigate the relationship between deformation and argon isotope variations in a natural system. Amphibolite-grade deformation occurred during south-directed overthrusting of the Kohistan arc over India along the Main Mantle Thrust and was overprinted by extensional reactivation of the earlier fabric and the formation of biotite-rich shear zones. Subsequent deformation along discrete fine-grained fault zones was characterised by the formation of scapolite, chlorite and K-feldspar, early plastic deformation and later cataclasis. Different minerals developed during this history show a wide range in apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages. Biotite, chlorite and scapolite exhibit much lower concentrations of excess argon, indicating their equilibration in a fluid relatively poor in excess argon. A `true' age of ca. 8 Ma from biotite represents a minimum age for deformation associated with formation of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and also precludes Pliocene metamorphism in this area of the syntaxis. Both high- and low-closure temperature minerals (amphiboles and feldspars) record apparent ages which are associated with the incorporation of excess argon within the mineral lattice. Although differential thermal resetting of minerals at different closure temperatures is important, variations in the inherited 40Ar/36Ar ratio throughout the sample is dominated by deformation and fluid infiltration. Consequently it appears that within deforming metamorphic rocks, areas with significantly different argon isotope compositions may be present and need not be homogenised by diffusion.

  17. Occurrence of Tourmaline in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland: Implications for Ribose Stabilization in Hadean Marine Sediments (United States)

    Mishima, Shinpei; Ohtomo, Yoko; Kakegawa, Takeshi


    Abiotic formation of RNA was important for the emergence of terrestrial life, but the acknowledged difficulties of generating and stabilizing ribose have often raised questions regarding how the first RNA might have formed. Previous researchers have proposed that borate could have stabilized ribose; however, the availability of borate on the early Earth has been the subject of intense debate. In order to examine whether borate was available on the early Earth, this study examined metasedimentary rocks from the Isua Supracrustal Belt. Garnet, biotite, and quartz comprise the major constituents of the examined rocks. Field relationships and the chemical compositions of the examined rocks suggest sedimentary origin. The present study found that garnet crystals contain a number of inclusions of tourmaline (a type of borosilicate mineral). All tourmaline crystals are Fe-rich and categorized as schorl. Both garnet and tourmaline often contain graphite inclusions and this close association of tourmaline with garnet and graphite has not been recognized previously. Garnet-biotite and graphite geothermometers suggest that the tourmaline in garnet experienced peak metamorphic conditions (~500 °C and 5 kbar). The mineralogical characteristics of the tourmaline and the whole rock composition indicate that the tourmaline formed authigenically in the sediment during diagenesis and/or early metamorphism. Clay minerals in modern sediments have the capability to adsorb and concentrate borate, which could lead to boron enrichment during diagenesis, followed by tourmaline formation under metamorphic conditions. Clay minerals, deposited on the early Archean seafloor, were the precursors of the garnet and biotite in the examined samples. The studied tourmaline crystals were most likely formed in the same way as modern tourmaline in marine sediments. Therefore, boron enrichment by clays must have been possible even during the early Archean. Thus, similar enrichment could have been

  18. Structural, petrological and geochronological analysis of the lithotypes from the Pien region (Parana State, Brazil) and adjacences; Analise estrutural, petrologica e geocronologica dos litotipos da Regiao de Pien (PR) e adjacencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harara, Ossama Mohamed


    The Pien area presents the major geotectonic domains separated by the Pien Shear Zone (PSZ). The northern one is the Rio Pien Granite-Mylonitic Suite composed by calc-alkaline granitoids of Neoproterozoic age. The southern domain is represented by the Amphibolite-Granulite where high grade metamorphism took place at the end of paleoproterozoic time. Considering the identified lithotypes, their geochemical affinity (particularly the Ti, Cr, Ni and REE content) and the geological context observed in the area, a geotectonical model of active continental margin related to subduction SSZ (Supra-Subduction Zone) is proposed. K-Ar on plagioclase from gabbronorites gave Neoproterozoic ages although Sm-Nd whole rock isochron yielded Paleoproterozoic ages. Based in geochemical data, it is proposed that the biotite gneiss and biotite-amphibole-gneiss which occur near the PSZ have a shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline features which are characteristic of active continental margins. K-Ar on biotite extracted from these rocks, gave Neoproterozoic ages. The available radiometric data for the Rio Pien mylonitic granitoids show that between 650-595 Ma the generation, deformation and cooling below the isotherm of 250 deg C occurred. On the other hand, the geochronological data for the Agudos do Sul Massif are in the 590-570 Ma interval showing its younger generation. The Sr{sup 87} / Sr{sup 86} initial ratios for both granitoids suggest more involvement of the continental crust in the origins of Agudos do Sul granitic Massif. The analyses of the entire set of the available data for the Pien area allows the suggestion of a geotectonic scenery related to the evolution of an active continental margin during the collages associated to the Brasiliano Cycle 201 refs., 130 figs., 6 tabs., 2 maps

  19. Contamination in mafic mineral-rich calc-alkaline granites: a geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope study of the Neoproterozoic Piedade Granite, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Renato J.


    Full Text Available The Piedade Granite (~600 Ma was emplaced shortly after the main phase of granite magmatism in the Agudos Grandes batholith, Apiaí-Guaxupé Terrane, SE Brazil. Its main units are: mafic mineral-rich porphyritic granites forming the border (peraluminous muscovite-biotite granodiorite-monzogranite MBmg unit and core (metaluminous titanite-bearing biotite monzogranite BmgT unit and felsic pink inequigranular granite (Bmg unit between them. Bmg has high LaN/YbN (up to 100, Th/U (>10 and low Rb, Nb and Ta, and can be a crustal melt derived from deep-seated sources with residual garnet and biotite. The core BmgT unit derived from oxidized magmas with high Mg# (~45, Ba and Sr, fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN= 45, 87Sr/86Sr(t~ 0.710, epsilonNd(t ~ -12 to -14, interpreted as being high-K calc-alkaline magmas contaminated with metasedimentary rocks that had upper-crust signature (high U, Cs, Ta. The mafic-rich peraluminous granites show a more evolved isotope signature (87Sr/86Sr(t = 0.713-0.714; epsilonNd(t= -14 to -16, similar to Bmg, and Mg# and incompatible trace-element concentrations intermediate between Bmg and BmgT. A model is presented in whichMBmgis envisaged as the product of contamination between a mafic mineral-rich magma consanguineous with BmgT and pure crustal melts akin to Bmg.

  20. Variscan potassic dyke magmatism of durbachitic affinity at the southern end of the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria) (United States)

    Zeitlhofer, Helga; Grasemann, Bernhard; Petrakakis, Konstantin


    Dykes in the Strudengau area (SW Moldanubian Zone, Austria) can be mineralogically divided into lamprophyres (spessartites and kersantites) and felsic dykes (granite porphyries, granitic dykes and pegmatoid dykes). Geochemical analyses of 11 lamprophyres and 7 felsic dykes show evidence of fractional crystallization. The lamprophyres are characterized by metaluminous compositions, intermediate SiO2 contents and high amounts of MgO and K2O; these rocks have high Ba (800-3000 ppm) and Sr (250-1000 ppm) contents as well as an enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, typical for enriched mantle sources with variable modifications due to fractionation and crustal contamination. This geochemical signature has been reported from durbachites (biotite- and K feldspar-rich mela-syenites particularly characteristic of the Variscan orogen in Central Europe). For most major elements, calculated fractionation trends from crystallization experiments of durbachites give an excellent match with the data from the Strudengau dykes. This suggests that the lamprophyres and felsic dykes were both products of fractional crystallization and subsequent magma mixing of durbachitic and leucogranitic melts. Rb-Sr geochronological data on biotite from five undeformed kersantites and a locally deformed granite porphyry gave cooling ages of c. 334-318 Ma, indicating synchronous intrusion of the dykes with the nearby outcropping Weinsberger granite (part of the South Bohemian Batholith, c. 330-310 Ma). Oriented matrix biotite separated from the locally deformed granite porphyry gave an Rb-Sr age of c. 318 Ma, interpreted as a deformation age during extensional tectonics. We propose a large-scale extensional regime at c. 320 Ma in the Strudengau area, accompanied by plutonism of fractionated magmas of syncollisional mantle-derived sources, mixed with crustal components. This geodynamic setting is comparable to other areas in the Variscan belt documenting an

  1. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd study of granite–charnockite association in the Pudukkottai region and the link between metamorphism and magmatism in the Madurai Block

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chandra Sekaran; Rajneesh Bhutani; S Balakrishnan


    Pudukkottai region in the northeastern part of the Madurai Block exposes the garnetiferous pink granite that intruded the biotite gneiss. Charnockite patches are associated with both the rock types. Rb–Sr biotite and Sm–Nd whole-rock isochron ages indicate a regional uplift and cooling at ∼550 Ma. The initialNd isotope ratios (ε^t_{Nd} = −20 to −22) and Nd depleted-mantle model ages (T_{DM} = 2.25 to 2.79 Ga) indicate a common crustal source for the pink-granite and associated charnockite, while the biotite gneiss and the charnockite within it represent an older crustal source (ε^t_{Nd} = −29 and T_{DM} =>3.2 Ga). TheRb–Sr whole-rock data and initial Sr–Nd isotope ratios also help demonstrate the partial but systematic equilibration of Sr isotope and Rb/Sr ratios during metamorphic mineral-reactions resulting in an ‘apparent whole-rock isochron’. The available geochronological results from the Madurai Block indicate four major periods of magmatism and metamorphism: Neoarchaean–Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, mid-Neoproterozoic and late-Neoproterozoic. We suggest that the high-grade and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preceded by magmatism which ‘prepared’ the residual crust to sustain the high P–T conditions. There also appears to be cyclicity in the tectono-magmatic events and an evolutionary model for the Madurai Block should account for the cyclicity in the preserved records.

  2. Características petrográficas y geoquímicas de la Tonalita La Ovejería, borde oriental de la Sierra del Aconquija, Tafí del Valle, Tucumán: integración con la Granodiorita El Infiernillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Antonio


    Full Text Available The La Ovejería Tonalite is a N-S elo ngated body that crops out on the eastern side of the Sierra del Aconquija, west of of Tafi del Valle, Tucumán Province, Argentina. It is located just south of thelarger, and probably genetically related, El Infiernillo Granodiorite. The studied pluton has a zoning determined by different grain sizes and mineralogies: the northern outcrops are medium-grained and composed of plagioclase, quartz scarce microcline, and biotite and pistacite (± tourmaline as major accessories; the southern part of the intrusive is fine grained and composed of plagioclase, quartz scarce microcline, and biotite and sphene as accessory minerals. Two meter thick granitic dikes cross-cut the tonalites. The tonalite is calc-alkaline and peraluminous, with an ASI between 1.10 and 1.48. It intrudes metamorphic basement rocks composed of low grade schists that are characterized by an increase in static metamorphism, by syntectonic intrusions and by the intensity of flow folds.The emplacement of the La Ovejería Tonalite probably occurred during the Lower Paleozoic and was structurally controlled by the Tafi Megafracture, like the other intrusive bodies of the area. The El Infiernillo intrusive is composed of a two-mica (± tourmaline equigranular granodiorite main facies and a biotite and epidote bearing (without primary muscovite tonalitic border facies. According to field relations and petrographic, geochemical and structural data, the La Ovejería Tonalite may correspond to the northern border facies of the El Infiernillo intrusive.

  3. Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Reverse Zoning in the Andong Granitoid Pluton, Andong Batholith, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Koo HWANG


    The Andong pluton consists of comagmatic granitoid rocks which constitute outstanding examples of reversely zoned granitoids. The pluton has three lithofacies: hornblende biotite tonalite, biotite granodiorite and porphyritic biotite granite. The zoned pattern forms by locating a tonalite core containing high-temperature mafic assemblages in central part,granodiorite rims in marginal part, and a porphyritic granite cap containing more felsic assemblages in topside of the pluton.Mineral abundances as well as bulk compositions of the granitoids indicate that the interior is enriched in mafic minerals and that it shows higher contents of oxides than the margin and topside. The compositional gradients change gradually with continuity between the lithofacies. The regular compositional variations within the pluton support the argument that the pluton behaved as an individual petrochemical system. Model abundances of the granitoids are in agreement with the bulk compositional gradients, suggesting that no significant interaction with country rocks occurred. Remobilization (resurgence) of deeper parts of the system into the more felsic magmas of the chamber explains the reverse zoning. Fractional crystallization was of importance and probably accounts for the selective removal of the settling phases. The Andong pluton is an example of reversely zoned plutons related by remobilization of more mafic but consanguineous magmas. Large-scale upwelling occurred in the pluton leading to the present arrangement of three lithofacies. It is conceivable that remnants of the reverse zoning become more difficult to discern as the plutonic rocks reach the latest stages of their evolution. In this case, the Andong pluton represents an earlier stage in the evolution of a felsic system that is usually represented by the final stages in normally zoned plutons.

  4. Petrochemistry,Age and Petrogenesis of the Shexian Pluton in Southern Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢凤鸣; 任思明; 等


    The Shexian gneissic granodiorite in southern Anhui trends NE55°from Shexian in the west to Guitoujian in the east with a length of 22km and an outcrop area of 32km .It was considered formerly to be Caledonian on the basis of a biotite K-Ar age of 474Ma(1982).However,new evi-dence indicates that it may be Early Jinning in age as shown by:(1)it is found intruding into the Mid-Proterozoic Shangxi Group and is unconformably overlain by the Sinian Xiuning Formation,and (2) a zircon U-Th-Pb age of 928 Ma is obtained for the pluton.The pluton is composed of plagioclase(An=27.37%),K-feldspar(14%),biotite(16%) and quartz(32%).Accessory minerals are ilmenite(150g/T),xenotime(15g/T),garnet(25g/T),monazite(10g/T),zircon(20g/T)and apatite(104g/T).Petrochemical characteristics of the intrusion are:(1)Al-enrichment(A/NKC=1.30);(2)H2O enrichment(H2O=1.74%);and (3)low oxidation index(?ˊ=0.10).It belongs to the continental crust transformation type as evidenced by :(1)MF and Mg/Y values of biotite are 0.41 and 0.31 respectively;(2)(87Sr/86Sr)=0.71119;(3)δEu=0.52;and (4)A/NKC=130.The Shexian pluton is therefore considered as a product of melting of phyllite at depth in the light of similarities in trace element and REE contents with the phyllite of the Banxi Group.Calculations of REE batch partial melting indicate that it may have re-sulted from 75% melting of the Banxi phyllite.

  5. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb apatite dating of Lower Cretaceous rocks from teschenite-picrite association in the Silesian Unit (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The main products of volcanic activity in the teschenite-picrite association (TPA are shallow, sub-volcanic intrusions, which predominate over extrusive volcanic rocks. They comprise a wide range of intrusive rocks which fall into two main groups: alkaline (teschenite, picrite, syenite, lamprophyre and subalkaline (dolerite. Previous 40Ar/39Ar and 40K/40Ar dating of these rocks in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians, performed on kaersutite, sub-silicic diopside, phlogopite/biotite as well as on whole rock samples has yielded Early Cretaceous ages. Fluorapatite crystals were dated by the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method to obtain the age of selected magmatic rocks (teschenite, lamprophyre from the Cieszyn igneous province. Apatite-bearing samples from Boguszowice, Puńców and Lipowa yield U-Pb ages of 103± 20 Ma, 119.6 ± 3.2 Ma and 126.5 ± 8.8 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age for all three samples is 117.8 ± 7.3 Ma (MSWD = 2.7. The considerably smaller dispersion in the apatite ages compared to the published amphibole and biotite ages is probably caused by the U-Pb system in apatite being less susceptible to the effects of hydrothermal alternation than the 40Ar/39Ar or 40K/40Ar system in amphibole and/or biotite. Available data suggest that volcanic activity in the Silesian Basin took place from 128 to 103 Ma with the the main magmatic phase constrained to 128-120 Ma.

  6. Occurrence of Tourmaline in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland: Implications for Ribose Stabilization in Hadean Marine Sediments. (United States)

    Mishima, Shinpei; Ohtomo, Yoko; Kakegawa, Takeshi


    Abiotic formation of RNA was important for the emergence of terrestrial life, but the acknowledged difficulties of generating and stabilizing ribose have often raised questions regarding how the first RNA might have formed. Previous researchers have proposed that borate could have stabilized ribose; however, the availability of borate on the early Earth has been the subject of intense debate. In order to examine whether borate was available on the early Earth, this study examined metasedimentary rocks from the Isua Supracrustal Belt. Garnet, biotite, and quartz comprise the major constituents of the examined rocks. Field relationships and the chemical compositions of the examined rocks suggest sedimentary origin. The present study found that garnet crystals contain a number of inclusions of tourmaline (a type of borosilicate mineral). All tourmaline crystals are Fe-rich and categorized as schorl. Both garnet and tourmaline often contain graphite inclusions and this close association of tourmaline with garnet and graphite has not been recognized previously. Garnet-biotite and graphite geothermometers suggest that the tourmaline in garnet experienced peak metamorphic conditions (~500 °C and 5 kbar). The mineralogical characteristics of the tourmaline and the whole rock composition indicate that the tourmaline formed authigenically in the sediment during diagenesis and/or early metamorphism. Clay minerals in modern sediments have the capability to adsorb and concentrate borate, which could lead to boron enrichment during diagenesis, followed by tourmaline formation under metamorphic conditions. Clay minerals, deposited on the early Archean seafloor, were the precursors of the garnet and biotite in the examined samples. The studied tourmaline crystals were most likely formed in the same way as modern tourmaline in marine sediments. Therefore, boron enrichment by clays must have been possible even during the early Archean. Thus, similar enrichment could have been

  7. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future. (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores


    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  8. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Ghosh; M N Praveen


    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an inner high Mg-Ca core and an outer wider envelop of Al-Fe rich mineral assemblage.Most of the prospects have strata bound,moderately to steeply dipping, multiple,sub-parallel sheet like ore bodies composed of disseminated and semi-massive to massive ores.Zn-bearing spinel,staurolite,biotite and ilmenite typically occur within the foot-wall altera- tion zones in close proximity to the sulphide mineralization.Zincian spinel is ubiquitous irrespective of the nature of alteration zone.Zincian staurolite is nearly absent in Mg-Ca alteration zones but commonly present in Al-Fe alteration zone along with zincian ilmenite.Zn-bearing biotite in intimate association with zincian spinel is generally found in Mg-Ca alteration zone and in the transition to Al-Fe alteration zone.Most of these indicator minerals can be considered as products of desulphidation of sphalerite during metamorphism.Mechanisms other than desulphidation like formation of gahnite by overstepping of the zinc saturation limit of biotite during retrogression to chlorite and formation of zincian staurolite at the expense of gahnite is also recorded.Field presence of these minerals has immense significance in exploration in Betul Belt as they occur in close spatial relationship with the sulphide rich zones and therefore act as direct vectors to ore.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  10. Mineralogic investigation into occurrence of high uranium well waters in upstate South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Richard, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919 (United States); Meadows, Jason; Sojda, Scott; Price, Van; Temples, Tom [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919 (United States); Arai, Yuji [Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0315 (United States); Fleisher, Chris [Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2501 (United States); Crawford, Bruce; Stone, Peter [Bureau of Water, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)


    Research Highlights: > Oxidative dissolution of uraninite in biotite granite is primary source of uranium in high-U well waters near Simpsonville, SC. > Uranium is chiefly transported as mixed uranyl hydroxyl-carbonate complexes. > Local reduction has resulted in secondary precipitation of uranium along fractures as coffinite. > Dissolution of uraninite and precipitation of coffinite were geologically recent. - Abstract: High levels of U (up to 5570 {mu}g/L) have been discovered in well waters near Simpsonville, South Carolina, USA. In order to characterize the mineralogical source of the U and possible structural controls on its presence, a deep (214 m) well was cored adjacent to one of the enriched wells. The highest gamma-ray emissions in the recovered core occur in coarse biotite granite at a depth just below 52 m. A slickenlined fault plane at 48.6 m and narrow pegmatite layers at depths of 113, 203 and 207 m also yield high gamma-ray counts. Thin sections were made from the above materials and along several subvertical healed fractures. Uraninite and coffinite are the principal U-rich minerals in the core. Other U-bearing minerals include thorite and thorogummite, monazite, zircon and allanite. Primary uraninite occurs in the biotite granite and in pegmatite layers. Secondary coffinite is present as tiny (<5 {mu}m) crystals dispersed along fractures in the granite and pegmatites. Coffinite also occurs along the slickenlined fault plane, where it is associated with calcite and calcic zeolite and also replaces allanite. Coffinite lacks radiogenic Pb, hence is considerably younger than the uraninite. Dissolution of partially oxidized Ca-rich uraninite occurring in the surficial biotite granite (or secondary coffinite in fracture zones) is likely the main source for the current high levels of U in nearby area wells. The high-U well waters have a carbonate signature, consistent with pervasive calcite vein mineralization in the core. Aqueous speciation calculations

  11. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.


    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  12. La Escalerilla pluton, San Luis Argentina: The orogenic and post-orogenic magmatic evolution of the famatinian cycle at Sierras de San Luis (United States)

    Morosini, Augusto Francisco; Ortiz Suárez, Ariel Emilio; Otamendi, Juan Enrique; Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Ramos, Gabriel Alejandro


    Field relationships, geochemical analysis and two new absolute ages (LA-MC-ICP-MS U/Pb-zircon) allow the division of the La Escalerilla pluton (previously considered to be a single granitic body) into two different plutons: a new La Escalerilla pluton (s.s.), dated at 476.7 ± 9.6 Ma, that represents the northern portion, and the El Volcán pluton, dated at 404.5 ± 8.5 Ma, located in the southern sector. The La Escalerilla pluton is composed of three facies: (1) biotite-bearing granodiorite, (2) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and (3) porphyritic two micas-bearing leucogranite, being the presence of late-magmatic dykes in these facies common. The El Volcán pluton is composed of two main facies: 1) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and 2) two micas-bearing leucogranite, but amphibole-bearing monzodioritic and tonalititic mega-enclaves are also common, as well as some dykes of amphibole and clinopyroxene-bearing syenites. A peculiarity between the two plutons is that their most representative facies (porphyritic biotite-bearing granites) have, apart from different absolute ages, distinctive geochemical characteristics in their concentrations of trace elements; the La Escalerilla granite is comparatively poorer in Ba, Sr, Nb, La, Ce, P, and richer in Rb, Tb, Y, Tm and Yb. The El Volcán granite is notably enriched in Sr and depleted in Y, resulting in high Sr/Y ratios (12.67-39.08) compared to the La Escalerilla granite (1.11-2.41). These contrasts indicate that the separation from their sources occurred at different depths: below 25 km for the La Escalerilla, and above 30 km for the El Volcán. Moreover, the contrasts allow us to interpret a thin crust linked to an environment of pre-collisional subduction for the first case, and a thickened crust of post-collisional environment for the second, respectively.

  13. Paleoproterozoic migmatitic gneisses from the Tandilia belt (Argentina), Río de la Plata craton, record cooling at deep crustal levels (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Dristas, Jorge Anastasio; Theye, Thomas; Graff, Ailín Ayelén


    We studied high-grade metamorphic rocks of the El Cristo hill area of the Tandilia belt. Mineral analyses and thermodynamic calculations were carried out for two adjacent rock samples: an amphibole-biotite gneiss and a garnet-biotite-bearing migmatite. Peritectic garnets in the migmatite show core compositions of pyr4.5(gro + andr)10spes6alm79.5 changing to pyr3.5(gro + andr)17spes6alm73.5 at their thin rims. Garnet compositions in the gneiss are pyr6.5(gro + andr)26spes12alm55.5 and pyr4.5(gro + andr)34spes12alm49.5 for core and rim, respectively. A P-T path was constructed by calculating pseudosections in the 11-component system Si-Ti-Al-Fe-Mn-Mg-Ca-Na-K-O-H and contouring them by isopleths for garnet components using the PERPLE_X software package. Supra-solidus crystallization of garnet cores in the migmatite began at 5.8 kbar and 660 °C. Garnet rims equilibrated at 7.0 kbar and 640 °C compatible with garnet cores in the amphibole-biotite gneiss (7.6 kbar and 660 °C). The further chemical development of garnet in this rock points to P-T conditions of 11.6 kbar and 620 °C and 12.2 kbar and 595 °C (outermost garnet rim). At this high-pressure stage Ca-amphibole was not stable. Most biotite formed during exhumation whereas the high-pressure accessory minerals, titanite and epidote, persisted. According to the obtained anti-clockwise P-T path the originally partly melted material was tectonically transported from ∼22 km (middle crust) to ∼40 km (lower crust) depths reaching a geothermal gradient as low as 15 °C km-1. This transport probably occurred along a major suture zone, which was active during the Paleoproterozoic (2.25-2.10 Ga), before a terminating collision of terranes near the SW boundary of the Rio de la Plata craton.

  14. Petrogenesis of syntectonic granites emplaced at the transition from thrusting to transcurrent tectonics in post-collisional setting: Whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry in the Neoproterozoic Quatro Ilhas and Mariscal Granites, Southern Brazil (United States)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll; Heaman, Larry M.


    The Neoproterozoic post-collisional period in southern Brazil (650-580 Ma) is characterized by substantial volumes of magma emplaced along the active shear zones that compose the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt. The early-phase syntectonic magmatism (630-610 Ma) is represented by the porphyritic, high-K, metaluminous to peraluminous Quatro Ilhas Granitoids and the younger heterogranular, slightly peraluminous Mariscal Granite. Quatro Ilhas Granitoids include three main petrographic varieties (muscovite-biotite granodiorite — mbg; biotite monzogranite — bmz; and leucogranite — lcg) that, although sharing some significant geochemical characteristics, are not strictly comagmatic, as shown by chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data. The most primitive muscovite-biotite granodiorite was produced by contamination of more mafic melts (possibly with some mantle component) with peraluminous crustal melts; the biotite monzogranite, although more felsic, has higher Ca, MgO, TiO2 and Ba, and lower K2O, FeOt, Sr and Rb contents, possibly reflecting some mixing with coeval mafic magmas of tholeiitic affinity; the leucogranite may be derived from pure crustal melts. The Mariscal Granite is formed by two main granite types which occur intimately associated in the same pluton, one with higher K (5-6.5 wt.% K2O) high Rb and lower CaO, Na2O, Ba and Zr as compared to the other (3-5 wt.% of K2O). The two Mariscal Granite varieties have compositional correspondence with fine-grained granites (fgg) that occur as tabular bodies which intruded the Quatro Ilhas Granoitoids before they were fully crystallized, and are inferred to correspond to the Mariscal Granite feeders, an interpretation that is reinforced by similar U-Pb zircon crystallization ages. The initial evolution of the post-collisional magmatism, marked by the emplacement of the Quatro Ilhas Granitoids varieties, activated sources that produced mantle and crustal magmas whose emplacement was controlled both by flat-lying and

  15. The life cycle of iron Fe(III) oxide: impact of fungi and bacteria (United States)

    Bonneville, Steeve


    Iron oxides are ubiquitous reactive constituents of soils, sediments and aquifers. They exhibit vast surface areas which bind a large array of trace metals, nutrients and organic molecules hence controlling their mobility/reactivity in the subsurface. In this context, understanding the "life cycle" of iron oxide in soils is paramount to many biogeochemical processes. Soils environments are notorious for their extreme heterogeneity and variability of chemical, physical conditions and biological agents at play. Here, we present studies investigating the role of two biological agents driving iron oxide dynamics in soils, root-associated fungi (mycorrhiza) and bacteria. Mycorrhiza filaments (hypha) grow preferentially around, and on the surface of nutrient-rich minerals, making mineral-fungi contact zones, hot-spots of chemical alteration in soils. However, because of the microscopic nature of hyphae (only ~ 5 µm wide for up to 1 mm long) and their tendency to strongly adhere to mineral surface, in situ observations of this interfacial micro-environment are scarce. In a microcosm, ectomycorrhiza (Paxillus involutus) was grown symbiotically with a pine tree (Pinus sylvestris) in the presence of freshly-cleaved biotite under humid, yet undersaturated, conditions typical of soils. Using spatially-resolved ion milling technique (FIB), transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy (TEM/STEM-EDS), synchrotron based X-ray microscopy (STXM), we were able to quantify the speciation of Fe at the biotite-hypha interface. The results shows that substantial oxidation of biotite structural-Fe(II) into Fe(III) subdomains occurs at the contact zone between mycorrhiza and biotite. Once formed, iron(III) oxides can reductively dissolve under suboxic conditions via several abiotic and microbial pathways. In particular, they serve as terminal electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic matter by iron reducing bacteria. We aimed here to understand the role of Fe(III) mineral

  16. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah: modal mineralogy, and geochemistry of sericite, chlorite, and feldspar from altered rocks, Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.


    Sericites, chlorites, feldspars, biotite and hornblende from hydrothermally altered rocks at several depths in Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah, have been analyzed using the electron microprobe. Sericites and ferromagnesian minerals have been analyzed for 12 major elements, and feldspars for 3. The results have been used, along with whole rock chemical analyses, to computer calculate modal mineralogy for samples from the drillhole. Calculated modes for hydrothermal minerals are in reasonable agreement with observations from thin sections.

  17. U—Pb Dating of Anatectic Migmatites in the Yunkai Block,Gaozhou,Western Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江海; 涂湘林; 等


    The regional migmatites in the Yunkai Block were formed under low-pressure metamorphism.The majority of their protolith are biotite-rich peraluminous gneisses.Detailed field observations,and studies of petrology,spatial distribution of minerals and geochemistry suggest that the leucosomes were derived from anatexis.The single grain zircon U-Pb dating data indicate that a pulse of migmatization occurred at 394-449 Ma and may have resulted from the large-scale Caledonian magmatism in the Yunkai Block.

  18. From the Palaeozoic collapse of the East African-Antarctic Orogen to Gondwana rifting in NE Mozambique


    Jacobs, J; Emmel, B.; Ueda, K.; Thomas, R J; Kosler, J.; Horstwood, M.; Jordan, F.; Kleinhanns, I.; Engvik, A.; B. Bingen; Daudi, E.X.


    The East African passive margin resulted from complex reactivation of the ca. 600–500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO). With the help of a large set of new thermochronological data (U-Pb titanite, Ar-Ar hornblende and biotite, as well as zircon, titanite and apatite fission-track analyses) we have modelled the tectono-thermal history of NE Mozambique from the late (Lower Palaeozoic) stages of the East African-Antarctic Orogeny to its transformation into a passive margin in the Mesozoic.

  19. Plant-driven fungal weathering: Early stages of mineral alteration at the nanometer scale


    S. Bonneville; M. M. Smits; A. Brown; J. Harrington; J. R. Leake; R. Brydson; Liane G. Benning


    Plant-driven fungal weathering is a major pathway of soil formation, yet the precise mechanism by which mycorrhiza alter minerals is poorly understood. Here we report the first direct in situ observations of the effects of a soil fungus on the surface of a mineral over which it grew in a controlled experiment. An ectomycorrhizal fungus was grown in symbiosis with a tree seedling so that individual hyphae expanded across the surface of a biotite flake over a period of three months. Ultramicros...

  20. Re-equilibration history and P- T path of eclogites from Variscan Sardinia, Italy: a case study from the medium-grade metamorphic complex (United States)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Groppo, Chiara; Oggiano, Giacomo; Spano, Maria Elena


    Retrogressed eclogites are hosted within the Variscan low- to medium-grade metamorphic complex near Giuncana, north-central Sardinia. These rocks are medium to fine grained with garnet and amphibole as the most abundant mineral phases along with clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, chlorite, epidote, ilmenite, rutile and titanite. Four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite, epidote, quartz, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite in garnet poikiloblasts. The stage II is characterized by two types of symplectitic microstructures: (1) amphibole + quartz symplectite and (2) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The first symplectite type replaces omphacite included in garnet, whereas the second one is widespread in the matrix. Biotite droplets and/or lamellae intimately growing with fine-grained plagioclase resemble biotite + plagioclase symplectite after phengite. The stage III is characterized by the widespread formation of amphibole: (1) as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, (2) as corona-type microstructure replacing garnet. Subordinate plagioclase (oligoclase) is also present in the amphibole corona. The stage IV is characterized by the local formation of biotite replacing garnet, actinolite, chlorite, albite and titanite. P- T pseudosections calculated with Perple_X give P- T conditions 580 < T < 660 °C, 1.3 < P < 1.8 GPa for the stage I. After the stage I, pressure decrease and temperature increase led to the breakdown of omphacite with the formation of clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite at ~1.25-1.40 GPa and 650-710 °C (stage II). P- T conditions of the amphibolite-facies stage III have been defined at 600-670 °C, P = 0.65-0.95 GPa. P- T conditions of the latest stage IV are in the range of greenschist facies. The P- T path of the retrogressed eclogite hosted in the medium-grade micaschist and paragneiss of Giuncana recalls the P- T

  1. Partial melting of metavolcanics in amphibolite facies regional metamorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Bruce Thompson


    Metavolcanic rocks containing low-Ca amphiboles (gedrite, cummingtonite) and biotite can undergo substantial dehydration-melting. This is likely to be most prominent in Barrovian Facies Series (kyanite-sillimanite) and occurs at the same time as widespread metapelite dehydration- melting. In lower pressure facies series, metavolcanics will be represented by granulites rich in orthopyroxene when dehydration occurs at much lower temperatures than melting. In higher pressure facies series it is not well known whether metavolcanic rocks dehydrate or melt at temperatures lower or similar to that of metapelites.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brajesh Singh; Santosh Kumar; Masao Ban; Kazuo Nakashima


    Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values ($\\lt$3 ×10$^{−3}$ SI), molar Al$_2$O$^3$/(CaO+Na$_2$O+K$_2$O) ($\\geq$1.1), mineral assemblage (bt–ms–pl–kf–qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An$_{10}$–An$_{31}$) and EPG (An$_{15}$–An$_{33}$) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An$_2$–An$_{15}$) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more or less similar (Or$_{88}$ to Or$_{95}$ in GGn, Or$_{86}$ to Or$_{97}$ in EPG and Or$_{87}$ to Or$_{94}$ in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.34–0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.27–0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.25–0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Fe$\\rightleftarrows$2Al, 3Mg$\\rightleftarrows$2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.58–0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.31−0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fet = 0.29–0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline fromEPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (∼13, ∼17 and ∼13%, respectively) of kf




    Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation) using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the sm...

  4. P-T path and timing of crustal thickening during amalgamation of East and West Gondwana: A case study from the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Ali, Kamal A.; Okrusch, Martin


    The southeastern sector of the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, southern Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises infrastructural orthogneisses of tonalite and syenogranite parentage, amphibolites, and a volcano-sedimentary association. These are overthrust by an obducted suprastructural ophiolite nappes via the Nugrus thrust. The protolith of the biotite-hornblende-gneisses was formed during island-arc accretion, while that of the garnet-biotite gneisses were formed in a within-plate regime, consistent with a transition to a post-collisional setting. The volcano-sedimentary association comprises interbedded and intercalated highly foliated metapelitic schists, metabasites, and leucocratic gneisses, deposited in a back-arc basin. The metapelites and the leucocratic gneisses originated from immature Fe-shales and arkoses derived from intermediate-mafic and acidic igneous rocks, respectively, via weak chemical weathering in a tectonically active island arc terrane. The intercalated amphibolites were derived from tholeiitic basalts generated in a back-arc setting. The volcano-sedimentary association was metamorphosed under upper-amphibolite facies conditions with pressures of 9-13 kbar and temperatures of 570-675 °C, as derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosection calculation. A steep, tight clockwise P-T path is constrained and a geothermal gradient around 20 °C/km is estimated for the peak metamorphism. We assume that deformation and metamorphism are due to crustal thickening during the collision of East and West Gondwana, where peak metamorphism took place in the middle to lower crust at 33 km average crustal depth. This was followed by a subsequent quasi-isothermal decompression due to rapid exhumation during wrench tectonics. Sinistral transcurrent shearing with extensional denudation resulted in vertical ductile thinning that was accompanied by heat input from magmatism, as indicated by a higher geothermal gradient during retrograde metamorphism and

  5. Partial melting of subducted paleo-Pacific plate during the early Cretaceous: Constraint from adakitic rocks in the Shaxi porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Lower Yangtze River Belt (United States)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Li, Shuang; Gu, Huangling; Mastoi, Abdul Shakoor; Sun, Weidong


    A large porphyry Cu-Au deposit associated with early Cretaceous intrusive rocks has been discovered and explored in the Shaxi area, Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), eastern China. We studied two types of intrusive rocks in the Shaxi area: Cu-Au mineralization related diorites and quartz-diorites (adakitic rocks), and newly found high Sr/Y ratio biotite-gabbros. They were formed almost simultaneously with crystallization ages of ca. 130 to 129 Ma, younger than the early stage shoshonitic rocks (Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao and Shuangmiao Fm.) in the Luzong volcanic basin, ~ 10 km south of the Shaxi area. These intrusive rocks show similar distribution patterns of trace elements (enriched in LILEs and depleted in HFSEs) and REEs (enriched in LREEs and depleted in HREEs, no Eu negative anomaly, flat HREE patterns). The diorites and quartz-diorites are adakitic rocks with calc-alkaline affinity, distinguished from other adakitic rocks in the LYRB which are high-K calc-alkaline series. The biotite-gabbros are not adakitic rocks, although they are characterized by high Sr/Y ratios. Shaxi adakitic rocks show positive zircon εHf(t) values, which may be attributed to the contribution of subducted oceanic crust, while the εHf(t) values of the biotite-gabbros are mostly negative, indicating the involvement of old crustal materials. Although Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of Shaxi adakitic rocks are more depleted than those of other adakitic rocks in the LYRB, they are still slightly enriched, similar to continental arc adakites in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone. The Shaxi adakitic rocks are characterized by high Sr contents and Sr/Y ratios, medium (La/Yb)N, MgO contents and Mg#, and low K2O/Na2O ratios, decoupling of Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N, low Th/U values, exhibiting characteristics of slab-derived adakitic rocks. They were not produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas like adakitic rocks in Edong-Jiurui and Tongling but originally generated from partial melting of subducted

  6. Zircon U-Pb geochronological framework of Qitianling granite batholith, middle part of Nanling Range, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Qitianling granite batholith (QGB) is located in the southern Hunan Province, middle part of the Nanling Range, South China. Its total exposure area is about 520 km2. Based on our 25 single grain zircon U-Pb age data and 7 published data as well as the geological, petrological, and space distribution characteristics, we conclude that QGB is an Early Yanshanian (Jurassic) multi-staged composite pluton. Its formation process can be subdivided into three major stages. The first stage, emplaced at 163―160 Ma with a peak at about 161 Ma, is mainly composed of hornblende-biotite monzonitic granites and locally biotite granites, and distributed in the eastern, northern, and western peripheral parts of the pluton. The second stage, emplaced at 157―153 Ma with a peak at 157―156 Ma, is mainly composed of biotite granites and locally containing hornblende, and distributed in the middle and southeastern parts of the pluton. The third stage, emplaced at 150―146 Ma with a peak at about 149 Ma, is mainly composed of fine-grained (locally porphyritic) biotite granites, and distributed in the middle-southern part of the pluton. Each stage can be further disintegrated into several granite bodies. The first two intrusive stages comprise the major phase of QGB, and the third intrusive stage comprises the additional phase. Many second stage fine-grained granite bosses and dykes intruded into the first stage host granites with clear chilling margin-baking phenomena at their intrusive contacts. They were emplaced in the open fracture space of the earlier stage consolidated rocks. Their isotopic ages are mostly 2―6 Ma younger than their hosts. Conceivably, the time interval from magma emplacement, through cooling, crystallization, solidification, up to fracturing of the earlier stage granites cannot exceed 2―6 Ma. During the Middle-Late Jurassic in the Qitianling area and neighboring Nanling Range, the coeval granitic and basic-intermediate magmatic activities were widely


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    20150130Chen Di(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410116,China);Chen Yanming Magma Mixing in the Xitian Pluton of Hunan Province:Evidence from Petrography,Geochemistry and Zircon U-Pb Age(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,41(1),2014,p.61-78,14illus.,2tables,69refs.)Key words:biotite granite,monzogranite,U-Pb dating,Hunan Province The Xitian pluton area is located in the middle segment of the Nanling Mountains,

  8. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands (United States)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala


    Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern Highlands.

  9. Cooling age of the Birimian juvenile crust in West Africa. U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data on the 2. 1 Ga granite-greenstone terrains from SW-Niger. Age de refroidissement de la croute juvenile birimienne d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Donnees U-Pb, Rb-Sr et K-Ar sur les formations a 2. 1 Ga du SW-Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lama, C.; Dautel, D.; Zimmermann, J.L. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques); Barbey, P. (Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France)); Cheilletz, A. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie Appliquee et de Prospection Miniere, 54 - Nancy (France)); Pons, J. (Orleans Univ., 45 (France))


    A comparison between zircon U-Pb, whole-rock Rb-Sr and biotite-amphibole K-Ar data on Birimian granite-greenstone terrains from SW-Niger indicates that the youngest granitic plutons were emplaced at 2.115 [+-] 5 Ma and that both the plutons and the surrounding greenstones yield cooling ages around 2.118 Ma. The age similarity between the end of the plutonism and the cooling of plutons and surrounding greenstone further suggests rapid cooling at the end of the plutonic event and, thus, corroborates a model of greenstone metamorphism linked to the thermal effect of the plutons. (authors).

  10. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.


    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  11. Postcrystallization thermal evolution history of Gangdese batholithic zone and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文寄; 李齐; 郝杰; 周新华; 万京林; 孙敏


    Using cooling curves of K-feldspars obtained by using specific 40Ar/39Ar stepe heating procedure and multiple diffusion domain modeling (MDD model), together with results of dating hornblends, biotite, and apatite, further work has been done to examine the characteristics of the postcrystallization thermal evolution history of Gangdese batholithic zone, to compare the starting times of rapid cooling events with the variation regularities of apatite fission track (FT) ages in the eastern and western parts of Gangdese batholithic zone, and to provide the evidence for mass transport and energy transfers in the lithosphere after the collision between Indian and Eurasian plates.

  12. Ductility contrast induced by silicification in pelitic schist of the Ryoke metamorphic belt, Japan (United States)

    Mateen, Tayyaba; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Rehman, Hafiz Ur; Terabayashi, Masaru


    Contrasting ductility is recognized in the rocks of Cretaceous Ryoke metamorphic belt in Iwakuni area, southwest Japan. Pelitic schist is ubiquitous in the region and differences in mineral assemblages mark increase in metamorphic grade. The area has been graded as chlorite-biotite zone in the north progressing into biotite- and muscovite-cordierite zones in the south. Pelitic schist near the boundary between the biotite- and muscovite-cordierite zones has undergone partial silicification to form whitish silicified schist layers which contain two types of quartz veins: those parallel to foliation in the host rock are called schistosity-concordant veins, and those inclined to host rock foliation, schistosity-discordant veins. In this study we examined the quartz structure in the silicified schist and in both types of veins to understand the ductility contrast induced by the silicification process. Crystallographic orientations of quartz in the veins and silicified schist rocks were studied using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) technique. Quartz c-axis orientations in the silicified schist are nearly random, demonstrating an absence of post-silicification ductile deformation. Quartz grains in the schistosity-concordant veins have preferred c-axis orientations perpendicular to the schistosity indicating ductile shortening. In contrast, schistosity-discordant veins display distinct quartz c-axis fabric than that found in the schistosity-concordant veins. This is because the two types of host rocks exhibit a difference in ductility during deformation. The presence of deformed quartz veins in the undeformed silicified schist indicates transformation of the ductile pelitic schist into the brittle silicified schist at mid-crustal levels where these rocks originate, hence forming contrasting rock layers. Schistosity-concordant veins in the biotite-rich pelitic schist deformed with its host rock in a ductile manner while

  13. 华南某些不同时代花岗岩类岩石中铍地球化学特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Beryllium was determined from more than 40 granite bodies of different ages in southern China. Results show that it tends to increase with geologie age. The average beryllium contents for granites of various ages are (%): Hsuehfeng Period, 0.00016;Early Caledonian, 0.00034; Late Caledonian, 0.00035 ; Indosinian, 0.00055; Early Yenshanian, 0.00111; Late Yenshanian, 0.00032. The overall average content of beryllium of granite in this area is 0.00052%, 0.00047% and 0.00137% for biotite-granites and two-mica granites respectively. There seems to he a close relationship between Bemineralization and Yenshanian granites.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: mica (United States)

    Hedrick, J.B.


    Humans have been using mica for millennia. Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines, and some Hindu physicians still incorporate biotite mica into medicines today. Early civilizations also used mica for decorations, as windows and as surfaces on which to draw or paint. Maya temples were decorated with mica pigments, which were incorporated into the stucco to make it sparkle in the sun. In North America, ancient inhabitants adorned gravesites and burial mounds with animal figures made of mica.

  15. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of Coahuila, Mexico: the Late Triassic Acatita intrusives


    Roberto S. Molina Garza


    The Acatita plutons intrude the upper Paleozoic of Las Delicias, southern Coahuila. We collected 96 samples from 15 sites in two plutons from Valle El Sobaco and Sierra Los Remedios for paleomagnetic and 40Ar-39Ar analyses. Separates of hornblende (215.9 ±1.9 Ma, 2 #963; confidence level), biotite (217.3 ±1.2 Ma), and K-feldspar (205.6 ±1.4 Ma) yield nearly flat age spectra although none of the data satisfy strict plateau criteria, possibly reflecting slight alteration. The preferred ages are...

  16. Long-lived high-temperature granulite-facies metamorphism in the Eastern Himalayan orogen, south Tibet (United States)

    Zhang, Zeming; Xiang, Hua; Dong, Xin; Ding, Huixia; He, Zhenyu


    The Namche Barwa Complex exposed in the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, south Tibet, underwent high-pressure (HP) and high-temperature (HT) granulite-facies metamorphism and associated anatexis. The HP pelitic granulites contain garnet, kyanite, sillimanite, cordierite, biotite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, spinel, ilmenite and graphite. These minerals show composite reaction texture and varying chemical compositions and form four successive mineral assemblages. Phase equilibrium modeling constrains the P-T conditions of 10-12 kbar and 550-700 °C for the prograde stage, 13-16 kbar and 840-880 °C for the peak-metamorphic stage, and 5-6 kbar and 830-870 °C for the late retrograde stage, indicating that the HP granulites recorded a clockwise P-T path involving the early heating burial and anatexis through dehydration melting of both muscovite and biotite, and the late isothermal decompression and gradual melt crystallization under HT granulite-facies conditions. The zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the HT granulite-facies metamorphism probably initiated at ca. 40 Ma, and lasted to ca. 8 Ma. Therefore, the present study provides robust evidence for a long-lived HT metamorphism and associated anatexis in the deeply buried Indian continent and important constraints on the leucogranite generation and tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen.

  17. Quaternary rhyolite from the Mineral Mountains, Utah, USA. Final report, Volume 77-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.H. Jr.; Nash, W.P.


    A suite of silicic volcanic rocks is associated with the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area in southwestern Utah. The volcanic sequence includes Tertiary rhyolite 8 My old and obsidian, ash and rhyolite of Quaternary age. The Quaternary lavas are characterized by high silica content (76.5% Si0/sub 2/) and total alkalies in excess of 9 percent. Obsidians commonly contain greater amounts of fluorine than water. Two older flows (0.8 My) can be distinguished from younger dome and pyroclastic material (approximately 0.5 My) by subtle differences in their chemistry. The mineralogy of the rhyolites consists of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and small amounts of Fe-Ti oxides, biotite, hornblende and rare allanite. Fe-Ti oxide temperatures are 740 to 785/sup 0/C for the flows and 635 to 665/sup 0/C for the domes; two feldspar temperatures give similar results. The phase relationships of bulk rock, glass and feldspar compositions demonstrate that the younger Quaternary rhyolites could have been derived from the earlier magma type, represented by the obsidian flows, by a process of crystal fractionation. The major phases which must fractionate are alkali feldspar, plagioclase and quartz with minor amounts of biotite, magnetite and ilmenite participating also. Trace element patterns support this scheme as well. The Tertiary lavas cannot be related to the Quaternary rhyolites and are thought to represent a separate event.

  18. Brittleness and Packing Density Effects on Blast-hole Cuttings Yield of Selected Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adebayo


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates brittleness and packing density to analysis their effects on blast-hole cutting yield for three selected rocks in Nigeria. Brittleness test (S20 was carried out in accordance with Norwegian Soil and Rock Engineering and the Brittleness Index (BI for the selected rocks were estimated. The packing density determined from the photomicrograph of the rock samples. The grain size of 45 blast-holes drill cuttings collected from three selected while drilling of these rocks were determined using standard method of America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 2487. The brittleness values are 50%, 44% and 42% for micro granite, porphyritic granite and medium biotite granite respectively. The result of BI varied from 10.32 – 11.59 and they are rated as moderately brittle rocks. The values of packing density varied from 92.20 – 94.55%, 91.00 -92.96% and 92.92 – 94.96% for all the rocks. The maximum weights of blast-hole particle size retained at 75 µm are 106.00g, 103.28 g and 99.76 g for medium biotite granite, micro granite and porhyritic granite respectively. Packing density values have correlation to some extent with (S20 values hence, this influence the yield of blast-hole cuttings as drilling progresses. The minimum weight of blast-hole cuttings particle size retained at 150 µm agrees with brittleness index classification for micro granite.

  19. Major magmatic events in Mt Meredith, Prince Charles Mountains: First evidence for early Palaeozoic syntectonic granites (United States)

    Gongurov, N.A.; Laiba, A.A.; Beliatsky, B.V.


    Precambrian rocks at Mt Meredith underwent granulite-facies metamorphism M1. Zircon isotope dating for two orthogneisses revealed the following age signatures: 1294±3 and 957±4Ma; 1105±5 and 887±2Ma. The oldest ages could reflect the time of orthogneiss protolith crystallization and the latest age determinations date Grenvillian metamorphism. The metamorphic rocks were intruded by two-mica and garnet-biotite granites. The granites and host rocks underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism M2. Zircon isotope analysis of the two-mica granites showed age estimation within 550-510Ma and zircon dating of the garnet-biotite granites revealed the ages of 1107±5, 953±8, and 551±4Ma. As Pan-African age signatures were obtained from only the granite samples, it is possible to suggest that the granites were formed at the time of 510-550Ma and the zircons with greater age values were captured by granites from the host rocks.

  20. Garnet-sillimanite bearing gneisses from Darjeeling, eastern Himalaya: Textural relationship and P–T conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Divya Prakash; Suparna Tewari


    The area around Darjeeling consists of medium grade metamorphic rocks and provides a classic example of inverted Himalayan metamorphism. The area under investigation shows upper amphibolite facies metamorphism (sillimanite-muscovite subfacies), rocks are intimately associated with the migmatites and granites. The presence of quartzite, calc-silicate rocks, graphitic schist and abundance of aluminous minerals like kyanite or sillimanite in these rocks indicate their metasedimentary character. Granetsillimanite bearing gneisses occupy most of the area of Darjeeling but not persistent throughout. Textural relationship suggests sequential growth of progressively higher-grade metamorphic minerals during D1 and D2 deformation. The relative XMg in the minerals varies in the order: biotite>staurolite>garnet, and the XMn decreases in the order: garnet>staurolite>biotite. The P–T evolution of these garnetsillimanite gneiss has been constrained through the use of conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent TWEEQU programme and Perple_X software in the KFMASH model system, the combination of these three approaches demonstrates that the Darjeeling gneisses experienced peak pressure and temperature at 7.0 ± 0.3 kbar and 700 ± 30°C. The observation in this study has important bearing on the inverted metamorphism in the Himalayan metamorphic belt.

  1. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh; R K Manhas; A K Tripathi; A K Raina; M K Gupta; S K Kamboj


    The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64–80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and opaques comprising of iron minerals constituted the heavy mineral fraction (20%). The mineralogy of both the sand and clay fractions revealed a mixed mineralogy. The clay minerals in the order of their dominance were vermiculite, illite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. The presence of vermiculite and illite in appreciable quantities indicates that these were synthesized from the K-rich soil solution, as orthoclase and micas were present in significant quantities in the sand minerals. The mineral suites identified in the study shows that the geological, climatological and topographical factors of the region collectively played a dominant role in their formation and transformation. After critical appraisal of the results, it may be deduced that the mineralogical composition, physicochemical properties and total elemental analysis of the soils do not show any deficiency of the bases and other plant nutrients in general. The inherent fertility of the soil is good as indicated by the sand and clay mineralogy of the soil and the biotite and feldspar together with the mica is an important source of nutrients for the vegetation in the soils of the Doon valley.

  2. Insights into the P–T evolution path of TsoMorari eclogites of the north-western Himalayas: Constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Singh; Ashima Saikia; Naresh Chandra Pant; Pramod Kumar Verma


    The present study is on the Ultra High Pressure Metamorphic rocks of the Tso Morari Crystalline Complex of the northwestern Himalayas. Five different mineral associations representative of five stages of P–T (pressure–temperature) evolution of these rocks have been established based on metamorphic textures and mineral chemistry. The pre-UHP metamorphic association 1 of Na-Ca-amphibole + epidote ± paragonite ± rutile ± magnetite with T–P of ∼500° C and 10 kbar. This is followed by UHP metamorphic regime marked by association 2 and association 3. Association 2 (Fe< Mg< Ca-garnet + omphacite + coesite + phengite + rutile ± ilmenite) marks the peak metamorphic conditions of atleast 33 kbar and ∼750° C. Association 3 (Fe< Mg< Ca-garnet + Na-Ca amphibole + phengite ± paragonite ± calcite ± ilmenite ± titanite) yields a P–T condition of ∼28 kbar and 700°C. The post-UHP metamorphic regime is defined by associations 4 and 5. Association 4 (Fe< Ca< Mg-garnet + Ca-amphibole + plagioclase (An05) + biotite + epidote ± phengite yields a P–T estimate of ∼14 kbar and 800°C) and association 5 (Chlorite + plagioclase (An0.5) + quartz + phengite + Ca- amphibole ± epidote ± biotite ± rutile ± titanite ± ilmenite) yields a P–T value of ∼7 kbar and 350°C.

  3. Microstructural, modal and geochemical changes as a result of granodiorite mylonitisation – a case study from the Rolovská shear zone (Čierna hora Mts, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

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    Farkašovský Roman


    Full Text Available Strong tectonic remobilisation and shear zone development are typical features of the easternmost part of the Veporicum tectonic unit in the Western Carpathians. The granodiorite mylonites in the area of the Rolovská shear zone (Čierna hora Mts underwent a complex polystage evolution during the Hercynian and Alpine orogenies. Deformation during the latter reached greenschist facies under metamorphic conditions. Mylonites are macroscopically foliated rocks with a stretching lineation and shear bands. Structurally different mylonite types, ranging from protomylonites to ulramylonites with typical grainsize reduction from the margins towards the shear zone centre, have been assessed. The modal mineralogy of the different mylonite types changes considerably. Typical is a progressive decrease in feldspar content and simultaneously the quartz and white mica content increases from protomylonites towards the most strongly deformed ultramylonites. The deformation had a brittle character in less deformed rocks and a ductile one in more deformed tectonites. Obvious chemical changes occur in mesomylonites and ultramylonites. During mylonitisation, the original biotite granodiorite was depleted of Mg, Fe, Na, Ca and Ba, while K, Rb and mainly Si increased considerably. Other (major and trace elements reflect erratic behaviour due to lateral mobility. Chemical changes indicate the breakdown and subsequent recrystallisation of biotite and feldspars and, in turn, the crystallisation of albite and sericite. REE decrease in ultramylonites due to the breakup of accessory minerals during deformation and alteration.

  4. The transition from porphyry- to epithermal-style gold mineralization at Ladolam, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea: a reconnaissance study (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Kaminski, Klaus; Uhlig, Stephan; Graupner, Torsten; Herzig, Peter M.; Hunt, Steve


    The exceptionally large gold resource at Ladolam (>1,300 metric tons of gold), Lihir Island, resulted from the transition of an early-stage, low-grade porphyry gold system to a low-sulfidation epithermal gold event. This transition was probably triggered by rapid decompression during the partial slope failure of Luise stratovolcano and accompanied by the ingress of seawater. The original porphyry stage is indicated by remnant hydrothermal breccia clasts of strongly biotite-magnetite altered monzodiorite with disseminated pyrite ± chalcopyrite and poorly developed pyrite ± quartz stockwork veins. The breccias are overprinted by biotite-magnetite alteration and their matrix is strongly mineralized with disseminated auriferous pyrite. The breccias are cut by late-stage epithermal quartz-chalcedony-illite-adularia-pyrite veins and associated illite-adularia alteration that locally contain bonanza gold grades of up to 120 g/t. Isotope data suggest a magmatic source of sulfur in the gold-bearing fluids at Ladolam. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at

  5. Records of Indosinian Orogenesis in Lhasa Terrane, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huaqi; Xu Zhiqin; Yang Jingsui; Cai Zhihui; Chen Songyong; Tang Zemin


    Based on the deformation characteristics of the ductile shear zones in Sumdo (松多) Group, the quartz fabric by EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction), the data of muscovite 40Ar-39Ar geochronology (220-230 Ma) from ductile shear zones and the zircon SHRIMP U-Pb chronology (190 Ma) of granites in Snmdo region, Lhasa (拉萨) terrane is thought to have experienced an important Indosinian orogenic event at 220-230 Ma, which caused the closure of the paleo-Tethys Ocean along the tectonic zone of eclogite and the collision between northern part and southern part of the Lhasa terrane. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb chronology of 190 Ma for biotite adamellite, with the distributing characteristics of the granite massif intruding in Sumdo Group, indicates that the biotite adamellitc should be the late orogenic or post-orogenic granite resulting from the lndosinian orogenesis. The discovery of Indosinian orogenic belt in Lhasa terrane expansed the southern boundary of lndosinian orogenic belt in Qinghai (青海)-Tibet plateau to Lhasa terrane from Qiangtang (羌塘) terrane, which changed the understanding about the distribution of Indosinian orogenic belt in Qinghai-Tibet plateau and extended the "T" type lndosinian orogenic belt in China. The study is very important for the formation and distribution of paleo-Tethys Ocean in Tibet. The ancient terrane framework and evolution of Qinghai-Tibet plateau need further research.

  6. Sr isotope evolution during chemical weathering of granites -- impact of relative weathering rates of minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Sr isotopic systematics in the weathering profiles of biotite granite and granite porphyry in southern Jiangxi Province were investigated. The results showed that during the chemical weathering of granites, remarked fractionation occurred between Rb and Sr. During the early stages of chemical weathering of granites, the released Sr/Si and Sr/Ca ratios are larger than those of the parent rocks, and the leaching rate of Sr is higher than those of Si, Ca, K, Rb, etc. Dynamic variations in relative weathering rates of the main Sr-contributing minerals led to fluctuation with time in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of inherent and released Sr in the weathering crust of granite. Successive weathering of biotite, plagioclase and K-feldspar made 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the weathering residues show such a fluctuation trend as to decrease first, increase, and then decrease again till they maintain stable. This work further indicates that when Sr isotopes are used to trace biogeochemical processes on both the catchment and global scales, one must seriously take account of the prefer-ential release of Sr from dissolving solid phase and the fluctuation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios caused by the variations of relative weathering rates of Sr-contributing minerals.

  7. Petrographical and geochemical characterization and deformation conditions of the San Cristobal pluton, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina; Caracterizacion petrografica y geoquimica y condiciones de deformacion del pluton San Cristobal, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellos, L.I.; Toselli, A.J.; Rossi, J.N.; Grosse, P.; Rosa, J.D. de la; Castro, A.


    The San Cristobal pluton is a 35 km2 granitic body that outcrops at the southestern tip of the Sierra de Velasco, located west of La Rioja city, Argentina. It is formed by monzogranites and syenogranites, together with scarce granodiorites, with medium to fine-grained, equigranular to slightly porphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblage consists of quartz + microcline + plagioclase + biotite {+-} muscovite + zircon + apatite + magnetite. The granite contains dioritic to tonalitic mafic enclaves. The central and eastern parts of the granite have been deformed by the NNW-SSE trending South Mylonitic shear zone formed by mylonitic rocks. The metamorphic host-rock is represented by scarce greenschist facies xenoliths and hornfels with the high T/P assemblage K-feldspar - cordierite - biotite {+-} sillimanite. The granites are calc-alkaline, weak- to moderately peraluminous, and formed as part of a continental magmatic arc developed along the active margin of western Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The depth of emplacement of the San Cristobal pluton is estimated at {approx}12 km. (Author).

  8. The Encantada Granite: registration of a peraluminous intrusion in the Rondonian Province - San Ignacio, in SW Amazonic Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Verginassi do Nascimento


    Full Text Available The Encantada Granite occurs on the extreme southwest of the state of Mato Grosso, SW of the Amazonian Craton, near the border of Brasil/Bolívia. It corresponds to an body oriented to NNW direction that intruded metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. It consists of leucogranites with monzo- to sienogranitic composition, marked by prominent schistosity. It is characterized by equigranular to porphyritic inequigranular texture, and composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite with garnet, zircon, allanite and opaque minerals. Chlorite and epidote are the most common secondary minerals. The geochemical study allows the classification of the magmatism as having acid character, sub-alkaline, high-potassium-calc-alkaline to shoshonitic type. These rocks have alumina index saturation higher than 1, with normative corundum, and thus classified as peraluminous granite. Due to the reflection of the excess of aluminium, they have various aluminous phases, mainly muscovite, biotite and garnet; presents typical pattern of calc-alkaline rocks rich in potassium with enrichment of light ETRs over the heavy ones. The collected data allows to consider that the Encantada Granite rocks were generated from the partial melting of crustal rocks of pelitic composition.

  9. Geochemical evidence for contribution of ore-forming materials from peraluminous granite basement-- Taking Fucheng pluton and No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Bangtong(章邦桐); CHEN; Peirong(陈培荣); YANG; Dongsheng(杨东生); KONG; Xinggong(孔兴功)


    Using the induced fission-track method, mobile uranium leaching and lead isotope analysis, this work obtianed geochemical features of the peraluminous Fucheng granite basement and the host rock (shoshonite) of the No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province. (i) Uranium contents of the leucocratic rock-forming minerals (0.18 ?g/g for quartz, 0.36 ?g/g for feldspar) are lower than the uranium content of the whole rock (4.6 ?g/g). Biotite and some accessory mineral inclusions (zircon, monazite and uraninite) are the main uranium carriers of the Fucheng granite pluton. The fissure uranium in altered minerals (hydromica and chlorite) increased evidently. (ii) Leachable rate of mobile uranium in the biotite granite is 10.4%, while that in the altered granite increased to 31%. (iii) Caculation based on lead isotopes shows that during alteration the Fucheng granite lost uranium (?U = ?37% - ?65%), whereas the Caotaobei shoshonite gained uranium (?U = +37%- +58%). These features suggest that the ore-forming material of the No. 6722 uranium deposit was mainly derived from the altered peraluminous granite basement of Fucheng pluton.

  10. A microfluidic approach to water-rock interactions using thin rock sections: Pb and U sorption onto thin shale and granite sections. (United States)

    Oh, Youn Soo; Jo, Ho Young; Ryu, Ji-Hun; Kim, Geon-Young


    The feasibility of using microfluidic tests to investigate water-rock (mineral) interactions in fractures regarding sorption onto thin rock sections (i.e., shale and granite) of lead (Pb) and uranium (U) was evaluated using a synthetic PbCl2 solution and uranium-containing natural groundwater as fluids. Effluent composition and element distribution on the thin rock sections before and after microfluidic testing were analyzed. Most Pb removal (9.8mg/cm(2)) occurred within 3.5h (140 PVF), which was 74% of the total Pb removal (13.2mg/cm(2)) at the end of testing (14.5h, 560 PVF). Element composition on the thin shale sections determined by μ-XRF analysis indicated that Pb removal was related primarily to Fe-containing minerals (e.g., pyrite). Two thin granite sections (biotite rich, Bt-R and biotite poor, Bt-P) exhibited no marked difference in uranium removal capacity, but a slightly higher amount of uranium was removed onto the thin Bt-R section (266μg/cm(2)) than the thin Bt-P section (240μg/cm(2)) within 120h (4800 PVF). However, uranium could not be detected by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis, likely due to the detection limit. These results suggest that microfluidic testing on thin rock sections enables quantitative evaluation of rock (mineral)-water interactions at the micro-fracture or pore scale.

  11. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long (厉子龙); CHEN Han-lin (陈汉林); SANTOSH M.; YANG Shu-feng (杨树锋)


    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel,and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7 ℃, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8℃ translating into CO2densities of the order of 0.86-0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  12. HRTEM/AEM study of trace metal behavior, sheet silicate reactions, and fluid/solid mass balances in porphyry copper hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.


    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate copper (Cu) incorporation into silicates and alteration reactions in porphyry copper deposits. High Cu in biotites results from submicroscopic inclusions of native Cu. The incorporation of Cu in low-temperature alteration lamellae suggests that Cu enrichment occurs during weathering, rather than during the hydrothermal event. Drill core from Cyprus Casa Grande, Arizona, shows systematic variation of Cu in sheet silicates as a function of depth in the weathering column. The aims of the present project are to apply the powerful techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to understanding the geochemical processes in porphyry copper systems at the near-atomic scale. Our primary goals are to characterize the structural state of anomalously high Cu in silicates, determine the timing and conditions of Cu enrichment in silicates such as biotite, and use these data to suggest how base metals are released and subsequently immobilized under hydrothermal or weathering conditions; and to determine the submicroscopic, atomic-level reaction mechanisms responsible for silicate alteration in porphyry-copper hydrothermal systems, which will allow us to determine reaction stoichiometries and hence mass balances between minerals and hydrothermal fluid. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Cananeia Alkaline Body in the South Coast of São Paulo State: Mineral Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso de Barros Gomes


    Full Text Available The Cananeia alkaline occurrence of Late Cretaceous age (Ar-Ar, 83.6 Ma lies in the Ribeira Valley and it is representedby two small bodies: Morro de São João (1.8 km2 in Cananeia Island, and Morrete (0.4 km2, in the neighboringComprida Island. It is covered by Quaternary sediments and mostly constituted by intrusive rocks of syenitic composition,assembled into two principal groups: alkali feldspar syenites and quartz-alkali feldspar syenites. Microsyenites of variabletexture are subordinate. Regarding the mineralogy, the rocks are very rich in feldspars, mesoperthite being the most abundantphase, and plagioclase is only occasionally found as isolated crystals. Mafi c minerals consist dominantly of clinopyroxenesand amphiboles, both belonging to the calcic, calcic-sodic and sodic groups and showing signifi cant chemicalvariations, such as the increase in the Fe/Mg ratio and Na content, and the decrease in Ca, as a function of the degree ofevolution of the rocks. Textural relationships show that clinopyroxene reacts to form amphibole. Biotite is common, mainlyin association with amphibole and opaques. Biotite and opaques together are found at the borders of amphibole grainsor concentrated along their fractures and cleavage planes. Fayalitic olivine is rarely preserved. Most common accessoriesinclude opaques, mainly magnetite with exsolved ilmenite lamellae, apatite, titanite and zircon. Late to post-magmatic alterationprocesses can explain the replacement textures shown by the principal primary minerals and the exsolution structuresfound in feldspars and opaques.

  14. 广东云开大山花岗岩类形成的初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树锋; 蒋引珊


    This paper deals with the experimental studies on the formation of the reworkingtype(rpughly corresponding to S-typ)granites.All the experiments were based on extensive geological investigations into the Napeng granite body of Luoding,Guangdong Province.Thie granite body was formed by reworking and metasomatism of metamorphie rocks which had reached the amphibolite facies,For this reason,the metamorphic rocks consisting mainly of quartz-ica-schists were taken as the starting materials in the experiments.At 1kb and 400°-550℃ the samples of quartz-mica schist reacted with various Na-and K-rich aqueous solutions,resulting in the quartz-albite-biotite and quartz-K-feldspar-biotite assemblages similar to those in the granites.In addition,several initial melting and melting-erystallization experiments on metamorphic rocks and migmatites were performed at 1-2kb and 550°-990℃,Moreover,the equilibrium constants for the reactions were computed at 400°-600℃ ad 1-2kb on the basis of J.D.Frantz's data on the solubility of minerals.Experimental data and thermodynamic calculations indicate that the reworkingtype granites were formed from metamorphic rocks,such as quartz-schist,through reaction with alkali-silicate aquous solutions.

  15. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism followed by two-stage decompression of garnet orthopyroxene sillimanite granulites from Ganguvarpatti, Madurai block, southern India (United States)

    Sajeev, K.; Osanai, Y.; Santosh, M.


    The Mg Al granulites from Ganguvarpatti consist of orthopyroxene sillimanite garnet ± quartz as peak assemblage, with a few porphyroblasts of cordierite and sapphirine. These assemblages were strongly overprinted by late symplectites and coronas. Orthopyroxene inclusions in garnet and porphyroblast cores have the highest X Mg (0.80) and Al2O3 content (10.7 wt%). The estimated near-peak metamorphic conditions (1,000±50°C and 11 kbar) using garnet orthopyroxene geothermobarometry are consistent with those determined using a petrogenetic grid. The proposed multi-stage evolution process implies an initial decompression, deduced from multi-phase symplectites, followed by cooling during biotite formation. Further late decompression is explained from the orthopyroxene rims on biotite. This proposed P T path thus suggests a unique and complex evolution history for the UHT granulites of southern India. Present results are comparable with similar adjacent terranes in the Gondwana supercontinent, but the lack of structural and geochronological data makes a link with any major metamorphic event uncertain.

  16. Brasiliano-age granitoids in the Sergipana Fold Belt, NE Brazil: the Coronel João Sá Pluton (United States)

    Mcreath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Davison, I.; Chaves, J. M.; Conceiçāo, H.


    The Coronel João Sá pluton is a zoned Brasiliano-age, late- to post-tectonic intrusion in the Macururé schist domain of the Sergipana Foldbelt, Northeast Brazil. Biotite-hornblende granodiorite predominates, and flattened ultramafic to intermediate enclaves are present. Igneous orientations are present but fabrics produced by strong solid-state flattening are absent. Rb-Sr whole rock isochrons including enclaves and their host rocks yielded a probable intrusion age of 614 Ma which dates the waning phase of the dominant deformation which produced the F2 foliation of the Sergipana belt and is close to ages reported for late tectonic granites in other Brasiliano domains of Northeast Brazil. More radiogenic Sr (I Sr(614) = 0.71008 ± 52) is present in some felsic rocks, while less radiogenic Sr (I Sr(614) = 0.70814 ± 18) is mainly found in the more mafic core of the main body. Sr isotopic equilibrium between most enclaves and their host rocks was attained. Textural evidence, especially in the enclaves, shows that magma mixing occurred, but late biotite formation in the enclaves caused modifications of their chemical compositions. The geological, petrographical and isotopic evidence shows that the pluton was probably fed by a complex feeder system into the crust under extensional conditions. Variable upper crustal contamination was probably responsible for the isotopic heterogeneity of Sr.

  17. Rb-Sr age of Gaik granite, Ladakh Batholith, northwest Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, J.R.; Gopalan, K. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India)); Sharma, K.K.; Gupta, K.R.; Choubey, V.M. (Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India))


    The Gaik Granite is a part of Ladakh batholith outcropping between Gaik and Kiari in NW Himalaya. This is a pink porphyritic granite rich in biotite and poor in hornblende. Rb-Sr analyses have been made on six whole-rock samples of the Gaik Granite. Though the samples are poorly enriched in radiogenic Sr, they define a reliable isochron corresponding to an age of 235+-13(2sigma) m.y. and initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of 0.7081+-0.0004 (2sigma), Biotite, plagioclase and potash feldspar fractions separated from two of the samples have yielded a much younger mineral isochron at 30+-1.5 m.y. indicating a nearly complete redistribution of Sr isotopes between mineral phases at a time much later than the primary emplacement of the granite. The present results show that at least some components of the Ladakh batholith are of Permo-Triassic aqe. These rocks were isotopically re-equilibrated on a mineral scale during Upper Oligocene in response to the Himalayan orogeny.

  18. The role of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium availability in soil fungal exploration of mineral nutrient sources in Norway spruce forests. (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Berner, Christoffer; Smits, Mark M; Krám, Pavel; Wallander, Håkan


    We investigated fungal growth and community composition in buried meshbags, amended with apatite, biotite or hornblende, in Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests of varying nutrient status. Norway spruce needles and soil collected from forests overlying serpentinite had low levels of potassium and phosphorus, those from granite had low levels of magnesium, whereas those from amphibolite had comparably high levels of these nutrients. We assayed the fungal colonization of meshbags by measuring ergosterol content and fungal community with 454 sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. In addition, we measured fine root density. Fungal biomass was increased by apatite amendment across all plots and particularly on the K- and P-deficient serpentinite plots, whereas hornblende and biotite had no effect on fungal biomass on any plots. Fungal community (total fungal and ectomycorrhizal) composition was affected strongly by sampling location and soil depth, whereas mineral amendments had no effect on community composition. Fine root biomass was significantly correlated with fungal biomass. Ectomycorrhizal communities may respond to increased host-tree phosphorus demand by increased colonization of phosphorus-containing minerals, but this does not appear to translate to a shift in ectomycorrhizal community composition. This growth response to nutrient demand does not appear to exist for potassium or magnesium limitation.

  19. Exploring the potential of phyllosilicate minerals as potassium fertilizers using sodium tetraphenylboron and intensive cropping with perennial ryegrass. (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Huoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Zijun; Zhou, Jianmin


    In response to addressing potassium (K) deficiency in soil and decreasing agricultural production costs, the potential of K-bearing phyllosilicate minerals that can be directly used as an alternative K source has been investigated using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) extraction and an intensive cropping experiment. The results showed that the critical value of K-release rate and leaf K concentration was 3.30 g kg(-1) h(-1) and 30.64 g (kg dry matter)(-1), respectively under the experimental conditions. According to this critical value, the maximum amount of released K that could be utilized by a plant with no K deficiency symptoms was from biotite (27.80 g kg(-1)) and vermiculite (5.58 g kg(-1)), followed by illite, smectite and muscovite with 2.76, 0.88 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively. Ryegrass grown on phlogopite showed K deficiency symptoms during the overall growth period. It is concluded that biotite and vermiculite can be directly applied as a promising and sustainable alternative to the use of classical K fertilizers, illite can be utilized in combination with soluble K fertilizers, whereas muscovite, phlogopite and smectite may not be suitable for plant growth. Further field experiments are needed to assess the use of these phyllosilicate minerals as sources of K fertilizer.

  20. Beneficiation of a low grade limestone sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Danda Srinivas; Vijayakumar Tadiparthi Venkata; Subba Rao Sripada; Bhaskar Raju Guntamadugu; Prabhakar Swarna


    Pilot scale column flotation studies were conducted on a low grade siliceous limestone ore.Silica content was reduced to less than 1% in the concentrate so that it became satisfactory for use in the paper or rubber industries.The limestone sample was crystalline and constituted primarily of calcite that contained quartz,feldspar,pyroxene,and biotite as gangue minerals.Quartz is the major silicate gangue whereas feldspar,pyroxene,and biotite exist in minor to trace quantities.Traces of pyrite were also observed within the sample.A reverse flotation process was adopted where the silicate gangue minerals were floated using two different commercial cationic collectors:Chem-750 F or Floatamine-D.The studies clearly suggest it is possible to produce a limestone concentrate assaying around 96-97% CaCO3 containing less than 1 % SiO2.The effect of feed flow rate,percent solids,froth depth,and wash water on the grade and recovery of the CaCO3 concentrate is discussed.

  1. The timing of tectonic transition from compression to extension in Dabieshan:Evidence from Mesozoic granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Changqian; YANG Kunguang; MING Houli; LIN Guangchun


    With the methods of single grain zircon U-Pb and hornblende-biotite Ar-Ar dating, a U-Pb zircon age (135.4(2.7) Ma of Liujiawa high Sr/Y granite and 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages (139.0(1.0) Ma and (125.3(0.2) Ma of hornblende and biotite respectively of Fenliupu high Sr/Y granite in the Dabieshan high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt are yielded. Following the emplacement of the high Sr/Y granites, extension-related mafic intrusions and late granitoids with negative Sr and Eu anomalies and isotopic ages of 105-130 Ma were emplaced. Geochemical comparison between the two types of granitoids shows that, from early to late, the alkalinities, the K2O contents and the Sr/Y ratios as well as FeO/(FeO+MgO) ratios of the rocks increase, while the abundance of Sr reduces, suggesting that as time goes on the depth of crustal melting decreases. Rheological stratification of the crust due to early Cretaceous partial melting of crustal rocks resulted in crustal extension and deep-buried rock exhumation. Therefore, the high Sr/Y granite that appeared at ~135 Ma is the product of the tectonic transition from early shortening to late overall extension.

  2. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy) (United States)

    di Martino, Corrado; Forni, Francesca; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Palmeri, Rosaria; Webster, James D.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.


    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent mafic-magma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes.

  3. Cesium adsorption/desorption behavior of clay minerals considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hirose, Atsushi; Motai, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro


    Cesium adsorption/desorption experiments for various clay minerals, considering actual contamination conditions in Fukushima, were conducted using the 137Cs radioisotope and an autoradiography using imaging plates (IPs). A 50 μl solution containing 0.185 ~ 1.85 Bq of 137Cs (10-11 ~ 10-9 molL-1 of 137Cs) was dropped onto a substrate where various mineral particles were arranged. It was found that partially-vermiculitized biotite, which is termed “weathered biotite” (WB) in this study, from Fukushima sorbed 137Cs far more than the other clay minerals (fresh biotite, illite, smectite, kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, imogolite) on the same substrate. When WB was absent on the substrate, the amount of 137Cs sorbed to the other clay minerals was considerably increased, implying that selective sorption to WB caused depletion of radiocesium in the solution and less sorption to the coexisting minerals. Cs-sorption to WB continued for about one day, whereas that to ferruginous smectite was completed within one hour. The sorbed 137Cs in WB was hardly leached with hydrochloric acid at pH 1, particularly in samples with a longer sorption time. The presence/absence of WB sorbing radiocesium is a key factor affecting the dynamics and fate of radiocesium in Fukushima.

  4. The thermal history of the miarolitic granite at Xincun,Fujian Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The thermal history of the late Mesozoic miarolitic granite has been studied based on zircon U-Pb dating, whole rock Rb-Sr dating and K-Ar dating of muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar from the same rock sample. From the beginning of zircon crystallization to the closure of K-Ar system of biotite, the granite body had a slow cooling rate (11.0℃/Ma) and an ascending rate (0.07 mm/a). From the end of this stage to the closure of K-Ar system of K-feldspar, the granite body increased its cooling rate (45℃/Ma) and ascending rate (0.36 mm/a). The thermal history of the Xincun granite with a slow cooling rate at the early stage and a fast cooling rate at the late stage may have been related to the fact that the Fujian coastal area had very high geothermal gradient in the late Mesozoic and evident decrease in geothermal gradient in the early Cenozoic.

  5. A Large Ductile Sinistral Strike-Slip Shear Zone and Its Movement Timing in the South Qilian Mountains, Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志琴; 李海兵; 陈文; 吴才来; 杨经绥; 金小赤; 陈方远


    There is a large ductile shear zone, 2 km wide and more than 350 km long, in the South Qilian Mountains,western China. It is composed of volcanic, granitic and calcareous mylonites. The microstructures of the ductile shear zone show nearly E-W extending subvertical foliation, horizontal and oblique stretching lineations, shearing sense from sinistral to oblique sinistral strike-slip from east to west, "A" type folds and abundant granitic veins. Measured lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) of the mylonitic and recrystallized quartz of the granitic mylonite in the west segment suggest a strong LPO characterized by the dominant slip systems { 1010} formed at high temperature (>650℃). K-feldspar of the mylonite shows an 39Ar/40Ar high-temperature plateau age of 243.3±1.3 Ma, and biotite, 250.5±0.5 Ma, which represent the formation age of the ductile shear zone. The 39Ar/40Ar plateau ages of 169.7±0.3 Ma and 160.6±0.1 Ma and the 39Ar/40Ar isochron ages of 166.99±2.37 Ma and 160.6±0.1 Ma of biotites in the mylo. nite represent the subsequent deformation age. These ages indicate that this ductile shear zone is similar to the Altun and South Kunlun sinistral ductile shear zones in its ages of movement, formation, reactivation and duration.

  6. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China. (United States)

    Li, Zi-long; Chen, Han-lin; Santosh, M; Yang, Shu-feng


    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7 degrees C, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8 degrees C translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86-0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  7. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China. (United States)

    Li, Zi-Long; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng; Dong, Chuan-Wan; Xiao, Wen-Jiao


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rb contents. The AG has moderate SigmaREE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG may be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750 degrees C-780 degrees C and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  8. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; 杨树锋; 董传万; 肖文交


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+),and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rb contents. The AG has moderate ∑REE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG -05 be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750 ℃-780 ℃ and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  9. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; 杨树锋; 董传万; 肖文交


    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+),and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rbcontents. The AG has moderate ∑REE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG may be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750℃-780℃ and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  10. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China* (United States)

    Li, Zi-long; Chen, Han-lin; Santosh, M; Yang, Shu-feng


    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around −56.7 °C, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3–23.8 °C translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86–0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions. PMID:15362187

  11. Geochronological evidence of Indosinian(high-pressure) metamorphic event and its tectonic significance in Taxkorgan area of the Western Kunlun Mountains,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The CL images,LA-ICP-MS in situ trace elements analysis,and U-Pb dating for zircons indicate that the metamorphic ages of the sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss and the garnet-amphibole gneiss from eastern Taxkorgan of the Western Kunlun Mountains are 220±2 and 220±3 Ma respectively,and their protolith ages are younger than 253±2 and 480±8 Ma respectively.Two samples were collected at the same outcrops with HP mafic granulite and HP pelitic granulite.Mineral assemblage of the sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss(Grt+Sill+Per+Q) is consistent with that of HP pelitic granulite at early high amphibolite-granulite facies stage.Mineral assemblage of the garnet-amphibole gneiss(Grt+Amp+Pl+Q) is consistent with retro-metamorphic assemblage of HP mafic granulite at amphibolite facies stage.The dating results suggest that these HP granulites underwent peak metamorphism at 220±2 to 253±2 Ma.Thus,the Kangxiwar tectonic zone was probably formed by subduction and collision of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean during Indosinian.Protolith ages of the two samples,together with previously published U-Pb zircon dating age,suggest that the sillimanite-garnet schist-quartzite unit is a late Paleozoic unit,not a part of the Paleoproterozoic Bulunkuole Group.

  12. Caledonian granitoids in the Jinxiu area, Guangxi, South China: Implications for their tectonic setting (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Chunzeng


    Jinxiu area is tectonically located between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks of South China. The area has three granitic plutons, Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons. Geochemically the plutons are high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Ba, Sr, P, and Ti and rich in Pb, with decoupled Nb and Ta, and show non-island-arc magmatic affinity. Biotite monzogranite samples collected from the Dajin, Boquan, and Lingzu plutons yield zircon SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 419.0 ± 5.0 Ma, 436.0 ± 4.0 Ma, and 446.1 ± 8.2 Ma, respectively, indicating that the plutons were emplaced during the Late Ordovician to Late Silurian of the Caledonian time. The granodiorite within the Lingzu biotite monzogranite pluton yields a zircon 206Pb/238U age of 174.5 ± 1.9 Ma, indicating a superimposed Late Jurassic magmatic event. The monzogranites and their enclaves show εNd(t) values of - 14.7 to - 11.1 and - 8.0 respectively and TDM2 values of 2.1-2.4 Ga and 1.8 Ga, respectively, demonstrating that the magmas were derived from re-melted Paleoproterozoic continental crust. Based on geochronology and geochemistry of the granitic plutons, as well as regional stratigraphy and paleontology, it is concluded that any existence of oceanic crust and oceanic subduction was unlikely in the Jinxiu area and vicinity during the Paleozoic Caledonian Ordovician-Silurian time.

  13. Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC, southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 µWm–3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (∼100 MPa, at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM and oxidized (+1 REPLACE_LT ΔQFM REPLACE_LT +3 environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress.

  14. LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb Dating for Three Indosinian Granitic Plutons from Central Hunan and Western Guangdong Provinces and Its Petrogenetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Bingxia; WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; PENG Touping; LIANG Xinquan


    The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 214.1±5.9 Ma and 210.3±4.7 Ma for the biotite monzonitic granites from the Xiema and Xiangzikou plutons in Hunan Province, and 205.3±1.6 Ma for biotite granite from the Napeng pluton, western Guandong Province, respectively, showing a similar late Indosinian age of crystallization. In combination with other geochronological data from Indosinian granites within the South China Block (SCB), it is proposed that those late Indosinian granites with an age of ~210 Ma and the early Indosinian granites (230-245 Ma) have the similar petrogenesis in identical tectonic setting. The Indosinian granites within the SCB might be the products of anatexis of the thickening crust in a compressive regime. These data provide a further understanding for the temporal and spatial distribution of the Indosinian granites and the dynamic evolution of the SCB.

  15. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Petrologia e geocronologia (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) do Granito Passagem, Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, SW do Craton Amazonico (MT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso(ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de, E-mail:, E-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral


    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  16. Nitrogen in Ancient Mud: A Biosignature? (United States)

    Stüeken, Eva E.


    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. Burial of nitrogen bound to organic matter constitutes the major flux of nitrogen into sediments today, which has led to the inference that nitrogen enrichments in sedimentary rocks may be a biosignature. However, abiotic processes such as lightning or volcanism can fix atmospheric N2 and contribute to sedimentary nitrogen burial in the absence of life. It is therefore uncertain whether observed nitrogen enrichments of up to 430 ppm in Paleoarchean metasedimentary biotite grains are indeed biogenic. This study seeks to address that problem with a numerical model. The NH4+ concentration of an abiotic ocean is modeled as a function of source fluxes, pH-dependent NH3 volatilization, and equilibrated adsorption of NH4+ onto clay particles. The results suggest that the observed nitrogen concentrations in Paleoarchean biotite can only be reconciled with purely abiotic processes if the ocean was more acidic (pH origin. While this does not necessitate a particular metabolism such as biological N2 fixation, the data provide evidence of nitrogen utilization back to 3.8 Gyr. Nitrogen abundances could thus provide useful information in extraterrestrial missions.

  17. Science Letters: Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; SANTOSHM.; 杨树锋


    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7℃, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8℃ translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86-0.88g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  18. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.


    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  19. Experiment on comprehensive utilization of low-grade phosphate ore%低品位含磷矿石的综合利用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓华; 刘海宁


    The comprehensive recovery of apatite, diopside, biotite and iron ore in a low-grade phosphate ore was introduced.The experiments adopted low cost gravity-magnetic separation process flow and separated phosphate concentrate of 31% P2O5 from crude ore with 3.44% P2O5.At the same time, biotite of 31.06% and pyroxene of 51.14% were recovered, and iron concentrate with TFe 68.20% was attained.The technical and economic index was better.%介绍某低品位磷矿中磷灰石、透辉石、黑云母、铁矿石的综合回收情况,试验采用低成本的重选-磁选联合工艺流程,从P2O5品位为3.44%的原矿中选得P2O5为31%的磷精矿,同时回收了矿物量分别为31.06%和51.14%的黑云母和辉石产品,并得到含TFe为68.20%的铁精矿,取得较好的技术经济指标.

  20. 西藏南部花岗岩类熔化实验的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Melting experiments have been carried out on major rock types from the three rock belts in Southern Xizang. These rocks, being quite different in chemical composition, are representative of granites of Late Yenshanian, Early Himalayan and Late Himalayan periods in this area, Experimental water pressures are eontrolled at 2kb. Results show the beginning temperatures of melting for the seven rock types are : Gubug tourmaline-muscovite granite 615℃, Zayu coarse-grained gneiesose biotite-granite 635℃, Kangmar finegrained gneissose two-mica granite 640℃,Dala gneissese two-mica granite 645℃, Quxu biotite granite 660℃, Lhasa granodiorite 700℃, and Gyubge hypersthene diorite 740℃. The beginning temperature of melting decreases with decreasing granite age.Spatially the temperature of formation drops progressively southwards from Kangdese through Lhagoi Kangri to Himalaya rock belt. Additionally, the beginning temperature of melting varies with the contents of mafic minerals and differentiation index of the rocks. Our experimental and geological data suggest that the three rock belts in Southern Xizang are all of magmatic origin. Himalaya and Lhagoi Kangrl rock belts arc stemed from partial melting of continental material, whereas Kangdese rock belt probably from remelting or partial melting of oceanic crustal material.

  1. Trace element geochemistry and tectonic characterization of the granulite facies rocks from Southwest Obudu Plateau, southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekere E. Ukwang; Barth N. Ekwueme


    The trace elements characteristics of the migmatitic gneisses (biotite-garnet- and hornblende-biotite), granulite facies rocks (charnockitic gneisses) and meta-peridotite in the area of Southwest Obudu Plateau indicate that the area exhibits a high degree of geochemical variability. Compatible trace elements (Ni and Cr) are comparatively high in the granulite facies rocks and meta-peridotite. Ni ranges from 28×10-6 to 266×10-6 whilst Cr ranges from 62×10-6 to 481×10-6 for the granulite facies rocks (charnockitic gneisses), and for the meta-peridotite Ni varies between 2045×10-6 and 2060×10-6. Incompatible trace elements show a higher variability in these rocks. The rocks in the area of Southwest Obudu Plateau generally are characterized by the high concentrations of Ba, Ce, Sr, Rb, Ga, Ni, Cr, Co, Zr, Pr and moderate concentrations of Cu, Sm and Th. The available data show that the charnockitic gneisses are of lower crustal origin. The enrichment of the meta-peridotite in compatible trace elements suggests the primitive mantle would be the source region, with slight contamination during ascent. These diverse origins collaborate the tectonic setting of the area as shown by discrimination diagrams. The diverse tectonic settings range from arc to collisional. Alkaline to sub-alkaline magmatism in the area was probably contemporaneous with the tectonic events that occurred in the area during the Proterozoic.

  2. Ar40/Ar39计时及西藏南部喜马拉雅期几个黑云母年龄的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴橙谟; 洪阿实


    Five biotites of Himalayan Period from southern Xizang platean have been irradiated and determined using reactor No. 901 in Qinghua University as fast neutron source(neutron flux 1.17× 1013n/cm2·s, fast neutron - 25%, duration of irradiation 18 hours) and MMhb-1 hornblende from USA as standard. Most of the samples were also determined by Ar36 isotope dilation method, and good agreement has been obtained for the results between the two approaches. This shows that Ar40/Ar39 dating is capable to distinguish clearly the order of intrusion among the multiphase intrnsions with respect to the young granites of Himalayan Period. Powder sample of CaF2 and K2SO4 were irradiated and ratios of (Ar36/Ar37)Ca. and(Ar39/Ar37)Ca and (Ar40/Ar39)x have been measured, which are of the same magnitutc of order as reported from other reac-tors in the world. For the ZBH-2506 biotite standard of China, Ar40/Ar39 age (130.9--131.9my)agrees with the age of 131±2.6 my as determined by dilution method. Plateau age obtained by step-wise heating (131±0.8my) is similar with the data obtained from total fusion and dilution methods.

  3. U-Pb zircon geochronology of rocks in the Salinas Valley region of California: A reevaluation of the crustal structure and origin of the Salinian block (United States)

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Grove, M.; Jacobson, C.E.; Pedrick, J.N.


    The Salinian block in the Salinas Valley region of central California consists of arc granitic and metasedimentary rocks (schist of Sierra de Salinas) sandwiched between coeval high-pressure, low-temperature me??lange belts. U-Pb zircon ages of three granitic plutons from this region range from 88 to 82 Ma, and coexisting biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 76-75 Ma. The U-Pb ages from detrital zircons indicate derivation of the protolith of the schist from a 117-81 Ma igneous provenance. Muscovite and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of 72-68 Ma from the nearby schist are distinctly younger than those from the granitic plutons. These data indicate that deposition and metamorphism of the schist occurred after emplacement of adjacent granitic rocks, contradicting the prevailing view that the schist comprises the local framework for the Salinian arc. We propose that the schist of Sierra de Salinas was thrust beneath the Salinian magmatic arc along a Campanian thrust fault that has not been recognized. This hypothesis implies that the Salinian arc originated as a klippe of basement rocks derived from the vicinity of the western Mojave Desert. Thrusting initiated southeastward-migrating Laramide tectonism of a style similar to that which formed the Vincent thrust and the latest Cretaceous and Paleocene Pelona and Orocopia Schists of southern California and southwestern Arizona.

  4. Formation of cordierite-bearing lavas during anatexis in the lower crust beneath Lipari Island (Aeolian arc, Italy) (United States)

    Di, Martino C.; Forni, F.; Frezzotti, M.L.; Palmeri, R.; Webster, J.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lucchi, F.; Tranne, C.A.


    Cordierite-bearing lavas (CBL;~105 ka) erupted from the Mt. S. Angelo volcano at Lipari (Aeolian arc, Italy) are high-K andesites, displaying a range in the geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in the source and/or processes. CBL consist of megacrysts of Ca-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, euhedral crystals of cordierite and garnet, microphenocrysts of orthopyroxene and plagioclase, set in a heterogeneous rhyodacitic-rhyolitic groundmass containing abundant metamorphic and gabbroic xenoliths. New petrographic, chemical and isotopic data indicate formation of CBL by mixing of basaltic-andesitic magmas and high-K peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of anatectic origin and characterize partial melting processes in the lower continental crust of Lipari. Crustal anatectic melts generated through two main dehydration-melting peritectic reactions of metasedimentary rocks: (1) Biotite + Aluminosilicate + Quartz + Albite = Garnet + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt; (2) Biotite + Garnet + Quartz = Orthopyroxene + Cordierite + K-feldspar + Melt. Their position into the petrogenetic grid suggests that heating and consequent melting of metasedimentary rocks occurred at temperatures of 725 crust of Lipari was induced by protracted emplacement of basic magmas in the lower crust (~130 Ky). Crustal melting of the lower crust at 105 ka affected the volcano evolution, impeding frequent maficmagma eruptions, and promoting magma stagnation and fractional crystallization processes. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden (United States)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Stephens, Michael B.; Weihed, Pär


    Altered and mineralized rocks at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore district in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, have been metamorphosed at low-pressure, amphibolite-facies conditions and affected by ductile deformation. Using combined surface mapping of lithology and structure, drill core logging and microstructural work, the polyphase (D1 and D2) ductile deformation is demonstrated and a 3D model for the deposit created. Mineral associations include quartz, biotite, cordierite, anthophyllite, and minor almandine, andalusite and chlorite in silicate-rich altered rock, calcite or dolomite in marble and tremolite-actinolite or diopside-hedenbergite in skarn. The silicate minerals show varying growth patterns during the different phases of the tectonothermal evolution, with considerable static grain growth occurring between D1 and D2, and even after D2. F2 sheath folding along axes that plunge steeply to the SSE, parallel to a mineral stretching lineation and the dip direction of the S2 foliation, is suggested as a key deformation mechanism forming steeply plunging, cone- to rod-shaped mineralized bodies. This contrasts with a previous structural model invoking fold interference. A major shear zone with talc-chlorite-(quartz-biotite) mineral association separates the northern and southern structural domains at the deposit and bounds the polymetallic massive sulphides to the north.

  6. Spatial variations in focused exhumation along a continental-scale strike-slip fault: The Denali fault of the eastern Alaska Range (United States)

    Benowitz, J.A.; Layer, P.W.; Armstrong, P.; Perry, S.E.; Haeussler, P.J.; Fitzgerald, P.G.; VanLaningham, S.


    40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission-track, and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques were used to determine the Neogene exhumation history of the topographically asymmetric eastern Alaska Range. Exhumation cooling ages range from ~33 Ma to ~18 Ma for 40Ar/39Ar biotite, ~18 Ma to ~6 Ma for K-feldspar minimum closure ages, and ~15 Ma to ~1 Ma for apatite fission-track ages, and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages range from ~4 Ma to ~1 Ma. There has been at least ~11 km of exhumation adjacent to the north side of Denali fault during the Neogene inferred from biotite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology. Variations in exhumation history along and across the strike of the fault are influenced by both far-field effects and local structural irregularities. We infer deformation and rapid exhumation have been occurring in the eastern Alaska Range since at least ~22 Ma most likely related to the continued collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North American plate. The Nenana Mountain region is the late Pleistocene to Holocene (~past 1 Ma) primary locus of tectonically driven exhumation in the eastern Alaska Range, possibly related to variations in fault geometry. During the Pliocene, a marked increase in climatic instability and related global cooling is temporally correlated with an increase in exhumation rates in the eastern Alaska Range north of the Denali fault system.

  7. 湘赣地洼型煤田中岩浆岩的岩石学及地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玉明; 邱明


    Commonly seen in Mesozoic coal fields of Diwa type in Hunan and Jiangxi are basic, intermediate and acidic intrusive and volcanic rocks. The sequence of magmatism is from acidic to basic. The rocks show a tendency to become younger in age from west to east. Biotite granite porphyry-quartz diorite porphyrite, diorite porphyrite-diabase, diabase-porphyrite and spilite are the main rock types. These rocks are geochemically eharacterized by an evolutionary sequence from acidic to basic and by the enrichment in alkaline elements (except for biotite granite porphyry which has undergone intense alteration). In the acidic rocks K2O> Na2O whereas in the basic rocks K2O < Na2O. All the rocks are rich in non-ferrous metals and rare dements. The majority of the magmatic rocks were emplaced during the most intensive pariod of Diwa development. The rocks generally run parallel with the strike of coal basins. They were emplaced mostly along the layers or cut across coal seams. The above data on tectono-magmatic activity in coal fields of Diwa type lend great support to Prof. Chert Guoda's proposal that the history of crustal evolution is divided into three major stages -- geosyncline, platform snd Diwa.

  8. C. 1.5 Ga metamorphism of the Lazdijai 13 volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania: its origin and implications (United States)

    Siliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaite, Grazina


    The concealed crystalline crust in the SW East European Craton consists of several domains finally accreted at 1.8-1.70 Ga (Bogdanova et al., 2014). However, some geological structures in the Lithuanian basement are still poorly reconstructed because of insufficient isotopic and geochemical data. Such is the Lazdijai 13 (Lz13) volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania, preliminary dated at 1.83-1.80 Ga (U-Pb zircon age). The newly obtained monazite analyses (EPMA dating, Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe, Warsaw University) allowed dating of metamorphism of the Lz13 rocks. The 300 m thick Lz13 sequence is composed of deformed and metamorphosed volcanics, volcano-clastics and sediments, cross-cut by pegmatite and quartz veins. The upper part of the drilling (at c. 493 m) consists of exhalitic quartz chlorite cherts and metaandesitic rocks. They are underlain by medium-fine grained shists composed of quartz, biotite, garnet, cordierite, staurolite, minor plagioclase, K-feldspar, magnetite and monazite (felsic volcanics, 540 m) that were metamorphosed at 580° C and 6 kbar (garnet, biotite, cordierite geothermobarometry). Monazites are small, interstitial, fragmented and dissolved, some found as inclusions in magnetite. They yielded three ages: 1685±25 Ma, 1525±11Ma, and 1448±24 Ma. Another layer of a fine grained shist (quartz, biotite, garnet, K-feldspar, muscovite, 599 m) of sedimentary origin contains zircons and monazites arranged in thin, undulating lines. The monazites are small, interstitial, partly dissolved, in places overgrown by alanite aggregates. They yielded 1671±29 Ma and 1523±17 Ma ages. Below, at 757 m, a strongly deformed shist composed of quartz, biotite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite (former sediment) was metamorphosed at 498° C and 5.4 kbar (garnet, biotite, plagioclase and muscovite geothermobarometry). It contains very small, strongly dissolved and locally overgrown by alanite, monazite grains. Three of them were

  9. Geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of the Gameleira Cu-Au deposit, Serra dos Carajás, Brazil: 1.8-1.7 Ga hydrothermal alteration and mineralization (United States)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Lindenmayer, Zara G.; Laux, Jorge H.; Armstrong, Richard; de Araújo, Janice Caldas


    The Gameleira deposit is one of several important Cu-Au deposits associated with the late Archean (ca. 2.7 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Itacaiúnas supergroup in the Carajás mineral province, southeastern Pará. It comprises mainly biotite- and sulphide-rich veins and quartz-grunerite-biotite-gold hydrothermal veins that cut andesitic rocks. It is interpreted as representative of the Fe oxide Cu-Au class of deposit. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate an age of 2719±80 Ma (MSWD=3.0) and ɛNd( T) of -1.4 for the host meta-andesites. Metavolcanic rocks and cogenetic gabbros give an age of 2757±81 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -0.8. This is considered the best estimate for the crystallization age of the Gameleira volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Negative ɛNd( T) and Archean TDM model ages (mostly between 2.8 and 3.1 Ga) suggest some contamination with older crustal material. The andesitic/gabbroic rocks are cut by two generations of granite dykes. The older has striking petrographic and geochemical similarities to the ca. 1.87 Ga alkali-rich Pojuca granite, which is exposed a few kilometers to the northwest of the deposit. The younger is a leucogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 1583+9/-7 Ma. Neodymium isotopic analyses of the two generations of granites indicate a strong crustal affinity and possible derivation from reworking of the Archean crust. The quartz-grunerite-gold hydrothermal vein yields a Sm-Nd isochron (MSWD=.83) age of 1839±15 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -9.2. Pervasive potassic alteration, represented by the widespread formation of biotite in the country rocks, is dated by Ar-Ar at 1734±8 Ma, and a similar age of 1700±31 Ma (1 σ) is indicated by the Sm-Nd isochron for the biotite-sulphide veins. Similar to that for the quartz-grunerite vein, the ɛNd( T) value for the sulphide-rich veins is strongly negative (-8.2), thereby suggesting that the original fluids percolated through, leached, or were derived from igneous rocks with an Archaean Nd isotopic signature

  10. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis (United States)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.


    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  11. A complex magma reservoir system for a large volume intra- to extra-caldera ignimbrite: Mineralogical and chemical architecture of the VEI8, Permian Ora ignimbrite (Italy) (United States)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Bargossi, G. M.; Weinberg, R. F.; Gasparotto, G.; Cas, R. A. F.; Giordano, G.; Marocchi, M.


    Intra-caldera settings record a wealth of information on caldera-forming processes, yet field study is rarely possible due to lack of access and exposure. The Permian Ora Formation, Italy, preserves > 1000 m of vertical section through its intra-caldera succession. This provides an excellent opportunity to detail its mineralogical and geochemical architecture and gain understanding of the eruption evolution and insight into the pre-eruptive magma system. Detailed juvenile clast phenocryst and matrix crystal fragment point count and image analysis data, coupled with bulk-rock chemistry and single mineral compositional data, show that the Ora ignimbrite succession is rhyolitic (72.5-77.7% SiO2), crystal-rich (~ 25-57%; average 43%) and has a constant main mineral population (volcanic quartz + sanidine + plagioclase + biotite). Although a seemingly homogeneous ignimbrite succession, important subtle but detectable lateral and vertical variations in modal mineralogy and bulk-rock major and trace elements are identified here. The Ora Formation is comprised of multiple lithofacies, dominated by four densely welded ignimbrite lithofacies. They are crystal-rich, typically lithic-poor (cake' stratigraphy. The intra-caldera succession is divided into two depo-centres: Southern and Northern, with proximal extra-caldera deposits preserved to the south and north of the system. The Southern and Northern intra-caldera ignimbrite successions are discriminated by variations in total biotite crystal abundance. Detailed mineralogical and chemical data records decreases across the caldera system from south to north in biotite phenocrysts in the groundmass of juvenile clasts (average 12-2%), matrix biotite (average 7.5-2%) and plagioclase crystal fragments (average 18-6%), and total crystal fragment abundance in the matrix (average 47-37%); a biotite compositional change to iron-rich (0.57-0.78 Fe); and bulk-rock element decreases in Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5, Ce, Hf, V, La and Zr, and

  12. El plutón de Serrezuela: Evento magmático del Carbonífero en el sector norte de la sierra de Pocho, Córdoba, República Argentina The Serrezuela Pluton: Carboniferous magmatic event in the northerm sector of the Sierra de Pocho, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Gómez


    . El plutón de Serrezuela de edad carbonífera (321+7,4 Ma y 303+2MA, K/Ar, representa uno de los pulsos magmáticos graníticos mas jóvenes en este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. Este cuerpo posiblemente registre el final del ciclo magmático generador de los vecinos batolito de Achala y plutón de La Playa bajo un régimen colisional.The Serrezuela granite is located at the Sierra de Serrezuela in the northern Sierra de Pocho, northwest Córdoba. It is a 16 km2 body, divided into two sectors by metamorphic outcrops. Structurally it is confined by several fractures related to major N-S regional lineaments. The Serrezuela pluton is composed of two main facies: biotite + muscovite monzogranite (BMM, and biotite tourmaline monzogranite (BTM. Both facies are calcalkaline peraluminous, with minor occurrences of a metaluminous biotite aplite. The BTM overlies the BMM facies with sharp contact, in a layer-like occurrence. The Serrezuela granitic stock is characterized by the presence of miarolitic cavities and widespread tourmalinization. A late quartz vein of considerable dimensions intrudes at the pluton boundary. Major element geochemistry shows some dispersion, whereas trace elements show a trend from biotite + muscovite monzogranite toward biotite tourmaline monzogranite. All rocks are strongly differentiated with the biotite + muscovite monzogranite being the least evolved and the most areally extended unit. A liquid fractionation mechanism is proposed for the differentiation and emplacement of the biotite tourmaline monzogranite. Changes in the foliation direction of the country rock, the presence of banded plagioclase and miarolitic cavities, suggests that the Serrezuela pluton had a forced emplacement into the country rocks at shallow crustal depth, along preexisting lineaments. Serrezuela pluton, is a Carboniferous K/Ar age granite (321± 7.4 Ma and 303± 2 Ma. It represents one of the youngest granitic magma pulses of this sector of the Eastern

  13. Applicability of the RSCM geothermometry approach in a complex tectono-metamorphic context: The Jebilet massif case study (Variscan Belt, Morocco) (United States)

    Delchini, Sylvain; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Plunder, Alexis; Michard, André


    The Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) geothermometry approach allows determining the peak temperature recorded by metasediments through their metamorphic history. This technique, however, has been calibrated using Meso-Cenozoic metapelitic rocks that underwent a single metamorphic cycle. Until now, the reliability of the RSCM method has never been demonstrated for contexts with superposition of regional and contact metamorphism, such as many Variscan contexts. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the RSCM method to these polyphased metamorphism terrains and at investigating the cumulative molecular transformations of carbonaceous materials related to metamorphic superposition. To address the above issues, samples were collected in the Variscan Jebilet massif of the Moroccan Meseta. This massif was first affected by a regional, greenschist facies metamorphic event (D1 phase), and then by a higher-T, regional and contact metamorphism that reached the hornfels/amphibolite facies conditions (D2 and D2/D3 phases). Mineralogical, thermobarometric and RSCM methods have been used in this study to determine the peak T recorded by the studied rocks. The results obtained for greenschist facies metapelitic rocks show a good agreement between the mineralogical assemblage Chlorite-Phengite-Felspar-Quartz and the Raman temperatures ranging from 330 to 394 ± 50 °C. In the metapelitic rocks that underwent higher metamorphism grades (hornfels/amphibolite facies), four dominant mineral assemblages were observed: (1) Chlorite-Biotite, (2) Cordierite-Biotite, (3) Andalusite-Garnet-Bt, and (4) Andalusite-Cordierite-Biotite. The corresponding Raman temperatures vary respectively between 474 ± 50 °C and 628 ± 50 °C. The pseudo-sections generated for samples from the hornfels/amphibolite facies confirmed the peak temperatures measured by the RSCM method. Our results do not support clear evidence of potential molecular cumulative effect on CM

  14. Evolution of high-pressure mafic granulites and pelitic gneisses from NE Madagascar: Tectonic implications (United States)

    Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Sajeev, K.; Windley, B. F.; Kusky, T. M.; Feng, P.; Ratheesh-Kumar, R. T.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Razakamanana, T.; Yagi, K.; Itaya, T.


    The occurrence of high-pressure mafic-ultramafic bodies within major shear zones is one of the indicators of paleo-subduction. In mafic granulites of the Andriamena complex (north-eastern Madagascar) we document unusual textures including garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz coronas that formed after the breakdown of orthopyroxene-plagioclase-ilmenite. Textural evidence and isochemical phase diagram calculations in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 system indicate a pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution from an isothermal (780 °C) pressure up to c. 24 kbar to decompression and cooling. Such a P-T trajectory is typically attained in a subduction zone setting where a gabbroic/ultramafic complex is subducted and later exhumed to the present crustal level during oceanic closure and final continental collision. The present results suggest that the presence of such deeply subducted rocks of the Andriamena complex is related to formation of the Betsimisaraka suture. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of pelitic gneisses from the Betsimisaraka suture yields low Th/U ratios and protolith ages ranging from 2535 to 2625 Ma. A granitic gneiss from the Alaotra complex yields a zircon crystallization age of ca. 818 Ma and Th/U ratios vary from 1.08 to 2.09. K-Ar dating of muscovite and biotite from biotite-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss and garnet-biotite gneiss yields age of 486 ± 9 Ma and 459 ± 9 Ma respectively. We have estimated regional crustal thicknesses in NE Madagascar using a flexural inversion technique, which indicates the presence of an anomalously thick crust (c. 43 km) beneath the Antananarivo block. This result is consistent with the present concept that subduction beneath the Antananarivo block resulted in a more competent and thicker crust. The textural data, thermodynamic model, and geophysical evidence together provide a new insight to the subduction history, crustal thickening and evolution of the high-pressure Andriamena complex and its link to the terminal

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of microgranular enclaves in Palaeoproterozoic Malanjkhand granitoids, central India: evidence of magma mixing, mingling, and chemical equilibration (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Rino, Vikoleno


    Palaeoproterozoic ( ca 2,480 Ma) felsic magmatism of Malanjkhand region of central Indian Precambrian shield, referred to as Malanjkhand granitoids (MG), contain xenoliths of country rocks and mesocratic to melanocratic, fine-grained porphyritic microgranular enclaves (ME). The shape of ME is spheroidal, ellipsoidal, discoidal, elongated, and lenticular, varying in size from a few centimeters to about 2 m across. The contact of ME with the host MG is commonly sharp, crenulate, and occasionally diffuse, which we attribute to the undercooling and disaggregation of ME globules within the cooler host MG. The ME as well as MG show hypidiomorphic texture with common mineral Hbl-Bt-Kfs-Pl-Qtz assemblage, but differ in modal proportions. The variation in minerals' composition, presence of apatite needles, elongated biotites, resorbed plagiclase, ocellar quartz, and other mafic-felsic xenocrysts strongly oppose the restite and cognate origins of ME. Compositions of plagioclases (An3-An29), amphiboles (Mg/Mg+Fe2+=0.55-0.69), and biotites (Mg/Mg+Fe2+=0.46-0.60) of ME are slightly distinct or similar to those of MG, which suggest partial to complete equilibration during mafic-felsic magma interactions. Al-in-amphibole estimates the MG pluton emplacement at ca 3.4 ± 0.5 kbar, and therefore, magma mixing and mingling must have occurred at or below this level. The FerightleftharpoonsMg substitution in biotites of ME and MG largely suggests subduction-related, calc-alkaline metaluminous (I-type) nature of felsic melts. Most major and trace elements against SiO2 produce near linear variation trends for ME and MG, probably generated by the mixing of mafic and felsic magmas in various proportions. Trace including rare earth elements patterns of ME-MG pairs, however, show partial to complete equilibration, most likely governed by different degrees of elemental diffusion. The available evidence supports the model of ME origin that coeval mafic (enclave) and felsic (MG) magmas produced

  16. Geochemistry of the Spor Mountain rhyolite, western Utah, as revealed by laser ablation ICP-MS, cathodoluminescence, and electron microprobe analysis (United States)

    Dailey, S. R.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M.; Fernandez, D. P.


    The Miocene topaz rhyolite at Spor Mountain in western Utah hosts one of the largest beryllium deposits in the world and was responsible for producing 85% of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010 (Boland, 2012). The Spor Mountain rhyolite is composed primarily of Ca-poor plagioclase (An8), sodic sanidine (Or40), Fe-rich biotite (Fe/(Fe+Mg)>0.95; Al 1.2-1.4 apfu), and Ti-poor quartz, along with several trace-element rich accessory phases including zircon, monazite, thorite, columbite, and allanite. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz show oscillatory zoning, with 80% of the examined crystals displaying euhedral edges and slightly darker rims. CL images were used to guide laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of quartz, along with analyses of plagioclase, sanidine, biotite, and glass. Ti concentrations in quartz are 20±6 ppm; there is no quantifiable variation of Ti from core to rim within the diameter of the laser spot (53 microns). Temperatures, calculated using Ti in quartz (at 2 kb, aTiO2=0.34), vary between 529±10 C (Thomas et al., 2011), 669±13 C (Huang and Audetat, 2012), and 691±13 C (Wark and Watson, 2006). Two feldspar thermometry yield temperatures of 686±33 C (Elkins and Grove, 1990) and 670±41 C (Benisek et al., 2010). Zr saturation temperatures (Watson and Harrison, 1983) average 711±28 C. Analysis of the glass reveal the Spor Mountain rhyolite is greatly enriched in rare elements (i.e. Li, Be, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, and Ta) compared to average continental crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Be in the glass can have as much as 100 ppm, nearly 50 times the concentration in continental crust. REE partition coefficients for sanidine are 2 to 3 times higher in the Spor Mountain rhyolite when compared to other silicic magmas (Nash and Crecraft, 1985; Mahood and Hildreth, 1983), although plagioclase tends to have lower partition coefficients; biotite has lower partition coefficients for LREE and higher partition coefficients for HREE. The patterns of

  17. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.


    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the

  18. Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Inclusions in Zircons from the Khondalite Series, Southeastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The early Precambrian khondalite series is widely distributed in the Jining-Zhuozi-Fengzhen- Liangcheng area, southeastern Inner Mongolia. The khondalite series mainly consists of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar (or two-feldspar) gneiss and garnet biotite plagioclase gneiss. These gneissic rocks have commonly experienced granulite-facies metamorphism. In zircons separated from sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses, many mineral inclusions, including Sil, Grt, Ky, Kfs, Qtz and Ap, have been identified by the Laser Raman spectroscopy. Generally, prograde metamorphic mineral inclusion assemblages such as Ky + Kfs + Qtz + Ap and Ky + Grt + Kfs + Qtz are preserved in the core of zircon, while peak granulite-facies metamorphic minerals including Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap are identified in the mantle and rim of the same zircon. However, in some zircons are only preserved the peak metamorphic minerals such as Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz and Sil + Grt + Kfs + Qtz + Ap from core to rim, and in others are inherited the primary cores with minor mineral inclusions of Kfs + Qtz, with peak metamorphic mineral inclusions around the inherited cores. These data indicate that the mineral assemblage evolution of sillimanite garnet potash feldspar gneisses in the study are did experience a polymorphic transformation of kyanite to sillimanite. In garnet biotite plagioclase gneisses, secondary electron microscopic images reveal that most zircons display distinct zoning textures, which comprise cores and rims, each with distinctive inclusion assemblages. The inherited mineral inclusions, mainly consisting of Kfs + Pl + Qtz, Kfs + Qtz and Kfs + Qtz + Ap, are preserved in the primary cores, while peak granulite-facies mineral asemblages, including Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Ap, Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz and Grt + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt, are identified on the rims. The occurrence of peak metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircons indicates that these gneissic rocks, including

  19. Breakdown of Clays by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Through Changes in Oxidation State of Iron (United States)

    Arocena, J. M.; Velde, B.


    Organisms are known to play a significant role in the transformation of clay minerals in soils. In our earlier work on canola, barley and alfalfa, we reported that Glomus, an arbuscular mycorrhizae, selectively transformed biotite into 2:1 expanding clays through the oxidation of Fe (II) in biotite to Fe(III). In this presentation, we will share similar results on clay transformations mediated by ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing the roots of coniferous trees. Clay samples were isolated from rhizosphere soils of sub-alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in northern British Columbia (Canada). Chemical and mineralogical properties of these soils had been reported in our earlier paper. In this study, we subjected the clay samples to iron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (Fe-XANES) at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron facility in Saskatoon (Canada). Our initial results showed relatively higher amounts of Fe (III) than Fe(II) in clays collected from rhizosphere of Piloderma (an ectomycorrhizal fungus) compared to soils influenced by non-Piloderma species and Control (non-rhizosphere soil). Coupled with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, there seems to be a positive relationship between the relative amounts of Fe(III) and the 2:1 expanding clays. This relationship is consistent with our results on agricultural plants in laboratory experiments on biotites where we suggested that oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) results in the formation of 2:1 expanding clays. In a related data set on chlorite alteration we observed that after dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment, the d-spacing of a slight portion of chloritic expanding clays shifted to higher angles indicating decreased d-spacing towards micaceous clays. The reductive process initiated through the action of the DCB treatment seems to indicate the collapsed of expandable clays upon the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Initial results from the Fe-XANES and XRD analysis of DCB

  20. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Spruzeniece


    Full Text Available This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia, a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO. Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain

  1. Experimental constraints on phase relations in subducted continental crust (United States)

    Hermann, Jörg


    Synthesis piston cylinder experiments were carried out in the range 2.0-4.5 GPa and 680-1,050 °C to investigate phase relations in subducted continental crust. A model composition (KCMASH) has been used because all major ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals of the whole range of rock types typical for continental crust can be reproduced within this system. The combination of experimental results with phase petrologic constraints permits construction of a UHP petrogenetic grid. The phase relations demonstrate that the most important UHP paragenesis consists of coesite, kyanite, phengite, clinopyroxene, and garnet in subducted continental crust. Below 700 °C talc is stable instead of garnet. As most of these minerals are also stable at much lower pressure and temperature conditions it is thus not easy to recognize UHP metamorphism in subducted crust. A general feature, however, is the absence of feldspars at H2O-saturated conditions. Plagioclase is never stable at UHP conditions, but K-feldspar can occur in H2O-undersaturated rocks. Mineral compositions in the experiments are fully buffered by coexisting phases. The Si content of phengite and biotite increase with increasing pressure. At 4.0 GPa, 780 °C, biotite contains 3.28 Si per formula unit, which is most probably caused by solid solution of biotite with talc. Above 800 °C, the CaAl2SiO6 component in clinopyroxene buffered with kyanite, coesite and a Mg-phase increases with increasing temperature, providing a tool to distinguish between 'cold' and 'hot' eclogites. Up to 10% Ca-eskolaite (Ca0.5[]0.5AlSi2O6) in clinopyroxene has been found at the highest temperature and pressure investigated (>900 °C, 4.5 GPa). Garnet buffered with coesite, kyanite and clinopyroxene displays an increase of grossular component with increasing pressure for a given temperature. Although the investigated system represents a simplification with respect to natural rocks, it helps to constrain general features of subducted continental

  2. Experimental melts from crustal rocks: A lithochemical constraint on granite petrogenesis (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Many studies of experimental petrology have devoted to partial melting of crustal rocks. In order to provide lithochemical constraints on granite petrogenesis, this paper presents a compilation and synthesis of available experimental data for the major element compositions of felsic melts derived from partial melting of natural or synthetic materials in the compositional range of crustal rocks. The experimental melts are categorized into four types according to the species of hydrous minerals in starting materials: (I) amphibole-bearing; (II) amphibole- and biotite-bearing; (III) biotite-bearing; and (IV) biotite- and muscovite-bearing. If dehydration melting takes place at normal crustal conditions (P = 5-10 kbar, T ≤ 1000 °C), experimental melts are rich in SiO2 but poor in MgO + FeOT except those from amphibole-bearing sources. A comprehensive comparison of compositions between experimental melts and starting materials indicates that geochemical fractionation is variable for different major elements and their ratios. Source composition and melting temperature exert stronger controls on the compositional variations of experimental melts than pressure and fluid. By comparing the experimental melts with natural granites, the following insights into granite petrogenesis can be got: (1) while peritectic assemblage entrainment may be the dominant mechanism for the compositional variations of garnet/cordierite-rich S-type granites, fractional crystallization of diverse melts from heterogeneous metasedimentary precursors probably governs the compositional variations of garnet/cordierite-poor S-type granites; (2) relatively K2O-rich mafic to intermediate rocks are appropriate sources for calc-alkaline I-type granites. The compositional variations of calc-alkaline granites are jointly controlled by peritectic assemblage entrainment and subsequent fractional crystallization; (3) while dehydration melting at T > 950 °C is appropriate for the production of ferroan and

  3. A reevaluation of the age of the Vincent-Chocolate Mountains thrust system, southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.E. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences); Barth, A.P. (Indiana Univ.--Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    The Vincent-Chocolate Mountains (VCM) thrust superposes Mesozoic arc plutons and associated Precambrian country rock above subduction-related Pelona-Orocopia schist. The thrust is disrupted in many areas by postmetamorphic deformation, but appears to be intact in the San Gabriel Mountains. Two Rb-Sr mineral-isochron ages from Pelona Schist and mylonite in the San Gabriel Mountains led Ehlig (1981) to conclude that the original thrusting event occurred at c. 60 Ma. However, biotite K-Ar ages determined by Miller and Morton (1980) for upper plate in the same area caused Dillon (1986) to reach a different conclusion. The biotite ages range mainly from 74--60 Ma and increase structurally upward from the VCM thrust. Dillon (1986) inferred that the age gradient was due to uplift and cooling of the upper plate during underthrusting of Pelona Schist. This would indicate that the VCM thrust was at least 74 Ma in age. An alternative to the interpretation of Dillon (1986) is that the biotite age gradient largely predates the VCM thrust. Upward heat flow, leading to older ages at higher structural levels, could have resulted from either static cooling of Cretaceous plutons or uplift and erosion induced by crustal thickening during possible west-directed intra-arc thrusting at c. 88--78 Ma (May and Walker, 1989). Subsequent underthrusting of Pelona Schist would establish a cold lower boundary to the crust and cause the closure of isotopic systems in the base of the upper plate. A 60 Ma time of thrusting is also suggested by two amphibole [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages from the Pelona Schist of the San Gabriel Mountains. Peak metamorphic temperature in this area was below 480 C and amphibole ages should thus indicate time of crystallization rather than subsequent cooling. Four phengite [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages of 55--61 Ma from Pelona Schist and mylonite indicate rapid cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures, consistent with subduction refrigeration.

  4. Mineral Chemistry and Crystallization Conditions of the Late Cretaceous Mamba Pluton from the Eastern Gangdese, Southern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Li; Xuanxue Mo; Mark Scheltens; Qi Guan


    The Late Cretaceous Mamba granodiorite belongs to a part of the Mesozoic Gangdese con-tinental magmatic belt. No quantitative mineralogical study has been made hitherto, and hence the depth at which it formed is poorly constrained. Here we present mineralogical data for the Mamba pluton, in-cluding host rocks and their mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), to provide insights into their overall crystallization conditions and information about magma mixing. All amphiboles in the Mamba pluton are calcic, withB(Ca+Na)>1.5, and Si=6.81–7.42 apfu for the host rocks and Si=6.77–7.35 apfu for the MMEs. The paramount cation substitutions in amphibole include edenite type and tschermakite type. Biotites both in the host rocks and the MMEs collectively have high MgO (13.19 wt.%–13.03 wt.%) contents, but define a narrow range of Al apfu (atoms per formula unit) variations (2.44–2.57). The oxygen fugacity es-timates are based on the biotite compositions cluster around the NNO buffer. The calculated pressure ranges from 1.2 to 2.1 kbar according to the aluminum-in-hornblende barometer. The computed pressure varies from 0.9 to 1.3 kbar based on the aluminum-in-biotite barometer which corresponds to an average depth of ca. 3.9 km. Besides, the estimates of crystallization pressures vary from 0.8 to 1.4 kbar based on the amphibole barometer proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010), which can be equivalent to the depths ranging from 3.1 to 5.2 km. The MMEs have plagioclase oscillatory zonings and quartz aggregates, probably indi-cating the presence of magma mixing. Besides, core-to-rim element variations (Rb, Sr, Ba, and P) for the K-feldspar megacrysts serve as robust evidence to support magma mixing and crystal fractionation. This indicates the significance of the magma mixing that contributes to the formation of K-feldspar megacryst zonings in the Mamba pluton.

  5. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart


    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  6. P-T path fluid evolution in the Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frindt


    Full Text Available The Gross Spitzkoppe granite stock (GSS is a zoned 30 km^2 epizonal intrusion that consists of three main granites: 1 medium-grained biotite granite (marginal, 2 a coarse-grained biotite granite, and 3 a central, porphyritic granite. The stock contains pegmatites as banded marginal stockscheiders and isolated pockets composed of large alkali feldspar and quartz, dark mica, interstitial fluorite, and euhedral topaz and beryl crystals. In the porphyritic granite there are local wolframite-bearing greisens and hydrothermal fluorite and topaz-rich veins.Fluid inclusion studies were conducted on: 1 topaz and quartz crystals from the marginal stockscheider; 2 quartz, topaz, fluorite and beryl crystals from isolated pegmatites; 3 topaz from a miarolitic pegmatite; 4 beryl and quartz veins from greisenized porphyritic granite; and 5 fluorite from a late fluorite vein inthe coarse-grained biotite granite. Preliminary data indicate the presence of three compositionally distinct primary and pseudosecondary inclusion types that are of late magmatic-hydrothermal origin.Type 1. Low salinity (0–10 eq. wt% NaCl H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz, topaz and beryl. Inclusions in fluorite from the fluorite vein homogenize at ~170˚C and have a salinity of ca. 1–2 eq. wt% NaCl.Type 2. Saline (25–30 eq. wt% NaCl halite-bearing H2O (± CO2 inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 400˚C. These inclusions are from quartz.Type 3. Low salinity (0–3 eq. wt% NaCl H2O-CO2 inclusions that homogenize to vapor phase in the temperature range of 330 to 550˚C. These inclusions are from quartz and topaz.Hydrothermal fluids from greisen minerals are represented by type 1 and type 2 H2O inclusions. They are predominantly of low salinity (~8 eq. wt% NaCl and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range of 300 to 500

  7. 广西DC矿田成矿作用和物质成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章振根; 李锡林


    DC, a multi-metal ore field, is an important and well known producer of tin in China. Besides tin, also mined are zinc, lead, antimony, copper, arsenic, tungsten,mercury, silver and many other metals most of the deposits in this region occur in Devonian limestones and siliceous shales. The ore deposits in this field are predominated by cassiterite sulphide type. As to the origin of those deposits, they seem closely related to biotite granite. The oreforming material is mainly derived from magmatie rocks, and part of it may come from the host rocks. The appearance of horizontal zoning of ore deposits in this field is extremely distinct, with LXG biotite granite as the core. Found in the magmatie rocks is the molybdenum mineralization. From the biotite granite outwards there dlsplays such an occurring sequence as the following: copper (zinc) skarn ore deposits, seheelite ore deposits, wolframite ore deposits, eassiterite sulphide ore deposits, lead-zinc (antimony)ore deposits and mercury or arsenic ore deposits. In this region the mineralizingtemperature zoning is also distinguishable, basically in agreement with the horizontal zoning of ore deposits. In other words, the formation temaperature of ore deposits occurring around the granite is higher than that farther away from the granite. The following mineralization periods and stages can be divided: the first period,ineluding skarn sub-stage, eassiterite-quartz sub-stage, cassiterite-sulphide sub-stage,eassiterite-calcite sub-stage; the second period, including ferrosphalerite (galena)-franckeite sub-stage, jamesenite-boulangerite sub-stage; and the third period, including pyrite-calcite sub-stage. The characters of the material composition are as follows: ore minerals are characterized by great variety, perfect crystallinity, large grain-size and abundant sulfosalts. More than 90 species of minerals have been identified. What is more interesting is that lead and antimony in some of the cassitierite-sulfide deposits

  8. Strength variation and deformational behavior in anisotropic granitic mylonites under high-temperature and -pressure conditions - An experimental study (United States)

    Liu, Gui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Shi, Yaolin; Miao, Sheqiang; He, Changrong


    We performed deformation experiments on foliated granitic mylonites under high-temperature and -pressure conditions. To investigate the effects of pre-existing fabric properties on the rheology of the rocks, these experiments were carried out at different compression directions 30°, 45°, and 60° relative to the foliation, at temperatures of 600-850 °C, under confining pressures of 800-1200 MPa, within a strain rate range of 1 × 10-4/S - 2.5 × 10-6/S. The results of the experiments show that the deformation of three group samples is in the semi-brittle region at temperatures between 600 and 700 °C, and that the deformation of the samples transforms to plastic deformation by power-law creep with the stress exponent n = 3 ± 0.3 at temperatures between 800 and 850 °C. In the semi-brittle region, the mechanical data show that strength reaches its minimum value at an angle of 30° between the compression direction and the original foliation. In the plastic deformation regime, strength reaches its minimum value at an angle of 45° between the foliation and the orientation of the maximum principal stress. The strength with angles between 30° and 60° is lower than that of the compression direction perpendicular to foliation and the compression direction parallel to foliation. Microstructure analysis based on optical and electron microscopy of the deformation microstructures showed plastic deformation of aggregates of biotite and quartz at 800-850 °C. This deformation was extensive and formed new foliation. Quartz c-axis fabrics analysis by EBSD show that at temperatures of 600-700 °C, the c-axis fabric patterns could have been formed by the dominant activity of basal slip, similar with the starting granitic mylonite samples, but the dominant slip systems have been changed and transformed from basal slip to rhomb slip and prism slip at temperature of 800 °C and 850 °C. Microfractures were developed in hornblende and feldspar grains with local plastic

  9. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (United States)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques


    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  10. Generation of Late Mesozoic Qianlishan A2-type granite in Nanling Range, South China: Implications for Shizhuyuan W-Sn mineralization and tectonic evolution (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiao; Li, He; Sun, Weidong; Ireland, Trevor; Tian, Xufeng; Hu, Yongbin; Yang, Wubin; Chen, Chen; Xu, Deru


    The Late Mesozoic Qianlishan granitic complex in the western Nanling Range, South China is associated with the Shizhuyuan giant W-Sn-Mo-Bi polymetallic deposit. It mainly consists of three phases of intrusions, P-1 porphyritic biotite granite, P-2 equigranular biotite granite and P-3 granite porphyry. All three phases of granite contain quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and Fe-rich biotite. They have geochemical affinities of A-type granites, e.g., high FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) ratios (0.84-0.99), total alkali (Na2O + K2O, 7.50-9.04 wt.%), high Ga/Al ratios (10,000*Ga/Al > 2.6) and high Zr + Nb + Y + Ce concentrations (> 350 ppm). High Y/Nb ratios (> 1.2) suggest that the Qianlishan complex belongs to A2-type granite. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate a short age interval decreasing from 158-157 Ma, to 158-155 Ma and to 154 Ma for the P-1, P-2 and P-3 granites, respectively. These ages are similar to the mineralization age of the Shizhuyuan tungsten polymetallic deposit, within error. The Qianlishan granites were generated at low oxygen fugacity conditions based on the low values of zircon Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios (1.53-198) and significantly negative Eu anomalies (EuN/EuN*, 0.03-0.13) in apatite. New zircon εHf(t) values for the P-3 granite range from - 13.0 to - 4.4, similar to those previously obtained for the P-1 and P-2 granites. Both the granite and apatite grains therein are characterized by high F but low Cl concentrations, suggesting the influx of a high F/Cl component. The P-2 granites especially contain higher F contents (1840-8690 ppm) and W (7-158 ppm) and Sn (6-51 ppm) concentrations and with stronger evolution features. Positive trends between F and W and Sn of Qianlishan complex indicate that high F source is crucial for mineralization of W and Sn. We consider that the lithospheric mantle source may have been metasomatized by subduction fluids in the far end of subduction zones to produce the A2 feature of the Qianlishan granite and the fluorine was introduced through

  11. Post-collisional high-Mg granitoids from the Paleoproterozoic East Sarmatian Orogen (East European Craton): Evidence for crust-mantle interaction (United States)

    Terentiev, R. A.; Santosh, M.


    The East Sarmatian Orogen (ESO) is located along the southwestern domain of the East European Craton and occupies a key tectonic link between the Sarmatian and Volgo-Uralian domains. Here we investigate the Paleoproterozoic Novaya Melovatka pluton and its mafic-ultramafic xenoliths to gain insights into the role of interaction between intermediate-felsic crustal melt with mantle rocks as a mechanism for the generation of high-Mg granitoids at crustal pressures. The pluton is composed of biotite-orthopyroxene quartz dioritic and monzodioritic porphyrites (Phase 1) and medium-grained biotite-amphibole quartz diorite, tonalite and granodiorite and commingled Phase 1 mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) (Phase 2). The general geochemical characteristics of these rocks are similar to those of Late-Archean high-Mg sanukitoids. The TDM (model) ages for intermediate Phase 1 and granitoid Phase 2 are similar and show a range of 2324-2439 and 2284-2519 M, respectively. The εNd(t) values are grouped around subchondritic values (=+1.4-+1.9 and + 1.1-+2.2) and the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are in the range of 0.70202-0.70390. The complex compositional zoning of minerals suggests that the rocks crystallized as synchronous but discrete magma pulses, with limited to significant mixing. Based on the geochemical features we infer that the Phase 1 rocks formed from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized to different degrees by fluids/melts. The presence of MMEs, compositional zoning of minerals including reversely zoned amphiboles, plagioclases with thin calcic overgrowths, and acicular apatite, as well as the whole-rock geochemical features are consistent with a hybrid origin of the high-Mg granitoids belonging to Phase 2. Geobarometry indicates crystallization at upper-crustal depths (i.e. 1.7-2.4 kbar). The igneous suite evolved by fractional crystallization of orthopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase and biotite. Here we propose a tectonic model involving partial melting of the

  12. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area (United States)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad


    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  13. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai


    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  14. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim: insights from igneous rocks in the Kuluketage area, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xun; Xu, Yi-Gang; Long, Xiao-Ping; Shi, Xue-Fa; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing


    The composition of lower crust of the Tarim Craton in NW China is essential to understand the petrogenesis of the ~290-275 Ma Tarim basalts and associated intermediate-felsic rocks. However, it remains poorly constrained because extremely sparse granulite terrains or granulite xenoliths have been found in the Tarim Craton. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are reported for the Neoarchean and Neoproterozoic igneous rocks widely distributed in the northern margin of the Tarim Craton. The Neoarchean granitic gneisses show fractionated REE (rare earth element) patterns [(La/Yb) N = 12-58, YbN = 10.6-36] with pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies. These features, together with negative ɛNdi (-0.7 to -3.2) suggest that they were derived from melting of mafic lower crust. The Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorites are strongly depleted in HREE with (La/Yb) N up to 55. They are characterized by high Sr (671-789 ppm) but very low Y (7.10-8.06 ppm) and Yb contents (0.47-0.58 ppm), showing typical features of adakitic rocks. The samples with different SiO2 contents display identical 87Sr/86Sri (0.7101-0.7103), ɛNdi (-14.1 to -15.7) and Pb isotopes (208Pb/204Pbi = 36.94-37.07). These features together with arc-like trace element patterns suggest that they were derived from melting of thickened lower crust. In comparison, the Neoproterozoic hornblende-biotite granodiorites have similar trace element compositions except for weaker depletion in HREE and have lower 87Sr/86Sri (0.7078) and initial Pb isotopes, and higher ɛNdi (-12.3 to -12.7). This suggests that they were formed by melting of old lower continental crust at a shallower depth than the biotite granodiorites. These rocks were derived from the lower crust, thus providing valuable information on the nature of the lower crust beneath northern Tarim. Combined with published data, the 87Sr/86Sri, ɛNdi, 206Pb/204Pbi and ɛHfi of the northern Tarim lower crust ranges from 0.7055 to 0.7103, from -12 to -17

  15. Crystallization conditions of porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the extreme northeastern Borborema Province, NE Brazil, and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Campos, Benedita Cleide Souza; Vilalva, Frederico Castro Jobim; Nascimento, Marcos Antônio Leite do; Galindo, Antônio Carlos


    An integrated textural and chemical study on amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, titanite, epidote, and magnetite was conducted in order to estimate crystallization conditions, along with possible geodynamic implications, for six Ediacaran porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline granite plutons (Monte das Gameleiras, Barcelona, Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha) intrusive into Archean to Paleoproterozoic rocks of the São José do Campestre (SJCD) and Rio Piranhas-Seridó (RPSD) domains, northern Borborema Province. The studied rocks include mainly porphyritic leucocratic monzogranites, as well as quartz-monzonites and granodiorites. Textures are marked by K-feldspar megacrysts (5-15 cm long) in a fine-to medium-grained matrix composed of quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, as well as titanite, epidote, Fesbnd Ti oxides, allanite, apatite, and zircon as accessory minerals. Amphibole, biotite and titanite share similar compositional variations defined by increasing Al and Fe, and decreasing Mg contents from the plutons emplaced into the SJCP (Monte das Gameleiras and Barcelona) towards those in the RPSD (Acari, Caraúbas, Tourão, and Catolé do Rocha). Estimated intensive crystallization parameters reveal a weak westward range of increasing depth of emplacement, pressure and temperature in the study area. The SJCD plutons (to the east) crystallized at shallower crustal depths (14-21 km), under slightly lower pressure (3.8-5.5 kbar) and temperature (701-718 °C) intervals, and high to moderate oxygen fugacity conditions (+0.8 plutons (to the west) were emplaced at slightly deeper depths (18-23 km), under higher, yet variable pressures (4.8-6.2 kbar), temperatures (723-776 °C), and moderate to low oxygen fugacity conditions (-1.0 < ΔFQM < +1.8). These results reinforce the contrasts between the tectono-strutuctural domains of São José do Campestre and Rio Piranhas-Seridó in the northern Borborema Province.

  16. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa


    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  17. Stable isotopic evidence for large-scale seawater infiltration in a regional metamorphic terrane; the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France (United States)

    Wickham, Stephen M.; Taylor, Hugh P.


    Oxygen isotopic analyses of 95 metamorphic and igneous rocks and minerals from a Hercynian metamorphic sequence in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France, indicate that all lithologies at higher metamorphic grades than the “andalusite in” isograd have relatively homogeneous δ 18O values. The extent of homogenization is shown by the similarity of δ 18O values in metacarbonates, metapelites and granitic rocks (+11 to +13), and by the narrow range of oxygen isotopic composition shown by quartz from these lithologies. These values contrast with the δ 18O values of metapelites of lower metamorphic grade ( δ 18O about +15). Homogenization was caused by a pervasive influx of hydrous fluid. Mass-balance calculations imply that the fluid influx was so large that its source was probably high-level groundwaters or connate formation water. Hydrogen isotopic analyses of muscovite from various lithologies are uniform and exceptionally heavy at δD=-25 to -30, suggesting a seawater origin. Many lines of petrological evidence from the area independently suggest that metamorphism and anatexis of pelitic metasediment occurred at depths of 6 12 km in the presence of this water-rich fluid, the composition of which was externally buffered. Deep penetration of surface waters in such environments has been hitherto unrecognized, and may be a key factor in promoting major anatexis of the continental crust at shallow depth. Three types of granitoid are exposed in the area. The leucogranites and the biotite granite-quartz diorite are both mainly derived from fusion of local Paleozoic pelitic metasediment, because all these rocks have similar whole-rock δ 18O values (+11 to +13). The post-metamorphic biotite granodiorite has a distinctly different δ 18O (+9.5 to +10.0) and was probably derived from a deeper level in the crust. Rare mafic xenoliths within the deeper parts of the biotite granite-quartz diorite also have different δ 18O (+8.0 to +8.5) and possibly represent

  18. Geochronology and geochemistry of a suite of mafic rocks in Chencai area, South China: Implications for petrogenesis and tectonic setting (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhou, Xiwen; Santosh, M.; Ma, Xudong


    Paleozoic crust-mantle interaction and geodynamic setting of the South China Block have remained largely elusive due to the scarcity of mafic rock suites. Here we report data from a suite of mafic rocks including norite, mafic granulite, garnet-bearing amphibolite, biotite-bearing amphibolite, and amphibolite from the Chencai region in the northeastern Cathaysia Block of South China, that mostly record amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. U-Pb dating of zircons from the mafic granulite and biotite-bearing amphibolite show broadly coeval magmatism, and amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism during 435-438 Ma. The garnet-bearing amphibolite also records metamorphism at 436 Ma and the magmatic age of its protolith is constrained to be between 436 Ma and 496 Ma. The norite has an emplacement age of 422 Ma. Geochemically, the amphibolite and granulite have high Al2O3 contents and belong to the high-alumina group. The garnet-bearing amphibolite belongs to the intermediate-alumina group, whereas the norite and biotite-bearing amphibolite belong to the low-alumina group. A cumulate origin is proposed for the norite with orthopyroxene as the main cumulus phase. Based on their similar trace element and Lu-Hf isotopic signatures, it is inferred that the protoliths of amphibolite and granulite belonging to high-alumina group were likely generated from the same source. Furthermore, their LREE enrichment relative to HREE, positive Eu anomaly, and negative Nb, Ta and Zr anomalies suggest derivation from the same enriched mantle source, perhaps in a continental arc environment. Zircons from the garnet-bearing amphibolite belonging to intermediate-alumina group have high positive ɛHf (t) values with a peak of + 14 and trace element signatures similar to N-MORB, suggesting a depleted asthenospheric mantle source. The rock suite from Chencai suggests formation in an active continental margin, with the garnet-bearing amphibolite representing relics of the Paleozoic

  19. Tectonic uplift and denudation rate influence soil chemical weathering intensity in a semi-arid environment, southeast Spain: physico-chemical and mineralogical evidence (United States)

    Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Sonnet, Philippe; Delmelle, Pierre


    Tectonic uplift is known to influence denudation rates. Denudation, including chemical weathering and physical erosion, affects soil production rates and weathering intensities. At topographic steady state, weathering can be transport- or weathering-limited. In the transport-limited regime, low denudation rates should lead to comparatively high weathering intensities, while in the weathering-limited case high denudation rates are associated with lower weathering intensities. Here, we test if this relationship applies to semi-arid environments where chemical weathering is generally slow. Three catchments (EST, FIL and CAB) were studied in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera in southeast Spain, spanning a range of increasing uplift rates (10-170 mm/kyr) and increasing denudation rates (20-250 mm/kyr) from EST to CAB. In each catchment, two ridgetop soil profiles were sampled down to the bedrock. The three catchments have similar vegetation and climatic conditions, with precipitation of 250- 315 mm/yr and mean annual temperature of 15-17 °C. The mineralogy of the bedrock, as determined by XRD, is similar across the three catchments and is characterized by the presence of quartz, muscovite, clinochlore, biotite and plagioclase. This primary mineral assemblage is also found in the catchment soils, indicating that the soils studied derive from the same parent material. The soil clay-size fraction is dominated by kaolinite, vermiculite and illite. However, the proportions of the soil primary and secondary minerals vary between the catchment sites. The abundance of biotite decreases from CAB (14%) to EST (4%), whereas the quartz and clay contents show an opposite tendency (from 30 to 69% and 9.9 to 14.3%, respectively). Further, the abundance of vermiculite increases from CAB to EST. The results are interpreted in terms of increasing weathering intensity from CAB to EST by weathering of biotite into vermiculite and enrichment of soils on more weathering resistant

  20. Late Triassic syn-exhumation magmatism in central Qiangtang, Tibet: Evidence from the Sangehu adakitic rocks (United States)

    Liu, Han; Wang, Bao-di; Ma, Long; Gao, Rui; Chen, Li; Li, Xiao-bo; Wang, Li-quan


    The geodynamic setting of Late Triassic magmatic activity along the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture zone (LSSZ) in central Qiangtang, Tibet is a matter of debate. This paper presents zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and whole-rock geochemical data for the Sangehu (SGH) granitic intrusion in central Qiangtang, and addresses the petrogenesis of Late Triassic magmatism, and the history of collision between the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The SGH pluton consists mainly of biotite adamellite with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), and small amounts of K-feldspar granite. The biotite adamellite, MMEs, and K-feldspar granite give ages of 207.8 ± 3.0 Ma, 212.4 ± 31 Ma, and 211.6 ± 3.8 Ma, respectively. The MMEs show magmatic textures and acicular apatite, and are coeval with the host biotite adamellite, suggesting they were produced by magma mixing. All samples from the SGH pluton show high Sr and low Y contents, and positive Eu anomalies, similar to adakitic rocks. The high K2O contents and low Mg#, Cr, and Ni contents, and enriched Hf isotopic characteristics of the zircons indicate that these magmas were derived from the partial melting of thickened crust. However, the whole-rock geochemical data and zircon Hf isotopic compositions also reveal heterogeneity at the source. The combined magmatic and metamorphic records suggest that Triassic magmatic activity in central Qiangtang was closely related to the collision of the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The large-scale Late Triassic (225-200 Ma) magmatic event in central Qiangtang may have resulted from the breakoff of the Longmu Co-Shuanghu Tethys Ocean lithospheric slab in the early Late Triassic (236-230 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic rocks, including adakitic rocks, are coeval with retrograde high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in central Qiangtang, and show characteristics of syn-exhumation magmatism. The early adakitic rocks (>220 Ma

  1. Permo-Carboniferous granitoids with Jurassic high temperature metamorphism in Central Pontides, Northern Turkey (United States)

    Gücer, Mehmet Ali; Arslan, Mehmet; Sherlock, Sarah; Heaman, Larry M.


    In the northern part of the Central Pontides (N Turkey) there are different metamorphic rocks exposed, notably the Devrekani metamorphic rocks. Here, upper amphibolite-lower granulite facies metamorphic rocks contain predominantly paragneiss, orthogneiss and metacarbonate, and to a lesser extent, amphibolite and quartzite, with cross-cutting aplite, pegmatite and granite veins. This is the first report of these rocks and includes new data on the petrochemistry, geochronology and metamorphic evolution of the Devrekani orthogneisses from the Central Pontides. The orthogneisses show five different mineral parageneses with the characteristic mineral assemblage quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite ± hornblende ± opaque (± ilmenite and ± magnetite), and accessory minerals (zircon, sphene and apatite). These metamorphic rocks exhibit generally granoblastic, lepidogranoblastic and nematolepidogranoblastic with locally migmatitic and relic micrographic textures. They have well-developed centimeter-spaced gneissic banding and display gneissose structure with symmetric, asymmetric and irregular folds. The petrographic features, mineralogical assemblages and weak migmatization reflect high temperature conditions. Thermometric calculations in the orthogneisses indicate metamorphic temperatures reached 744 ± 33 °C. Field relations, petrography and petrochemistry suggest that the orthogneisses have predominantly granodioritic and some granitic protoliths, that show features of I-type, medium to high-potassic calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids. The orthogneisses have high contents of LILEs and low contents of HFSEs with negative Nb and Ti anomalies, which are typical of subduction-related magmas. The orthogneisses also show significant LREE enrichment relative to HREE with negative Eu anomalies (EuN/Eu* = 0.33-1.07) with LaN/LuN = 6.98-20.47 values. Based on U-Pb zircon dating data, the protoliths are related to Permo-Carboniferous (316-252 Ma) magmatism. It is

  2. Timing and thermochemical constraints on multi-element mineralisation at the Nori/RA Cu-Mo-U prospect, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada (United States)

    Ootes, Luke; Goff, Steve; Jackson, Valerie A.; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Creaser, Robert A.; Samson, Iain M.; Evensen, Norman; Corriveau, Louise; Mumin, A. Hamid


    The timing of Cu-Mo-U mineralisation at the Nori/RA prospect in the Paleoproterozoic Great Bear magmatic zone has been investigated using Re-Os molybdenite and 40Ar-39Ar biotite geochronology. The Re-Os molybdenite ages presented are the first robust sulphide mineralisation ages derived from the Great Bear magmatic zone. Cu-Mo-U mineralisation is hosted in early to syn-deformational hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and K-feldspar or more commonly tourmaline-biotite-quartz-K-feldspar, with associated wall-rock alteration assemblages being predominantly biotite. Sulphide and oxide minerals consist of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and uraninite with lesser pyrite and magnetite. Elevated light rare earth elements and tungsten concentrations associated with the Cu-Mo-U mineralisation have also been reported at the prospect by previous workers. Molybdenite and uraninite occur intimately in dravitic tourmaline growth zones and at grain margins, attesting to their syngenetic nature (with respect to hydrothermal veining). Two molybdenite separates yield Re-Os model ages of 1,874.4 ± 8.7 (2 σ) and 1,872.4 ± 8.8 Ma (2 σ) with a weighted average model age of 1,873.4 ± 6.1 Ma (2 σ). Laser step heating of biotite from the marginal alteration of the wall-rock adjacent to the veins yields a 40Ar-39Ar maximum cooling age of 1,875 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 3.8; 2 σ), indistinguishable from the Re-Os molybdenite model age and a previously dated ‘syn-tectonic’ aplitic dyke in the region. Dravitic tourmaline hosts abundant primary liquid-vapour-solid-bearing fluid inclusions. Analytical results indicate liquid-vapour homogenisation at >260°C constraining the minimum temperature of mineralisation. The solids, which are possibly trapped, did not homogenise with the liquid-vapour by 400°C. Salinities in the inclusions are variable. Raman spectra identify that at least some of the solids are calcite and anhydrite. Raman spectra also confirm the vapour phases contain some CO2; whereas

  3. Petrogenesis of Eocene granitoids and microgranular enclaves in the western Tengchong Block: Constraints on eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethys (United States)

    Zhao, Shao-wei; Lai, Shao-cong; Qin, Jiang-feng; Zhu, Ren-Zhi


    Eocene granitic and related igneous rocks in the western Tengchong Block are considered to be the result of eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Tengchong Block. In this paper we show that the granitic and mafic rocks in the western Tengchong Block exhibit a systematic compositional variation from west to east, with Na-rich granodiorites in the Nabang area (west) that differ from coeval high-K calc-alkaline granodiorites in the Bangwan area (east), and with tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Nabang area that differ from shoshonitic mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in granodiorites of the Bangwan area. In addition, high-silica biotite granites were intruded into the granodiorites in the Bangwan area. The host granodiorites, MMEs, and biotite granites in the Bangwan area yield zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 50 Ma. The MMEs have relatively low SiO2 contents (53.1-64.95 wt%) and Mg# values (37-45), and high K2O (4.14-5.02 wt%) and ∑ REE contents (331-509 ppm); the MMEs contain acicular apatites that indicate quenching. The host granodiorites also have high K2O (4.48-5.95 wt%) and ∑ REE compositions (320-459 ppm), and together with the MMEs they are enriched in Th but depleted in Nb and Ti. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the host granodiorites and the MMEs are similar, with εHf(t) values of - 1.0 to - 10.8 and 3.3 to - 11.1, respectively. The geochemical data and igneous textures suggest that the MMEs represent a mafic magma that was derived from the partial melting of mantle pyroxenite, with the melting induced by the influx of fluids/melts from the recycling of sediments in the subducted slab. The mafic melts then caused the partial melting of lower crustal tonalitic rocks to produce granodioritic magma that was subsequently mixed with mafic magma. The biotite granites have relatively high SiO2 contents and low Mg# values that indicate a purely crustal origin and derivation from the partial melting of upper crustal metagraywacke. The

  4. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia; Geocronologia U-Pb por La-ICP-MS e petrografia do macico Sao Carlos - Provincia Estanifera de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debowski, Beatriz P.; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Nogueira, Camila; Almeida, Bruna Saar de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)


    U-Pb dating by ICP-MS-LA were performed in four samples of the Massif Sao Carlos massif, representative of the younger Granites of Rondonia belonging to the stanniferous province of the same State. Dated samples are granites of pink in colour and coarse-grained to porphyry with main mineralogy consisting of feldspar pertitic to mesopertitic, quartz, plagioclase in lower proportion, biotite and amphibole in some cases. Ages obtained were 986 ± 14 Ma, 974 ± 10 Ma, ± 8 Ma 992.7 and 996 ± 8 Ma and represent the age of crystallization of the Massif. Such ages are concordant with others reported on the bibliography ratifying the inclusion of the massif in the younger Granites of Rondonia, which are directly associated with the most significant mineralization of cassiterite in the State.

  5. geological mapping of the Onkalo open cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talikka, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    Posiva Oy and Geological Survey of Finland carried out geological mapping of the ONKALO open cut in the latter half of the year 2004. The study area is located on the Olkiluoto Island in Eurajoki, SW Finland. The study included geological mapping, stereo-photography, and interpretation of 3D images. Fieldwork was carried out during the construction work. The main rock types are vein migmatite and grey gneiss with variation to granitic grey gneiss. The contacts of the rock types are gradual. The vein migmatite consists of fine- to medium-grained mica gneiss paleosome and granite or granite pegmatite neosome. The proportion of the neosome material varies between 15 and 35 percent and the neosome occurs as veins and bands up to ten centimetres in thickness. The granite I granite pegmatite is medium- to coarse-grained and not orientated. Main minerals in the mica gneiss are plagioclase, biotite, quartz, and in the granite / granite pegmatite potassium feldspar, plagioclase, and quartz. The grey gneiss is medium grained and fairly homogenous comprising mainly plagioclase, biotite, and quartz. The granitic grey gneiss contains also potassium feldspar crystals up to five cm in length. The rocks within the study area are generally well preserved. There is, however, a zone of strongly weathered rocks east of the ONKALO open cut. The main structural feature in the study area is S{sub 2} foliation, which is seen in the orientation of biotite grains. The degree of the foliation is weak to medium in the vein migmatite and weak to non-existence in the grey gneiss. The foliation (S{sub 2}) dips 20-70 deg to southeast with an average direction of 150/45 deg. The migmatisation took place during the second deformation phase and possibly proceeded along the lithologic layers. The neosome veins bend irregularly and folding is present in places. The fold axis of the small scale, isoclinal folds dip 50-70 deg to northeast. In fracture mapping a total of 231 fractures were measured

  6. Dirty or Tidy ? Contrasting peraluminous granites in a collapsing Orogen: Examples from the French Massif Central (United States)

    Villaros, Arnaud; Pichavant, Michel; Moyen, Jean-François; Cuney, Michel; Deveaud, Sarah; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie


    Post collisional collapse commonly enhances crustal melting. Such melting typically produces peraluminous granitic magmas. In the French Massif Central, a mid-crustal segment of the western Variscan belt, two large granitic bodies were produced during the collapse of the Variscan Belt. The St Sylvestre Leucogranitic Complex (SSyL) in the western part of the Massif Central and the Velay Migmatitic Complex (VMC) in the Eastern part. Although these two complexes are formed in similar geodynamic context they present meaningful petrological and geochemical differences. The VMC (~305 Ma) is clearly intrusive in migmatitic terranes. The migmatitic host recorded two successive melting events M3 (720 °C and 5kb) dated between 335 and 315 Ma and M4 (850°C and 4 kb) dated at 305 Ma. The compositions of the VMC are strictly H2O-undersaturated and ranges from leucogranitic to granodioritic. Three main successive granite types have been distinguished (1) A heterogeneous banded biotite granite, (2) A main biotite-cordierite granite, where cordierite can be prismatic, as cockade or pseudomorphic (3) a late magmatic with large K-feldspar phenocryst and prismatic cordierite. The compositions of the VMC granites are quite similar to typical Australian S-type granites in the sense that they also show a positive correlation between ferromagnesian abundance and aluminosity. The SSyL (~320 Ma) is intrusive in upper greenschist facies to upper amphibolite migmatitic metasediment and orthogneiss (~3kb). The compositional variety observed in the SSyL suggests a continuous trend from a moderately mafic, peraluminous magma (cd- and sill- granite) to a H2O saturated granite ("two-mica" granite) facies and finally to an extremely felsic, H2O-saturated magma. Three granitic units have been recognized in the SSyL: (1) the western "Brame Unit" composed of the less evolved cd- and sill- granite facies (2) the central "St Sylvestre Unit", composed mainly by U-rich two-mica granite, intruded by two

  7. The Pleistocene eruptive history of Mount St. Helens, Washington, from 300,000 to 12,800 years before present: Chapter 28 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Evarts, Russell C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.


    We report the results of recent geologic mapping and radiometric dating that add considerable detail to our understanding of the eruptive history of Mount St. Helens before its latest, or Spirit Lake, stage. New data and reevaluation of earlier work indicate at least two eruptive periods during the earliest, or Ape Canyon, stage, possibly separated by a long hiatus: one about 300-250 ka and a second about 160–35 ka. Volcanism during this stage included eruption of biotite- and quartz-bearing dacite domes and pyroclastic flows in the area west of and beneath the present-day edifice, accompanied by the deposition of set C tephras. Ape Canyon-stage rocks are compositionally similar to younger Mount St. Helens dacite.

  8. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching (United States)

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.


    Quaternary marine sediment in the Gulf of Maine basins contains 0.7 to 1.0 wt percent TiO2 (determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry). Most of this TiO2 exists in the form of silt-size rutile crystals that are visible by using the petrographic microscope with transmitted light (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The identification of rutile was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system. To quantify the amount of TiO2 in the sediment contributed by rutile and its polymorphs, anatase and brookite, it was necessary to eliminate as many of the other minerals as possible, especially titanium-bearing minerals such as ilmenite, ilmenomagnetite, biotite, hornblende, oyroxene, and sphene. We accomplished this by developing a method of chemical dissolution that removed the bulk of the raw material and left the TiO2 minerals intact.

  9. Isotopic chronology and geological events of Precambrian complex in Taihangshan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树文; 梁海华; 赵国春; 华永刚; 简安华


    There are five major geological events in Precambrian complex, Taihangshan region determined by researching into geology and isotopic chronology of the complex. Basaltic magma erupted and quartz-dioritic to tonalitic magma intruded in earlier neo-Archaean, which formed horn-blende-plagiogneiss of Fuping gneiss complex and metamorphic mafic rock enclaves in TTG gneiss complex. Granulite fades metamorphism and emplacement of biotite-plagiogneiss occurred in late neo-Archaean. Extension and uplifting from the end of neo-Archaean to Paleoproterozoic era formed Chengnanzhuang large extensional deformation zones and metamorphic mafic veins emplaced into the deformation zones. Remobilization of Precambrian complex and tectonic uplifting in late Paleoproterozoic era formed Longquanguan ductile shear zone and emplacement of Nanying gneiss. Occurrence of regional granite pegmatite at the end of Paleoproterozoic era means the end of the Luliang movement.

  10. Isotopic chronology and geological events of Precambrian complex in Taihangshan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are five major geological events in Precambrian complex, Taihangshan region determined by researching into geology and isotopic chronology of the complex. Basaltic magma erupted and quartz-dioritic to tonalitic magma intruded in earlier neo-Archaean, which formed hornblende-plagiogneiss of Fuping gneiss complex and metamorphic mafic rock enclaves in TTG gneiss complex. Granulite facies metamorphism and emplacement of biotite-plagiogneiss occurred in late neo-Archaean. Extension and uplifting from the end of neo-Archaean to Paleoproterozoic era formed Chengnanzhuang large extensional deformation zones and metamorphic mafic veins emplaced into the deformation zones. Remobilization of Precambrian complex and tectonic uplifting in late Paleoproterozoic era formed Longquanguan ductile shear zone and emplacement of Nanying gneiss. Occurrence of regional granite pegmatite at the end of Paleoproterozoic era means the end of the Lliang movement.

  11. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland (United States)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John


    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  12. Petrographic characterization and preliminary lithogeochemistry of albitites from Folha Bramado, northwest of Bahia state, Brazil; Caracterizacao petrografica e litogeoquimica preliminar dos abititos da Folha Brumado - NW do estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Cristina Maria; Pinho, Ivana Conceicao de Araujo; Martins, Adriano Alberto Marques; Teixeira, Leo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Rita Cunha Leal Menezes de; Cruz Filho, Basilio Elesbao da; Wosniak, Ricardo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional


    The mapping geological works carried out by CPRM, in the scope of the Brumado-Condeuba Project, had proceeded to the sampling from granitoids in the 'Folha Brumado'. The majority of the samples were classified as biotite gneiss and two of them recognized as albitites. Lithogeochemical data had proved that the rocks are alkaline, metaluminous, potash-rich (except for the two classified as albitites that are soda-rich), enriched in rare earth elements, with negative anomaly in europium and typical standards of A-type granitoids. They had been located in the field of the within-plate granites in the discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation. The albitites of the 'Folha Brumado' are similar to the albitites that had been described in the Uranium Province of Lagoa Real. (author)

  13. Chronology and cooling history of the Tianmenshan pluton in South Jiangxi Province and their geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qingtao; MAO Jianren; HU Qing; ZHAO Xilin; YE Haimin


    Geochronological studies on the crust-derived Tianmenshan pluton were undertaken by SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and Ar-Ar dating of biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar, giving a petrogenetic age of 167 Ma. Owing to the closure systems in different minerals, the cooling history of the pluton can be determined with an age-temperature diagram. The late hydrothermal event has been recognized, which is related probably with mineralization. In terms of the comparative geochronological and petrologic records, it is concluded that there are some constrains on tectonic evolution and that the formation of the Tianmenshan pluton proceeded in a transition period from lndosinian post-orogeny extension to strong compressive tectonics. And the timing of the hydrothermal event matches the compressive climax of the Yanshanian orogeny. The temporal gap between granite emplacement and wolframite mineralization could last 10-20 Ma owing to the low cooling rate of the pluton.

  14. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Site Number 1, Dead River Dam (NH 00473) Androscoggin River Basin, Berlin, New Hampshire. Phase I inspection Report. (United States)


    Project Manager N.H. P.E. 2339 9 ’" "° , S U S S S S 5 S S 5 , This Phase I Inspection Report on Site No. 1, Dead River Dam 0 has been reviewed by the...Berlin, including the Central Business District. The dam is , 0 located on the U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, Mt. Washington, N.H. with coordinates at N 440 29’ 47...ccca--icn&J. higly Vce -thcz-d -chi-,t3. 1 Exccztions: F’our feet of be-drock (biotite gnoisn) w.a5 easily eccsv-ted L frn5- 9 feet in tcLt pit (T

  15. Tephra records from abyssal sediments off western Sumatra in recent 135 ka:evidence from Core IR-GC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhongyan; HAN Xiqiu; JIN Xianglong; WANG Yejian; ZHU Jihao


    Three volcanic ash layers were identified in a deep-sea Core IR-GC1 from the north-eastern Indian Ocean, adjacent to western Indonesian arc. They were dominated by glass shards with minor mineral crystals, such as plagioclase, biotite, and hornblende. According to the morphology and major element compositions of the representative glass shards, combined with theδ18O-based age, it is suggested that ash Layer A is cor-related to the youngest Toba tuff (YTT), Layer B is supposed to be associated with a new eruption of Toba caldera in an age of 98 to 100 ka. Ash Layer C is different the geochemistry characteristics than those of Layer A and Layer B, suggesting that Layer C was not originated from Toba but registered another volcanic erup-tion event.

  16. Petrologia, geoquímica e geocronologia de granulitos no sector São Fidélis-Santo António de Pádua, RJ, SE Brasil


    Bento dos Santos, Telmo; Munhá, José; Colombo C. G Tassinari; Neto, Coriolano Dias; Fonseca, Paulo E.


    O sector São Fidélis - Santo António de Pádua situa-se na zona centro-norte da Faixa Ribeira, SE do Brasil. Esta faixa móvel, formada aquando da Orogenia Brasiliana-Panafricana como resultado da colisão entre os crátons de São Francisco e Congo Ocidental, atingiu condições de pico metamórfico granulítico (T = 800 - 900ºC e P = 8 - 9 kbar) há cerca de 575 Ma. Estas condições foram suficientes para fundir incongruentemente biotite e anfíbola, levando à formação de resíduos charnoquí...

  17. O granito de Coentral revisitado: idade U-Pb de zircão


    Gomes, E. M. C.; Antunes, I. M.H.R.


    O granito de Coentral forma um pequeno plutonito, aflorante no bordo oeste da Zona Centro Ibérica, próximo do limite com a Zona de Ossa Morena, que intruiu metassedimentos do Grupo das Beiras. Trabalhos anteriores de datação radiométrica K-Ar de moscovites e biotites sugeriram a sua implantação no Neoproterozóico superior a Câmbrico inferior e posterior deformação e metamorfismo hercínicos. Novos dados isotópicos U-Pb ID-TIMS de zircão indicam uma idade de implantação para o granito de Co...

  18. Enrichment of Mantle-derived Fluids in the Formation Process of Granitoids: Evidence from the Himalayan Granitoids around Kunjirap in the Western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜耀辉; 凌洪飞; 蒋少涌; 周珣若; 芮行健; 杨万志


    Taking the Himalayan granitoids around Kunjirap in the western Qinghai-Tibet plateau as an example, the authors present in this paper the characteristics of the granitoids rich in mantle-derived fluid components and discuss their rock-forming mechanism. The research results indicate that the rock assemblage of the studied granitoids involves diopside syenite-diopside granite-biotite (monzonitic) granite, consisting mainly of K-feldspar, oligoclase, quartz, iron-phlogolite, diopside and edenite. The rocks are rich in mantle-derived fluid components of volatiles including F, alkali metal elements such as K, Na, Rb, Sr and Ba, and radiogenic heat-producing elements such as U and Th. They were generated by the influx of mantle-derived fluids into the lower crust to give rise to partial melting during the lithosphere thinning in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  19. Assessment of groundwater potential based on aquifer properties of hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed, Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Kumar, T. Jeyavel Raja; Balasubramanian, A.; Kumar, R. S.; Dushiyanthan, C.; Thiruneelakandan, B.; Suresh, R.; Karthikeyan, K.; Davidraju, D.


    Aquifer performance was tested in 24 locations to assess the groundwater potential of the hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed of the Tambaraparani River basin. Geologically, the area consists of biotite gneiss, charnockite, and quartzite. The aquifer characteristics, such as transmissivity ( T), the storage coefficient, specific capacity, optimum yield, and the recovery rate were calculated. The drawdown transmissivity was determined using Jacob's straight-line method, while the recovery transmissivity was determined by the Theis method. The drawdown transmissivity was low in the western areas, particularly at Kadayanallur, and was higher in the other areas. The recovery transmissivity was high in the western area, and, with the exception of Gangaikondan, was low at other locations. The assessment indicates that there is groundwater potential in the western part of the study area because of favorable results for recovery drawdown, aquifer thickness, and specific capacity.

  20. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages (United States)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  1. Kyanite-garnet gneisses of the Kåfjord Nappe - North Norwegian Caledonides: P-T conditions and monazite Th-U-Pb dating (United States)

    Ziemniak, Grzegorz; Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Janák, Marian; Manecki, Maciej


    The Kåfjord Nappe is the part of the Skibotn Nappe Complex traditionally ascribed to the Upper Allochthon of the North Norwegian Caledonides. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions and metamorphic age of the Kåfjord Nappe are not well constrained, geochronological data are limited to a single Rb-Sr age of c. 440 Ma (Dangla et al. 1978). Metamorphic evolution of kyanite-garnet gneisses of the Kåfjord Nappe is presented here. The kyanite-garnet gneisses are associated with a few meters thick amphibolite lenses. The gneisses mainly consist of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, garnet, kyanite, and rutile. Retrograde minerals are represented by sillimanite and chlorite. Garnet occurs as two textural types. Garnet-I forms euhedral porphyroblasts with multiple small inclusions. Profiles through garnet-I show chemical zonation in all components. The composition varies from Alm64-68Prp11-16Grs13-18Sps2-8 in the core to Alm68-70Prp17-18Grs10-13Sps1-3 in the rim. Garnet-II is subhedral to anhedral, its core is inclusion-rich, whereas rim contains only single inclusions. Chemical composition of garnet-II is similar to that of the garnet-I rim. P-T conditions have been estimated using the garnet-biotite-muscovite-plagioclase (GBPM) geothermobarometer (Holdaway, 2001; Wu, 2014). Calculated peak P-T metamorphic conditions are 610-625 °C and 7.6-8.2 kbar corresponding to the amphibolite facies conditions. Phase equilibrium modelling in the NCKFMMnASH system yields peak metamorphic conditions of c. 620 °C at 8 kbar. Growth conditions of garnet-I core modelled in the NCKFMMnASH system are c. 570 °C at 9.7 kbar. Chemical Th-U-total Pb monazite dating has been performed. Preliminary dating results from the kyanite-garnet gneiss of the Kåfjord Nappe yield an array of dates from 468 Ma to 404 Ma. There is a correlation between an increase of yttrium content and decrease of monazite single dates. Compositional maps confirm an increase of yttrium towards the rim of the

  2. Features Resembling Pseudotachylyte at Enchanted Rock Batholith, Texas (United States)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Degenhardt, J. J., Jr.; Reid, A. M.


    Enchanted Rock batholith in central Texas is a granitic pluton of ~250 km^2 area [1]. The batholith intrudes Precambrian metamorphic rocks and is dated by Rb-Sr at 1,048+/-34 m.y. [2]. Plutonic rocks are exposed in a series of exfoliation domes located along the southeastern edge of the batholith. Numerous subvertical fractures occur along the outer margins of the intrusion and, in a few cases, between exfoliation domes. A number of these fractures contain veins described as pseudotachylytes by Barnes [3]. In hand specimen, the veins resemble pseudotachylytes, forming a branching network and containing angular fragments of local country rock in a fine-grained matrix that locally exhibits an apparent flow texture. Some smaller veins appear to have been injected into host rock. The veins range in width up to ~30 cm with boundaries which are sharp and smooth with undulating surfaces. Thin (~4-5 cm) aplite dikes cut the granite and generally show small amounts of displacement where intersected by the fracture veins (maximum measured apparent displacement ~75 cm). Matrix material in veins includes fragments of quartz, feldspar, biotite, and opaques. Matrix biotite is generally associated with opaques and occurs as numerous, tiny, oriented flakes between fragments of feldspar and quartz in areas which are darker than surrounding matrix. The flow-like textures of matrix materials are defined by these darker areas which are elongated subparallel to fracture direction. The finer-grained matrix biotite apparently derives from comminution of larger grains from host rock. Larger clasts include rock fragments and fragments of alkali feldspar and quartz, with a tendency for the larger fragments to concentrate in the centers of veins. Clasts are irregular in shape and are commonly angular and rarely contorted. Rock fragments are derived from host rock and also include "breccia within breccia" fragments. Single-mineral fragments display evidence of strain; quartz commonly shows

  3. The XPS study of physical and chemical forms of neptunium group on the surface of minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Anton Yu.


    Full Text Available The sorption behavior and the physical and chemical forms of neptunium on the surface of minerals of the two chlorate samples, biotite and kaolin, with different contents of Fe(II was studied. The liquid-liquid extraction and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to identify the valence forms of neptunium. On the basis of the obtained data the quantitative elemental composition of the surface of the studied minerals, as well as the ionic composition of the formed neptunium complexes was determined. It was shown that the Np(IV and Np(VI containing compounds did not form, while the complexes Np(VO+ -hydroxyl did form on the surface. The oxygen ions bonded with iron and oxygen belonging to water and/or of carboxyl were suggested to be present in the equatorial plane of the neptunyl group NpO+.

  4. Study and implication of the high-pressure felsic granulite in the Qinling complex of East Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良; 周鼎武; 王焰; 陈丹玲; 刘雁


    There is a typical assemblage of garnet + kyanite + microperthite + quartz + rutile in high-pressure (HP) felsic granulite of Qinling complex in Songshugou area. East Qinling. The HP granulite was formed at 800 -900℃ and 1.3 -1.6GPa and has experienced two stages of retrograde metamorphism at 600- 650 ℃, 0.8-1.0GPa and 500-600℃, 0.3-0.6GPa, forming two retrograde metamorphic assemblages of margarite + plagiodase (PlI)+quartz and sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase(PlII) + microdine+quartz, respectively. They construct a two-stage clockwise P-T path which shows down-pressure cooling in both early and late stage.

  5. Petrographic-geochemical characteristics of granitoids and their epigenetic alteration products in paleovalley fields (Vitim uranium-ore site) (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E. S.; Domarenko, V. A.; Matveenko, I. A.


    The study describes the results of the mineral and element composition of granitoids in basement and weathering crust of Khiagdinsk ore field in Vitim uranium ore site. It has been stated that granitoids in basement consist of leucocratic biotite granite of subalkaline group. The major rock-forming, accessory (apatite, zircon, sphene (titanite), magnetite, monazite, xenotime), and uranium-bearing minerals have been determined. Weathering crust is composed of unlithified or weakly lithified sediments, among which sandy and sandy medium gravel deposits have been distinguished in terms of mineralogical and granulometric texture. High radioactivity of granitoids was revealed in thorium-uranium basement and natural uranium. The combination of the specified factors presupposes that granitoids of Vitim uranium ore site may be a source of uranium in the fields of the paleovalley type.

  6. 吉林和龙东树沟钼矿床地质特征及找矿标志%Geological features and prospecting criteria of Dongshugou molybdenum deposit in Helong City, Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜辉; 单贺; 张天瑞; 李玉鹏


    Dongshugou molybdenum deposit is located in Helong City about 50 km south, under the jurisdiction of the Longcheng Town. The molybdenum ore body occurs in biotite-plagioclase granite, distribute with layers or veins. The geological features of the deposit, drainage sediment features are summarized in this paper, the prospecting criteria of the molybdenum deposit are determined in this area.%东树沟钼矿床位于和龙市南约50 km,隶属龙城镇管辖。钼矿体赋存于黑云母斜长花岗岩之中,多以层状或脉状分布,该文总结了矿床地质特征、水系沉积物特征,确定了该区钼矿床的找矿标志。

  7. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter


    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  8. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia) (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.


    Massif paleoalteration profiles (≥ 200 m) occur in the upper parts of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Catalan Coastal Ranges). The profiles consist of hard albitized-chloritized-hematized facies in the lower part and softer kaolinized-hematized facies in the upper part of the section. Preliminary paleomagnetic data show Triassic ages for both, the albitized and the kaolinized parts, and point to a surficial formation altered under oxidising conditions. Similar paleoalteration profiles have already been described and dated to Triassic ages elsewhere in Europe [Schmitt, 1992; Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009]. These Permian-Triassic alterations are following a succession of different mineral transformations from the top to the base of the profile: 1) Red facies are defined by an increase in the amount and size of haematite crystals leading to the red colour of the rocks. The increase on haematite content is pervasively affecting the whole rock and is accompanied by the kaolinitization of the feldspars. 2) Pink facies: here, the granite shows an uniform pink colouration, which is mainly due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing plagioclases, accompanied by a precipitation of minute haematite, sericite, and calcite crystals inside the albite. Additionally primary biotite is fully chloritized. The pink granites are much more resistant to the present-day weathering than the "unaltered" facies at the base of the profile. 3) Spotted facies is characterized by a partial alteration of the rock, which caused a pink-screened aspect to the rock. The alteration developed along the fractures and is less well developed or absent in the non-fractured zones. In the pink-screened facies, the plagioclases are partially albitized and contain numerous hematite inclusions. Biotites are usually almost entirely chloritized. 4) Unaltered facies: These granites are coloured white to greyish, containing plagioclase and K-feldspar that do not show any trace of

  9. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks from the Laoshankou District, North Xinjiang: Implications for the Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution and Metallogenesis of East Junggar (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Bing; Bao, Zhiwei; Xu, Deru


    The Fe-Cu mineralization of the Laoshankou district is located in the Dulate Late Paleozoic island arc at the northern margin of East Junggar terrane, Northwest China and is hosted by volcanic rocks of the Middle Devonian Beitashan Formation. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon constrains the timing of crystallization of biotite diorites and quartz syenites in the Laoshankou district to 379 ± 2 Ma and 376 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline in composition and are characterised by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, consistent with a subduction-related affinity. The relatively depleted Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Th, enriched Sr and Ba, elevated Mg#, positive εNd(t) values (5.5 and 5.6), low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7042 and 0.7044) and MORB-like Pb-isotope characters all suggest that they were derived from a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids, without crustal contamination. The biotite diorite shows slightly metaluminous compositions and is geochemically similar to the volcanic rocks, suggesting that they were derived from the same depleted mantle source. The lack of correlation between SiO2 and initial Sr, Nd ratios suggests that fractional crystallization dominated the petrogenesis of the biotite diorite with only weak crustal contamination. The geochemical characteristics of the quartz syenite are distinct from the volcanic rocks and the biotite diorite. The positive εHf(t), εNd(t), high Th/La (0.17-0.53), Th/Yb (1.62-4.39), low Ce/Th (2.87-10.13) ratios and positive trends of SiO2 versus (87Sr/86Sr)i and (143Nd/144Nd)i indicate the quartz syenite is likely the product of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and subducted sediment-derived melts that underwent crustal contamination during passage through the crust. The low abundance of Th, Yb, Ta and La, indicate that all the intrusive rocks from 379 to 376 Ma in the Laoshankou district formed in an island arc rather than a continental margin

  10. The tectono-thermal evolution of the Waterbury dome, western Connecticut, based on U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages (United States)

    Dietsch, Craig; Kunk, Michael J.; Aleinikoff, John; Sutter, John F.


    The Waterbury dome, located in the Rowe-Hawley zone in western Connecticut, is a triple window exposing three terranes: parautochthonous or allochthonous peri-Laurentian rocks in its lowest level 1, allochthonous rocks of the Rowe-Hawley zone in its middle level 2, and allochthonous cover rocks, including Silurian-Devonian rocks of the Connecticut Valley Gaspé trough, in its highest level 3. Levels 1 and 2 are separated by the Waterbury thrust, a fault equivalent to Cameron's Line, the Taconic suture in southwestern New England. Relict mesoscopic folds and foliation in levels 1 and 2 are truncated by a dominant D2 migmatitic layering and are likely Taconic. U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of felsic orthogneiss and tonalite, syntectonic with respect to the formation of S2, and a biotite quartz diorite that crosscuts level 2 paragneiss are 437 ± 4 Ma, 434 ± 4 Ma, and 437 ± 4 Ma, respectively.

  11. Experimental constraints on the relative stabilities of the two systems monazite-(Ce) - allanite-(Ce) - fluorapatite and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite, in high Ca and Na-Ca environments under P-T conditions of 200-1000 MPa and 450-750 °C (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Kozub-Budzyń, Gabriela A.; Majka, Jarosław


    The relative stabilities of phases within the two systems monazite-(Ce) - fluorapatite - allanite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote have been tested experimentally as a function of pressure and temperature in systems roughly replicating granitic to pelitic composition with high and moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratios over a wide range of P-T conditions from 200 to 1000 MPa and 450 to 750 °C via four sets of experiments. These included (1) monazite-(Ce), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; (2) monazite-(Ce), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O; (3) xenotime-(Y), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; and (4) xenotime-(Y), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O. Monazite-(Ce) breakdown was documented in experimental sets (1) and (2). In experimental set (1), the Ca high activity (estimated bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of 13.3) promoted the formation of REE-rich epidote, allanite-(Ce), REE-rich fluorapatite, and fluorcalciobritholite at the expense of monazite-(Ce). In contrast, a bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of ~1.0 in runs in set (2) prevented the formation of REE-rich epidote and allanite-(Ce). The reacted monazite-(Ce) was partially replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite-fluorcalciobritholite in all runs, REE-rich steacyite in experiments at 450 °C, 200-1000 MPa, and 550 °C, 200-600 MPa, and minor cheralite in runs at 650-750 °C, 200-1000 MPa. The experimental results support previous natural observations and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria, which demonstrate that an increased CaO bulk content expands the stability field of allanite-(Ce) relative to monazite-(Ce) at higher temperatures indicating that the relative stabilities of monazite-(Ce) and allanite-(Ce) depend on the bulk CaO/Na2O ratio. The experiments also provide new insights into the re-equilibration of monazite-(Ce) via fluid

  12. Assessment of sources for higher Uranium concentration in ground waters of the Central Tamilnadu, India (United States)

    Adithya, V. S.; Chidambaram, S.; Tirumalesh, K.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.


    The uranium concentration in groundwater has attained greater importance considering the health effects in mankind. Groundwater being the major source of uranium; sampling and analysis of groundwater for the major cations and anions along with uranium has been carried out in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district. The sampling has been carried out in varied aquifers like, Charnockites, Hornblende Biotite Gneiss, Granites, Quartzites, Laterites and sandstone. The cation and anions showed the following order of dominance Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and that of anions are HCO3 ->Cl->SO4 2-> NO3 ->PO4 3-. Higher concentration of uranium was found along the granitic aquifers and it varied along the groundwater table condition. Further it was identified that the mineral weathering was the predominant source of U in groundwater. Tritium studies also reveal the fact that the younger waters are more enriched in uranium than the older groundwater with longer residence time.

  13. Constraints on mineralisation and hydrothermal alteration in the Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie Fairbairn

    and hydrolysis reactions are important in locally precipitating gold, which may suggest an Au(HS)2- transport complex for gold. A c. 20 cm wide biotite-arsenopyrite alteration zone surrounds the gold-quartz veins locally, and denotes areas of high-gold grades. Implicit 3-Dimentional modelling has revealed......Summary: Nalunaq is located in South Greenland and is a small high gold-grade deposit, which for the majority of its operational life was Greenland's only metalliferous mine. Gold is hosted in narrow quartz veins which are cross-cut by late-stage faults. Gold-quartz veins are hosted by fine......-and - medium grained amphibolite of the Nanortalik Nappe. Detailed petrographic and geochronological studies have revealed a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system, with alteration pre-and post-dating gold mineralisation. The hydrothermal alteration records a transition from upper-amphibolite facies...

  14. Correlation of upper Llandovery–lower Wenlock bentonites in the När (Gotland, Sweden and Ventspils (Latvia drill cores: role of volcanic ash clouds and shelf sea currents in determining areal distribution of bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kiipli


    Full Text Available Study of volcanic ash beds using biostratigraphy, sanidine composition and immobile elements within bentonites has manifested several well-established and some provisional correlations between Gotland and East Baltic sections. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence microanalysis of phenocrysts has revealed bentonites containing Mg-rich or Fe-rich biotite. Sanidine phenocrysts contain, in addition to a major Na and K component, often a few per cent of Ca and Ba. On the basis of new correlations the mapping of the distribution areas of bentonites has been extended from the East Baltic to Gotland. The bentonite distribution can be separated into two parts in North Latvia–South Estonia, indicating the existence of shelf sea currents in the Baltic Silurian Basin.

  15. Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Humberto Bustos, E-mail:; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martinez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera [Universidad del Tolima, Grupo Ciencia de Materiales y Tecnologia en Plasma (Colombia); Alcazar, German Antonio Perez [Universidad del Valle, Grupo Metalurgia Fisica y Teoria de las Transiciones de Fase (Colombia)


    Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) of {sup 57}Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibague and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe{sup + 3} type sites and the other two to Fe{sup + 2} type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

  16. Petrogenesis and Dating of Two Types of Granite from North Qilian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cailai; SHI Rendeng; YANG Jingsui; YANG Hongyi; Joseph L. WOODEN; ZHENG Qiuguang; CHENG Shengyong


    Two types of granitic intrusives occur in the lower Paleozoic strata in north Qilian. One is the hornblendebearing granitic body in Jingzichuan, characterized by the REE total of 90× 10-6-106× 10-6, LREE/HREE ratio of less than 8 (ranging from 6.9 to 7.8) and zircon SHRIMP age of 464 Ma. These intrusives have island-arc affinity. The other is biotite-bearing granitic body in Huangyanghe with the REE total of 214× 10-6-250× 10-6, LREE/HREE ratio of more than 8 (ranging from 8.2 to 9.7) and zircon LA-ICP-MS age of 383 Ma. They were tectonically intruded in a post-collisional or within-plate environment.

  17. Grenvillian thermal event and remnant charnockite: Isotopic evidence from the Chilka Lake granulite-migmatite suite in the Eastern Ghats belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; M P Deomurari; W Teixeira


    Spectacular exposures of granulite-migmatite occur in the Chilka Lake area of the Eastern Ghats belt. The garnetiferous granite gneiss of peraluminous granitic composition, often contains restitic metapelite inclusions and is demonstrably a product of biotite-dehydration melting in pelitic rocks. On the other hand, older layers and bands of charnockitic rocks frequently occur as dismembered patches within the peraluminous granite, thus imparting a measled appearance of the granite exposures. The partial melting and emplacement of the peraluminous granite represent the Grenvillian thermal event, as evidenced by Rb-Sr whole rock and Pb-Pb zircon dating. On the other hand, minor patches of charnockite represent migmatized relict, as evidenced by some older zircons, in addition to those of Grenvillian age.

  18. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.


    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  19. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.


    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar dating of shear deformation of the Xianshuihe fault zone in west Sichuan and its tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yueqiao; CHEN; Wen; YANG; Nong


    Based on field geological survey, structural measurements and classical 40Ar/39Ar dating of mica, biotite and K-feldspar, we obtain cooling ages for Miocene left-lateral shear along the Xianshuihe fault zone. The results document two thermal events during the sinistral shear.The early event (12-10 Ma) corresponds to rapid cooling of the Zheduoshan granitic massif from above 700℃ to below 350℃. The late event (5-3.5 Ma) corresponds to cooling of granites intruded along the eastern side of the fault zone. These dating results provide important thermochronological constraint on the timing of late Cenozoic eastward extrusion of the Chuan-Dian Block in the SE Tibetan margin.

  1. New evidence of tectonic uplift and transform of movement style along Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using cooling curves of K-feldspars obtained by specific40Ar/39Ar step heating procedure and multiple diffusion domain modeling (MDD model), together with results of dating hornblende, biotite, muscovite, and apatite, this research relates the cooling history of 3 areas, from Ejia in NW to Jinping in SE of Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, and near Hekou (distance about 390 km). The results indicate that the slip distance of Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone is more than 350 km (at least based on the study done within China). And between the end of the left-lateral slip movement and the beginning of the right-lateral slip movement, the uplift of shear zone from SE to NW was homogeneously extended.

  2. 北京密云群变质作用的温度、压力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Metamorphic temperatures and pressures of the Archean Miyun Group have been determinad by using orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene garnet-clinopyroxene, garnet-biotite and δ18OQ2-δ18OMt geothermometers and by using the pure mineral components of clinopyroxanes, The results show that the temperature in the first stage of metamorphism of the Miyun Group is 820°±50℃ and the pressure is about 10kb, providing an indication of medium pressure granulite fades with a geothermal gradient of 22°--25℃/km. The corresponding burial depth is about 35 kin. The temperature prevailing during the second metamorphic stage is in the range 650°---700℃, indicating an intermediate fades between granulite and high amphibolite facies. Oxygen isotope data also show that the temperature of later superimposad regression metamorphism of high green schist fades in this region may be within the range of 470°-560℃,

  3. Confirmation of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEI ChunJing; WANG Tao; LOU YuXing; CHU Hang


    The existence of pelitic granulite in the Altai orogen was confirmed for the first time by detailed petro-graphic research and P-T pseudosection modeling. The pelitic granulite has the assemblage of garnet + cordierite + K-feldspar + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase + quartz with some samples containing the paragenesis of cordierite + spinel. Peak conditions of the pelitic granulite determined from the P-T pseudosection involved P= 0.5-0.6 GPa, T= 780-800?*, belonging to medium-to low-pressure type. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon presented a metamorphic age of 292.8 ± 2.3 Ma. The discovery of pelitic granulite reflects an extensional environment with high heat flow in the southern margin of the Altai orogen during the Early Permian, which provides an important petrological constraint on the evolution of the Altai orogen.

  4. Generation of trondhjemite from partial melting of dacite under granulite facies conditions: an example from the New Jersey Highlands, USA (United States)

    Puffer, J.H.; Volkert, R.A.


    New field and geochemical data place the Losee Metamorphic Suite (a tonalite/trondhjemite complex) of northern New Jersey into the context of a major Proterozoic continental are represented by a discontinuous belt of northern Appalachian metadacite. Samples of Losee rock range from extremely leucocratic trondhjemite locally associated with amphibolite, to banded biotite, hornblende, pyroxene, and garnet-bearing tonalites. The major element and REE composition of the tonalite closely resembles dacite from continental are settings and model melts extracted from an eclogite residue by partial melting at 15 kbar. The REE composition of most Losee trondhjemite is enriched in REE, particularly HREE, compared with Losee tonalite, and is interpreted as the product of local anatectic melting of Losee tonalite (metadacite) that occurred in a granulite facies environment during the Grenville orogeny. ?? 1991.

  5. Discovery of the Early Mesozoic granulite xenoliths in North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵济安[1; 韩庆军[2; 李惠民[3


    The discovery of the Early Mesozoic basic granulite xenoliths in the Harqin area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (for short Inner Mongolia) is reported for the first time in this paper. According to the mineral assemblage the xenoliths include two-pyroxene granulite, clinopyroxene granulite, and hypersthene granulite. Their protolytes are mainly gabbroite rocks. The zircon U-Pb age of the granulite xenoliths is 251 Ma, and K-Ar age of the hypersthene is 229 Ma. They represent the times of metamorphism and cooling of the granulite facies respectively. The host rock of the xenoliths is Early Mesozoic biotite-quartz diorites, whose whole-rock K-Ar age is 219 Ma. This discovery confirms existence of an Early Mesozoic underplating in the North China Craton, which is of much importance in research on the Early Mesozoic mantle-crust interaction in the concerned area.

  6. Age of Anzishan granulites in the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone of Qingling orogen: With a discussion of the timing offinal assembly of Yangtze and North China craton blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many granulite blocks have been recently discovered in the Anzishan area, Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, in the central segment of the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone. Sm-Nd isochron and 40Ar/39Ar ages of mineral samples of granulites from this area are reported in the note. The granulite mineral samples give a Sm-Nd isochron age of t=(206 ( 55) Ma (2(), with INd = 0.51302(7(2() and MSWD = 1.6, and a biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of (199.7(1.7) Ma (2(). The formation and uplift of the granulites were related to subduction of the Yangtze block beneath the South Qinling microcontinent and their collision and the final amalgamation of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean craton blocks in the Indosinian, and their age is consistent with or close to those of the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure and high-pressure metamorphic rocks, so have great tectonic significance.

  7. Metamorphism, argon depletion, heat flow and stress on the Alpine fault (United States)

    Scholz, C. H.; Beavan, J.; Hanks, T. C.


    The Alpine fault of New Zealand is a major continental transform fault which was uplifted on its southeast side 4 to 11 km within the last 5 m.y. This uplift has exposed the Haast schists, which were metamorphosed from the adjacent Torlesse graywackes. The Haast schists increase in metamorphic grade from prehnite-pumpellyite facies 9-12 km from the fault through the chlorite and biotite zones of the greenschist facies to the garnet-oligoclase zone amphibolite facies within 4 km of the fault. These metamorphic zone boundaries are subparallel to the fault for 350 km along the strike. The K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of the schists increase with distance from the fault: from 4 m.y. within 3 km of the fault to approximately 110 m.y. 20 km from the fault. Field relations show that the source of heat that produced the argon depletion aureole was the fault itself.

  8. Geochemistry and SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Age of Post-Collisional Granites in the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt of China: Examples from the Heiyingshan and Laohutai Plutons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Lingli; GAO Jun; WANG Jingbin; QIAN Qing; XIONG Xianming; WANG Yuwang; WANG Lijuan; GAO Liming


    The Heiyingshan granite and the Laohutai granite plutons exposed in the Southwest Tianshan resemble A-type granites geochemically. Analysis shows that the both are ferron calc-alkalic peraluminous or ferron aikali-calcic peraluminous with a relatively high concentration of SiO2 (>70%), high alkali contents (Na2O + K2O = 7.14%-8.56%; K2O>N2O; A/CNK = 0.99-1.20), and pronounced negative anomales in Eu, Ba, Sr, P and Ti. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 285±4 Ma was obtained for the Heiyingshan hornblende biotite granite intrusion. The geochemical and age dating data reported in this paper indicate that these granites were formed during the post-collisional crustal extension of the Southwest Tianshan orogenic belt, in agreement with the published data for the granites in the South Tianshan.

  9. Intrusive rocks of the Holden and Lucerne quadrangles, Washington; the relation of depth zones, composition, textures, and emplacement of plutons (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.


    The core of the northern Cascade Range in Washington consists of Precambrian and upper Paleozoic metamorphic rocks cut by numerous plutons, ranging in age from early Triassic to Miocene. The older plutons have been eroded to catazonal depths, whereas subvolcanic rocks are exposed in the youngest plutons. The Holden and Lucerne quadrangles span a -sizeable and representative part of this core. The oldest of the formations mapped in these quadrangles is the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, which was shown on the quadrangle maps as Cretaceous and older in age. The Swakane has yielded a middle Paleozoic metamorphic age, and also contains evidence of zircon inherited from some parent material more than 1,650 m.y. old. In this report, the Swakane is assigned an early Paleozoic or older age. It consists mostly of biotite gneiss, but interlayered with it are scattered layers and lenses of hornblende schist and gneiss, clinozoisite-epidote gneiss, and quartzite. Thickness of the Swakane is many thousands of meters, and the base is not exposed. The biotite gneiss is probably derived from a pile of siliceous volcanic rocks containing scattered sedimentary beds and basalt flows. Overlying the Swakane is a thick sequence of eugeosynclinal upper Paleozoic rocks metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. The sequence includes quartzite and thin layers of marble, hornblende schist and gneiss, graphitic schist, and smaller amounts of schist and gneiss of widely varying compositions. The layers have been tightly and complexly folded, and, in places, probably had been thrust over the overlying Swakane prior to metamorphism. Youngest of the supracrustal rocks in the area are shale, arkosic sandstone, and conglomerate of the Paleocene Swauk Formation. These rocks are preserved in the Chiwaukum graben, a major structural element of the region. Of uncertain age, but possibly as old as any of the intrusive rocks in the area, are small masses of ultramafic rocks, now almost completely altered to

  10. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit. (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.


    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Majer


    Full Text Available Metharyolites of Vranica mountain are roks of emphasized porphyritic texture containing phenocrysts of quartz, K.feldspar and very rarely albite. The groundmass is microcrystallinic, characterized by finegrained phengite, biotite and area consisting of granophyric intergrowths of quartz and feldspar. Accessory minerals are ilmenite, rutila, apatite, zircon and chlorite. Metarhyolites are peraulminous rocks (PI=1.-4.1 having dominantly potassium character (K2O/Na2O=1,3-13,8. Incompatible elements are enriched relative to the normalizing chondrite composition, pointing to the crustal origin of metarhyolite magma. Although phengites typically occur in high pressure rocks, it seems that phengites of metarhyolites of Vranica mountain belong to the seldom group of phengites occurring in the low to medium pressure rocks (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. 斑岩铜(钼)矿成矿作用的地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳球; 徐外生


    Dealt with in this paper are some geochemical characteristics of mineralization of porphyry copper deposits, especially those observed in intrusive bodies, wa11 rocks, alteration zones, ores and individual pyrites. Productive intrusions have been correlated with barre nones from such aspects as major and trace elements, copper contents of biotite and pyrite,and distribution pattern of copper. In the mineralized rocks, trace elements show apparent zoning surrounding ore bodies; major and trace dements seem to show some reguIarity of variation in the process of alteration, and as a result each alteration zone displays its own peculiar element combination. Trace dements in ores can provide information on the genesis of ore deposits, thus of great help in distinguishing ore types while those in pyrites may be indicative of mineralization, provide dues for distinguishing orebearing from barren rocks,and reflect the degree of erosion of ore bodies.

  13. On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Linkeng tungsten molybdenum ore in Jiangle County, Fujian Province%福建将乐林坑钨钼矿地质特征及成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    林坑钨钼矿产于燕山早期黑云母花岗岩中,岩浆期后含矿热液在裂隙带中沉淀形成石英脉型钨钼矿。该区在成矿前多次遭受区域北西一南东向的应力作用,先后形成了北东向的挤压带及构造裂隙带,对成矿极为有利。%The Linkeng tungsten molybdenum ore deposit exists in the early yanshanian biotite granite, and the quartz veined tungsten molybdenum ore formed from the volcanogene ore bearing hydrothermal in the fractured zone. The area repeatedly suffered from stress function of the regional NW-SW before function, then formed the NW extrusion and tecton ic fracture zone. It is extremely benefical for mineralization.

  14. U-Pb dating of zircon from the bed parallel anatectic granitic intrusion in the Baoban group in Hainan Island and the tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Shijiang; HU; Jianmin; SONG; Biao; CHEN; Mulun; XIE


    The petrological and geochemical features of the bed parallel granitic intrusion in the Pre-Cambrian Baoban group in Hainan Island attest to the anatexis origin of the granites. U-Pb dating analyses of zircons from the anatectic granite and the biotite two-feldspar gneiss in the Baoban group, using SHRIMP II in the Beijing Ion-probe Center, acquire 206Pb/238U ages of 368±3.5 Ma (of granite, 95% confidence level, MSDW=1.23) and 362.9±6.1 Ma (of gneiss, 95% confidence level, MSDW = 2.04) respectively. The two late Devonian ages indicate consistently a tectonic- thermal event experienced in Hainan Island, and are the first discovered record of the Devonian geological process in the district. This event possibly resulted from the deep thermal-dynamic process when the Gondwana continent began to break up in the Devonian period.

  15. Sphene-centered ocellar texture as a petrological tool to unveil the mechanism facilitating magma mixing (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    The sphene-centered ocellar texture is a unique magma mixing feature characterized by leucocratic ocelli of sphene enclosed in a biotite/hornblende-rich matrix (Hibbard, 1991). The ocelli usually consist of plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz with sphene crystals at its centre. Although geochemical and isotopic data provide concrete evidence for the interaction between two compositionally distinct magmas, the exact processes by which mixing takes place is yet uncertain. So, textural analysis can be used to decipher the behaviour of two disparate magmas during mixing. Presented work is being carried out on the sphene ocelli, occurring in hybrid rocks of the Nimchak Granite Pluton (NGP), to understand its formation while two compositionally different magmas come in contact and try to equilibrate. The NGP is ca. 1 km2in extent which has been extensively intruded by number of mafic dykes exhibiting well preserved magma mixing and mingling structures and textures in the Bathani Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence (BVSS) located on the northern fringe of the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) of eastern Indian Shield. From petrographic and mineral chemical studies we infer that when basaltic magma intruded the crystallizing granite magma chamber, initially the two compositionally different magmas existed as separate entities. The first interaction that took place between the two phases is diffusion of heat from the relatively hotter mafic magma to the colder felsic one followed by diffusion of elemental components like K and incompatible elements from the felsic to the mafic domain. Once thermal equilibrium was attained between the mafic and felsic melts, the rheological contrasts between the two phases were greatly reduced. This allowed the felsic magma to back-vein into the mafic magma. The influx of back-veined felsic melt into the mafic system disrupted the equilibrium conditions in the mafic domain wherein minerals like amphibole, plagioclase and biotite

  16. Genesis of emulsion texture due to magma mixing: a case study from Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex of Eastern India (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor


    The emulsion texture is a rare magma mixing feature in which rounded bodies of one magmatic phase remain dispersed in the other coherent phase (Freundt and Schmincke, 1992). This type of special texture in hybrid rocks can significantly contribute toward understanding the mechanisms facilitating magma mixing and magma chamber dynamics involving two disparate magmas as the exact processes by which mixing occurs still remain unclear. Recent developments in microfluidics have greatly helped us to understand the complex processes governing magma mixing occurring at micro-level. Presented work uses some of the results obtained from microfluidic experiments with a view to understand the formation mechanism of emulsions preserved in the hybrid rocks of the Ghansura Rhyolite Dome (GRD) of Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC), Eastern India. The GRD has preserved hybrid rocks displaying emulsion texture that formed due to the interaction of a phenocryst-rich basaltic magma and host rhyolite magma. The emulsions are more or less spherical in shape and dominantly composed of amphibole having biotite rinds set in a matrix of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Amphibole compositions were determined from the core of the emulsions to the rim with a view to check for cationic substitutions. The amphibole constituting the emulsions is actinolite in composition, and commonly shows tschermakite (Ts) and pargasite (Prg) substitutions. From petrographical and mineral-chemical analyses we infer that when mafic magma, containing phenocrysts of augite, came in contact with felsic magma, diffusion of cations like H+, Al3+and others occurred from the felsic to the mafic system. These cations reacted with the clinopyroxene phenocrysts in the mafic magma to form amphibole (actinolite) crystals. The formation of amphibole crystals in the mafic system greatly increased the viscosity of the system allowing the amphibole crystals to venture into the adjacent felsic

  17. Yanshanian Magma-Tectonic-Metallogenic Belt in East China of Circum-Pacific Domain (Ⅰ):Igneous Rocks and Orogenic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Yanshanian igneous rocks in the East China, on an orogenic belt scale, are characterized by the continental marginal arc in petrology and geochemistry as Andes and West USA, except for the Hercyn-type biotite-two mica-muscovite granite belt in the Nanling region. Three segments of the Yanshanian igneous rocks along the belt are recognized. In terms of magma-tectonic event sequence, the north, middle and south segments have counter-clockwise (ccw), clockwise (cw) and ccw+cw pTt paths of the orogenic process, respectively. A genetic model of the lithospheric delamination (loss of the lithospheric root in about 120 km) in combination with the oceanic subduction for the Yanshanian Andes-like orogenic belt and both the crust and lithosphere thickening for the Yanshanian Hercyn-type Nanling orogenic belt in the East China is suggested.

  18. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina


    The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

  19. Cooling age of Dabie orogen, China, determined by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江峰; 谢智; 刘顺生; 李学明; K.A.Foland


    Based on 40Ar-39Ar results of hornblendes and biotites and fission track dating results of apatites separated from the same rock samples, cooling history of rocks from Dabie orogen is discussed. Rocks from both Southern Dabie Terrain (SDT) and Northern Dabie Terrain (NDT) have an early fast cooling followed by a more recent slow cooling. Rocks from SDT cooled to about 540℃ at about 190 Ma B.C., while rocks from NDT cooled to about 540℃ at 125 Ma B C. Until about 110-120 Ma B.C., rocks from both SDT and NDT cooled to about 100℃. This suggests that a relative movement among rocks from SDT, NDT and ul-Ira-high pressure metamorphic rocks exis-ts before 110-120 Ma B.C.

  20. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex? (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.


    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  1. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  2. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations (United States)

    Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Davis, John C.; Tischendorf, Gerhard; Seltmann, Reimar


    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological

  3. Structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt near Lake Gaston, Virginia and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, P.E.; Horton, J.W. Jr. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))


    Preliminary results of mapping along the NC-VA State line eastward from the Buggs Is. granite about 35 km to the Hollister fault zone yield new information about structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt. The layered rocks are predominantly two-mica schist and sillimanite-mica schist interlayered with lesser amounts of muscovite-biotite-quartz-plagioclase paragneiss and hornblende-biotite gneiss. The overall rock assemblage here differs from those along strike near Goochland, VA, and near Raleigh, NC, and is reminiscent of an accretionary complex. Bodies of foliated to massive two-mica granite are abundant and commonly contain garnet. One body, the Wise pluton, contains a N--NW-striking, steeply dipping foliation, but the intrusive contact of the granite with the metamorphic rocks is discordant. The most prominent regional foliation, parallel to transposed compositional layering, is axial planar to relict, reclined, isoclinal outcrop-scale folds. This foliation is folded at both outcrop and map scale by open folds plunging NW and SW. Some foliated, two-mica granite sheets are warped by the open folds; other bodies of similar granite cut across these folds. Sillimanite needles are locally aligned with the hinges of some of the open folds, an indication that sillimanite-muscovite-grade metamorphism was associated with this folding event. The two-mica granites resemble other late Paleozoic granites in the region. If these granites prove to be late Paleozoic (Alleghanian), then the deformation and metamorphism that produced sillimanite along the hingelines also must be Alleghanian. Relatively younger, NW- and SE-plunging crenulations and chevron folds are associated with a crenulation cleavage that dips steeply NE or SW. Sillimanite needles are folded by these crenulations. Crenulation cleavage and related folds may have developed in response to transpression of these rocks between the dextral Lake Gordon and Hollister mylonite zones.

  4. Timing and duration of hydrothermal activity at the Los Bronces porphyry cluster: an update (United States)

    Deckart, K.; Silva, W.; Spröhnle, C.; Vela, I.


    New geochronological data from the Los Bronces cluster of the Río Blanco-Los Bronces mega-porphyry Cu-Mo district establish a wide range of magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization ages, both in terms of areal extent and time. The northern El Plomo and southernmost Los Piches exploration areas contain the oldest barren porphyritic intrusions with U-Pb ages of 10.8 ± 0.1 Ma and 13.4 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. A hypabyssal barren intrusion adjacent northwesterly to the main pit area yields a slightly younger age of 10.2 ± 0.3 Ma (San Manuel sector, U-Pb), whereas in the Los Bronces (LB) open-pit area, the present day mineral extraction zone, porphyries range from 8.49 to 6.02 Ma (U-Pb). Hydrothermal biotite and sericite ages are up to 0.5 Ma younger but consistent with the cooling of the corresponding intrusion events of each area. Two quartz-molybdenite B-type veins from the LB open pit have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 5.65 ± 0.03 Ma and 5.35 ± 0.03 Ma consistent with published data for the contiguous Río Blanco cluster. The San Manuel exploration area within the Los Bronces cluster, located about 1.5-2 km southeast of the open-pit extraction zone, shows both the oldest hydrothermal biotite (7.70 ± 0.07 Ma; 40Ar/39Ar) and breccia cement molybdenite ages (8.36 ± 0.06 Ma; Re-Os) registered in the entire Río Blanco-Los Bronces district. These are also older than those reported from the El Teniente porphyry Cu(-Mo) deposit, suggesting that mineralization in the late Miocene to early Pliocene porphyry belt of Central Chile commenced 2 Ma before the previously accepted age of 6.3 Ma.

  5. The antecryst compositional influence on Cretaceous alkaline lamprophyre dykes, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gobbo Menezes

    Full Text Available The question of whether the antecryst assemblage affects the bulk composition of lamprophyre dykes, and could be responsible for the compositional zonation between their centers and borders is addressed through a detailed study involving four monchiquite and camptonite dykes (basanites and tephrites representative of the Arco de Ponta Grossa and Serra do Mar alkaline provinces. In them, antecrysts are interpreted as early-crystallized minerals that are no longer in equilibrium with their host-liquid, albeit still linked to the same magmatic system. They represent recycled crystals of earlier stages of the magmatic system at depth. The antecryst microtextures, such as zoned clinopyroxene megacrysts (augite cores and titanaugite rims with partly corroded cores, olivine crystals with corroded rims surrounded by biotite coronas, chrome-spinel inclusions in clinopyroxene and olivine megacryst cores, and titanomagnetite crystals surrounded by biotite coronas, suggest chemical re-equilibrium with the matrix. The greatest antecryst cargo in these dykes is found in their centers. After subtracting the antecryst volume from the center analyses of each body, the calculated compositions are very similar to the border analyses. The mafic antecryst cargo of each occurrence proportionally leads to enrichment of MgO, FeO, TiO2, CaO, compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni and Co, and depletion of SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3 and incompatible trace elements (Ba, Sr and REE. The whole-rock geochemical analyses of each dyke represent the combination of accumulated crystals and melt. The compositional zonation of the studied dykes is associated with the antecryst cargo rather than different magmatic pulses.

  6. Age, Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implication of Late Triassic Granitoids in Jinchanggou Orefield, Southern Jilin Province%吉南集安金厂沟金矿区晚三叠世黑云母闪长岩和正长花岗岩的年龄、岩石成因及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王键; 李碧乐; 孙丰月


    This paper reports zircon U-Pb dating, geochemical and Hf isotope data of the biotite diorite and syenogranite at the Jinchanggou gold orefield in southern Jilin, NE China. Zircon grains from the biotite diorite and syenogranite are euhedral-subhedral prisms, display oscillatory- zoning, and have Th/U ratios ranging from 0.48 to 1.54, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating results indicate that both the biotite diorite and syenogranite were formed in the Late Triassic. The syenogranite has SiO2=71.58%‒72.74%, Al2O3=10.89%‒13.09%, K2O=6.03%‒5.55%, (K2O+Na2O)= 6.11%‒6.68%, A/CNK=0.75‒1.32, and Ca, Mg, and Fe are low. The syenogranite is characterized by right-dipping chondrite- normalized REE patterns, with LREE/HREE=5.56‒9.53, (La/Yb)N=6.33‒10.12 andδEu=0.55‒0.63. In trace element spider diagram, large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), such as Rb, Ba and K are enriched, and high field strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti) and P are depleted. The syenogranite has low Sr concentration of 58.5×10–6 to 113.5×10–6 and high Yb of 2.97×10–6 to 3.91×10–6. The zircon grains from the syenogranite haveεHf(t) values of –15.3 to –9.0, and two-stage model agesof 1.83 Ga to 2.22 Ga. These data suggest that the syenogranite belongs to peraluminous shoshonitic series, which is generally similar to S-type granite. Thus, we conclude that the primary magma of the syenogranite was likely derived from partial melting of felsic lower crust. The biotite diorite have SiO2=54.86%‒63.01%, Al2O3=15.70%‒16.55%, (K2O+Na2O)=6.64%‒8.66%, A/CNK=0.84‒0.96, CaO=3.05%‒4.90% and MgO=2.79%‒4.67%. The biotite diorite is characterized by right-dipping chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with LREE/HREE=15.94‒24.57, (La/Yb)N=24.61‒43.09,δEu=0.78‒0.95. Large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), such as Rb, Ba and K are enriched, while the high field strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti) and P are depleted. The biotite diorite has high Sr=735×10–6

  7. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  8. Microstructural and magnetic investigations of pseudotachylyte and ultracataclasite in the Hoping River, Tananao Complex, Eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Kuo, Ruo-Lin; Chou, Yu-Min; Ferré, Eric. C.; Yeh, En-Chao; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hu, Jyr-Ching


    Here we investigate seismic rupture processes through the microstructural and magnetic study of pseudotachylyte and ultracataclasite from the Hoping River area. Unlike other fault rocks, pseudotachylytes form through friction-related melting during an earthquake. Therefore, these rocks, regarded as earthquake fossils potentially hold valuable information on seismic deformation. Paradoxically, although Taiwan is a seismically active zone, reports of pseudotachylyte outcrops in Taiwan remain rare. Previous studies reported the first pseudotachylyte outcrop in the Hoping River from which the magnitude, direction and sense of seismic slip were subsequently determined. In this study, we apply new microstructural and magnetic approaches to investigate the pseudotachylyte veins. X- ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemical analyses show that the pseudotachylyte melt, formed by incongruent melting, is depleted in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and enriched in Fe2O3, K2O compared with the ultracataclasite and host rock. This observation suggests selective melting of biotite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) supports the melt origin of the pseudotachylyte although melting occurred only in small spots, manifested by a few microcrystalline aggregates, with low melt percentage (≈10%). Small iron-oxide grains are discovered under TXM, which may be formed by the breakdown of biotite in the host rock during melting. The presence of iron oxide grains appears restricted to the pseudotachylyte. Since the iron content of the pseudotachylyte is slightly higher (4 wt. %) than the ultracataclasite and granitic host rock, magnetic hysteresis measurements were performed under high field (up to 1 Tesla) using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to determine the nature of ferromagnetic minerals. Magnetic hysteresis curves show the pseudotachylyte veins of the Hoping River are dominated by paramagnetic phases, with a very weak saturation isothermal remanent

  9. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic–mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray


    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E–W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbronorite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic–ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47–81) and Al2O3 (5.5–17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic–ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic–ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic–mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic–mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  10. Altered volcanic ash layers of the Late Cretaceous San Felipe Formation, Sierra Madre Oriental (Northeastern Mexico): Usbnd Pb geochronology, provenance and tectonic setting (United States)

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Martínez-Paco, Margarita; Iriondo, Alexander; Ocampo-Díaz, Yam Zul Ernesto; Cruz-Gámez, Esther María; Ramos-Ledezma, Andrés; Andaverde, Jorge Alberto; Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Masuch, Dirk


    A detailed petrographic, geochemical, and Usbnd Pb geochronological study of altered volcanic ash layers, collected in eight outcrops of the Late Cretaceous San Felipe Formation (Sierra Madre Oriental, Northeastern Mexico), has been carried out. The main objectives have been: (1) to establish a deposit period, and (2) to propose a reliable provenance-transport-deposit-diagenetic model. These volcano-sedimentary strata represent the altered remains of vitreous-crystalline ash (main grains: quartz + K-feldspar (sanidine) + Na-plagioclase + zircon + biotite; groundmass: glass + calcite + clinochlore + illite) deposited and preserved in a shallow, relatively large in area, open platform environment. Major and trace element geochemistry indicate that parent volcanism was mainly rhyodacitic to rhyolitic in composition. Discrimination diagrams suggest a link to continental arc transitional to extension tectonic setting. Usbnd Pb geochronology in zircon has revealed that the volcanic ash was released from their sources approximately during the range 84.6 ± 0.8 to 73.7 ± 0.3 Ma, being transported to the depocenters. Burial diagenesis process was marked by: (a) a limited recycling, (b) the partial loss of original components (mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and glass), and (c) the addition of quartz, calcite, illite and clinochlore. The location of the source area remains uncertain, although the lack of enrichment in Zr/Sc ratio suggests that ashes were subjected to relatively fast and short-distance transport process. El Peñuelo intrusive complex, at 130-170 km west of the depocenters, is the nearest known zone of active magmatism during the Upper Cretaceous. This intermediate to felsic pluton, characterized by a geochemical affinity to post-orogenic tectonic setting, could be linked to the volcanic sources.

  11. Paleoproterozoic, High-Metamorphic, Metasedimentary Units of Siberian Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Sensitive, high-resointion ion microprobe zircon U-Pb ages of Paleoproterozoic, high-grade,metasedimentary rocks from the south-western part of the Siberian Craton are reported. Early Precambrian, high-grade complexes, including garnet-biotite, hypersthene-biotite, and cordierite-bearing gneisses compose the Irkut terrane of the Sharyzhalgay Uplift. Protoliths of studied gneisses correspond to terrigenous sediments, ranging from greywacke to shale. The paragneiss model Nd ages of 2.4-3.1 Ga indicate Archean-to-Paleoproterozoic source provinces. Zircons from gneisses show core-rim textures in cathodoluminescence (CL) image. Round or irregular shaped cores indicate detrital origin. Structureless rims with low Th/U are metamorphic in origin. The three age groups of detrital cores are: ≥2.7, -2.3, and 1.95-2 Ga. The ages of metamorphic rims range from 1.86 to 1.85 Ga;therefore, the sediments were deposited between 1.95 and 1.86 Ga and derived from Archean and Paleoproterozoic source rocks. It should be noted that Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Irkut Block are not unique. High-grade metaterrigenons sediments, with model Nd ages ranging from 2.3 to 2.5 Ga, are widely distributed within the AIdan and Anabar Shields of the Siberian Craton. The same situation is observed in the North China Craton, where metasedimentary rocks contain detrital igneous zircon grains with ages ranging from 3 to 2.1 Ga (Wan et al., 2006). All of these sedimentary units were subjected to Late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism. In the Siberian Craton, the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary deposits are possibly marked passive margins of the Early Precambrian crustal blocks, and their high-grade metamorphism was related to the consolidation of the Siberian Craton.

  12. Early Jurassic tectonism occurred within the Basu metamorphic complex, eastern central Tibet: Implications for an archipelago-accretion orogenic model (United States)

    Li, Hua-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Qin; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Li, Tian-Fu; Ma, Shi-Wei; Huang, Xue-Meng


    The Basu metamorphic complex, surrounded by ophiolitic melanges and intruded by a large volume of undeformed granitoid rocks along the eastern segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture, holds one of the keys to understanding the pre-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of central Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating of rocks from the Basu metamorphic complex reveals that meta-igneous rocks yield Early Paleozoic crystallization ages of 500-492 Ma and an Early Jurassic metamorphic age of 173 Ma, and that undeformed granitoid rocks yield crystallization ages of approximately 186-174 Ma. Whole rock geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that the undeformed granitoid rocks originated mainly from partial melting of ancient crustal sources, which may reflect a collisional orogenic setting. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite from a sillimanite-garnet-biotite paragneiss shows cooling to 300 ± 50 °C at 165 Ma. These data indicate significant Early Jurassic tectonism, during which most of the Basu metamorphic complex was formed. Furthermore, the age data resemble those of the Amdo metamorphic complex located approximately 500 km to the west along the Bangong-Nujiang suture. Together, these complexes may represent a ;destroyed or unrecognized; block, i.e., the Amdo-Tongka block, which may be the eastern extension of the South Qiangtang terrane. Based on the tectonic outlines of the multiple ophiolitic zones and magmatic belts, we suggest a new archipelago-accretion model that attributes the Early Jurassic tectonism to an arc-continent/micro-continent collision. This model further enables the reconstruction of the eastern Tethyan Ocean and the orogenic processes of central Tibet during the Mesozoic.

  13. Zr, Hf, U, Th and REE-Fertile Lower Proterozoic Potassic Granite from Parts of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamuna SINGH


    The medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic granitoid of Dharmawaram, Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, south India is a biotite-hornblende granite with notable contents of rare metal (Zr, Hf, Th) and rare earth (including Y) minerals like zircon, thorite, allanite, monazite and xenotime. Chemically, it is metaluminous (average A/C+N+K = 0.95)-type, potassic (ay. 5% K2O) granite, with dominantly sub-alkaline characters. It shows up to 8 times enrichment of rare metals (Zr, Hf, U, Th) and rare earths (including Y, Sc), with reference to their abundances in normal unevolved granite, and hence, fertile for some of these elements. Field, petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of potassic granite (PG) indicate involvement of silica-rich metasedimentary-basic crustal rocks (amphibole-quartzite,amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, etc.) in its genesis, at a depth range of 30 km. Further, chondrite-normalized REE patterns demonstrate that low-degree partial melting of source rocks is the major controlling factor in the genesis of PG.Mild negative Eu-anomaiy (av. Eu/Eu* = 0.48), plots of Ba-Rb-Sr in the field of anomalous granite and K/Rb ratios (av.239) in the range that is shown by normal unevolved granite together indicate less fractionated nature of the PG. Limited fractionation of metalumination-type, involving hornblende, led to occasional weak alumina saturation. Interestingly,geochemical and petrogenetic features of the studied PG broadly match with those potassic granites which are already known to host anomalously high enrichment of rare metals and rare earths in other parts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining Kamataka.

  14. Timing of cut-and-fill sequences in the John Day Formation (Eocene-Oligocene), Painted Hills area, central Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestland, E.A.; Retallack, G.J. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Swisher, C.C. III (Inst. of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Fremd, T.J. (John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, John Day, OR (United States))


    Large-scale cut-and-fill features in the Eocene-Oligocene part of the John Day Formation in the Pained Hills area of central Oregon can be interpreted as terrestrial depositional sequences, mapped as lithostratigraphic units, and correlated to North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA). New laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal ages from the John Day Formation provide evidence for the timing of these sequences and a revised placement of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The sequences are bound by erosional surfaces that have relief of up to 60 m, are marked in places by claystone breccias full of reworked soil clasts, and separate otherwise conformable strata. The lowermost depositional sequence in the John Day Formation contains very well developed, Fe- and Al-rich paleosols, laterite horizons, and the welded tuff of member A (39.7 my), and probably correlates to the Duchesean and Chadronian NALMA. These brick-rid claystones are sharply truncated by prominent detrital laterite horizon. Overlying this basal sequence is a second sequence of much less well developed paleosols, abundant tuffs and lacustrine tuffaceous claystones. This sequence contains a distinctive biotite tuff (33 my) and the type locality of the Bridge Creek fossil flora and probably correlates to the Orellan NALMA. Above this biotite tuff are alternating red, dark gray, and tan paleosols and a prominent crystal vitric tuff (32.7 my). The Eocene-Oligocene boundary lies between these two sequences, associated with the laterite horizon that truncates the basal red beds. A major truncation surface cuts this sequence and is overlain by a third sequence of thin red paleosols which probably correlates with the Whitneyan NALMA. Above this is a fourth sequence (Arikareean NALMA) consisting of greenish-tan paleosols, a crystal vitric tuff near its base (29.8 my) and the Picture Gorge Ignimbrite (28.7 my).

  15. Magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Ladakh Block from field studies (United States)

    Raz, U.; Honegger, K.


    The Ladakh Block is in an intermediate position between the Indian plate in the south and the Karakorum-Tibetan plate in the north. To the west it is separated from the Kohistan Arc by the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, to the east it is cut off from the Lhasa Block by the Gartok-Nubra Fault. Present data, together with previously published results, show, that the Ladakh Block consists of an island arc in the south and a calc-alkaline batholith in the north with remnants of a continental crust. Migmatitic gneisses and metasedimentary sequences, such as quartzites and metapelites, interbedded with basaltic volcanics and overlain by thick platform carbonates were found as evidence of a continental crust. Remnants of megafossils ( Megalodon and Lithiotis) within the high-grade metamorphic marbles indicate a probable age of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These sediments were intruded by a faintly layered hornblende-gabbro, which preceded the calc-alkaline magmatic episode. Gabbro and gabbronorites are found as roof pendants and large inclusions within diorites and granodiorites. The major part of the batholith consists of granodiorite and biotite-granite plutons, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Tertiary. Associated with the intrusives are volcanic rocks with trachyandesite to alkalibasalt and basalt-andesite to rhyolite compositions. Garnet-bearing leucogranites succeeded the emplacement of the major plutons. The magmatic stage ended, finally, by intense fracturing and injections of NE-SW striking andesitic dykes. The southernmost unit of the Ladakh Block is formed by oceanic crust with serpentinized peridotite and hornblende-gabbro and is covered by volcanics of an island-arc type (Dras volcanics). These units are intruded by gabbronorite, as well as Middle and Upper Cretaceous granodiorite and coarse-grained biotite-granite. In a plate tectonic view the Ladakh Block represents a transitional sector between the pure island arc of Kohistan in the west and the Andean type

  16. Bioinduced weathering in Swedish boreal forest soil investigated by mineral amendment (United States)

    Olofsson, Madelen; Ahmed, Engy; Bylund, Dan; Holmström, Sara


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how soil mineral amendment affects microbial composition and how different mineral composition and varied depth influence these changes. Apatite, biotite and oligoclase were placed at soil horizon interfaces in a podzole in Bispgården, central Sweden (63°07'N, 16°70'E), between the summer of 2009 and 2011. Continuous measurement of soil chemistry; pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) was performed for the surrounding soil during the frost free months of the two-year incubation period. Mineral sample surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pre and post soil incubation to give a visual verification of weathering effects. Evaluating soil chemistry data and data received at the end of the incubation period, results show that the highest concentration of LMMOAs is found in the E horizon and that it corresponds with the highest total fungal activity in the bulk soil. Total microbial activity was found to be highest in the O horizon. Measurements on the soil of the mineral surfaces show that in all cases, apatite stimulates the microbial activity the most, followed by biotite and last oligoclase. Comparing the soil horizons, effects on total microbial activity are the highest in the E horizon, but when looking at total fungal activity the biggest changes are found in O and B horizon indicating that bacterial and fungal activities are affected differently by mineral amendment. Using ANOVA followed by pair wise comparisons according to Tukey, significant differences were found in microbial activity between the soil horizons and also between most of the different minerals, compared with the bulk soil. Looking at the SEM images taken before and after weathering, minerals placed in the O and E horizon are clearly the most affected, and the magnitude of weathering between the different minerals corresponds to the microbial activity found.

  17. Petrogenesis of Bir Madi Gabbro-Diorite and Tonalite-Granodiorite Intrusions in Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for Tectono-Magmatic Processes at the Neoproterozoic Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. OBEID


    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic rocks of the Bir Madi area, south eastern desert, comprise a Metagabbro-Diorite Complex (GDC and a Tonalite-Granodiorite Suite (TGrS. The GDC has a weak tonalitic to strong calc-alkaline character and is made up of olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro, diorite and monzodiorite. The olivine gabbro is characterized by abun-dance of augite and labradorite with pseudomorphic serpentine. The hornblende gabbro is mainly composed of horn-blende, labradorite, andesine and minor amounts of quartz with or without augite. The diorite consists essentially of andesine, hornblende, biotite and quartz. The GDC is compositionally broad, with a wide range of SiO2 (46-57 % and pronounced enrichment in the LILE (Ba and Sr relative to the HFSE (Nb, Y and Zr. The GDC rocks exhibit petrological and geochemical characteristics of arc-related mafic magmas, derived possibly from partial melting of a mantle wedge above an early Pan-African subduction zone of the Neoproterozoic Shield. The tonalite and granodiorite have a calc-alkaline affinity and show the geochemical signatures of I-type granitoids. The TGrS contains amphibolite enclaves and foliated gabbroic xenoliths. Based on the field evidence and geochemical data, the GDC and TGrS are not related to a single magma type through fractional crystallization. The presence of microgranular amphibolite enclaves in the tonalitic rocks suggest against their generation by partial melting of a mantle-derived basaltic source. The tonalitic magma originated from partial melting of an amphibolitic lower crust by anatexis process at a volcanic arc regime during construction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Fractional crystallization of K-feldspar and biotite gave more developed granodiorite variety from the tonalitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths are similar in the chemical composition to the investigated metagabbros. They are incompletely digested segments from the adjacent metagabbro rocks incorporated into the

  18. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: Implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations (United States)

    Forster, H.-J.; Davis, J.C.; Tischendorf, G.; Seltmann, R.


    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological interpretation.

  19. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.


    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A&M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin.

  20. Astronomical calibration of 40Ar/39Ar reference minerals using high-precision, multi-collector (ARGUSVI) mass spectrometry (United States)

    Phillips, D.; Matchan, E. L.; Honda, M.; Kuiper, K. F.


    The new generation of multi-collector mass spectrometers (e.g. ARGUSVI) permit ultra-high precision (1%) in 40K decay constants and the ages of natural reference minerals that form the basis of the technique. For example, reported ages for widely used 40Ar/39Ar reference materials, such as the ca. 28 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine (FCTs) and the ca. 1.2 Ma Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine (ACRs), vary by >1%. Recent attempts to independently calibrate these reference minerals have focused on K-Ar analyses of the same minerals and inter-comparisons with astronomically tuned tephras in sedimentary sequences and U-Pb zircon ages from volcanic rocks. Most of these studies used older generation (effectively single-collector) mass spectrometers that employed peak-jumping analytical methods to acquire 40Ar/39Ar data. In this study, we reassess the inter-calibration and ages of commonly used 40Ar/39Ar reference minerals Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine (FCTs), Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine (ACRs) and Mount Dromedary biotite (MD2b; equivalent to GA-1550 biotite), relative to the astronomically tuned age of A1 Tephra sanidine (A1Ts), Faneromeni section, Crete (Rivera et al., 2011), using a multi-collector ARGUSVI mass spectrometer. These analyses confirm the exceptional precision capability (0.1% in the 40Ar/39Ar ages of reference minerals without consideration of recoil artefacts, thus limiting the benefits of high precision multi-collector analyses. Significant improvement to the accuracy of the 40Ar/39Ar method (<0.1%) will require further inter-laboratory 40Ar/39Ar studies utilizing multi-collector mass spectrometry, additional constraints on recoil 39ArK loss from reference minerals, further resolution of discrepancies between astronomically tuned sedimentary successions and refinement of the 238U/206Pb zircon age cross-calibration approach.

  1. Leucogranites of the Teton Range, Wyoming: A record of Archean collisional orogeny (United States)

    Frost, Carol D.; Swapp, Susan M.; Frost, B. Ronald; Finley-Blasi, Lee; Fitz-Gerald, D. Braden


    Leucogranitic rocks formed by crustal melting are a prominent feature of collisional orogens of all ages. This study describes leucogranitic gneisses associated with an Archean collisional orogeny preserved in the Teton Range of northwestern Wyoming, USA. These leucogneisses formed at 2.68 Ga, and initial Nd isotopic compositions suggest they are derived from relatively juvenile sources. Two distinct groups of leucogneisses, both trondhjemitic, are identified on the basis of field relations, petrology, and geochemistry. The Webb Canyon gneiss forms large, sheet-like bodies of hornblende biotite trondhjemite and granodiorite. This gneiss is silica-rich (SiO2 = 70-80%), strongly ferroan, comparatively low in alumina, and is characterized by high Zr and Y, low Sr, and high REE contents that define "seagull"-shaped REE patterns. The Bitch Creek gneiss forms small sills, dikes, and plutons of biotite trondhjemite. Silica, Zr, Y, and REE are lower and alumina and Sr are higher than in the Webb Canyon gneiss. These differences reflect different melting conditions: the Webb Canyon gneiss formed by dehydration melting in which amphibole and quartz breaks down, accounting for the low alumina, high FeO, high silica content and observed trace element characteristics. The Bitch Creek gneiss formed by H2O-excess melting in which plagioclase breaks down leaving an amphibole-rich restite, producing magmas higher in alumina and Sr and lower in FeO and HREE. Both melt mechanisms are expected in collisional environments: dehydration melting accompanies gravitational collapse and tectonic extension of dramatically thickened crust, and water-excess melting may occur when collision places a relatively cool, hydrous lower plate beneath a hotter upper plate. The Archean leucogranitic gneisses of the Teton Range are calcic trondhjemites and granodiorites whereas younger collisional leucogranites typically are true granites. The difference in leucogranite composition reflects the

  2. Geochronology of the Hannan intrusive complex to adjoin the Qinling orogen and its rapid cooling reason

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The geochronological works for the Hannan intrusive complex,cosisting of the gabbro-quartz diorite-plagiogranite bodies, in the north border of the Yangtze craton block, adjoining the Qinling orogen, are reported, because its age and genesis are of great importance to research of the tectonic evalutional history for the Qinling orogen and of the rifted processes for the Late Proterozoic supercontinent Rodinia. A good isochron of t=(837±26) Ma (2σ), corresponding to INd=0.51165(2±2σ), σNd(t)=+1.9, MSWD1.02, was difined by the Nd isotopic analytical results for the 21 whole-rock samples from the varied lithological complex bodies, but for the Rb-Sr isotopic aralytical data there is no isochron. The 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of the biotite, sorted from plagiogranites, is (796±20) Ma(2σ), and yet for the Rb-Sr isotopic data of the plagiogranite whole-rock samples (WR) and the sorted biotite (Bio), plagioclase (Plag) and apatite (Apt) mineral samples from the plagiogranite whole-rock samples, an isochron of t=(824.8±3.8) Ma (2σ) with ISr=0.70393±14(2σ), MSWD2.44 is given. The U-Pb isotopic results for the single zircon, sorted from plagiogranite samples, yielded an upper and a lower intercept ages of ~876 Ma and ~273 Ma. The Nd isotope data of complex indicate that it is probably the products of crystallization differentiation from the magma with (Nd>0 when the rapid uplift in 837—800 Ma took place in the northern border of the Yangtze craton block.

  3. On geological and geochemical features and cause of formation of porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type in Lujiang County, Anhui%安徽沙溪式斑岩铜(金)矿床地质地球化学特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚孝德; 陈芳; 王利民; 孙明明


    沙溪斑岩铜(金)矿床位于庐枞火山岩盆地西北外围,处于郯庐断裂带内部.矿体主要产于燕山期的石英闪长斑岩,次为黑云母石英闪长斑岩中.主要成矿期为岩浆期后热液期.蚀变分带自内向外:钠-更长石化带—硬石膏-黑云母-钾硅酸盐化带—钾硅酸盐青磐岩化叠加带—石英绢云母化带—青磐岩化带,主要工业矿体位于钾硅酸盐化带及其外侧.文章总结沙溪式斑岩铜(金)矿床地质地球化学特征,并对该类型铜(金)矿床的成因进行了探讨.%The porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type locates in northwest periphery of Luzong volcanic basin, inside of the Tanlu fault zone. The ore bodies mainly occur in quartz diorite of Yans-hanian, and then in biotite quartzdioriteporphyry. The main metallogenic period is the postmagmatic hydrothermal solution. The alteration zones from the inner to outward are successively the Na-oligo-clase zone, the anhydrite, biotite and K-silicate zone, the superimposed zone of K-silicate and propy-lite, the quartz-sericite zone, and the propylitic zone. The mainly industry ore bodies locate in the K-silicate zone and its outside. The geological and geochemical features of the porphyry copper gold deposit of Shaxi type are summarized, and the cause of the formation of the deposit of this type is discussed.

  4. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains (United States)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An


    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  5. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia


    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  6. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  7. Monzonitoid magmatism of the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (South Primor'e): U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology and peculiarities of ore-bearing magma genesis by the data of isotopic-geochemical studies (United States)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.; Alenicheva, A. A.


    Magmatic rocks from the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (Central Primor'e) have been studied. It has been found that rocks from the Lazurnyi massif are referred to gabbro-monzodiorites, monzodiorites, and monzo-granodiorites formed during two magmatic phases of different ages. The earlier phase is represented by gabbro-monzodiorites and diorites of the North Stock, and the later one, by gabbro-monzodiorites and monzo-grano-diorites of the South Stock. On the basis of isotopic dating by the U-Pb (SHRIMP) method for zircon and by the K-Ar method for hornblendes and biotites, the age of magmatic rocks is determined at 110 ± 4 for the earlier phase and at 103.5 ± 1.5 for the later one. Examination of the isotopic composition for Nd, Sr, Pb, Hf, δ18O, and REE spectra has shown that melts of the first phase are contaminated with crustal rocks and they are typical for a high degree of secondary alterations. Potassiumfeldspar, biotite, propylitic alterations, and sulfidization are manifested in these rocks. The rocks of the later stage of magmatism are characteristic for a primitive composition of isotopes and the absence of secondary alterations. They carry the features of adakite specifics that allows us to consider them derivatives of mantle generation under high fluid pressure. The intrusion of fluid-saturated melts of the second phase into the magmatic source of the first phase caused both an alteration pattern of rocks and copper-porphyritic mineralization. Isotopes of sulfur and oxygen allow us to consider the ore component to be of magmatic origin.

  8. The Canastra Group in the type-area, Tapira region, southwest of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Carlos Humberto da Silva


    Full Text Available This work aimed at describing the Neoproterozoic evolution of a Southern Brasília Fold Belt segment, in Tapira area(southwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using detailed geologic mapping. This area, the Canastra Group type-area, hasshowed great tectonic and stratigraphic complexities unlike the simplicity suggested in previous works. From recognizingthe main tectonic discontinuities, it was possible to subdivide the area into some domains. In the west domain, they wereindividualized in tectonic sheet I, marked by pelitic rocks and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammitic intercalations, and II,pelitic rocks with psammitic and mafic-ultramafic intercalations overlapped by gneisses. In the east domain, a group ofthree tectonic sheets was defined, in which, in the two lower tectonic sheets, pelitic and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammiticrock intercalations prevailed, which is different in metamorphic conditions. The lower tectonic sheet is marked bymineralogical associations with muscovite + chlorite + quartz ± graphite ± albite, without biotite; however, the superior oneis with muscovite + quartz + garnet ± chlorite ± biotite ± chloritoid ± graphite ± albite. In the upper tectonic sheet, peliticrocks with local contributions of psammitic and ultramafics rocks occur. In the south domain, psammitic rocks basically occur with contributions of pelitics and rudaceous rocks, where the preservation of textures and sedimentary structures is common.Rocks of the several domains are interpreted as part of a passive continental margin basin, located in the western margin of the SãoFrancisco paleocontinent. Thus, the south domain rocks would represent the facies of proximal platform; rocks of the lower and middle tectonic sheets (east domain and of the tectonic sheet I (west domain are of facies distal platform; and the ones from the upper tectonic sheet (east domain and tectonic sheet II (west domain were acknowledged as deposited in an environment

  9. Origin, Age, and Geochemistry of the Tuff of Saguache Creek, Southwestern Colorado (United States)

    Turner, K. J.; Young, M. D.; Wendlandt, R. F.


    A crystal-poor, rhyolitic, ash-flow tuff in the Eastern San Juan Volcanic Field currently known as the tuff of Saguache Creek (TSC) was reinterpreted by Simon and Wendlandt (1999) as not being distal Sapinero Mesa Tuff. Currently there is no source caldera established for this tuff thereby leaving uncertainties in the volcanic history. Regional mapping of the TSC has subsequently been completed to constrain a possible source caldera. Petrographic studies, and EPMA and LA-ICPMS analyses of the mineral assemblage have been performed to characterize further the tuff, enable correlation of mapped TSC, and constrain petrogenetic models. Petrographic and chemical identification of the TSC builds on characteristics set forth by Simon (2000). These characteristics include abundant feldspar clusters, alkali feldspar mantled plagioclase, no modal quartz, Fe-Ti oxides (often with apatites and zircons), and sparse biotite and pyroxene. Pyroxenes show curiously high MnO (avg 2.70 wt%) and Mg# (avg 79.2) and might be xenocrystic. In comparison, biotites have much lower MnO (avg 0.82 wt%). Average sanidine (Or50) and plagioclase (Ab71) compositions fall within the documented range (Simon, 2000) and show little trace element substitution including Eu Conejos age volcanic deposits. Similarly, an andesitic topographic high just west of Trickle Mtn has TSC vitrophyre on the east-facing slope suggesting strong north-south channeling of the flow unit by paleo-topographic lows. Outcrop elevations also decrease from north to south supporting a possible source caldera to the north. This source could be explained by a distinct circular gravity low on the southeastern slope of the Continental Divide. The low is bordered to the north by a circular arrangement of peaks as well as debris breccias, andesitic flow breccias, and lahars.

  10. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of granite hosted rhyodacites associated with a disseminated pyrite mineralization (Arnolz, Southern Bohemian Massif, Austria) (United States)

    Göd, Richard; Kurzweil, Johannes; Klötzli, Urs


    The study focuses on a subvolcanic rhyodacite dyke intruding a fine grained biotite granite and paragneisses of the South Bohemian Massif, part of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in Central Europe. The subvertical dyke strikes NNE, displays a thickness of about 30 m and has been traced by boulder mapping for approximately 7 km. The rhyodacites have been affected by two hydrothermal fluids. An older one of oxidizing condition giving rise to a reddish to brownish type of rock (Type I) and a younger fluid of reducing condition causing a greenish variety (Type II). The hydrothermal alteration is associated with the formation of the clay minerals chlorite, sericite, kaolinite and smectite and a disseminated pyrite mineralization. Bulk chemistries of the rhyodacites emphasize the hydrothermal alterations to be isochemical with the exception of sulphur enriched up to a maximum of 0.6 wt%. Trace element composition of the rhyodacites points to a barren geochemical environment in terms of base and precious elements. Sulphur isotope investigations of pyrites from the rhyodacites and the hosting granites respectively yield d34S data ranging from +0.07 to -2.22 ‰, emphasizing a magmatic origin of the sulphur. Geochronological investigations yield in situ U/Pb zircon ages of 312 ± 4 Ma for the biotite granite and of 292 ± 4 Ma for the rhyodacitic dykes indicating a time gap of ≈ 20 Ma between these two intrusive events. A contemporaneous but geochemically specialized granitic intrusion associated with NW striking "felsitic" dykes occurs about 10 to 20 km to the NW of Arnolz. However, the rhyodacites around Arnolz differ significantly from these felsitic dykes in their geochemistry and alteration phenomena which points to a different magmatic source. This coincides with a change in the orientation of the dykes from a NW direction controlling the geochemically specialized intrusions in the NW to a dominating NNE direction mirrored by the studied rhyodacites at Arnolz.

  11. Petrogenesis of subvolcanic rocks from the Khunik prospecting area, south of Birjand, Iran: Geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic and U-Pb zircon constraints (United States)

    Samiee, Somayeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan; Ghaderi, Majid; Haidarian Shahri, Mohammad Reza; Klöetzli, Urs; Santos, José Francisco


    The Khunik prospecting area is located 106 km south of Birjand in eastern Iran, and is considered as an epithermal gold prospecting area. The mineralization is related to subvolcanic rocks. There are several outcrops of subvolcanic intrusions in the area which intruded into Paleocene-Eocene volcanic rocks (andesite, trachy-andesite and pyroclastic rocks). Petrographic studies indicate that subvolcanic rocks consist mainly of diorite, monzonite, quartz-monzonite, monzodiorite and quartz-monzodiorite. Mineralogically, these rocks contain plagioclase, K-feldspar, amphibole, pyroxene, biotite and quartz. Geochemically, they have features typical of high-K calk-alkaline to shoshonitic and are metaluminous, and also belong to magnetite granitoid series (I-type). Primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagrams display enrichment in LILE, such as Rb, Ba, and Cs, compared to HFSE. Chondrite-normalized REE plots show moderately LREE enriched patterns (7.45 < LaN/YbN < 10.54), and no significant Eu anomalies. Tectonic discrimination diagrams also show affinities with modern convergent margin magmas, suggesting that magmas of Khunik area formed in volcanic arc setting related to subduction of the oceanic crust under the Lut Block plate. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704196-0.704772) and εNdi values (+1.3 to +3.3) are compatible with an origin of the parental melts in a supra-subduction mantle wedge. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS indicates the age of 38 ± 1 Ma (late Eocene) for subvolcanic units that are related to mineralization. A biotite granodiorite porphyry is the testimony of the youngest magmatic activity in the area, with an age of 31 ± 1 Ma (early Oligocene). The represented dates are interpreted as magmatic crystallization ages of subvolcanic intrusions.

  12. Mineral deformation and subglacial processes on ice-bedrock interface of Hailuogou Glacier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU GengNian; CHEN YiXin; ZHANG Yue; FU HaiRong


    Hailuogou Glacier is located in a warm and humid maritime environment. It is large and moves very fast.The bottom of the glacier slides intensively and the temperature at the bottom approaches the pressure melting point. Therefore,there are abundant melting water and debris which act as effective "grinding tools"for glacial abrasion. Polarizing microscope is used to observe the mineral deformation characteristics on the ice-bedrock interface. It is found that feldspar,quartz,hornblende and biotite are exposed to deformation,fracture and chemical alteration to various extents. Bending deformation is common for biotite,due to their lattice characteristics,and the bending orientations are mostly the same as the glacier flow. Bending deformation also occurs in a few hornblendes. High-angle tension fracture and low-angle shear fracture are common for quartz and feldspar,some of them are totally crushed (mylonizations) due to their rigidity. Thus,all the abrasion,quarrying,subglacial water action and subglacial dissolution processes at the bottom of the glacier are verified at the micro-scale level.Mineral deformation and fracture are the basic subglacial erosion mechanisms. The abrasion thickness is 30-90 μm for each time and the average is 50 μm. Most of the debris are silt produced by glacial abrasion. The extent of mineral deformation and fracture decreases drastically downwards beneath the bedrock surface. The estimated erosion rate is about 2.2-11.4 mm/a,which is similar to that of other maritime alpine glaciers,smaller than that of large-scale piedmont glaciers In Alaska (10-30 mm/a),and larger than that of continental glaciers (0.1-1.0 mm/a). The type and size of a glacier are the main factors that influence its erosion rate.

  13. The flow dynamics of an extremely large volume pyroclastic flow, the 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, NW Argentina, and comparison with other flow types (United States)

    Cas, Ray A.F.; Wright, Heather M.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Lesti, Chiara; Porreca, Massimiliano; Giordano, Guido; Viramonte, Jose G.


    The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a >630-km3 dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galán magma system (∼6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35–60%), pumice (multiple depositional units, often separated by pyroclastic surge deposits. The CGI preserves a widespread sub-horizontal fabric, defined by aligned elongate pumice and lithic clasts, and minerals (e.g. biotite). A sub-horizontal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric is defined by minute magnetic minerals in all localities where it has been analysed. The CGI is poor in both vent-derived (‘accessory’) lithics and locally derived lithics from the ground surface (‘accidental’) lithics. Locally derived lithics are small (order to explain the contemporaneous maintenance of high particle concentration, high sedimentation rate at the depositional boundary layer and a high level of mobility, it is also proposed that the flow(s) was continuously supplied at a high mass feeding rate. It is also proposed that internal gas pressure within the flow, directed downwards onto the substrate over which the flow was passing, reduced the friction between the flow and the substrate and also enhanced its mobility. The pervasive sub-horizontal fabric of aligned pumice, lithic and even biotite crystals indicates a consistent horizontal shear force existed during transport and deposition in the basal granular flow, consistent with the existence of a laminar, shearing, granular flow regime during the final stages of transport and deposition.

  14. Hydrological and geochemical constraints on the mechanism of formation of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Sonargaon, Bangladesh

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    Itai, Takaaki [Institute for Study of the Earth' s Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori 682-0193 (Japan)], E-mail:; Masuda, Harue [Department of Geosciences, Osaka-City University, Sugimoto-tyo, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Seddique, Ashraf A. [Department of Geosciences, Osaka-City University, Sugimoto-tyo, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Mitamura, Muneki [Department of Geosciences, Osaka-City University, Sugimoto-tyo, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruoka, Teruyuki [Department of Integrative Environmental Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Li, Xiaodong [Department of Geosciences, Osaka-City University, Sugimoto-tyo, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kusakabe, Minoru [Institute for Study of the Earth' s Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori 682-0193 (Japan); Dipak, Biswas K. [Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Farooqi, Abida [Department of Geosciences, Osaka-City University, Sugimoto-tyo, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yamanaka, Toshiro [Department of Earth Systems Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nakaya, Shinji [Department of Civil Engineering, Shinshu University, Wakazato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Matsuda, Jun-ichi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-tyo, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ahmed, Kazi Matin [Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)


    The geochemical characteristics and hydrological constraints of high As groundwater in Sonargaon, in mid-eastern Bangladesh were investigated in order to ascertain the mechanism of As release into the groundwaters from host sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. Samples of groundwater were collected from ca. 230 tube wells in both the rainy and dry seasons. Similar to previous studies, high As groundwater was found in the Holocene unconfined aquifer but not in the Pleistocene aquifer. Groundwaters in the Holocene aquifer were of the Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} type with major solutes derived from chemical weathering of detrital minerals such as plagioclase and biotite. Groundwater with high As was generally characterized by high NH{sub 4}{sup +}, possibly derived from the agricultural application of fertilizer as suggested by the small variation of {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NH4} (mostly 2-4 per mille ). Concentrations of Fe changed between the rainy and dry seasons by precipitation/dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide and siderite, whilst there was not an apparent concomitant change in As. Inhomogeneous spatial distribution of {delta}{sup 18}O in the Holocene unconfined aquifer indicates poor mixing of groundwater in the horizontal direction. Spatial variation of redox conditions is associated with localized variations in subsurface permeability and the recharge/discharge cycle of groundwater. Hydrogeochemical data presented in this paper suggest that reduction of Fe oxyhydroxide is not the only mechanism of As mobilization, and chemical weathering of biotite and/or other basic minerals in the Holocene aquifer could also be important as a primary cause of As mobilization.

  15. Geochemistry and geochronology of granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana (United States)

    Anum, Solomon; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Su, Ben-Xun; Nude, Prosper M.; Nyame, Frank; Asiedu, Daniel; Kwayisi, Daniel


    In Ghana the West African Craton is represented by Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks with extensive granitoid bodies. Granitoids from Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana were analysed for major and trace element contents and found to be characterised by highly-fractionated REE, enrichments, in LILE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Sr. The LILE enrichment relative to strong Nb-Ta depression, indicates that these granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Based on field relations, geochemical composition and geochronological data, the granitoids from the Kibi-Asamankese area can be divided into three types, namely; the Eburnean biotite granodiorite (2133-2127 Ma) and hornblende granodiorite (2147 Ma), and the Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granite (2193 Ma). The geochemical data of the studied rocks plot in the tholeiitic field, whereas on the A/CNK-A/NK diagram, they generally fall within the metaluminous field, with A/CNK values between 0.69 and 0.88. U-Pb dating of zircons in the granitoids yielded ages ranging from 2193 to 2127 Ma, which are among the oldest ages obtained from the granitoid plutons in Ghana. Such high-precision geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred over a time-span of about 70 Ma. This provides further evidence that the period 2.1-2.2 Ga was one of the important stages of Birimian magmatism that led to the generation of the granitoids. From the above-mentioned ages, it is possible to link the geological activities to crustal processes and establish the cyclic geotectonic evolution in the West African Craton over time as part of an arc-back-arc basin system.

  16. Mafic granulite xenoliths in the Chilka Lake suite, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: evidence of deep-subduction of residual oceanic crust

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    S. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Granulite xenoliths preserve key geochemical and isotopic signatures of their mantle source regions. Mafic granulite and pyroxinite xenoliths within massif-type charnockitic rocks from the Eastern Ghats Belt have recently been reported by us. The mafic granulite xenoliths from the Chilka Lake granulite suite with abundant prograde biotite are geochemically akin to Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB. They can be distinguished from the hornblende-mafic granulite xenoliths with signatures of Arc-derived basalt occurring in the other suites of the Eastern Ghats Belt. These two groups of xenoliths in the Paleoproterozoic Eastern Ghats Province have quite distinct Nd-model ages- 1.9 Ga and 2.5 Ga respectively, which may be interpreted as their crustal residence ages. Strong positive Nb anomalies, indicating subducted oceanic crust in the source, LREE enrichment and strongly fractionated REE pattern are key geochemical signatures attesting to their origin as OIB-type magma. Also low Yb and Sc contents and high (La / YbN ratios can be attributed to melting in the presence of residual garnet and hence at great depths (> 80 km. The variable enrichment in radiogenic 87Sr, between 0.70052 and 0.71092 at 1.9 Ga and less radiogenic 143Nd between ε-1.54 and 7.46 are similar to those of the OIBs compared to MORBs. As OIBs commonly contain some recycled oceanic crust in their sources, we suggest that the residue of the oceanic crust from a previous melting event (~ 2.5 Ga that produced the Arc-derived basalts (protoliths of hornblende-mafic granulite xenoliths could have subducted to great depths and mechanically mixed with the mantle peridotite. A subsequent re-melting event of this mixed source might have occurred at ca. 1.9 Ga as testified by the crustal residence ages of the biotite-mafic granulite xenoliths of the Chilka Lake granulite suite.

  17. Discovery and Genetic Mechanism of Basic Granulite in the Altay Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zilong; CHEN Hanlin; YANG Shufeng; DONG Chuanwan; XIAO Wenjiao; LI Jiliang; YE Ying; WANG Jian


    Altay granulite (AG), which represents the product of high-grade metamorphism in the lower crust, was newly found in thc Wuqiagou area, Fuyun County in the Altay orogenic belt, Northwest China. It is composed mainly of hypersthene, augite, basic plagioclase, amphibole and brown biotite. Its mineral compositions of amphibole and biotite are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and Ti. Geochemically, the AG is enriched in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) and A12O3, and poor in CaO, with depletion of U, Th, K and Rb contents. Furthermore, geochemical data reflect that the protolith of the AG is igneousgenetic calc-alkalinc basalt formed under an island arc environment. The AG has ∑REE of 92.38-96.58 ppm and enriched LREE model with weak positive Eu anomaly of 1.09-1.15. In the MORB normalized spider diagram, the AG shows tridoming pattern with a strong negative Nb anomaly and medium negative P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that the AG has tectonic relation with subduction or subduction-related materials. The P-Tconditions of peak metamorphism of the AG arc 750-780°C and >0.6-0.7 GPa. Retrograde metamorphism implies that the protolith of the Altay granulite might undergo a metamorphic process along a clockwise P-T trajectory. Thereforc, thc formation and evolution of thc AG may have a genetic association with continental collision/orogeny and the AG was taken into the Late Paleozoic meta-strata by way of tectonic emplacement.

  18. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya (United States)

    Gou, Zhengbin; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Xiang, Hua; Ding, Huixia; Tian, Zuolin; Lei, Hengcong


    The leucogranites in the Higher Himalayan Sequence (HHS) provide a probe to elucidate the crustal melting of continental collisional orogen. An integrated geochemical and geochronological study of the Yadong leucogranites, southern Himalaya, shows that these rocks have relatively high SiO2 contents of 69.77 to 75.32 wt.% and alumina saturation index (A/CNK) of 1.09-1.40, typical of peraluminous granites. They show moderately fractionated REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies, and are characterized by enriched LILE (Rb and Cs) and depleted HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of ten samples yields crystallization ages ranging from 21.0 to 11.7 Ma. The zircons have variable εHf(t) values of - 26.3 to - 3.5 and corresponding Hf two-stage model ages of 2.77-1.33 Ga. The present study reveals that the muscovite-biotite leucogranites (2ML) have higher TiO2, MgO, CaO, Sr, Ba and Zr contents, lower Rb/Sr ratios than the tourmaline-muscovite leucogranites (TML). Zircon and monazite saturation thermometry results show that the melt temperatures (681-784 °C) of the 2ML are 20-80 °C higher than those (663-705 °C) of the TML. Combining with previous results, we propose that the TML were derived from the muscovite-dehydration melting, whereas the 2ML dominantly resulted from the biotite-dehydration melting during the prograde metamorphism of the pelitic and felsic granulites of the HHS. Therefore, the Himalayan leucogranites were probably formed during the subduction of the Indian crust following the India and Asia collision.

  19. Microstructures, deformation mechanisms and seismic properties of a Palaeoproterozoic shear zone: The Mertz shear zone, East-Antarctica (United States)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Bascou, Jérôme; Maurice, Claire; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Riel, Nicolas; Ménot, René-Pierre


    The Mertz shear zone (MSZ) is a lithospheric scale structure that recorded mid-crustal deformation during the 1.7 Ga orogeny. We performed a microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) study of samples from both mylonites and tectonic boudins that constitute relics of the Terre Adélie Craton (TAC). The deformation is highly accommodated in the MSZ by anastomosed shear bands, which become more scattered elsewhere in the TAC. Most of the MSZ amphibolite-facies mylonites display similar CPO, thermal conditions, intensity of deformation and dominant shear strain. Preserved granulite-facies boudins show both coaxial and non-coaxial strains related to the previous 2.45 Ga event. This former deformation is more penetrative and less localized and shows a deformation gradient, later affected by a major phase of recrystallization during retrogression at 2.42 Ga. Both MSZ samples and granulite-facies tectonic boudins present microstructures that reflect a variety of deformation mechanisms associated with the rock creep that induce contrasted CPO of minerals (quartz, feldspar, biotite, amphibole and orthopyroxene). In particular, we highlight the development of an "uncommon" CPO in orthopyroxene from weakly deformed samples characterized by (010)-planes oriented parallel to the foliation plane, [001]-axes parallel to the stretching lineation and clustering of [100]-axes near the Y structural direction. Lastly, we computed the seismic properties of the amphibolite and granulite facies rocks in the MSZ area in order to evaluate the contribution of the deformed intermediate and lower continental crust to the seismic anisotropy recorded above the MSZ. Our results reveal that (i) the low content of amphibole and biotite in the rock formations of the TAC, and (ii) the interactions between the CPO of the different mineralogical phases, generate a seismically isotropic crust. Thus, the seismic anisotropy recorded by the seismic stations of the TAC, including the

  20. Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatism in western Guangdong and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG; Hongyan; XU; Xisheng; S.Y.O'Reilly; ZHAO; Ming; SUN; Tao


    Systematic zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating reveals that Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive activities developed in western Guangdong. Representative volcanic rocks, i.e. Maanshan and Zhougongding rhyodacites, have zircon U-Pb isotopic ages of 100±1 Ma, and the intrusive ones including the Deqing monzonitic granite body and the Xinghua granodiorite body in the Shidong complex, as well as the Tiaocun granodiorite body in the Guangping complex yield ages of 99±2 Ma, ca.100 Ma, and 104±3 Ma respectively. The biotite-granites of the Shidong complex main body (461±35 Ma) and that of the Guangping complex (444±6 Ma) are Caledonian. In spite of the big time interval between Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatisms and Caledonian intrusive ones, both of them are characterized by enrichment in Rb, Th, Ce, Zr, Hf, Sm, depletion in Ba, Nb, Ta, P, Ti, Eu, and weakly REE tetrad effect. Eu negative anomalies are: Cretaceous volcanic rocks (Eu/Eu*=0.74), Cretaceous intrusive rocks (Eu/Eu*=0.35-0.58), Caledonian biotite granites (Eu/Eu*=0.31-0.34). Studies of Sr-Nd isotope data show that all these igneous rocks have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7105-0.7518), and low εNd(t) values (-7.23--11.39) with their Nd two-stage model ages ranging from 1.6-2.0 Ga, which suggest that they all derived from the Proterozoic crustal basement of southeast China.The occurrence of Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive magmatisms in western Guangdong is related with the important lithospheric extension event in southeast China (including Nanling region) at ca. 100 Ma.The "volcanic line" defined by the large scale Mesozoic intermediate-acidic volcanic magmatisms in southeast China may further extend to the southwest margin of Nanling region.

  1. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon) (United States)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama


    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2 σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  2. Reappraising the P–T evolution of the Rogaland–Vest Agder Sector, southwestern Norway

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    Eleanore Blereau


    Full Text Available The Rogaland–Vest Agder Sector of southwestern Norway comprises high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by voluminous plutonic bodies that include the ∼1000 km2 Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC. New petrographic observations and thermodynamic phase equilibria modelling of three metapelitic samples collected at various distances (30 km, 10 km and ∼10 m from one of the main bodies of RIC anorthosite were undertaken to assess two alternative P–T–t models for the metamorphic evolution of the area. The results are consistent with a revised two-phase evolution. Regional metamorphism followed a clockwise P–T path reaching peak conditions of ∼850–950 °C and ∼7–8 kbar at ∼1035 Ma followed by high-temperature decompression to ∼5 kbar at ∼950 Ma, and resulted in extensive anatexis and melt loss to produce highly residual rocks. Subsequent emplacement of the RIC at ∼930 Ma caused regional-scale contact metamorphism that affected country rocks 10 km or more from their contact with the anorthosite. This thermal overprint is expressed in the sample proximal to the anorthosite by replacement of sillimanite by coarse intergrowths of cordierite plus spinel and growth of a second generation of garnet, and in the intermediate (10 km sample by replacement of sapphirine by coarse intergrowths of cordierite, spinel and biotite. The formation of late biotite in the intermediate sample may suggest the rocks retained small quantities of melt produced by regional metamorphism and remained at temperatures above the solidus for up to 100 Ma. Our results are more consistent with an accretionary rather than a collisional model for the Sveconorwegian Orogen.

  3. Age and origin of post collision Baltoro granites, south Karakoram, North Pakistan: Insights from in-situ U-Pb, Hf and oxygen isotopic record of zircons (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Goodell, Philip C.; Pavlis, Terry L.


    Origin of post collision plutonism is critical to understand the tectonothermal evolution of the over thickened continental crust in collision zones. This has proven difficult to reconcile with the conventional whole rock geochemical and field based studies alone. We report in-situ study of zircon U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes from five samples of the Baltoro Plutonic Unit (BPU) in south Karakoram. The plutonic unit is the western part of the southern Asian margin of the India-Asia convergent zone. Baltoro granites and a biotite-rich enclave yielded similar and overlapping U-Pb ages ranging from 26 to 15 Ma. Hafnium isotopic composition (εHf (0)) is very heterogeneous ranging from - 17.1 to + 4.4 while the oxygen isotopic composition of the granites is homogeneous with mean δ18O ranging from 7.2 to 9.4‰. Based on U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopic composition, the involvement of two main sources is suggested (1) Cretaceous calc-alkaline Karakoram crust and (2) Karakoram gneisses. Moreover, possible involvement of metasomatized Asian lithospheric mantle is supported by elevated oxygen composition of granites and identical Hf composition of biotite-rich enclave to the mantle derived Baltoro lamprophyre. However, direct contribution from juvenile pristine mantle is unlikely as no juvenile mantle type Hf and oxygen values were obtained. This also precludes the involvement of southward juvenile arc related component of Kohistan-Ladakh batholith. Our new U-Pb and Hf data are comparable to the Mesozoic Karakoram batholith, Miocene two-mica leucogranites in the Pangong Range and magmatism from the Lhasa terrane in south Tibet, suggesting a genetic link between the Karakoram and the rocks to the east. This magmatic event is best explained by lower crust partial melting promoted by both thermal equilibration following crustal thickening and heat advection by ultrapotassic magmas associated with the breakoff of the Indian continental margin.

  4. Isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil

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    Evgenya S Shelobolina


    Full Text Available The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (Reed Canary Grass dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed-layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate-Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III- reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to G. toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III-reducing and Fe(II-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil.

  5. Isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil. (United States)

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric


    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate-Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O(2) as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O(2), each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate-Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil.

  6. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and its implications on the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; LIU Dunyi; ZHANG Fuqin; JIAN Ping; MIAO Laicheng; SHI Yuruo; TAO Hua


    The Xilin Gol Complex, consisting of deformed and metamorphosed rocks, was exposed as a large geological unit within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, but its forming and subsequent deformed and metamorphic time has been an issue of little consensus. Petrographic analyses and SHRIMP dating on biotite-plagioclase gneiss, one of the major rocks within the Xilin Gol Complex, in southeast Xilinhot City, Inner Mongolia, China, where the Xilin Gol Complex was identified and named, yield its lower limit age of 437 ( 3 Ma (2--) by its magmatic zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating, and an upper limit age of 316 ( 3Ma (2--), which was constrained by SHRIMP dating of magmatic zircons from adjacent undeformed garnet-bearing granite which intruded the Complex. The Complex was thus determined to be formed and subsequently deformed/metamorphosed from the late Ordovician-early Silurian to the mid-Carboniferous. Consequently, it is not the Precambrian terrane as previously considered by most geologists. More or less, the major rock--biotite- plagioclase gneiss within the Complex is more likely to be Paleozoic fore-arc turbidite formation before metamorphism and intensive deformation, in which the detrital zircons gave sporadic Precambrian ages as old as up to 3.1 Ga. The source of the turbidite formation is multiple, which may be derived either from the North China Craton, or from the South- Mongolia Micro-continent, or probably came from a potential and undiscovered in situ terranes aged 600-800 Ma or even up to ca 3.1 Ga near the Complex.

  7. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan


    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  8. Cooling history of the St. Elias syntaxis, southeast Alaska, revealed by geochronology and thermochronology of cobble-sized glacial detritus (United States)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Drost, Kerstin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Stübner, Konstanze; Ehlers, Todd A.


    We investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of exhumation in the ice-covered St. Elias syntaxis area, southeast Alaska, using multiple thermochronometers and geochronometers from cobble-sized glacial detritus. Multiple thermochronometers reveal the cooling histories from 500 to 60°C of 27 glacially transported cobbles from the two largest catchments of the syntaxis. Cobble lithologies and 21 zircon U-Pb ages (~277-31 Ma) were examined to determine sample provenance. Furthermore, eight amphibole and seven biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages (~276-16 Ma and ~50-42 Ma, respectively), four zircon and six apatite (U-Th)/He ages (~35-4.8 Ma and ~4.2-0.6 Ma, respectively), and four apatite fission track ages (~17-1.6 Ma) were used to reconstruct the individual cobble cooling histories. An additional four bedrock samples from the Fairweather Range yielded three biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages between ~42 and 5 Ma. A compilation of published bedrock and new cobble cooling histories from the St. Elias Mountains and Fairweather Range reveals the regional Cenozoic cooling and exhumation history, emphasizing the position of the St. Elias syntaxis as a transitional zone between transpression and subduction settings. The new cobble and bedrock data indicate an onset of rapid exhumation at ~5 Ma that was limited in duration (2-3 Myr) and amount (~10 km) in the syntaxial region. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of cobbles for revealing thermal histories of otherwise inaccessible regions as cobble analysis combines advantages of bedrock and detrital thermochronology.

  9. The Petrology and Diagenetic History of the Phacoides Sandstone, Temblor Formation at the McKittrick Oil Field, California (United States)

    Kaess, A. B.; Horton, R. A.


    The McKittrick oil field is located near the western edge of the San Joaquin Basin, California. The oil field is currently in production with 480 wells producing from the Tulare, San Joaquin, Reef Ridge, Monterey, Temblor, Tumey, and Kreyenhagen formations. Within the Temblor Formation production is mainly from the Miocene Carneros and the Phacoides sandstones. Eighty-two samples from the Phacoides sandstone (2403 - 3045 m below surface) were obtained from the California Well Sample Repository to characterize and understand the diagenetic history and its influence on its reservoir properties. Petrographic thin sections were analyzed by quantitative optical petrography, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and imaging with back-scatter electron and cathodoluminescence. The Phacoides sandstone consists of fine to very coarse, poorly to well-sorted, arkosic arenites, and wackes with detrital framework grains including sub-angular quartz, K-feldspar (microcline and orthoclase), plagioclase, and lithic fragments. Ba-free, Ba-rich, and perthitic K-feldspars are present. Accessory minerals include glauconite, biotite, muscovite, magnetite, titanomagnetite, sphene, zircon, apatite, corundum, and rutile. Diagenetic alteration includes: (1) compaction, (2) mineral dissolution, (3) albitization of feldspars, alteration of biotite to pyrite and chlorite, replacement of framework grains by calcite, (4) alteration of volcanic rock fragments, (5) cementation by kaolinite, calcite and dolomite, and (6) precipitation of K-feldspar and quartz overgrowths. Early-formed fractures were healed by authigenic quartz, albite, and K-feldspars. Precipitation of carbonates and clays, rearranging of broken grains, and formation of pseudomatrix reduced primary porosity. Secondary porosity is common and formed initially by the dissolution of plagioclase (excluding albite) and volcanic fragments, and later by dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and detrital K-feldspars. Hydrocarbon emplacement was

  10. Magma Mixing Genesis of the Jinchang Quartz Diorite in West Qinling Orogen,Western China: Petrographical and Geochronological Constraints and Their Tectonic Implications%西秦岭金厂石英闪长岩的岩浆混合成因:岩相学和锆石U-Pb年代学证据及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志鹏; 李建威


    transitional contact to the host intrusion. Common presence of needle-like apatite in MMEs, which, however, occurs as short crystals in the host rocks, suggests mixing of mafic and felsic magmas in the formation of the Jinchang quartz diorite. Plagioclase in the quartz diorite have oscillatory zoning in terms of An content, which are 30~40 in the core, >50 in the mantle, and less than 10 in the rims. A significant compositional gap was observed between the core and rims. Inclusions of amphibole and biotite were also found in the rims, but not in the core. Amphiboles in host rocks are mostly hornblende and magnesium hornblende, classified as SiO2-saturated type. Amphiboles in MMEs are chemically complex, with both SiO2-saturated magnesium hornblende and SiO2-unsaturated pargasite and pargasitic hornblende. The Al2 O3 and TiO2 contents of hornblende in the MMEs decrease abruptly from the core to the rims, indicating the core formed in a higher-temperature environment compared to the rims. Biotite in the host rocks and MMEs are also different. Biotites in host rocks are either iron or magnesian biotite, whereas they are exclusively magnesian biotite in MMEs. In the diagram of ∑FeO/(2FeO +MgO) vs. MgO for biotite, both the host rock and MMEs samples fall into the transitional field between crust and mantle, with the MMEs samples closer to the mantle field. Collectively, field and petrographic data suggest that magma mixing has been important in the formation of the Jinchang quartz diorite. Laser ablation ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields crystallization ages of 212±2 Ma and 215±1 Ma for the host rocks and MMEs, respectively, indicating contemporaneous formation and providing additional evidence supporting magma mixing. Petrographic evidence and U-Pb ages demonstrate that the Jinchang quartz diorite was emplaced in a post-collisional extensional environment, which could have facilitated partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust, and subsequently mixing of

  11. Provenance of the heavy metals in sand sediments of the Oman Sea (Sistan and Baluchestan district

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    Maryam Soleimani


    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition of source rock is one of the most important factors for concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments. Therefore, study on distribution of these elements and the related minerals in sediments provides information about natural origin of elements. Moreover, the interpretation of origin and distribution of sandy sediments is considerably enhanced by mineralogical and geochemical studies of these sediments. The main objective of this research is to evaluate distribution of Zn, Cu, Sr, Cd, Fe and Mn in sand sediments of the Oman Sea, their relationship with mineral composition of the sediments and also determining their provenance. Materials and Methods Sampling of surface sediments of the Oman Sea was performed in 16 sampling stations. Heavy minerals and rock fragments of the sediments in fine and coarse sand sizes respectively were qualitatively and quantitatively studied by polarizing microscope (Folk, 1974; Pettijohn et al., 1981; Tucker, 1988. Concentration of the heavy metals were also analyzed by AAS method (Mico et al., 2008. Result Mineralogical composition of the studied sediments contain quartz, feldspars and heavy minerals in their order of abundances. The rock fragments consist of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic in their order of frequencies as well. The concentrations of the studied heavy metals (in ppm in the sediments are Cd (1.42, Cu (9.99, Zn (36.72, Sr (181.18, Mn (377.33 and Fe (20247.55 in their order of abundances. Distribution of the Zn concentration generally shows decreasing trend from west of the study area to the Guatr Bay. The concentrations of Zn and Cu show close relationship with the frequencies of biotite and muscovite. The Cu concentration also shows positive correlation with the Zn and Fe concentrations. Distribution of the Sr and Cd concentrations is similar to variation of the calcium carbonate content. The Cd and Sr concentrations also show positive correlation

  12. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.


    The Idaho cobalt belt is a 60-km-long alignment of deposits composed of cobaltite, Co pyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold with anomalous Nb, Y, Be, and rare-earth elements (REEs) in a quartz-biotite-tourmaline gangue hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Lemhi Group. It is the largest cobalt resource in the United States with historic production from the Blackbird Mine. All of the deposits were deformed and metamorphosed to upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade in the Cretaceous. They occur near a 1377 Ma anorogenic bimodal plutonic complex. The enhanced solubility of Fe, Co, Cu, and Au as chloride complexes together with gangue biotite rich in Fe and Cl and gangue quartz containing hypersaline inclusions allows that hot saline fluids were involved. The isotopes of B in gangue tourmaline are suggestive of a marine source, whereas those of Pb in ore suggest a U ± Th-enriched source. The ore and gangue minerals in this belt may have trapped components in fluid inclusions that are distinct from those in post-ore minerals and metamorphic minerals. Such components can potentially be identified and distinguished by their relative abundances in contrasting samples. Therefore, we obtained samples of Co and Cu sulfides, gangue quartz, biotite, and tourmaline and post-ore quartz veins as well as Cretaceous metamorphic garnet and determined the gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratios of fluid inclusion extracts by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The most abundant gases present in extracts from each sample type are biased toward the gas-rich population of inclusions trapped during maximum burial and metamorphism. All have CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of evolved crustal fluids, and many yield a range of H2-CH4-CO2-H2S equilibration temperatures consistent with the metamorphic grade. Cretaceous garnet and post-ore minerals have high RH and RS values suggestive of reduced sulfidic conditions. Most extracts have anomalous 4He produced by decay of U and Th and

  13. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry (United States)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano


    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of

  14. Interaction between Silicate-Dissolving Bacillus globisporus Q12 and Mica Minerals%硅酸盐矿物分解细菌Bacillus globisporus Q12与云母矿物相互作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智; 何琳燕; 黄静; 王琪; 盛下放


    The interactions between soil minerals and microorganisms are important ecological processes in soils. The interactions between the silicate-dissolving Bacillus globisporus Q12 isolated from weathered potassium-bearing minerals and micas (such as biotite and muscovite) were investigated through determinations of K,Si,FeN Al, cell growth and metabolism, and through analyses of transmission electron microscope (TEM)and scanning electron microscope (SEM), The results showed that different mica minerals have different effects on the cell growth and acid metabolism (such as organic acids)of Bacillus globisporus Q12,and that the strain showed better growth and metabolism on the biotite than on the muscovite. It was found that inoculation with the strain increased releasing of K, Si、Fe、Al from the micas minerals. SEM-EDX analyses showed that the strain Q12 could colonize the surfaces of the micas and accelerate the weathering of biotite and muscovite. The strain Q12 could also absorb cations and small grains,and such to form new minerals around the cells.%土壤矿物与微生物相互作用对土壤中一系列生态过程产生重要影响.本文通过对培养液进行K、Si、Fe、A1等元素分析,测定了菌株生长与代谢产物,结合扫描电镜和透射电镜的观察,研究了钾矿物表生硅酸盐矿物分解细菌Bacillus globisporus Q12菌株与云母矿物(黑云母和白云母)的相互作用规律.结果表明,不同的云母矿物对B.globisporus Q12菌株的生长与代谢有不同影响;与白云母相比,黑云母更适合B.globisporus Q12菌株的生长与酸性代谢产物(如有机酸等)的合成;供试菌株能促进黑云母和白云母矿物中K、Si、Fe、A1等元素的释放.扫描电镜、透射电镜观察与能谱分析发现,B.globisporusQ12菌株能在云母矿物表面定殖,加速云母矿物的风化;茵体自身也能吸附培养液中离子和矿物碎片而形成新的矿物.

  15. Mineralogía y Geotermometría de los diques ácidos con grafito asociados a rocas ultramáficas de la Serranía de Ronda. Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, E.


    Full Text Available A geological, mineralogical and geothermometrical study of a group of acidic graphitebearing dikes from the Ronda ultramafic massif (Málaga province has been carried out. These dikes are hosted in serpentinized peridotites and they appear near the eastern and southern contacts of the massif. On the basis of their mineralogical features, two rock types have been distinguished, since they show or not hydrothermal alteration processes. Unaltered dikes present a mineral association composed by cordierite, garnet, quartz, biotite, graphite, Fe·Ti oxides, sulfides and minor amounts of plagioclase, sillimanite, hercynite and zircon. In the hydrothermally transformed dikes, this original mineral assemblage has been more or less erased, occuring "pinitization" of cordierite, chloritization of garnet and biotite, and ilmenite is transformed to "Ieucoxene". Graphite is a main mineral in both the unaltered and transformed dikes, ranging their abundance about 15%. The geothermometrical study has been done using the biotite-garnet pair and the value of graphite "c" parameter. The estimated temperatures are clase to 800º C, that are in good agreement with the given temperature for the emplacement of the ultramafic body. From all these data, formation of the dikes by anateetic partial melting of the sedimentary wall rocks (belonging to the Blanca Unit, in presence of a CO2- and CH4 rich fluid that migrated from the metamorphosed sediments towards low pressure fractures zones inside the peridotite massif, is proposed.Se ha realizado un estudio geológico, mineralógico y geotermométrico de un grupo de diques ácidos con grafito localizados en peridotitas serpentinizadas del macizo ultrabásico de Ronda (Málaga. Estos diques presentan distintos estados de alteración hidrotermal. En los diques inalterados, la paragénesis está compuesta por cordierita, granate, cuarzo, biotita, grafito, ilmenita, rutilo, sulfuros y pequeñas cantidades de plagioclasa

  16. Re-Os isotopic age dating of molybdenite separates from Hashitu Mo deposit in Linxi County of Inner Mongolia and its geological significance%内蒙古林西县哈什吐钼矿床辉钼矿铼-锇年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可; 聂凤军; 侯万荣; 李超; 刘勇


    Located in the eastern part of the southern Da Hinggan Ling Late Paleozoic orogenic belt between the Silas Wood Aaron River and the Erlian-Hegenshan structure zone, the newly discovered Hashitu ore deposit is a medium-size porphyry molybdeoum deposit occurring in east-central Inner Mongolian. The Hashitu granite porphyry and biotite granite were emplaced in the widespread Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the Hashitu mineralized area. The granite porphyry intruded into the biotite granite in a slightly later period, and the two granite intrusions made up a Yanshanian complex. The Mo mineralization occurred entirely in the two types of Mesozoic granitic intrusive rocks in stratiform, lenticular and chambered forms at large steep angles. The metallic minerals of the ores from Hashitu are mainly molybdenite and subordinate, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and galena, whereas the gangue mineral assemblage consists of mainly quartz, sericite and subordinately chlorite, epidote, fluorite and feldspar. Re-Os isotopic age dating of ten molybdenite separates from No. 1 Mo ore body yielded an isochron age of (148.8 ± 1.6) Ma and model ages ranging from (147.0 ± 2.2) Ma to (149.5 ± 2.3) Ma with an average of (148.22 ± 0.67) Ma. As the age is in agreement with field geological evidence, the authors hold that the molybdenum was concentrated from the Mo-bearing hydrothermal fluid after the intrusion of the granite porphyry and biotite granite during the Late Jurassic period. The Re content of molybdenite is (652~2 055) × 10-9, averaging 1 284 × 10-9. The content of Re in the Hashitu Mo deposit in comparison with the Re values of other molybdenum-bearing deposits indicates that the ore-forming materials of the Hashitu Mo deposit might have been derived mainly from the crustal source.%内蒙古哈什吐矿床是新发现的钼矿床.为进一步查明哈什吐钼矿床的形成时间,首次对主要钼矿体的10件辉钼矿样品进行铼-锇同位素分

  17. Isolation of a Siderophore-Producting Bacterial Strain and Mica-bacterial Interactions%一株产铁载体细菌的筛选及其与云母的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳燕; 张垠; 盛下放; 黄智


    Studies on the interactions between siderophore-producting bacteria and mica minerals will help us understand the mechanism of bio-weathering, the formation of soil, global cycle of several elements, and local environmental contamination. A siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 was isolated from rhizosphere soil of advantage wild plants sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) growing in Longshan potassium mine tailings in Nanjing, which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. By checking the individual morphology, colony characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequencing. Using the test cultures containing biotite or muscovite inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Z6, we found that a strong increase in the amount of siderophore in the fiest 15 days and bacteria could influence silicon and iron mobilization from mica minerals consistently until 75 d of culture. The amounts of iron released from biotite in the presence of Z6 increased by 211 times and the silicon increased by a factor of 27.8, much higher than that in the negative control without minerals. SEM analysis revealed the formation of erosion and bacteria-mineral aggregates on the surface of mica. Cellular growth, siderophere production and pH change by Pseudomonas sp. Z6 cultivated in biotite were directly and quickly influenced, more significantly than that in muscovite experimental setup. The siderophore(pyoverdins)-producting bacterial strain Z6 might play an important role in the process of mica weathering. Production of bacterial siderophore may be related to the presence of different mica minerals.%产铁载体细菌与云母类矿物相互作用的研究有助于了解矿物生物风化和土壤形成的演化规律和机理.采用纯培养法自南京龙山废钾矿区酸模根际土壤分离筛选到一株高产荧光铁载体的细菌Z6,通过16S rDNA序列分析和生理生化反应将其鉴定为假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.);通过室温静置培养试验研究Z6菌株与云母的相互作用结果

  18. Monazite and allanite U-Th-Pb vs mica 39Ar-40Ar ages in equilibrated metasediments: closure behavior and closure temperatures (United States)

    Allaz, J.; Engi, M.; Berger, A.; Janots, E.; Villa, I. M.


    muscovite, between 17.65±0.33 and 14.84±0.23 Ma for biotite, and similar ones for margarite and paragonite. Mica ages from disequilibrium samples are substantially younger if mica was involved in retrogression reactions (textural and petrological evidence). Compared to the monazite ages of 18-19 Ma from the same samples, Ar diffusive loss is minor for muscovite and low for biotite. Interpolating U-Pb and fission track ages, we conclude that muscovite and biotite K-Ar have TC of 490-540 and 430-480 °C in samples that record petrological equilibrium. In disequilibrium samples, the TC concept is meaningless: retrogression can occur anywhere in PT space. REFERENCES [1] Jäger E, Eclogae geol. Helv. 66, 11-21 (1973) [2] Dodson MH, Contrib. Min. Pet. 40, 259-274 (1973) [3] Köppel V, Grünenfelder M, Schweiz. Min. Geol. Mitt. 55, 129-132 (1975) [4] Janots E et al, Geology 37, 11-14 (2009)

  19. Fluorine-bearing grossular-rich garnet - an indicator for UHP - LT metamorphism of metagranitoids. (United States)

    Burchard, M.


    Melting experiments on biotite-phengite-gneiss at pressures of 1.5 to 4.5 GPa and temperatures of 675°C to 1000°C were performed to clarify the phase assemblages of S-type metagranitoids at high pressures. The starting material used was S-type granitic biotite-phengite-gneiss, which represents the country rock for the pyrope-quarztites from the Dora-Maira-Massif, Western Italy. These pyrope-quarztites contain the silicate ellenbergerite, which, together with the growth of pyrope, indicates P and T of more than 3 GPa and 700°C. Experimental evidence confirms that the presence of ellenbergerite indicates high water activities. For this reason all experiments were performed with a water fraction of 1.9 to 9.9 wt.%. The most important phases in the run products are melt, K-feldspar / K-felspar-hydrate, coesite / quartz, phengite, jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, almandine-grossular garnet, epidote, rutile and sphene. At pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 GPa and T of less than 675°C or 775°C, respectively, small, rare crystals of grossular garnets were observed. These grs-rich garnets form corona structures around the alm-grs garnets of the starting material. EMP-analysis shows that these garnets contain up to 1.2 wt.% F at 700°C, decreasing with temperature to 0.4 wt.% at 750°C. A garnet analysis from a run at 4 GPa and 700°C yields 69% grossular, 8% hydrogrossular, 6% fluorgrossular, 6% almandine, 2% spessartine and 3% andradite. The coexistence of such garnets with sphene and epidote in HP experiments shows that the high-pressure reaction sph + zoi -> grs + coe + H2O suggested by Chopin et al (1991) is not relevant at these conditions. From Chopin et al (1991) and Schertl at al (1991) it is known that there are extremely rare inclusions of grs-rich garnet in plagioclase and alm-grs garnet in the original rock, but these authors unfortunately did not analyze the F content. During a reinvestigation of the biotite-phengite gneiss grs inclusions in sph were found that

  20. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.


    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  1. Selected fluvial monazite deposits in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Overstreet, William C.; White, A.M.; Theobald, P.K.; Caldwell, D.W.


    Farther southwest in Georgia, around Griffin and Zebullon, along streams tributary to the Flint River in the monazite belt the flood plains are generally small and discontinuous, and only about 1 percent of the sediment is gravel. The area between Griffin, Zebullon, and the Flint River is underlain by biotite schist and biotite gneiss into which biotite granite has been intruded. Only along one stream, Flat Creek, which drains monazite-bearing granite near Zetella, Ga., are the tenors in monazite even moderately high, but a combination of thick, clayey overburden and discontinuous flood plains make the stream unsuitable for placer mining. Elsewhere in the Flint River area the heavy-mineral concentrates contain less than 1 percent monazite. The southwesternmost area in which reconnaissance of the monazite belt was conducted includes a groups of southwest-flowing tributaries to the Chattahoochee River north of Pine Mountain and near La Grange, Ga. A combination of three characteristics of the alluvium make the area unfavorable for mining: (1) the upper half of the sedimentary sequence is clay and silt, (2) there is scant gravel, and (3) much of the sand is fine grained. Monazite is associated with the Snelson Granite, schists, and gneisses north of the Towaliga fault, but even in this area the tenor of most riffle sediments is only 0.1 to 0.5 pound of monazite per cubic yard, and the average tenor of the alluvium is about 0.2 pound per cubic Yard. Rocks south of the Towaliga fault contain scant monazite. The monazite-bearing area in the drainage basin of the Chattahoochee River has no monazite placers. Evidence from the areas on the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers shows that streams in western Georgia are a much poorer source of monazite than streams farther to the northeast in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Also, the northeastern part of the belt in the drainage basins of the Yadkin and Dan Rivers is a poorer source for monazite than the area between

  2. 华南花岗岩两个成岩成矿系列的演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Series Ⅰ(the Nanling Series)has a sequence of petrogenesis and mineralization:monzonitic granite or granodiorite→biotite granite→leucocratic granite→granoporphyry or quartz porphyry→intermediate-basic dikes;ree→Nb,Ta(Li,Rb,Cs),Be,Sn,W,Mo,Bi,As→Cu,Zn,Pb→Sb,Hg,U.Series Ⅱ(the Yangtze Series):pyroxene diorite(or gabbro)→diorite or quartz diorite→granodicrite (quartz monzonite)or monzonitic granite→granite→K-feldspar granite→granoporphyry or quartz porphyry(syenitic porphyry or quartz syenitic porphyry)→intermediate-bastic dikes;Fe→Cu(Au)→Mα(W)→Zn,Pb→Pb(Ag).There exists an evolutionary trend for each series.Obvious differences have been recognized between Series Ⅰand Ⅱ.As for Series Ⅱ,the bulk composition is close to that of andesite.Relatively high temperature of formation(980°-1,140℃),petrochemieal enrichment in Mg and Ca,the composition of biotite characterized by the high content of magnesium,assemblages of accessory minerals(magnetite-sphene-apatite or magnetite-ilmenite-REE-rich zircon), of biotite characterized by the high content of magnesium,assemblages of accessory minerals(magnetite-sphene-apatite or magnetite-ilmenite-REE-rich zircon),trace elements predominated by Cl and Sr with ∑ Ce>∑Y in the rocks and accessory minerals,relatively high δEn(0.74-0.99)without depleticn,δ18O10 times)characteristic of mantle derivation,very low 37Sr/86Sr(0.7036-0.7085)and the occurrence of intermediate-basic dikes(similar to basalts in composition)in the final evolutionary stage are sufficiently enough to show that Series Ⅱ has a.material souree in the lower crust or in the upper mantle.The fact that 37Sr/86Sr>0.7037 in most eases implies a partial coantamination by crystal materials.As for Series I,the bulk formation(600°-680℃),chemical composition noted for high SiO2,and K2O,complicated accessory mineralogy and assemblages(magnetite-ilmenite-zircon,or monazitexenotime-zircon),bioite with hih content of iron

  3. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province. (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael


    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  4. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions (United States)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt


    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  5. SR-Site: Oxygen ingress in the rock at Forsmark during a glacial cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Salas, Joaquin; Maia, Flavia; Delos, Anne; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))


    matrix is the main source of reducing capacity. The ferrous iron occurs in different reduced minerals, of which biotite and chlorite are the most abundant. The release rate of ferrous iron from biotite is slower than for most of the ferrous minerals considered. Therefore, the ferrous iron is cautiously assumed to be comprised in biotite, as a model substance, and the release rate is calculated based on this assumption. Furthermore, the oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen is assumed to occur in two consecutive steps; dissolution of ferrous iron from the mineral lattice into the pore solution followed by homogeneous oxidation of the dissolved ferrous ions. Direct oxidation of ferrous iron incorporated in the mineral lattice is hence also cautiously approximated by these two coupled processes. At early times, reduced minerals in the undisturbed rock matrix, which are directly exposed to the flowing water, are easily accessible from the flow paths in the fractures. In this situation, the extent of oxygen ingress along the flow path is determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and oxygen consuming reactions. Eventually, the reducing capacity of the rock close to the fracture becomes depleted and the remaining ferrous minerals can only be reached by diffusion in the rock matrix. With time, this diffusion resistance increases as the reducing capacity is depleted further into the rock matrix. The oxygen consuming reaction is then limited by the diffusion resistance. The extent of oxygen ingress is in this situation determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and diffusion into the rock matrix. Both of these situations are represented by two different models that are solved analytically in this report. The case of kinetically controlled oxygen consumption for early times is furthermore evaluated with the geochemical numerical codes PHREEQC and PHAST. Sensitivity analyses of important parameters such as the pH, availability of specific reactive mineral surfaces

  6. New thermochronologic data reveals disturbed cooling histories near the intersection of Karakoram and Longmu Co faults, NW India (United States)

    Bohon, W.; Hodges, K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.; Tripathy, A.


    from the Ladakh, Pangong, and Karakoram Ranges help constrain the timing and kinematics of the vertical component of slip along the KFS and the related exhumation of the blocks on either side of the fault. 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages cluster at 10 Ma within the Pangong Range. In the Karakoram Range, between the KFS (34°07'30" 78°12'10") and the inferred trace of the LCF (34°19'15" 78°18'10"), biotite ages are notably younger but inconsistent (7.5-9.2 Ma), indicative of younger exhumation of this part of the Karakoram. However, 40Ar/39Ar biotite ages from the Karakoram Range north of the LCF and farther NW in the Karakoram Range (beyond the NW terminus of the Pangong Range) are similar to those within the Pangong Range (~10 Ma). AHe and ZHe ages from the Karakoram Range directly north of the Pangong Range are consistently younger (ZHe 3.4-4.4; AHe 2.7-3.3 Ma) than the ages within the Pangong Range (ZHe 5.4-6.2; AHe 4.4-4.5 Ma), again implying differential exhumation of the part of the Karakoram Range between traces of the KFS and and LCF. Our work implies that the KFS and LCF are intimately linked, both influencing regional exhumation in northern Ladakh. Raterman, N.S., Cowgill, E., Lin, Ding, Variable structural style along the Karakoram fault explained using triple-junction analysis of intersecting faults, GEOSPHERE, Vol 3, Issue 2, p 71-85

  7. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.


    ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  8. From the nm to the Mm (United States)

    Villa, I. M.


    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague

  9. Petrogenesis of Jurassic fractionated I-type granites in Southeast China: Constraints from whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopes (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ji-Heng; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Li, Xian-Hua


    Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data and zircon in situ U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes are reported for twelve granitic intrusions from inland to coastal areas of the Cathaysia Block, Southeast (SE) China, in order to constrain their magma sources and petrogenesis. They are mainly composed of biotite granites with minor granodiorites. Zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS and SIMS methods gave emplacement ages of 165-154 Ma for these rocks, which are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.95-1.10), with variable SiO2 contents and high K2O contents. They are all depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) and enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and show negative Sr, Ba and Eu anomalies in the spidergrams. Petrographic and geochemical features suggest the granodiorites that contain hornblende to be typical of I-type, while the biotite granites without hornblende are fractionated I-type granites. Their variable major and trace element concentrations are due to fractional crystallization of feldspar, biotite, hornblende, and accessory minerals, including apatite, allanite and monazite. Moreover, our data indicate significant variations in isotopic compositions of these granitoids from inland to coastal areas. The inland granites, from the Lapu, Fogang, Xinfengjiang and Baishigang plutons, have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7105-0.7155) and low εNd(t) (-11.2 to -7.3) and εHf(t) (-10.9 to -6.3) values for whole rocks, and variable δ18O values of 7.69-9.25‰ and εHf(t) values of -13.5 to -6.7 for zircons. In contrast, the coastal granites, from the Longwo, Wushikeng, Lianhuashan, Shigushan, Chiliao, Hulutian, Mantoushan and Fenghuang plutons, show relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7056-0.7110) and high εNd(t) (-7.6 to -6.2) and εHf(t) (-6.5 to -2.8) values for whole-rocks, together with εHf(t) values of -7.2 to 3.9 and δ18O values of 6.69-8.38‰ for zircons. The spatial

  10. Geochemistry and argon thermochronology of the Variscan Sila Batholith, southern Italy: source rocks and magma evolution (United States)

    Ayuso, R.A.; Messina, A.; de Vivo, B.; Russo, S.; Woodruff, L.G.; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.


    The Sila batholith is the largest granitic massif in the Calabria-Peloritan Arc of southern Italy, consisting of syn to post-tectonic, calc-alkaline and metaluminous tonalite to granodiorite, and post-tectonic, peraluminous and strongly peraluminous, two-mica??cordierite??Al silicate granodiorite to leucomonzogranite. Mineral 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic analyses document Variscan emplacement and cooling of the intrusives (293-289 Ma). SiO2 content in the granitic rocks ranges from ???57 to 77 wt%; cumulate gabbro enclaves have SiO2 as low as 42%. Variations in absolute abundances and ratios involving Hf, Ta, Th, Rb, and the REE, among others, identify genetically linked groups of granitic rocks in the batholith: (1) syn-tectonic biotite??amphibole-bearing tonalites to granodiorites, (2) post-tectonic two-mica??Al-silicate-bearing granodiorites to leucomonzogranites, and (3) post-tectonic biotite??hornblende tonalites to granodiorites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns display variable values of Ce/Yb (up to ???300) and generally small negative Eu anomalies. Degree of REE fractionation depends on whether the intrusives are syn- or post-tectonic, and on their mineralogy. High and variable values of Rb/Y (0.40-4.5), Th/Sm (0.1-3.6), Th/Ta (0-70), Ba/Nb (1-150), and Ba/Ta (???50-2100), as well as low values of Nb/U (???2-28) and La/Th (???1-10) are consistent with a predominant and heterogeneous crustal contribution to the batholith. Whole rock ??18O ranges from ???+8.2 to +11.7???; the mafic cumulate enclaves have the lowest ??18O values and the two-mica granites have the highest values. ??18O values for biotite??honblende tonalitic and granodioritic rocks (9.1 to 10.8???) overlap the values of the mafic enclaves and two-mica granodiorites and leucogranites (10.7 to 11.7???). The initial Pb isotopic range of the granitic rocks (206Pb/204Pb ???18.17-18.45, 207Pb/204Pb ???15.58-15.77, 208Pb/204Pb ???38.20-38.76) also indicates the predominance of a crustal source

  11. Origins of chromite and magnetite in sedimentary rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa (United States)

    Otake, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Itoh, S.; Yurimoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.


    *Otake, T. Div. of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Sakamoto, Y. Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Itoh, S. Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Yurimoto. H. Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Kakegawa, T. Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Geochemical data from ferruginous chemical sedimentary rocks (e.g., Banded Iron Formation: BIF) have been used to reconstruct the surface environments of early Earth. However, only a few studies have investigated the geochemical characteristics of BIFs deposited in a shallow water environment during the Archean, which may have differed from those deposited in a deep water environment. Therefore, we investigated geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of ferruginous rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the Moodies group, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We obtained ferruginous rock samples in the Moodies group from both an outcrop and underground gold mine, and compared the characteristics of these samples. The 70 sedimentary rock samples were divided into groups based on the dominant Fe minerals they contain: Hematite-rich jaspilite (HM group), Magnetite-rich iron formation/shale/sandstone (MT group), and Siderite-rich sandstone (SD group). Samples in the HM group are predominantly composed of fine-grained quartz (< 20 μm) and hematite (< 5 μm), which are interpreted to be chemical precipitates. Samples in the MT group contain quartz, magnetite, siderite, ankerite, chlorite, biotite and chromite. The grain size of magnetite is much larger (20-150 μm) than that of hematite in the HM group. The magnetite is interpreted as a secondary mineral transformed from hematite during early diagenesis. Results of in situ oxygen isotope analysis by

  12. Thermal durations and heating behaviour for the Barrovian metamorphism, Scotland (United States)

    Viete, D. R.; Lister, G. S.; Hermann, J.; Forster, M. A.; Oliver, G. J.


    Published U/Pb ages for the syn-metamorphic gabbros and granites of the Grampian Terrane, Scotland, that provided heat for the classical Barrovian metamorphism, suggests that they were emplaced between 473.5 and 470 Ma. New SHRIMP U/Pb ages of 472.2 ± 5.8 Ma and 470.4 ± 6.1 Ma for peak metamorphism in the highest-grade units of the Barrovian metamorphic series are consistent with a 473.5 to 470 Ma heating episode in the highest-grade units. U/Pb-calibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages for white mica from the Barrovian metamorphic series vary from c. 465 Ma for the biotite zone to c. 461 Ma for the sillimanite zone and suggest that the Barrovian thermal episode lasted less than 8.5 million years in the biotite zone and less than 12.5 million years in the sillimanite zone. The lowest-grade units of the Barrovian metamorphic series retain detrital ages in white mica 40Ar/39Ar step-heating spectra, while units metamorphosed to temperatures of 475°C or more yield Grampian 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages. Forward modelling of Ar diffusion from white mica grains was carried out for different grain sizes and thermal histories to match the position of the across-metamorphic-grade transition from detrital 40Ar/39Ar patterns to Grampian 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages. The results of Ar diffusion modelling are consistent with thermal durations of between one and 4.5 million years for the Barrovian metamorphism of the biotite zone. Microstructural observations suggest that peak metamorphism and cooling occurred earliest in the lowest-grade units of the Barrovian metamorphic series and metamorphism in the higher-grade units continued for longer. We propose metamorphic durations of between 3.5 and eight million years for the Barrovian metamorphism of the sillimanite zone. Geochemical textures preserved within high-grade garnets from the Barrovian metamorphic series record evidence of Mn diffusion over c. 1000 μm lengthscales during the Barrovian metamorphism. In addition, sillimanite-grade garnets from the

  13. Geología, petrología y mineralogía del granito Inti Huasi, sur de la sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba Geology, petrology and mineralogy of the Inti Huasi Granite, southern Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Otamendi


    Full Text Available El granito de Inti Huasi que aflora en el extremo sur de la sierra de Comechingones es uno de los tres ejemplos del magmatismo monzogranítico débilmente peraluminoso post-Famatiniano de las Sierras de Córdoba. Considerando datos de relevamiento geofísico se puede notar que el granito Inti Huasi está mayormente cubierto (> 90 % por sedimentos modernos del Cuaternario. Esta relación de campo impide diferenciar el número de pulsos magmáticos independiente que podrían haber formado plutones discretos dentro del granito Inti Huasi. No obstante, la diversidad litológica de las rocas que afloran, reflejan que los tipos litológicos del granito están vinculadas genéticamente por la acción de procesos petrológicos que ocurrieron a nivel de epizona. La roca ígnea más abundante es un monzogranito con biotita y muscovita. Estos monzogranitos se caracterizan por ser félsico (SiO2 > 73 %, y FeO* + MgO + TiO2 The Inti Huasi granite at the southern end of the Sierra de Comechingones is one of three examples of post-Famatinian, alkali-rich, weakly-peraluminous monzogranitic magmatism of the Sierra de Córdoba. According to geophysical data the Inti Huasi granite is largely covered (> 90% by Quaternary sediments. The sedimentary cover, however, makes it impossible to identify and map satisfactorily all the possible sub-intrusions units which represent individual magmatic pulses that fed the Inti Huasi granite. Nevertheless, rock diversity seems to reflect the effect of high-level differentiation processes. The most common rock type is a biotite ± muscovite bearing monzogranite. Monzogranites are characteristically felsic (SiO2 > 73 %, and FeO* + MgO + TiO2 < 2,4, weakly peraluminous (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O = 0,98 - 1,11, and contain ilmenite, sphene, apatite and zircon as accessory minerals. Although the compositional range of the monzogranites is small, it defines a differentiation trend that is essentially controlled by biotite and

  14. How does litter become soil organic matter? Tracing the fate of needle- and root-derived soil organic matter through 10 years of decomposition (United States)

    Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Hatton, Pierre-Joseph; Castanha, Cristina; Bird, Jeffrey A.; Torn, Margaret S.


    All soil organic matter (SOM) is derived from plant material. However, little is known about the process by which plant litter becomes SOM (as opposed to the better-studied controls on rates of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) loss from litter). We investigated the transformations of above- and below-ground plant inputs in soil over ten years, and whether litter type (roots versus needles) affects the form and location of litter-derived C and N in soil after 10 years. We placed 15N and 13C-labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter in the Blodgett Experimental Forest in the Sierra Nevada foothills in 2001. A two-way factorial design was used with needle and root litter placed into O and A soil horizons. Litter was inserted into the given horizon within soil mesocosms (10.2 cm diameter x 24 cm long PVC) that had two 5 x 5 cm mesh windows to allow contact with the surrounding soil. After 0.5, 1, 1.5, 4.5, and 10 years, the mesocosms were collected from the field. Isotopes were used to measure the percent recovery of the litter C and N in the bulk soil of the O and A horizons. To investigate mineral associations of the added litter C and N after 10 years, we sequentially fractionated the soils by density. The fractions were a free light fraction (2.78 g cm-3). These fractions differ in the type of organic matter they are associated with according to C:N ratios and molecular characterization via FTIR. The biotite fraction had the lowest C:N ratios, indicating it was the most microbially-processed. After 10 years, more root litter C (about 44%) was retained in the soil than needle litter C (about 28%). In line with slower rates of decomposition, root C and N remained in the particulate (>2 mm) fraction and the free light fraction longer than needle C. However, there were similar amounts of root and needle C and N in the mineral-associated pools with 12-17% of the remaining C associated with secondary phyllosilicates and less than 1% associated with biotite. C

  15. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D


    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  16. Fractional crystallization of Si-undersaturated alkaline magmas leading to unmixing of carbonatites on Brava Island (Cape Verde) and a general model of carbonatite genesis in alkaline magma suites (United States)

    Weidendorfer, Daniel; Schmidt, Max W.; Mattsson, Hannes B.


    The carbonatites of Brava Island, Cape Verde hot spot, allow to investigate whether they represent small mantle melt fractions or form through extreme fractionation and/or liquid immiscibility from CO2-bearing silicate magmas. The intrusive carbonatites on Brava Island are part of a strongly silica-undersaturated pyroxenite, ijolite, nephelinite, nepheline syenite, combeite-foiditite, carbonatite series. The major and trace element composition of this suite is reproduced by a model fractionating olivine, clinopyroxene, perovskite, biotite, apatite, titanite, sodalite and FeTi oxides, all present as phenocrysts in the rocks corresponding to their fractionation interval. Fractionation of ~90 wt% crystals reproduces the observed geochemical trend from the least evolved ultramafic dikes (bulk X Mg = 0.64) to syenitic compositions. The modelled fractional crystallization leads to alkali enrichment, driving the melt into the carbonatite-silicate miscibility gap. An initial CO2 content of 4000 ppm is sufficient to saturate in CO2 at the point where the rock record suggests continuing unmixing carbonatites from nephelinites to nepheline syenites after 61 wt% fractionation. Such immiscibility is also manifested in carbonatite and silicate domains on a hand-specimen scale. Furthermore, almost identical primary clinopyroxene, biotite and carbonate compositions from carbonatites and nephelinites to nepheline syenites substantiate their conjugate character and our unmixing model. The modelled carbonatite compositions correspond to the natural ones except for their much higher alkali contents. The alkali-poor character of the carbonatites on Brava and elsewhere is likely a consequence of the release of alkali-rich CO2 + H2O fluids during final crystallization, which cause fenitization in adjacent rocks. We propose a general model for carbonatite generation during alkaline magmatism, where the fractionation of heavily Si-undersaturated, alkaline parent melts results in alkali and

  17. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates (United States)

    White, Arthur F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.


    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds—Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico—were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages.Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution achieved steady state in 3 of the 4 fresh granitoids during the last decade of reaction. Surface-area normalized plagioclase dissolution rates exhibited a narrow range (0.95 to 1.26 10-13 moles m-2 s-1), in spite of significant stoichiometric differences (An0.21 to An0.50). Rates were an order of magnitude slower than previously reported in shorter duration experiments but generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than corresponding natural analogs. CrunchFlow simulations indicated that more than a hundredfold decrease in column flow rates would be required to produce near-saturation reaction affinities that would start to slow plagioclase weathering to real-world levels. Extending simulations to approximate long term weathering in naturally weathered profiles required additional decreases in the intrinsic plagioclase dissolution and

  18. Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps) (United States)

    Rolland, Y.; Rossi, M.


    The Mont-Blanc Massif was intensely deformed during the Alpine orogenesis: in a first stage of prograde underthrusting at c. 30 Ma and in a second stage of uplift and exhumation at 22-11 Ma. Mid-crustal shear zones of 1 mm-50 m size, neighbouring episyenites (quartz-dissolved altered granite) and alpine veins, have localised intense fluid flow, which produced substantial changes in mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry. Four main metamorphic zones are oriented parallel to the strike of the massif: (i) epidote, (ii) chlorite, (iii) actinolite-muscovite ± biotite and (iv) muscovite ± biotite. In addition, phlogopite-bearing shear zones occur in the chlorite zone, and calcite-bearing shear zones are locally found in the muscovite zone. The initial chemical composition of the granitic protolith is relatively constant at massif scale, which allows investigating compositional changes related to shear zone activity, and subsequent volume change and elements mobility. The variations of whole-rock composition and mineral chemistry in shear zones reflect variations in fluid/rock ratios and fluid's chemistry, which have produced specific mineral reactions. Estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes are of the order of 106 m3/m2. The mineral assemblages that crystallised upon these fluid-P-T conditions are responsible for specific major and trace element enrichments. The XFe (Fe/Fe + Mg) pattern of shear zone phyllosilicates and the δ13C pattern of vein calcite both show a bell-type pattern across the massif with high values on the massif rims and low values in the centre of the massif. These low XFe and δ13C values are explained by down temperature up-flow of a Fe-Mg-CO2-rich and silica-depleted fluid during stage 1, while the massif was underthrusting. These produced phlogopite, chlorite and actinolite precipitation and quartz hydrolysis, resulting in strong volume losses. In contrast, during stage 2 (uplift), substantial volume gains occurred on the massif rims due to the

  19. Slip transfer across fault discontinuities within granitic rock at the brittle-ductile transition (United States)

    Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.; Warren, J. M.


    Fault mechanics are strongly influenced by discontinuities in fault geometry and constitutive differences between the brittle and ductile regions of the lithosphere. This project uses field observations, laboratory analysis and numerical modeling to investigate deformational processes within a contractional step at the brittle-ductile transition, and in particular, how slip is transferred between faults via ductile deformation across the step. The Bear Creek field area (central Sierra Nevada, CA) is comprised of late Cretaceous biotite-hornblende granodiorite and experienced a period of faulting at the brittle-ductile transition. Abundant echelon faults in Bear Creek, some of which were seismically active, provide many textbook examples of contractional steps, which are characterized by well-developed ductile fabrics. The occurrence of hydrothermal alteration halos and hydrothermal minerals in fracture fill documents the presence of water, which we suggest played a weakening role in the constitutive behavior of the granodiorite. Furthermore, the mechanism that accomplishes slip transfer in contractional steps appears to be related to water-enhanced ductile deformation. We focus our investigation on Outcrop SG10, which features a 10cm thick aplite dike that is offset 0.45m through a contractional step between two sub-parallel left-lateral faults. Within the step, the aplite undergoes dramatic thinning (stretch ~1/10) and the granodiorite is characterized by a well-developed mylonitic foliation, in which quartz and biotite plastically flow around larger grains of feldspars, hornblende and opaque minerals. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis gives a more quantitative depiction of the active micromechanics and reveals how slip is accommodated at the crystal scale throughout the step. We use Abaqus, a commercial finite element software, to test several constitutive laws that may account for the deformation observed both macro- and microscopically throughout

  20. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia (United States)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.


    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New δ34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in δ34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have

  1. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls (United States)

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.


    The St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, near Moyie, southeastern British Columbia, is a Mesoproterozoic vein deposit hosted by metaturbidites of the 1.5-1.4 Ga Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The regional metamorphic grade of the rocks is biotite zone, with the age of metamorphism being Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.35 Ga). The vein system is enveloped by a metamorphosed alteration zone of increasing intensity as the vein is approached. Thin argillaceous tops of turbidite beds away from the vein are garnet-free, whereas those in the inner alteration zone are garnet-bearing. Compared to rocks away from the vein, those near the vein are enriched in Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, with proportional reduction in other compositional parameters. Thermodynamic modeling of three rocks across the alteration gradient predicts increasing stabilization of garnet with increasing degree of alteration. Predicted and observed modes of garnet in the samples are in close agreement. In the most altered rock, the garnet-in line is displaced down-temperature by ~ 100 °C relative to the least altered rock. Approximately 2/3 of the garnet stabilization is accounted for by increase in Mn content and the rest by increase in Fe/(Fe + Mg). Kinetic factors played a role in the development of the mineral assemblages, including metastable persistence of zoisite, and disequilibrium (overstepped) initial growth of garnet. Estimates of peak pressure-temperature conditions from mineral assemblage constraints and from compositional isopleths are complicated by the kinetic effects but yield similar results: 490-510 °C and 3.6-4.0 kbar. The pressure-temperature estimates imply an average linear geothermal gradient of ~ 35 °C/km, broadly consistent with burial metamorphism in the Belt-Purcell extensional basin. However, the estimated pressure, equivalent to a depth of 13-15 km, is greater than the estimated ~ 8 km (~ 2.2 kbar) of stratigraphic overburden at the time of metamorphism. The results of this study support the idea that

  2. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach (United States)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan


    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  3. Nature, origin and evolution of the granitoid-hosted early Proterozoic copper-molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.; Kabiraj, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pal, A. B.


    At Malanjkhand, Central India, lode-type copper (-molybdenum) mineralization occurs within calcalkaline tonalite-granodiorite plutonic rocks of early Proterozoic age. The bulk of the mineralization occurs in sheeted quartz-sulfide veins, and K-silicate alteration assemblages, defined by alkali feldspar (K-feldspar≫albite)+dusty hematite in feldspar±biotite±muscovite, are prominent within the ore zone and the adjacent host rock. Weak propylitic alteration, defined by albite+biotite+epidote/zoisite, surrounds the K-silicate alteration zone. The mineralized zone is approximately 2 km in strike length, has a maximum thickness of 200 m and dips 65° 75°, along which low-grade mineralization has been traced up to a depth of about 1 km. The ore reserve has been conservatively estimated to be 92 million tonnes with an average Cu-content of 1.30%. Supergene oxidation, accompanied by limited copper enrichment, is observed down to a depth of 100 m or more from the surface. Primary ores consist essentially of chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor magnetite and molybdenite. δ34S (‰) values in pyrite and chalcopyrite (-0.38 to +2.90) fall within the range characteristic of granitoid-hosted copper deposits. δ18O (‰) values for vein quartz (+6.99 to +8.80) suggest exclusive involvement of juvenile water. Annealed fabrics are common in the ore. The sequence of events that led to the present state of hypogene mineralization is suggested to be as follows: fracturing of the host rock, emplacement of barren vein quartz, pronounced wall-rock alteration accompanied by disseminated mineralization and the ultimate stage of intense silicification accompanied by copper mineralization. Fragments of vein quartz and altered wall rocks and striae in the ore suggest post-mineralization deformation. The recrystallization fabric, particularly in chalcopyrite and sphalerite, is a product of dynamic recrystallization associated with the post-mineralization shearing. The petrology of the host

  4. 藏东类乌齐地区始新世钾玄质侵入岩特征及构造环境%Characteristics and tectonic environment of Eocene shoshonitic intrusive rocks in Leiwuqi region of eastern Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱军强; 强巴扎西; 丁希国; 李虎; 拉巴次仁


    Wangguotong Pluton is located in Wangguotong, Leiwuqi region of eastern Tibet The rock type is porphyritic biotite adamellite, the biotite K-Ar isotopic age is 35 Ma, and the rock is Eocene in age. Wangguotong granite is rich in silicon, aluminum and alkali, has high potassium and poor titanium content, and low in iron, magnesium and calcium. In the diagram of the SiO2-K2O and K2O-Na2O, the samples all belong to the series of shoshonitic rocks, shoshonitic granite in rock series. The rock shows high concentration of large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, and negative Eu abnormality, and it also shows Th strong concentration on the original cobweb diagram, Sr low negative abnormality, and losses of high-field strength elements Nb, Ta and Ti. These all indicate the geochemical characteristics of shoshonitic rock. By using the discrimination diagram of tectonic environment, it is proved that the Wangguotong granite is formed in post-collisional tectonic environment.%往过同岩体位于藏东类乌齐地区往过同,岩石类型为斑状中粒黑云母二长花岗岩,黑云母K-Ar同位素年龄为35 Ma,时代为始新世.往过同花岗岩富硅、铝、碱,高钾贫钛,低铁、镁、钙,在SiO2-K2O和K2ONa2O图解中样品均落在钾玄岩系列区,岩石系列为钾玄质花岗岩.岩石富集大离子亲石元素和轻稀土元素,负Eu异常;在原始地幔蛛网图上Th强烈富集,Sr呈现低谷负异常,高场强元素Nb、Ta、Ti亏损,表现出钾玄岩的地球化学特征.经分析,并应用构造环境判别图解,往过同花岗岩形成于后碰撞的构造环境.

  5. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of Samchampi–Samteran differentiated alkaline complex of Mikir Hills, northeastern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhishek Saha; Sohini Ganguly; Jyotisankar Ray; Nilanjan Chaterjee


    The Samchampi –Samteran alkaline complex occurs as a plug-like pluton within the Precambrian granite gneisses of Mikir Hills,Assam,northeastern India and it is genetically related to Sylhet Traps.The intrusive complex is marked by dominant development of syenite within which ijolite – melteigite suite of rocks is emplaced with an arcuate outcrop pattern.Inliers of alkali pyroxenite and alkali gabbro occur within this ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks.The pluton is also traversed by younger intrusives of nepheline syenite and carbonatite.Development of sporadic,lumpy magnetite ore bodies is also recorded within the pluton.Petrographic details of the constituent lithomembers of the pluton have been presented following standard nomenclatorial rules.Overall pyroxene compositions range from diopside to aegirine augite while alkali feldspars are typically orthoclase and plagioclase in syenite corresponds to oligoclase species.Phase chemistry of nepheline is suggestive of Na-rich alkaline character of the complex.Biotite compositions are typically restricted to a uniform compositional range and they belong to ‘biotite ’field in the relevant classification scheme.Garnets (developed in syenite and melteigite)typically tend to be Ti-rich andradite,which on a closer scan can be further designated as melanites.Opaque minerals mostly correspond to magnetite.Use of Lindsley ’s pyroxene thermometric method suggests an equilibration temperature from ∼450°–600°C for melteigite/alkali gabbro and ∼400° C for syenite.Critical assessment of other thermometric methods reveals a temperature of equilibration of ∼700°–1350°C for ijolite –melteigite suite of rocks in contrast to a relatively lower equilibration temperature of ∼600° C for syenite. Geobarometric data based on pyroxene chemistry yield an equilibration pressure of 5.32 –7.72 kb for ijolite,melteigite,alkali pyroxenite,alkali gabbro and nepheline syenite.The dominant syenite member of the

  6. Metamorphic evolution, mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of schists and orthogneisses hosting ultra-high pressure eclogites in the Dabieshan of central China (United States)

    Carswell, D. A.; Wilson, R. N.; Zhai, M.


    As is typical of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains, the regional extent of the UHP terrain in the Dabieshan of central China is highly speculative, since the volume of eclogites and paragneisses preserving unequivocal evidence of coesite and/or diamond stability is very small. By contrast, the common garnet ( XMn=0.18-0.45)-phengite (Si=3.2-3.35)-zoned epidote (Ps 38-97)-biotite-titanite-two feldspars-quartz assemblages in the more extensive orthogneisses have been previously thought to have formed under low P- T conditions of ca. 400±50°C at 4 kbar. However, certain orthogneiss samples preserve garnets with XCa up to 0.50, rutile inclusions within titanite or epidote and relict phengite inclusions within epidote with Si contents p.f.u. of up to 3.49 — overlapping with the highest values (3.49-3.62) recorded for phengites in samples of undoubted UHP schists. These and other mineral composition features (such as A-site deficiencies in the highest Si phengites, Na in garnets linked to Y+Yb substitution and Al F Ti -1 O -1 substitution in titanites) are taken to be pointers towards the orthogneisses having experienced a similar metamorphic evolution to the associated UHP schists and eclogites. Re-evaluated garnet-phengite and garnet-biotite Fe/Mg exchange thermometry and calculated 5 rutile+3 grossular+2SiO 2+H 2O=5 titanite+2 zoisite equilibria indicate that the orthogneisses may indeed have followed a common subduction-related clockwise P- T path with the UHP paragneisses and eclogites through conditions of Pmax at ca. 690°C-715°C and 36 kbar to Tmax at ca. 710°C-755°C and 18 kbar, prior to extensive re-crystallisation and re-equilibration of these ductile orthogneisses at ca. 400°C-450°C and 6 kbar. The consequential conclusion, that it is no longer necessary to resort to models of tectonic juxtapositioning to explain the spatial association of these Dabieshan orthogneisses with undoubted UHP lithologies, has far-reaching implications for the

  7. Jurassic cooling ages in Paleozoic to early Mesozoic granitoids of northeastern Patagonia: 40Ar/39Ar, 40K-40Ar mica and U-Pb zircon evidence (United States)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Tohver, Eric; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Wemmer, Klaus; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cawood, Peter A.


    U-Pb SHRIMP zircon crystallization ages and Ar-Ar and K-Ar mica cooling ages for basement rocks of the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu areas in northeastern Patagonia are presented. Granitoids that cover the time span from Ordovician to Early Triassic constitute the main outcrops of the western sector of the Yaminué block. The southern Yaminué Metaigneous Complex comprises highly deformed Ordovician and Permian granitoids crosscut by undeformed leucogranite dikes (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 254 ± 2 Ma). Mica separates from highly deformed granitoids from the southern sector yielded an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 182 ± 3 Ma and a K-Ar biotite age of 186 ± 2 Ma. Moderately to highly deformed Permian to Early Triassic granitoids made up the northern Yaminué Complex. The Late Permian to Early Triassic (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 252 ± 6 Ma) Cabeza de Vaca Granite of the Yaminué block yielded Jurassic mica K-Ar cooling ages (198 ± 2, 191 ± 1, and 190 ± 2 Ma). At the boundary between the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu blocks, K-Ar muscovite ages of 188 ± 3 and 193 ± 5 Ma were calculated for the Flores Granite, whereas the Early Permian Navarrete granodiorite, located in the Nahuel Niyeu block, yielded a K-Ar biotite age of 274 ± 4 Ma. The Jurassic thermal history is not regionally uniform. In the supracrustal exposures of the Nahuel Niyeu block, the Early Permian granitoids of its western sector as well as other Permian plutons and Ordovician leucogranites located further east show no evidence of cooling age reset since mica ages suggest cooling in the wake of crystallization of these intrusive rocks. In contrast, deeper crustal levels are inferred for Permian-Early Triassic granitoids in the Yaminué block since cooling ages for these rocks are of Jurassic age (198-182 Ma). Jurassic resetting is contemporaneous with the massive Lower Jurassic Flores Granite, and the Marifil and Chon Aike volcanic provinces. This intraplate deformational pulse that affected northeastern

  8. Mineralogy and radioactivity of pegmatites from South Wadi Khuda area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed F.Raslan; Mohamed A.Ali; Mohamed G.El-Feky


    Radioactive minerals in pegmatites associated with granitic rocks are commonly encountered in the south of the Wadi Khuda area and found as dyke-like and small bodies. They are observed within garnet-muscovite granites near the contact with older granitoids. Field surveys indicated that the studied pegmatites vary in dimensions ranging from 2 to 10 m in width and from 10 to 500 m in length. They are composed mainly of intergrowth of milky quartz, reddish-pink K-feldspar and plagioclase together with small pockets of muscovite. Field radiometric measurements indicated that radioactivity in pegmatites is more than twice that of their enclosing country rocks. Radionuclide measurements revealed that the average contents of U and Th increase gradually from rocks of dioritic to granodioritic composition (1.5×10-6 U and 4.3×10-6 Th) and increase significantly in biotite granites (5.8×10-6 U and 15.2×10-6 Th) but drastically decrease in muscovite granites (2.2×10-6 U and 5.6×10-6 Th). The average contents of U and Th of anomalous pegmatites are 95.3×10-6 and 116.9×10-6, respectively, indicating their uraniferous nature. In the south of the Wadi Khuda area, pegmatites are low in average Th/U (1.4) and high in average U/K (35.6), which suggests that uranium concentrating processes did not affect the pegmatites, indicating poor source-rocks. Mineralogical investigations of the studied pegmatites revealed the presence of secondary uranium minerals (kasolite and autunite), in addition to zircon, thorite, apatite, garnet and biotite. Primary and secondary radioactive mineralizations indicated that the mineralization is not only magmatic, but also post-magmatic. Electron microprobe analyses showed distinct cryptic chemical zoning within thorite where UO2 decreases from core to rim. This feature in thorite is sporadic, suggesting non-uniform redistributions of UO2 within thorite during magmatic processes.

  9. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates (United States)

    White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.


    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds-Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico-were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (convergence during the last decade of reaction. NETPATH/PHREEQC code simulations indicated non-stoichiometric dissolution involving Ca release from disseminated calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages. Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution achieved steady state in 3 of the 4 fresh granitoids during the last decade of reaction. Surface-area normalized plagioclase dissolution rates exhibited a narrow range (0.95-1.26 10-13 moles m-2 s-1), in spite of significant stoichiometric differences (An0.21 to An0.50). Rates were an order of magnitude slower than previously reported in shorter duration experiments but generally 2-3 orders o