Sample records for biotechnology system bts

  1. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module

  2. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.


    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  3. Model System Dynamics Infrastruktur BTS Ramah Lingkungan Daerah Rural untuk Optimalisasi Perhitungan ARPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Sardjono


    Full Text Available Green Base transceiver station (BTS or known as remote BTS is a special BTS with IP technology-based that has a small capacity and takes low power consumption with standard features suitable for use in rural areas. BTS utilizes 100% solar energy as a source of energy. The infrastructure Green BTS is composed of high-tech devices which is able to save energy, environmentally friendly, small and lightweight. The high rate service calls and SMS on green BTS is caused by the absence of competition telecom operators at a site. The solution to this  problem needs to be done with system dynamics modeling approach with the aim to establish causality (cause and effect between the variables. The standard target of model pattern which has been changed on system dynamics can be used to demonstrate the behavior of the model between the number of subscribers, the availability of network capacity and ARPU (average revenue per user on the Green BTS site. On the changed standard target model, the actual revenue is placed as the actual event, the target revenue is as a target; the difference between the actual and target revenue is as gap, gap changes are as the pressure on the target and the corrective action taken against revenue as a corrective action. Based on simulation results, the standard model change targets can be developed by adding two negative loops (balancing loop as an alternative solution towards the achievement of revenue targets that have been set.

  4. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His main research activities are connected to science and technology policies and national and local systems of innovation in less developed countries. ...... of the Brazilian productive structure in energy-related areas – bio-fuels, oil, and so on – biotechnology research has started to target energy-related activities. However ...

  5. Optimum Design Of PV Systems For BTS In Remote And Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Hossam


    Full Text Available knowing that Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile network the economical problem of providing electrical energy to mobile BTS stations may be solved to a great extent if renewable energy sources are used. In remote areas where electric utility is not available photovoltaic PV stand-alone system using storage batteries represent a good solution although it is costly. It is also possible to have a hybrid stand-alone system using diesel generator combined with PV to supply BTS stations in remote areas. In urban areas PV on grid system is an economical solution. In such a system during sunshine hours PV system delivers part of its generated energy to BTS station and the rest to grid utility whereas during night BTS station is supplied by grid to get back what was supplied to the grid during day. The economics of the different proposals is the criterion of optimization i.e. the cost per generated Kwh is the crucial objective function to be minimized. In this work we optimize both stand-alone PV system and PV on grid system to supply remote and urban indoor or outdoor BTS stations.

  6. Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl from Marshall Space Flight Center's 4696 Fl Stand (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline


    This Office of Space Flight (OSF)-funded project sought to demonstrate the application of a Bi-metallic Treatment System (BTS) to remove and degrade PCBs found on NASA facilities. The project initiated with the collection of PCB-containing materials from various MSFC and KSC structures, followed by laboratory evaluation of the BTS' PCB-removal efficiency, and concluded with a field demonstration at MSFC. The project evaluated the optimum formulation required to remove PCBs from aged and weathered paint with the goal of achieving final PCB concentrations less than 50 mg/Kg or 50 percent reduction where PCB starting levels were already below the 50 mg/Kg levels. Using lessons learned from this study, it was anticipated that the research team would be better able to make further recommendation on application strategies for future use of BTS for the treatment of PCB laden coatings on structures.

  7. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  8. Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration (United States)

    Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

    With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

  9. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanika, Mbikusita Mwananyanda


    The article sets out to explain in simple terms the main concepts of Biotechnology beginning with traditional biotechnology to modern biotechnology. It outlines fundamentals of Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Genetic Engineering. The article offers a discussion of the benefits, disadvantages and the general public and policy concerns regarding genetically modified organisms

  10. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming to develop and manufacture products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological system of macromolecules. The Animal Laboratory Division of IPEN is responsible for the breeding and production of small laboratory animal.

  11. Reisverslag BTS 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.; Teal, L.R.; Os-Koomen, van E.; Pasterkamp, T.L.


    In 2013, the beam trawl survey (BTS) was carried out by Tridens II and Isis. The survey is part of the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF). This report describes the results and contains the cruise reports of the trips. The results for sole and plaice in the BTS are used by the ICES assessment

  12. Verslag BTS 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.; Bol, R.A.


    In 2009 is de beam trawl survey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de Tridens II en de Isis in opdracht van het ministerie van LNV. In dit rapport staan de resultaten van de survey alsmede de reisverslagen van de reizen op beide schepen. De gegevens van de BTS worden onder andere gebruikt in de

  13. Konservasi Energi Pada BTS (Base Transceiver Station) Menggunakan Sistem Pendingin Arus Searah (DC Cooler)


    Poetro, Joessianto Eko; Rahmat, Mohammad Basuki


    Dalam Sistem Telekomunikasi Selelur peranan BTS sangat vital. Tanpa ada BTS maka pelanggan seluler tidak dapat menikmati layanan komunikasi dengan baik, karena BTS inilah yang menerima dan memancarkan sinyal komunikasi ke pelanggan. Pemakaian yang terus menerus akan menimbulkan panas pada system peralatan BTS. Demikian juga panas dari radiasi matahari dapat juga mempengaruhi kinerja dan umur peralatan BTS. Untuk itu diperlukan sistem pendingin yang mampu mendinginkan sehingga dapat mengurang...

  14. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products (United States)

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  15. BTS statistical standards manual (United States)


    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  16. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  17. Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of 131 I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens for

  18. Are BTS guidelines followed? (United States)


    In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study's aim was to determine the level of adherence to these guidelines at a London teaching hospital. A retrospective case note audit of 59 episodes was performed. In patients undergoing intervention, the initial procedure was simple aspiration in 32 (73 per cent) and chest tube insertion in 12 (27 per cent) cases, contrasting with the BTS recommendation that aspiration should be attempted first in all such patients. Simple aspiration was successful on 34 per cent of occasions. Successful aspiration was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (median 3, range 1-11 days) than either failed aspiration (7, 3-66 days) or chest tube insertion without aspiration (9, 3-16 days). Other areas where practice differed from the BTS guidelines were clamping of chest tubes and use of a pursestring suture for wound closure. A follow up questionnaire suggested a lack of familiarity with the guidelines. These findings indicate that current management of spontaneous pneumothorax deviates from the BTS guidelines in potentially important respects.

  19. Optimasi Penempatan Menara BTS Menggunakan Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fatkhur Rohman


    Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecomunication System (UMTS saat ini dipandang sebagai sebuah sistem impian yang menggantikan Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM dan merupakan salah satu evolusi generasi ketiga (3G dari jaringan mobile. Salah satu komponen pendukung jaringan UMTS adalah Node B, Node B dapat dianalogikan sebagai BTS. Seiring perkembangan kebutuhan pelanggan yang semakin meningkat, kebutuhan akan BTS(Node B semakin bertambah, hal ini menyebabkan banyaknya jumlah menara BTS da menyebabkan pemandangan yang kurang bagus bagi visualisasi kota.oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan optimisasi penempatan menara BTS. Salah satu metode untuk mengoptimasi adalah Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization. Maka dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang simulasi optimasi penempatan BTS menggunakan QPSO dengan parameter yang akan dioptimasi adalah Coverage Area dan Trafik. Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan, Algoritma QPSO mampu mengurangi jumlah BTS dari 55 BTS menjadi 43 BTS.

  20. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems. Around the world, biotechnology has become a driving force for dramatic change in systems and policies intended to spur ...

  1. Penataan Menara BTS (Cell Planning)


    Prijono, Wahyu Adi


    Penataan menara/BTS merupakan proses master plan penataan menara telekomunikasi seluler berdasarkan estetika dan kesesuaian dengan KKOP ( Kawasan Keselamatan Operasional Penerbangan ) dan tata ruang wilayah suatu daerah guna mendapatkan jumlah menara yang optimal di suatu wilayah.Penataan Menara Master plan meliputi, analisis potensi pengguna telepon seluler sampai 5 tahun ke depan, Prediksi deman BTS, perhitungan kapasitas BTS 5 tahun kedepan, pemetaan pola penataan pemakaian menara / tower ...

  2. 75 FR 41798 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System... (United States)


    ...] Solicitation of Letters of Interest to Participate in Biotechnology Quality Management System Program AGENCY... participate in the APHIS Biotechnology Quality Management System Program. The Biotechnology Quality Management..., audit-based compliance assistance program known as the Biotechnology Quality Management System Program...

  3. BTS 2007: Resultaten en reisverslagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.; Bol, R.A.


    In 2007 is de beam trawl survey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de Tridens II en de Isis in opdracht van het ministerie van LNV. In dit rapport staan de resultaten van de survey alsmede de reisverslagen van de reizen op beide schepen

  4. [Influence of toxin botulin on walk stereotype of children with juvenile cerebral palsy. The functional examination performed by BTS, comprehensive movement analysis system. A preliminary report]. (United States)

    Kwiecień-Czerwieniec, Ilona; Krukowska, Jolanta; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta


    Juvenile Cerebral Palsy--is caused by damage of the motor control centers of the developing brain (cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain, although the disorder probably involves connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain and palsy refers to disorder of movement). The clinical symptoms of juvenile cerebral palsy are very diversified and include gross and fine motor-coordination disorders, manual ability, locomotion, perception and response, speech, psychomotor retardation, emotional disorders. The primary therapeutic problem in children with cerebral palsy is learning to move in a lower position and learning to walk. The aim of this research is evaluation the action of the botulinum toxin on gait pattern of children with cerebral palsy. Application of a comprehensive BTS analysis of gait will get accurate, consistent EBM (Evidence Base Medicine) results. The children with pyramidal syndrome of juvenile cerebral palsy have been included in the examinations. The children have been divided into 2 random groups: group I--children treated with standard therapy a neurodevelopmental rehabilitation and classic kinesiotherapy, group II--hildren treated with standard therapy --eurodevelopmental rehabilitation, classic kinesiotherapy and a botulinum toxin. The children were examined three times: before the therapy, after 6 weeks of treatment and after 3 months of treatment. In the research BTS comprehensive motion analysis system have been used where influence of toxin botulin on walk stereotype of children was assessed. The treatment connected with standard rehabilitation and using botulinum toxin brings quicker walk improvement. Comparing the above treatment methods of influence on the walk stereotype of children with juvenile cerebral palsy, we can confirm, that standard treatment brings regular improvement, still, it requires longer period of time, often even 3 months. Using botulinum toxin brings quicker walk improvement

  5. Editorial overview : Systems biology for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    About 15 years ago, systems biology was introduced as a novel approach to biological research. On the one side, its introduction was a result of the recognition that through solely the reductionist approach, we would ulti- mately not be able to understand how biological systems function as a whole.

  6. Metabolomics for functional genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology. (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki; Matsuda, Fumio


    Metabolomics now plays a significant role in fundamental plant biology and applied biotechnology. Plants collectively produce a huge array of chemicals, far more than are produced by most other organisms; hence, metabolomics is of great importance in plant biology. Although substantial improvements have been made in the field of metabolomics, the uniform annotation of metabolite signals in databases and informatics through international standardization efforts remains a challenge, as does the development of new fields such as fluxome analysis and single cell analysis. The principle of transcript and metabolite cooccurrence, particularly transcriptome coexpression network analysis, is a powerful tool for decoding the function of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This strategy can now be used for the identification of genes involved in specific pathways in crops and medicinal plants. Metabolomics has gained importance in biotechnology applications, as exemplified by quantitative loci analysis, prediction of food quality, and evaluation of genetically modified crops. Systems biology driven by metabolome data will aid in deciphering the secrets of plant cell systems and their application to biotechnology.

  7. Model Lokasi Menara BTS Ditinjau Dari Faktor – Faktor Penentu Lokasi Menara BTS Di Surabaya


    Dynastya, Dynastya; Sulistyarso, Haryo


    Perkembangan tower Base Transceiver Station (BTS) di Kota Surabaya berlangsung sangat pesat. Keberadaan tower BTS yang mulai menjamur di kawasan permukiman mengakibatkan protes dari masyarakat yang takut akan dampak negatif tower BTS. Perkembangan jumlah penggunaan telepon genggam di kota Surabaya dapat diasumsikan bahwa kebutuhan jaringan komunikasi nirkabel bertambah. Untuk mengatur hal tersebut diperlukan adanya suatu pengendalian tower BTS di Kota Surabaya untuk meminimalisasi gangguan te...

  8. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenoghena, C O; Emagbetere, J O; 1 Minna (Nigeria))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Federal University of Techn.1 Minna (Nigeria))" >Aibinu, A M


    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  9. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent. (United States)

    Jiang, Li


    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  10. Model Lokasi Menara BTS ditinjau dari Faktor – faktor penentu lokasi Menara BTS di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dynastya Dynastya


    Full Text Available Perkembangan tower Base Transceiver Station (BTS di Kota Surabaya berlangsung sangat pesat. Keberadaan tower BTS yang mulai menjamur di kawasan permukiman mengakibatkan protes dari masyarakat yang takut akan dampak negatif tower BTS. Perkembangan jumlah penggunaan telepon genggam di kota Surabaya dapat diasumsikan bahwa kebutuhan jaringan komunikasi nirkabel bertambah. Untuk mengatur hal tersebut diperlukan adanya suatu pengendalian tower BTS di Kota Surabaya untuk meminimalisasi gangguan terhadap estetika kota. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan hubungan faktor penentu lokasi menara BTS terhadap lokasi menara BTS di Surabaya dengan menggunakan kajian teoritis dari berbagai pustaka.  Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi persebaran lokasi tower BTS tersebut kemudian diiterasi menurut pendapat pakar dengan menggunakan analisa delphi. Yang kemudian digunakan untuk menyusun hubungannya dengan lokasi tower BTS dengan analisa regresi logistik. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah faktor-faktor yang menjadi penentu lokasi tower BTS, yang menurut konsensus pakar adalah faktor faktor kepadatan penduduk, biaya sewa lahan, ketinggian menara, jenis lokasi menara, faktor pola ruang, faktor keamanan, dan faktor coverage service area. Hasil konsensus tersebut kemudian dianalisis dengan analisa regresi logistik sehingga menghasilkan model regresi yang menunjukkan peluang faktor yang berpengaruh dan seberapa besar pengaruhnya terhadap lokasi menara BTS.

  11. A systems engineering perspective on process integration in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Grievink, Johan; Rito-Palomares, Marco


    Biotechnology has many applications in health care, agriculture, industry and the environment. By using renewable raw materials, biotechnology contributes to lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petro-based towards a circular sustainable economy. However, major developments are

  12. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  13. Viabilitas Spermatozoa Babi dalam Pengencer BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution yang Dimodifikasi pada Penyimpanan Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. G. Sumardani


    Full Text Available The optimal storage temperature for preserve boar semen is 17-18°C. The temperature fluctuations can decrease sperm viability. The aim of this study was to obtain a boar semen extender for Artificial Insemination (AI at a certain distance area. The observation was based on the sperm viability in modified Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS extender in different storage, and the effect of storage system i.e.: room temperature (22°C and styrofoam box (18°C were conducted for this purpose. The research used a completely randomized design (CRD with two factorial i.e.: BTS and M-BTS extender (F1, room temperature and styrofoam box (F2. Semen from three years old Yorkshire boars (n = 3 were collected twice a week by glove hand method. Semen characteristics and their quality were evaluated macro and microscopically. These semen were added with BTS and M-BTS extender up to fourfold volume (ratio 1 : 3. This is based on the assumption of AI dose of 2 - 3 x 109cells/80ml and the sperm motility and viability were evaluated every six hours for 24 hours observation. The results showed that fresh semen characteristics were good, with the percentage of sperm motility 65.56±2.55% and sperm viability of 87.70±2.87%. The best extender found in this experiment of 24 hours observation was BTS extender with sperm motility 53.33±3.33% in styrofoam box. In conclusion, BTS extender can maintain the quality of spermatozoa stored in styrofoam box for about 24 hours with sperm motility 40%-50%, and the styrofoam box can be used as an alternative container for insemination program in the field.

  14. Reisverslag van de boomkorsurvey (BTS) in 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.; Bol, R.A.


    In 2012 is de beam trawl survey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de Tridens II en de Isis in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I. De survey is onderdeel van het EU Data Collectie Programma (DCF) en valt daarmee onder de wettelijke taken die binnen IMARES worden uitgevoerd. In dit rapport staan de


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Komang Yogi Sutrisna


    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi informasi dan telekomunikasi yang begitu pesat telah mendorong semakin berkembangnya sebuah informasi. Salah satunya informasi mengenai persaingan yang ketat dalam melakukan alternatif pengembangan jaringan akses. Dipilihnya jaringan 4G dimaksudkan sebagai solusi jaringan komunikasi yang komprehensif dan aman, dengan kecepatan data yang jauh lebih cepat dari generasi sebelumnya. Secara umum hal tersebut diminta untuk menyediakan layanan berkualitas tinggi dan kecepatan transfer data yang lebih cepat. Perencanaan suatu sistem yang dapat membantu dalam pemilihan BTS untuk diaktifkan fitur 4G sangat diperlukan oleh operator jaringan telekomunikasi dalam menentukan BTS yang sesuai dengan kriteria yang diinginkan. Pada penelitian ini telah dapat dibuat sebuah SPK (Sistem Pendukung Keputusan berbasis web untuk me-nyelesaikan masalah alternatif pemilihan BTS. Pengembangan dari aplikasi yang dibangun ini meng-gunakan metodologi Waterfall System. Sedangkan metode pengambilan keputusan menggunakan metode Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE. Pada tahap implementasi, sistem ini menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP, serta MySQL sebagai da-tabasenya. Sistem pendukung keputusan ini dapat menghasilkan alternatif BTS yang disarankan se-suai dengan kriteria yang didasarkan pada hasil analisis metode PROMETHEE. Perbedaan dari 2 je-nis perhitungan secara manual dan menggunakan sistem terlihat pada peringkat 3 terbaik dari 20 BTS yang diseleksi.

  16. Application of modern biotechnology to food and agriculture: food systems perspective. (United States)

    McCullum, Christine; Benbrook, Charles; Knowles, Lori; Roberts, Susan; Schryver, Tamara


    The purpose of this article is to provide nutrition educators with an introduction to a range of considerations and forces that are driving the application of modern biotechnology in the food and fiber sector based on a food systems perspective. In doing so, the following issues are critically assessed: (1) the global debate on how to regulate genetically engineered (GE) foods and crops, (2) cultural differences in public perceptions of GE foods, and (3) evaluation of selected GE traits against the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability, including the potential of modern agricultural biotechnology to enhance global food security. Where appropriate, we also review other agricultural technologies and the broader political, social, and economic contexts in which these technologies have been introduced. Finally, we offer recommendations for how multiple stakeholder groups, including policy makers, biotechnology advocates, and nutrition educators, can move toward a more informed dialogue and debate on this issue.

  17. New bioproduction systems: from molecular circuits to novel reactor concepts in cell-free biotechnology. (United States)

    Rupp, Steffen


    : The last decades witnessed a strong growth in several areas of biotechnology, especially in fields related to health, as well as in industrial biotechnology. Advances in molecular engineering now enable biotechnologists to design more efficient pathways in order to convert a larger spectrum of renewable resources into industrially used biofuels and chemicals as well as into new pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins. In addition material sciences advanced significantly making it more and more possible to integrate biology and engineering. One of the key questions currently is how to develop new ways of engineering biological systems to cope with the complexity and limitations given by the cell. The options to integrate biology with classical engineering advanced cell free technologies in the recent years significantly. Cell free protein production using cellular extracts is now a well-established universal technology for production of proteins derived from many organisms even at the milligram scale. Among other applications it has the potential to supply the demand for a multitude of enzymes and enzyme variants facilitating in vitro metabolic engineering. This review will briefly address the recent achievements and limitations of cell free conversions. Especially, the requirements for reactor systems in cell free biotechnology, a currently underdeveloped field, are reviewed and some perspectives are given on how material sciences and biotechnology might be able to advance these new developments in the future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Laila Nugraha


    Full Text Available Base Transceiver Station (BTS representation one of appliance of supporter of telecommunicationsnetwork. The development of BTS have to each other in circuit by other BTS or which have been planned.The situation BTS in circuit between other BTS without obstacle are called Line of Sight (LoS. Thetopographic survey is method of survey work to make sure the Line of Sight BTS. The topographic surveyconsist of GPS survey and study map for determination of high of BTS antenna and the Line of Sight ofBTS can be made.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Isayenkov


    Full Text Available The pivotal role of plant vacuoles in plant survival was discussed in the review. Particularly, the providing of cellular turgor, accumulation of inorganic osmolytes and nutrients are the primary tasks of these cellular organelles. The main mechanisms of tonoplast transport systems were described. The known transport pathways of minerals, heavy metals, vitamins and other organic compounds were classified and outlined. The main systems of membrane vacuolar transport were reviewed. The outline of the physiological functions and features of vacuolar membrane transport proteins were performed. The physiological role of transport of minerals, nutrients and other compounds into vacuoles were discussed. This article reviews the main types of plant vacuoles and their functional role in plant cell. Current state and progress in vacuolar transport research was outlined. The examples of application for rinciples and mechanisms of vacuolar membrane transport in plant biotechnology were iven. The perspectives and approaches in plant and food biotechnology concerning transport and physiology of vacuoles are discussed.

  20. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep


    have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  1. The effect of an insulin releasing agent, BTS 67582, on advanced glycation end product formation in vitro. (United States)

    Simpson, A E; Jones, R B


    BTS 67582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl) guanidine fumarate) is an insulin-releasing agent currently in phase II clinical trials. Its effect on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation was measured in the BSA/D-glucose and L-lysine/glucose-6-phosphate assay systems and Amadori product formation was measured in the BSA/D-glucose assay system, following a 3 week incubation period. In the BSA/D-glucose assay system, 200 mM BTS 67582 caused an approximate 70% inhibition in AGE formation (pBTS 67582 and 200 mM aminoguanidine-HCl retarded Amadori product formation by 88% (pBTS 67582 at 20 mM and 2 mM was shown to inhibit Amadori product formation by 67% and 57%, respectively, (pBTS 67582 and 200 mM aminoguanidine-HCl were shown to inhibit AGE formation by about 70% and 96% (p<0.001), respectively. Tolbutamide (200 microM) and glibenclamide (100 microM) had no significant effect on AGE formation.

  2. Application of model systems in nano biotechnology safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, R.I.; Khudaverdieva, S.R; Aliev, E.Sh.


    Full text: Nanobiotechniological researches and offers on application of the scientific results reached in this area prevail of all others. And thus, in many cases or it is at all left outside of attention possible harmful effects of application in an expert of nanoparticles, or it is limited to researches on subcellular level. The way offered by us is a studying at cellular-organism level of the structural organization of effects of action on vital systems of nanoparticles with use of culture of unicellular green seaweed are established, and also its perpspective value in biological synthesis of hydrogen is shown

  3. Glucose-lowering effect of BTS 67 582. (United States)

    Page, T; Bailey, C J


    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl) guanidine fumarate) was studied in normal rats. 2. BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) acutely lowered basal plasma glucose concentrations: onset within 1 h, maximum decrease of >40% at 2-3 h, and partial return to euglycaemia by 5 h. Plasma insulin concentrations were increased: onset within 30 min, maximum increase 3 fold at 1-2 h; returning to normal by 5 h. 3. BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) increased (by 56%) the rate of disappearance of plasma glucose during an intravenous glucose tolerance test, accompanied by a 51% increase in insulin concentrations. 4. During hyperglycaemic clamp studies BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) increased glucose utilization 3 fold. This was associated with a 3 fold increase in insulin concentrations, even in the presence of adrenaline at a dosage which inhibits glucose-induced insulin release. 5. When the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) was inhibited by infusion of somatostatin, there was no effect on glycaemia. 6. Insulin-dependent diabetic BB/S rats, which do not produce endogenous insulin, showed no effect of BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) on plasma glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin. 7. The results demonstrate an acute hypoglycaemic effect of BTS 67 582 which appears to result mainly from its potent insulin-releasing action.

  4. Alteration of sequence specificity of the type IIS restriction endonuclease BtsI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Guan

    Full Text Available The Type IIS restriction endonuclease BtsI recognizes and digests at GCAGTG(2/0. It comprises two subunits: BtsIA and BtsIB. The BtsIB subunit contains the recognition domain, one catalytic domain for bottom strand nicking and part of the catalytic domain for the top strand nicking. BtsIA has the rest of the catalytic domain that is responsible for the DNA top strand nicking. BtsIA alone has no activity unless it mixes with BtsIB to reconstitute the BtsI activity. During characterization of the enzyme, we identified a BtsIB mutant R119A found to have a different digestion pattern from the wild type BtsI. After characterization, we found that BtsIB(R119A is a novel restriction enzyme with a previously unreported recognition sequence CAGTG(2/0, which is named as BtsI-1. Compared with wild type BtsI, BtsI-1 showed different relative activities in NEB restriction enzyme reaction buffers NEB1, NEB2, NEB3 and NEB4 and less star activity. Similar to the wild type BtsIB subunit, the BtsI-1 B subunit alone can act as a bottom nicking enzyme recognizing CAGTG(-/0. This is the first successful case of a specificity change among this restriction endonuclease type.

  5. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara


    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  6. Mammalian Systems Biotechnology Reveals Global Cellular Adaptations in a Recombinant CHO Cell Line. (United States)

    Yusufi, Faraaz Noor Khan; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Ho, Ying Swan; Loo, Bernard Liat Wen; Ariyaratne, Pramila; Yang, Yuansheng; Ng, Say Kong; Tan, Tessa Rui Min; Yeo, Hock Chuan; Lim, Hsueh Lee; Ng, Sze Wai; Hiu, Ai Ping; Chow, Chung Ping; Wan, Corrine; Chen, Shuwen; Teo, Gavin; Song, Gao; Chin, Ju Xin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Sung, Ken Wing Kin; Hu, Wei-Shou; Yap, Miranda Gek Sim; Bardor, Muriel; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Lee, Dong-Yup


    Effective development of host cells for therapeutic protein production is hampered by the poor characterization of cellular transfection. Here, we employed a multi-omics-based systems biotechnology approach to elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic differences between a wild-type and recombinant antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. At the genomic level, we observed extensive rearrangements in specific targeted loci linked to transgene integration sites. Transcriptional re-wiring of DNA damage repair and cellular metabolism in the antibody producer, via changes in gene copy numbers, was also detected. Subsequent integration of transcriptomic data with a genome-scale metabolic model showed a substantial increase in energy metabolism in the antibody producer. Metabolomics, lipidomics, and glycomics analyses revealed an elevation in long-chain lipid species, potentially associated with protein transport and secretion requirements, and a surprising stability of N-glycosylation profiles between both cell lines. Overall, the proposed knowledge-based systems biotechnology framework can further accelerate mammalian cell-line engineering in a targeted manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wine biotechnology in South Africa: towards a systems approach to wine science. (United States)

    Moore, John P; Divol, Benoit; Young, Philip R; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Ramburan, Viresh; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F; Vivier, Melané A


    The wine industry in South Africa is over three centuries old and over the last decade has reemerged as a significant competitor in world wine markets. The Institute for Wine Biotechnology (IWBT) was established in partnership with the Department of Viticulture and Oenology at Stellenbosch University to foster basic fundamental research in the wine sciences leading to applications in the broader wine and grapevine industries. This review focuses on the different research programmes of the Institute (grapevine, yeast and bacteria biotechnology programmes, and chemical-analytical research), commercialisation activities (SunBio) and new initiatives to integrate the various research disciplines. An important focus of future research is the Wine Science Research Niche Area programme, which connects the different research thrusts of the IWBT and of several research partners in viticulture, oenology, food science and chemistry. This 'Functional Wine-omics' programme uses a systems biology approach to wine-related organisms. The data generated within the programme will be integrated with other data sets from viticulture, oenology, analytical chemistry and the sensory sciences through chemometrics and other statistical tools. The aim of the programme is to model aspects of the wine making process, from the vineyard to the finished product.

  8. The emerging CHO systems biology era: harnessing the ‘omics revolution for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Lewis, Nathan


    into mathematical models that describe CHO phenotypes will provide crucial biotechnology insights. As ‘omics technologies and computational systems biology mature, genome-scale approaches will lead to major innovations in cell line development and metabolic engineering, thereby improving protein production......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary factories for biopharmaceuticals because of their capacity to correctly fold and post-translationally modify recombinant proteins compatible with humans. New opportunities are arising to enhance these cell factories, especially since the CHO-K1 cell...... line was recently sequenced. Now, the CHO systems biology era is underway. Critical ‘omics data sets, including proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, fluxomics, and glycomics, are emerging, allowing the elucidation of the molecular basis of CHO cell physiology. The incorporation of these data sets...

  9. Endo-cannabinoids system and the toxicity of cannabinoids with a biotechnological approach. (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Khan, Fazlullah; Maqbool, Faheem; Momtaz, Saeideh; Ismail Hassan, Fatima; Nobakht-Haghighi, Navid; Rahimifard, Mahban; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    Cannabinoids have shown diverse and critical effects on the body systems, which alter the physiological functions. Synthetic cannabinoids are comparatively innovative misuse drugs with respect to their nature of synthesis. Synthetic cannabinoids therapy in healthy, chain smokers, and alcoholic individuals cause damage to the immune and nervous system, eventually leading to intoxication throughout the body. Relevant studies were retrieved using major electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The extensive use of Cannabis Sativa L. ( C. Sativa ) and its derivatives/analogues such as the nonpsychoactive dimethyl heptyl homolog (CBG-DMH), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) amongst juveniles and adults have been enhanced in recent years. Cannabinoids play a crucial role in the induction of respiratory, reproductive, immune and carcinogenic effects; however, potential data about mutagenic and developmental effects are still insufficient. The possible toxicity associated with the prolong use of cannabinoids acts as a tumor promoter in animal models and humans. Particular synthetic cannabinoids and analogues have low affinity for CB1 or CB2 receptors, while some synthetic members like Δ9-THC have high affinity towards these receptors. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have a direct or indirect association with acute and long-term toxicity. To reduce/attenuate cannabinoids toxicity, pharmaceutical biotechnology and cloning methods have opened a new window to develop cannabinoids encoding the gene tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase. Plant revolution and regeneration hindered genetic engineering in C. Sativa. The genetic culture suspension of C. Sativa can be transmuted by the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to overcome its toxicity. The main aim of the present review was to collect evidence of the endo-cannabinoid system (ECS), cannabinoids toxicity, and the potential biotechnological approach of cannabinoids synthesis.

  10. A total synthesis of (-)-hemiasterlin using N-Bts methodology. (United States)

    Vedejs, E; Kongkittingam, C


    A total synthesis of (-)-hemiasterlin has been accomplished in nine steps from 25(8) (>35% yield overall). An improved enantiocontrolled route to the tetramethyltryptophan subunit 32 was developed using an asymmetric Strecker synthesis (five steps, 50% yield from 25), and the dipeptide 22 was prepared in seven steps, 37% yield from valinol. The synthesis exploits the high reactivity of a Bts-protected amino acid chloride in the difficult peptide coupling of sterically hindered amino acid residues 18 and 20 to form 21 (70%, recrystallized) and also uses N-Bts intermediates for the high-yielding N-methylations of 14 and 31. In addition, the Bts-protected di-tert-butyl N-acylimidodicarbonate 33 is shown to undergo efficient coupling with 22 to form 34 (97% in the coupling step; 79% over the activation; coupling sequence from 32).

  11. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a protein expression system for pharmaceutical and biotechnological proteins. (United States)

    Griesbeck, Christoph; Kobl, Iris; Heitzer, Markus


    Recombinant proteins have become more and more important for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Although various systems for protein expression have been developed, there is an increasing demand for inexpensive methods of large-scale production. Eukaryotic algae could serve as a novel option for the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, as they can be cultivated in a cheap and easy manner and grown to high cell densities. Being a model organism, the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied intensively over the last decades and offers now a complete toolset for genetic manipulation. Recently, the successful expression of several proteins with pharmaceutical relevance has been reported from the nuclear and the chloroplastic genome of this alga, demonstrating its ability for biotechnological applications.

  12. Modern Biotechnology in China (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  13. Resultaten boomkorsurvey 2013: BTS met onderzoeksvaartuigen Isis en Tridens (interview met Ingeborg de Boois)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.


    Van begin augustus tot half september heeft IMARES de boomkorsurvey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de onderzoeksschepen Isis en Tridens. Op 29 maart 2014 wordt een bijeenkomst georganiseerd voor geinteresseerden, waar de resultaten van zowel de BTS als de bedrijfssurvey gepresenteerd worden. De BTS wordt

  14. Green systems biology - From single genomes, proteomes and metabolomes to ecosystems research and biotechnology. (United States)

    Weckwerth, Wolfram


    Plants have shaped our human life form from the outset. With the emerging recognition of world population feeding, global climate change and limited energy resources with fossil fuels, the relevance of plant biology and biotechnology is becoming dramatically important. One key issue is to improve plant productivity and abiotic/biotic stress resistance in agriculture due to restricted land area and increasing environmental pressures. Another aspect is the development of CO(2)-neutral plant resources for fiber/biomass and biofuels: a transition from first generation plants like sugar cane, maize and other important nutritional crops to second and third generation energy crops such as Miscanthus and trees for lignocellulose and algae for biomass and feed, hydrogen and lipid production. At the same time we have to conserve and protect natural diversity and species richness as a foundation of our life on earth. Here, biodiversity banks are discussed as a foundation of current and future plant breeding research. Consequently, it can be anticipated that plant biology and ecology will have more indispensable future roles in all socio-economic aspects of our life than ever before. We therefore need an in-depth understanding of the physiology of single plant species for practical applications as well as the translation of this knowledge into complex natural as well as anthropogenic ecosystems. Latest developments in biological and bioanalytical research will lead into a paradigm shift towards trying to understand organisms at a systems level and in their ecosystemic context: (i) shotgun and next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, (ii) genome-scale molecular analysis using OMICS technologies and (iii) computer-assisted analysis, modeling and interpretation of biological data. Systems biology combines these molecular data, genetic evolution, environmental cues and species interaction with the understanding, modeling and prediction of active

  15. Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Sarah R. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Rodemeyer, Michael [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Garfinkel, Michele S. [EMBO, Heidelberg (Germany); Friedman, Robert M. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)


    Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options Sarah R. Carter, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute; Michael Rodemeyer, J.D., University of Virginia; Michele S. Garfinkel, Ph.D., EMBO; Robert M. Friedman, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute In recent years, a range of genetic engineering techniques referred to as “synthetic biology” has significantly expanded the tool kit available to scientists and engineers, providing them with far greater capabilities to engineer organisms than previous techniques allowed. The field of synthetic biology includes the relatively new ability to synthesize long pieces of DNA from chemicals, as well as improved methods for genetic manipulation and design of genetic pathways to achieve more precise control of biological systems. These advances will help usher in a new generation of genetically engineered microbes, plants, and animals. The JCVI Policy Center team, along with researchers at the University of Virginia and EMBO, examined how well the current U.S. regulatory system for genetically engineered products will handle the near-term introduction of organisms engineered using synthetic biology. In particular, the focus was on those organisms intended to be used or grown directly in the environment, outside of a contained facility. The study concludes that the U.S. regulatory agencies have adequate legal authority to address most, but not all, potential environmental, health and safety concerns posed by these organisms. Such near-term products are likely to represent incremental changes rather than a marked departure from previous genetically engineered organisms. However, the study also identified two key challenges for the regulatory system, which are detailed in the report. First, USDA’s authority over genetically engineered plants depends on the use of an older engineering technique that is no longer necessary for many applications. The shift to synthetic biology and other newer genetic

  16. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)


    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  17. The socio-economic landscape of biotechnology in Spain. A comparative study using the innovation system concept. (United States)

    Díaz, V; Muñoz, E; de los Monteros, J Espinosa; Senker, Jacqueline


    Biotechnology is becoming a crucial factor for the innovation strategies of the industrialised countries. Thus, the analysis of the sector is gaining relevance for the identification of the technological strength and potential of a country (or region) in a context of globalisation. A specific national case study may serve for more general comparative analyses. We have selected the case of Spain as illustrative of the complexity and differences existing in Europe. By using the analytical framework of the "national systems of innovation" concept, we have performed a multistep analysis of the biotechnology sector in Spain, focussing first on regions of Madrid and Cataluña which together account for more than 50% of the sector in Spain. The firms in both regions have followed a common strategy based on diversification and investment in R&D and innovation, so as to be able to compete in an international and competitive environment. There are, however, some interesting differences between the two subsectors; the one from Cataluña being more based on industrial traditions, and the one from Madrid characterised by the emergence of more specialised firms. The study has been extended to the remainder of Spanish firms for comparative purposes. The case of Spain is illustrative of the divergences existing in the biotechnology sector in Europe. A comparison is made with the structural and organisational characteristics of the biotechnology sector in several European countries. It shows that there is diversity in the pattern of commercialisation between countries and within regions of countries. Understanding these differences may assist the design of appropriate policies to promote the development of biotechnology in Europe.

  18. A soil biotechnology system for wastewater treatment: technical, hygiene, environmental LCA and economic aspects. (United States)

    Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Singh, Anju; Chubilleau, Caroline; Starkl, Markus; Bawa, Itee


    Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a green engineering approach for wastewater treatment and recycling. Five SBT units located in the Mumbai region were under consideration of which holistic assessment of two SBT plants was carried out considering its technical, environmental and economic aspects and was compared with published research of other three. LCA has been done to evaluate the environmental impacts of construction and operation phase of SBT. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal of more than 90% can be achieved using this technology. Also, the nutrient removal proficiency (nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, TKN, total nitrogen and phosphates) of this technique is good. On the other hand, SBT has low annual operation and maintenance cost, comparable to land-based systems and lower than conventional or advanced technologies. From the life cycle impact assessment, the main contributors for overall impact from the plant were identified as electricity consumption, discharges of COD, P-PO 4 3- and N-NH 4 + and disposal of sludge. The construction phase was found to have significantly more impact than the operation phase of the plant. This study suggests plant I is not relatively as efficient enough regarding sanitation. SBT provides several benefits over other conventional technologies for wastewater treatment. It is based on a bio-conversion process and is practically maintenance free. It does not produce any odorous bio-sludge and consumes the least energy.

  19. Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI) (United States)


    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Module (TCM) is the stationary bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures grow. However, for the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI), color polystyrene beads are used to measure the effectiveness of various mixing procedures. Uniform mixing is a crucial component of CBOSS experiments involving the immune response of human lymphoid cell suspensions. In this picture, the beads are trapped in the injection port shortly after injection. Swirls of beads indicate, event to the naked eye, the contents of the TCM are not fully mixed. The beads are similar in size and density to human lymphoid cells. The goal is to develop procedures that are both convenient for the flight crew and are optimal in providing uniform and reproducible mixing of all components, including cells. The average bead density in a well mixed TCM will be uniform, with no bubbles, and it will be measured using the absorption of light


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce


    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  1. Road to the future of systems biotechnology: CRISPR-Cas-mediated metabolic engineering for recombinant protein production. (United States)

    Roointan, Amir; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

    The rising potential for CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing has revolutionized our strategies in basic and practical bioengineering research. It provides a predictable and precise method for genome modification in a robust and reproducible fashion. Emergence of systems biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches coupled with CRISPR-Cas technology could change the future of cell factories to possess some new features which have not been found naturally. We have discussed the possibility and versatile potentials of CRISPR-Cas technology for metabolic engineering of a recombinant host for heterologous protein production. We describe the mechanisms involved in this metabolic engineering approach and present the diverse features of its application in biotechnology and protein production.

  2. The moral tollbooth: a method that makes use of the patent system to address ethical concerns in biotechnology. (United States)

    Gold, E Richard; Caulfield, Timothy A


    Patents granted for biotechnological innovations continue to cause social and ethical dilemmas. For example, much controversy surrounds the patenting of genes that predispose to breast-cancer, and in the USA the debate continues about whether or not stem-cell technology should be accessible to all. In this report, we argue that some of these concerns can be addressed within national patent systems. In particular, we examine the "order public or morality" clause that exists in most national patent procedures. Furthermore, we propose that patents for inventions that present social and ethical questions should be subject to suspension by an independent, transparent, and responsible tribunal made up of specialists in ethics, research, and economics. This suspension should be reversible so that, when the social or ethical concerns have been addressed in an appropriate manner, the suspension can be lifted. Although controversial, such a flexible mechanism would assist governments and industry in enhancing public support for patents in the biotechnology area.

  3. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.


    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  4. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems (United States)

    Anderson, William A.


    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  5. Is there any correlation between the ATS, BTS, ERS and GOLD COPD's severity scales and the frequency of hospital admissions? (United States)

    Tsoumakidou, Maria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Voulgaraki, Olga; Mitrouska, Ioanna; Chrysofakis, Georgios; Samiou, Maria; Siafakas, Nikolaos M


    Disagreement exists between different COPD guidelines considering classification of severity of the disease. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is any correlation between severity scales of various COPD guidelines (ATS, BTS, ERS and GOLD) and the frequency of hospitalisations for COPD exacerbation. A cohort of 67 COPD patients (65 male 2 female, 45 ex-smokers, 22 current smokers, aged (69.4 +/- 1.1)) was recruited from those admitted in the pulmonary clinic of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete for an acute exacerbation. Lung function tests and arterial blood gases analyses were performed during stable conditions at a scheduled visit 2 months after discharge. The patients were stratified using the FEV1 percent-predicted measurement of this visit into mild, moderate and severe in accordance to the ATS, BTS, ERS and GOLD scales of severity. The number of hospitalisations for acute exacerbation was recorded for the following 18 months. A total of 165 exacerbations were recorded. The correlation between the severity of COPD and the number of hospitalisations per year was statistically significant using the GOLD classification system of severity (P = 0.02 and r = 0.294). A weak correlation was also found between the number of hospitalisations and the ERS classification system (P = 0.05 and r = 0.24). No statistically significant correlation was found between the number of hospitalisations and the ATS or BTS severity scales. In conclusion the GOLD and ERS classification systems of severity of COPD correlated to exacerbations causing hospitalisation. The same was not true for the ATS and BTS severity scales. Better correlation was achieved with the GOLD scale.

  6. Commercialization of animal biotechnology. (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B


    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. A cognitive mobile BTS solution with software-defined radioelectric sensing. (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Alonso, Javier Vales; García, Francisco Quiñoy; Costas, Sergio; Pillado, Marcos; Castaño, Francisco Javier González; Sánchez, Manuel García; Valcarce, Roberto López; Bravo, Cristina López


    Private communications inside large vehicles such as ships may be effectively provided using standard cellular systems. In this paper we propose a new solution based on software-defined radio with electromagnetic sensing support. Software-defined radio allows low-cost developments and, potentially, added-value services not available in commercial cellular networks. The platform of reference, OpenBTS, only supports single-channel cells. Our proposal, however, has the ability of changing BTS channel frequency without disrupting ongoing communications. This ability should be mandatory in vehicular environments, where neighbouring cell configurations may change rapidly, so a moving cell must be reconfigured in real-time to avoid interferences. Full details about frequency occupancy sensing and the channel reselection procedure are provided in this paper. Moreover, a procedure for fast terminal detection is proposed. This may be decisive in emergency situations, e.g., if someone falls overboard. Different tests confirm the feasibility of our proposal and its compatibility with commercial GSM terminals.

  8. BRUTUS and its paralogs, BTS LIKE1 and BTS LIKE2, encode important negative regulators of the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Hindt, Maria N; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Pivarski, Kara L; Punshon, Tracy; Baxter, Ivan; Salt, David E; Guerinot, Mary Lou


    Iron (Fe) is required for plant health, but it can also be toxic when present in excess. Therefore, Fe levels must be tightly controlled. The Arabidopsis thaliana E3 ligase BRUTUS (BTS) is involved in the negative regulation of the Fe deficiency response and we show here that the two A. thaliana BTS paralogs, BTS LIKE1 (BTSL1) and BTS LIKE2 (BTSL2) encode proteins that act redundantly as negative regulators of the Fe deficiency response. Loss of both of these E3 ligases enhances tolerance to Fe deficiency. We further generated a triple mutant with loss of both BTS paralogs and a partial loss of BTS expression that exhibits even greater tolerance to Fe-deficient conditions and increased Fe accumulation without any resulting Fe toxicity effects. Finally, we identified a mutant carrying a novel missense mutation of BTS that exhibits an Fe deficiency response in the root when grown under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions, leading to Fe toxicity when plants are grown under Fe-sufficient conditions.

  9. Avian Biotechnology. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki


    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate new individuals through differentiation, maturation and fertilization. This means that the manipulation of PGCs is directly linked to the manipulation of individuals, making PGCs attractive target cells in the animal biotechnology field. A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. Following the development of a technique for transplantation, PGCs have become central to avian biotechnology, in contrast to the use of embryo manipulation and subsequent transfer to foster mothers, as in mammalian biotechnology. Today, avian PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced manipulation techniques, including cell purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture in vitro, have enabled the establishment of genetically modified poultry lines and ex-situ conservation of poultry genetic resources. This chapter introduces the principles, history, and procedures of producing avian germline chimeras by transplantation of PGCs, and the current status of avian germline modification as well as germplasm cryopreservation. Other fundamental avian reproductive technologies are described, including artificial insemination and embryo culture, and perspectives of industrial applications in agriculture and pharmacy are considered, including poultry productivity improvement, egg modification, disease resistance impairment and poultry gene "pharming" as well as gene banking.

  10. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender. (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O


    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  11. Integrated Omics in Systems Biology: The New Frontier for Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.


    Environmental biotechnology encompasses a wide range of characterization, monitoring and control for bioenergy and bioremediation technologies that are based on biological processes. Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and genomics are leading to exciting new and cost effective ways to monitor and manipulate the environment and potentially produce bioenergy fuels as we also cleanup the environment. Indeed, our ability to sequence an entire microbial genome in just a few hours is leading to similar breakthroughs in characterizing proteomes, metabolomes, phenotypes, and fluxes for organisms, populations, and communities. Understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in subsurface environments has tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of biogeochemistry and the potential for making biofuel breakthroughs. Monitoring techniques that inventory and monitor terminal electron acceptors and electron donors, enzyme probes that measure functional activity in the environment, functional genomic microarrays, phylogenetic microarrays, metabolomics, proteomics, and quantitative PCR are also being rapidly adapted for studies in environmental biotechnology. Integration of all of these new high throughput techniques using the latest advances in bioinformatics and modeling will enable break-through science in environmental biotechnology. A review of these techniques with examples from field studies and lab simulations will be discussed.

  12. Development of biotechnology in India. (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S


    technology, industrial biotechnology, biochemical engineering and associated activities such as creation of biotechnology information system and national repositories. Current status of intellectual property rights has also been discussed. Contribution to the India's advances in biotechnology by the industry, excepting a limited few, has been far below expectations. The review concludes with some cautious notes.

  13. 75 FR 61413 - Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation... (United States)


    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has developed an audit standard for its biotechnology compliance assistance program. The audit standard, which was made available in draft form for comment in an earlier notice, will be used by participating regulated entities to develop and implement sound management practices, thus enhancing compliance with the regulatory requirements for field trials and movement of genetically engineered organisms in 7 CFR part 340. We are also making available a document containing our evaluation of the comments we received on the draft audit standard.

  14. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L


    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P BTS (P BTS. A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of Mr 21,000 appeared after 10 days in sperm incubated in BTS, and was identified as a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, modifications in viability, motility, CTC fluorescence patterns, and sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation were apparent during sperm storage in extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  15. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service or...

  16. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale


    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  17. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology. (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup


    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 14 CFR Sec. 1-1 - Applicability of system of accounts and reports. (United States)


    .... Each large certificated air carrier shall keep its books of account, records and memoranda and make reports to the BTS in accordance with this system of accounts and reports. The BTS reserves the right...

  19. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Apel, Andrew


    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology. (United States)

    Wink, Michael


    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan


    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  2. Insulin-releasing action of the novel antidiabetic agent BTS 67 582. (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Flatt, P R; Bailey, C J


    1. BTS 67582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is a novel antidiabetic agent with a short-acting insulin-releasing effect. This study examined its mode of action in the clonal B-cell line BRIN-BD11. 2. BTS 67582 increased insulin release from BRIN-BD11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (10[-8] to 10[-4] M) at both non-stimulating (1.1 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) concentrations of glucose. 3. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated the insulin-releasing effect of a depolarizing concentration of K+ (30 mM), whereas the K+ channel openers pinacidil (400 microM) and diazoxide (300 microM) inhibited BTS 67582-induced release. 4. Suppression of Ca+ channel activity with verapamil (20 microM) reduced the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 5. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated insulin release induced by amino acids (10 mM), and enhanced the combined stimulant effects of glucose plus either the fatty acid palmitate (10 mM), or agents which raise intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations (25 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine), or the cholinoceptor agonist carbachol (100 microM). 6. Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release by adrenaline or noradrenaline (10 microM) was partially reversed by BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 7. These data suggest that the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 involves regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and Ca2+ influx, and that the drug augments the stimulant effects of nutrient insulin secretagogues and agents which enhance adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. BTS 67582 may also exert insulin-releasing effects independently of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

  3. Oxidoreductive capability of boar sperm mitochondria in fresh semen and during their preservation in BTS extender. (United States)

    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kram, Andrzej


    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of dilution and liquid-preservation of boar sperm on oxidoreductive capability of their mitochondria. The semen was diluted with BTS extender produced from water purified by destillation or by reverse osmosis. The spermatozoa were stored over a four-day period at 16-18 degrees C. The function of sperm mitochondria was assessed using the screening cytochemical test for NADH-dependent oxidoreductases (diaphorase/NADH, related to flavoprotein). Morphological assessment of cytochemical reaction was carried out using a light microscope. The intensity of the reaction was evaluated by means of a computer image analysing system (Quantimet 600S), measuring the integrated optical density (IOD) and mean optical density (MOD) of the reaction product (formazans) occurring in the sperm midpieces. In the non-diluted semen, intensive cytochemical reaction throughout the length of the sperm midpiece was observed. Furthermore, spermatozoa with the intensive reaction displayed the high optical density values. After dilution the semen with two variants of experimental extender, and as the conservation time expired, the cytochemical reaction was less intensive. Moreover, the absence of formazan deposits in various parts of the sperm midpiece was also noted. These morphological features corresponded to low values of optical density. These findings suggest that the dilution of semen and the time of sperm preservation may be critical factors that handicap energy metabolism of sperm mitochondria. The type of water used in preparing BTS extender does not have any significant effect on the oxidoreductive capability of sperm boar mitochondria.

  4. Speech Quality Measurement of GSM Infrastructure Built on USRP N210 and OpenBTS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fajkus


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology for speech quality measuring in GSM networks using Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ. The paper brings results of practical measurement of own GSM network build on the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP N210 hardware and OpenBTS software. This OpenBTS station was installed in open terrain, and the speech quality was measured from different distances from the transmitter. The limit parameters of OpenBTS station with USRP N210 were obtained.

  5. National BTS bronchiectasis audit 2012: is the quality standard being adhered to in adult secondary care? (United States)

    Hill, Adam T; Routh, Chris; Welham, Sally


    A significant step towards improving care of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was the creation of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) national guidelines and the quality standard. A BTS bronchiectasis audit was conducted between 1 October and 30 November 2012, in adult patients with bronchiectasis attending secondary care, against the BTS quality standard. Ninety-eight institutions took part, submitting a total of 3147 patient records. The audit highlighted the variable adoption of the quality standard. It will allow the host institutions to benchmark against UK figures and drive quality improvement programmes to promote the quality standard and improve patient care.

  6. Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and genome-scale modeling. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E


    Eukaryotic cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells, yeast, and insect cells, are invaluable hosts for the production of many recombinant proteins. With the advent of genomic resources, one can now leverage genome-scale computational modeling of cellular pathways to rationally engineer eukaryotic host cells. Genome-scale models of metabolism include all known biochemical reactions occurring in a specific cell. By describing these mathematically and using tools such as flux balance analysis, the models can simulate cell physiology and provide targets for cell engineering that could lead to enhanced cell viability, titer, and productivity. Here we review examples in which metabolic models in eukaryotic cell cultures have been used to rationally select targets for genetic modification, improve cellular metabolic capabilities, design media supplementation, and interpret high-throughput omics data. As more comprehensive models of metabolism and other cellular processes are developed for eukaryotic cell culture, these will enable further exciting developments in cell line engineering, thus accelerating recombinant protein production and biotechnology in the years to come. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 75 FR 177 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Confidential Close Call Reporting System (United States)


    ... Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... system is an important component of BTS's responsibility to the transportation community and is authorized in BTS statutory authority (49 U.S.C. 111(c)(1) and (2) and 49 U.S.C. 111(c)(5)(j)). The Federal...

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana


    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova


    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  10. Report to the Congress: Control of the Brown Tree Snake (BTS) (United States)


    3. BROWN TREE SNAKE POPULATION CONTROL Separate from the BTS Interdiction Program, DoD funds population control and reduction in specific areas...United States Department of Defense Report to the Congress Control of the Brown Tree Snake (BTS) Submitted by: The comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3

  11. Surat Elektronik sebagai Media Komunikasi Data pada Sistem Pemantauan Bahan Bakar pada Sistem Catu Daya BTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconi Falconi


    Full Text Available Base Transceiver Station (BTS merupakan seperangkat radio komunikasi tetap yang digunakan dalam jaringan selular. Untuk mempertahankan kinerja perangkat BTS agar tetap dapat bekerja walaupun suplai catu daya dari PLN terhenti, pada beberapa lokasi BTS ditempatkan pembangkit listrik tenaga solar. Sehingga pada saat PLN mati, maka kebutuhan listrik BTS akan disuplai oleh pembangkit listrik tersebut. Karena lokasi BTS menyebar, diperlukan petugas yang banyak atau waktu yang lama untuk dapat melakukan pengecekan kondisi solar secara keseluruhan. Sehingga sewaktu-waktu pembangkit listrik tidak dapat bekerja saat  dibutuhkan  dikarenakan  solar  habis.  Sistem  pemantau kondisi solar pada sistem catu daya Base Transceiver Station (BTS merupakan sebuah sistem pemantau yang berfungsi melakukan pencatatan ketinggian level solar pada tangki secara periodik dan terus menerus. Ketinggian level solar dikonversi kedalam status normal, minor, mayor dan kritis. Status inilah yang akan disimpan ke dalam basis data yang ada pada computer server. Dengan adanya sistem pemantau ini, maka untuk mengetahui kondisi solar pada tangki sebuah stasiun BTS, seorang petugas pemeliharaana dapat melakukannya tanpa perlu lagi mendatangi lokasi BTS, tetapi cukup memantaunya dari aplikasi pada komputer klien. Sistem yang dibangun terdiri dari sensor ultrasonik PING yang bertugas mendeteksi level solar dan mengumpankan hasilnya ke mikrokontroler ATMEGA8535. Mikrokontroler bertugas untuk mengkonversi sinyal analog yang dihasilkan sensor kedalam bentuk sinyal digital untuk kemudian dikirim ke komputer server melalui komunikasi serial. Aplikasi yang ada pada komputer server akan menerima data tersebut dan menyimpannya pada basis data. Data-data tersebut sewaktu-waktu akan dipanggil kembali apabila ada permintaan dari komputer klien untuk kemudian di kirim melaui surat elektronik. Dari hasil pengujian yang dilakukan pada tangki solar yang dimiliki oleh PT. Berca Hardayaperkasa

  12. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana


    Full Text Available The development of molecular biology and molecular genetics, especially of the recombinant DNA technology enabled improvement of experimental methods that provide manipulation within a cell-free system, such as cell and tissue cultures. Such methods resulted in the development of different new technologies with specific properties in relation to the conventional definitions. According to PERSLEY and lantin (2000 the following components are essential for the contemporary biotechnology: (i genomics - a molecular characterization of all genes and gene products of an organism (ii bioinformatics - the assembly of data from genomic analysis into accessible forms; (iii transformation - the introduction of genes controlling a trait of interest into a genome of a desired organism (micro organisms, plants, animal systems. By the application of cotemporary biotechnology new methods in the field of diagnostic are developed such as rapid and more accurate identification of the presence and absence of genes in the genome of the organism of interest (identification of pathogens prenatal diagnostics, molecular markers assisted breeding for plants, etc. The traits of an organism are determined by its genetic material, i.e. by a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. watson and crick (1953 were the first scientists to describe the structure of DNA as a double-stranded helix. Higher organisms contain a set of linear DNA molecules - chromosomes and a full set of chromosomes of an organism is a genome. Each genome is divided into a series of functional units, i.e. genes. The traits of an organism depend on genes, but their expression depends not only on genes but also on many other factors, including whether a gene, controlling the trait, expresses, specific cells in which it expresses and specially the mode by which the gene and its product interact with the environment. A special aspect within the application of biotechnology occurs as an interaction of a

  13. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor


    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  14. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  15. FY 1997 report on the research study on the effect of the active use of bio-technology on energy and social systems; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio-technology no katsuyo ni yoru energy shakai system ni oyobosu koka no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For construction of a sustainable society by active use of bio-technology, a research study was made on the current state of active use of bio-technology for every industrial or social field, and the basic recognition and orientation for practice and diffusion of bio-technology. The previous typical examples of the effect of bio-technology on energy and social systems were evaluated from not only an affirmative viewpoint but also a compensatory viewpoint. Based on these examples, promising features of bio-technology and measures for active use of such features were showed for the future energy and social systems from a technological viewpoint. As a scenario for sustainable development of a society, some approaches and values about collection of rare resources, agriculture based on mass circulation, and recurrence to high-protein traditional foods such as fermented food were showed for balanced development of environment, population, and resources including energy and food. 8 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. The impact of industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick


    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  17. White House Announcement on the Regulation of Biotechnology (United States)

    The White House posted a blog unveiling documents as part of the Administration’s continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of the EPA, FDA in evaluating new biotechnologies.

  18. Sectoral variations in national systems of innovation : the case of telecommunication and modern biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, H.G.M.


    National Systems of Innovation systems can be defined as the set of organisational, institutional and meta-institutional arrangements for the generation, diffusion and application of scientific and technological knowledge operating in a specific country. This concept was developed in the late 1980s,

  19. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study. (United States)

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P


    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  20. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... Results of the study revealed that some of the institutions have been involved in biotechnology research for the past two decades but have only significantly invested on bio-processing (58.8%) and cell and ...

  1. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 18, 2009 ... farmers on the potentials of biotechnology for food security is expedient. Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, ... security, increases in agricultural productivity is required. Furthermore, Bunders et al. (1996) had earlier ..... This may be as a result of “publish or perish” syndrome in the universities.

  2. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios


    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Biphasic insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 in rats. (United States)

    Storey, D A; Bailey, C J


    BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is being developed as a short-acting anti-diabetic insulin secretagogue. The effect of BTS 67 582 on the phasic pattern of insulin release was assessed in anaesthetized normal rats by measuring arterial plasma insulin concentrations while arterial glucose concentrations were fixed at 6, 8.5 and 12.5 mM. Intravenous BTS 67 582 (10 mg kg(-1)) induced an immediate but transient increase in insulin concentrations which declined by 10 min (first phase). This was followed by a smaller but sustained increase in insulin concentrations (second phase). The increment from basal to peak insulin release (0-2 min) was independent of glucose, but the first phase was maintained for longer and the second phase was greater at the highest concentration of glucose (12.5 mM). BTS 67 582 also extended the first-phase insulin response to a standard intravenous glucose challenge and enhanced the rate of glucose disappearance by approximately 12%. Thus BTS 67 582 causes biphasic stimulation of insulin release and augments the insulin-releasing effect of glucose.

  4. Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Ball, A J; Flatt, P R


    Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1, 1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100 - 400 microM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (PBTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 microM BTS 67 582 or 200 microM tolbutamide at 12 - 18 h (PBTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 microM BTS 67 582 or 100 microM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 microM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (PBTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents.

  5. Sectoral variations in national systems of innovation : the case of telecommunication and modern biotechnology


    Oosterwijk, H.G.M.


    National Systems of Innovation systems can be defined as the set of organisational, institutional and meta-institutional arrangements for the generation, diffusion and application of scientific and technological knowledge operating in a specific country. This concept was developed in the late 1980s, and has diffused remarkably fast in academic circles and among policy makers who used its framework to understand differences between economies and the various ways to support technological change...

  6. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas


    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control & optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas


    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Mantalaris, Athanasios


    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24688682

  9. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan


    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotechnology Research Requirements for Aeronautical Systems through the Year 2000. Volume 2. Proceedings of Biotechnology Research Requirements Study Session, 4-8 January 1982 (United States)


    showing area, direction and intensity of activity. This technology shows promise of predicting dyslexia in pre-school children ; there is no theoretical...instances, mathematical models to aid or replace such simulation exist, e.g., for many kinds of piloting, adequate engineering models of both pilot...To develop and evaluate mathematical models of the human circadian timing system which can be used to predict the rate of adaptation after shifts

  11. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops. (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra


    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  12. Application of Biotechnology to Construct a Sustainable Biodiesel Production System on Wastewater (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhuan; Xu, Erni; Liu, Jianqiang; Ruan, Roger; Fu, Guiming


    The potential of microalgae biodiesel is unlimited. The ingenious combination of microalgae biomass exploitation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and CO2 fixation may gestate the ultimate hope for solving the problem of liquid alternative fuel. However, the municipal wastewater has some characteristics, such as high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, low C/N ratio, fluctuation of loading rate, toxicity of heavy metal, etc. To overcome these problems, studies are currently underway in our laboratory. In this paper, an idea of constructing a sustainable biodiesel production system from microalgae on wastewater is assumed. The system could realize CO2 fixation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and production of high value-added biodiesel by microalgae. Firstly, municipal wastewater is used as the cultivation media and CO2 as gaseous fertilizer for mass culture of Shuihua microalgae. So with the harvest of large quantities of low-price Shuihua microalgae, the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals can be removed from the wastewater, and the emission of greenhouse gas can be reduced. Secondly, try to breed a high-oil content engineering microalgae by heterotrophic cultivation which could realize high-density growth through the conjunction of the advanced methods of fermentation engineering with the microalgae breeding technology. Finally, make the high-oil content engineering microalgae cultivated on the decomposed Shuihua microalgae cells, and try to make the high-oil content engineering microalgae grow rapidly in the initial stage and start oil accumulation when nitrogen is exhausted by controlling the conditions of fermentation.

  13. BTS 72664-- a novel CNS drug with potential anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antimigraine properties. (United States)

    Smith, S L; Thompson, K S; Sargent, B J; Heal, D J


    BTS 72664, (R)-7-[1-(4-chlorophenoxy)]ethyl]-1,2,4-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidine, was identified as a drug development candidate from a research program designed to discover novel, broad-spectrum, non-sedative anticonvulsant drugs. BTS 72664 antagonized bicuculline (BIC)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions with ED(50) values of 1.9 and 47.5 mg/kg p.o., respectively. In rodents, it has a wide spectrum of activity preventing seizures induced by picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol, i.c.v. 4-aminopyridine or NMDA, and audiogenic seizures in DBA-2 mice and GEPR-9 rats. BTS 72664 was also effective in preventing convulsions in amygdala-kindled rats The lack of sedative potential was predicted on the basis of wide separation between ED(50) in anticonvulsant models and TD(50) for motor impairment in mice in rotating rod and inverted horizontal grid tests. BTS 72664 is likely to produce its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing chloride currents through picrotoxin-sensitive chloride channels, and by weak inhibition of Na(+) and NMDA channels. It does not act, however, at the benzodiazepine binding site. In addition to its potential use in the treatment of epilepsy BTS 72664 may be useful in the treatment of stroke. At 50 mg/kg p.o. x 4, given to rats at 12 hourly intervals, starting at 15 min after permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA), it reduced cerebral infarct size by 31% (measured at 2 days after insult) and accelerated recovery in a functional behavioral model. BTS 72664 prevented increases in extraneuronal concentrations of glutamate, glycine and serine brain levels induced by a cortical insult to rats (cf. cortical spreading depression). It may, therefore, have also antimigraine activity.

  14. Cloning of B cell-specific membrane tetraspanning molecule BTS possessing B cell proliferation-inhibitory function. (United States)

    Suenaga, Tadahiro; Arase, Hisashi; Yamasaki, Sho; Kohno, Masayuki; Yokosuka, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Arata; Hattori, Takamichi; Saito, Takashi


    Lymphocyte proliferation is regulated by signals through antigen receptors, co-stimulatory receptors, and other positive and negative modulators. Several membrane tetraspanning molecules are also involved in the regulation of lymphocyte growth and death. We cloned a new B cell-specific tetraspanning (BTS) membrane molecule, which is similar to CD20 in terms of expression, structure and function. BTS is specifically expressed in the B cell line and its expression is increased after the pre-B cell stage. BTS is expressed in intracellular granules and on the cell surface. Overexpression of BTS in immature B cell lines induces growth retardation through inhibition of cell cycle progression and cell size increase without inducing apoptosis. This inhibitory function is mediated predominantly by the N terminus of BTS. The development of mature B cells is inhibited in transgenic mice expressing BTS, suggesting that BTS is involved in the in vivo regulation of B cells. These results indicate that BTS plays a role in the regulation of cell division and B cell growth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar


    Full Text Available AbstractA research on Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People Arround The Base Tranceiver Stations (BTSs in Jakarta and Bandung was conducted to study the influence of BTS existence on the residents’ mental health condition.The research design was cross-sectional The number of sample was 655 people scattered in 10 BTSs. The data was collected through interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI questionnaires, conducted by researchers of Center for Public Health Intervention Technology, NIHRD. Data processing and analysis were performed bivariate between the house’s distances from BTSs and the occurrences of anxiety disorder. The results showed that 64,8% of respondents in Bandung and 57,8% of respondents in Jakarta have a general health complaints such as dizziness/headaches, cough and fever, and suffering from degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus (DM. Specially for mental health, there is a significant association between respondents’ anxiety disorders and the distance of their house from the BTSs (p<0,05. The proportion of respondents suffering from anxiety disorder is higher for respondents whose house is located less than 100 meters from the BTSs than those who have their house at a greater distance (over 100 meters. The respondents living near BTSs in Bandung and Jakarta have general health problems. The anxiety disorder is most likely triggered by the BTSs existence near their house.Keywords : Base Transceiver Station, Radiation, Anxiety DisorderAbstrakTelah dilakukan Penelitian Pengaruh Medan Elektromagnetik Terhadap Kesehatan Masyarakat Di Sekitar Menara Pemancar Telepon Seluler (BTS di Jakarta dan Bandung, Disain dari penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan jumlah sampel 655 orang yang tersebar di sekitar 10 BTS. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara menggunakan kuesioner Mini International of Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI oleh peneliti

  16. Using Biotechnology in the Laboratory: Using an Immobilized-Laccase Reactor-System to Learn about Wastewater Treatment (United States)

    Genc, Rukan; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana


    This article includes a practical guide, which was used to teach the phenomenon of immobilization of enzymes and their subsequent use for discoloration of dyes to under-graduate students of Biotechnology at the Rovira i Virgili University (Tarragona, Spain). Alginate was selected as a support for the immobilization of laccase. Remazol Brilliant…

  17. 2001 Industry Studies: Biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The applications of biotechnology, such as medicine, agribusiness, forensics, informatics and the defense sector, offer many benefits, but also bring some risk, requiring public policy decisions...

  18. Perencanaan Jumlah dan Lokasi Menara Base Transceiver Station (BTS Baru Pada Telekomunikasi Seluler di Kabupaten Lumajang Menggunakan Metode Analytical Hierarchy Process-TOPSIS (AHP-TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmoko Widyatmoko


    Full Text Available Lahirnya teknologi baru seperti 4G LTE mendorong para operator untuk membangun infrastrur baru seperti menara BTS dalam rangka menghadapi persaingan antar operator. Dalam pembangunan menara BTS, sangat dibutuhkan suatu perencanaan yang sistematis untuk menentukan jumlah dan posisi menara BTS yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Dalam perencanaan BTS, langkah yang wajib dilakukan adalah memprediksi kebutuhan BTS di tahun 2019. Menara BTS yang dibutuhkan didapat dengan menghitung selisih antara jumlah BTS tahun 2019 dan jumlah BTS tahun 2014 kemudian hasilnya dibagi 4 (diasumsikan satu menara BTS terdiri dari 4 BTS. Setelah diketahui jumlah kebutuhan menara BTS pada tahun 2019, selanjutnya penulis melakukan penyebaran menara tersebut ke seluruh penjuru kabupaten Lumajang. setelah itu penulis melakukan pembobotan pada tiap zona menara untuk mengetahui peringkat zona terbaik. Zona-zona dengan peringkat terbaik dianggap sebagai titik strategis untuk didirikan perangkat BTS 4G LTE. Metode yang digunakan dalam pembobotan adalah metode AHP-TOPSIS. Metode ini merupakan kombinasi dari metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP dan Techique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS. Metode AHP berfungsi untuk mengetahui nilai prioritas tiap sub-kriteria yang digunakan sedangkan TOPSIS berfungsi untuk mencari nilai tiap zona berdasarkan input dari AHP sehingga diketahui zona prioritas.

  19. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight... (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier... CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.45 BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air... questions about reporting a joint-service operation, contact the BTS Assistant Director—Airline Information...

  20. Technical and Vocational Education Stakeholders' Perceptions on Professional Skills Acquired in Private "Brevet De Technicien Supérieur (BTS)" Schools in Togo (United States)

    Adjrah, Yao


    This study intends to analyze formal and implemented BTS curricula in Lomé (Togo). Data collection was achieved by means of questionnaires and interviews for exploring, in five private BTS schools, the perceptions of students, teachers and pedagogical directors, as well as the views of employed BTS graduates and their employers, regarding the…

  1. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices. (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina


    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology. (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra


    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  3. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology is a publisher of multidisciplinary peer-reviews original research works and critical reviews on interdisciplinary studies in Biotechnology, Agriculture, Food and Environment interface; and is published twice a year. It serves scientists in the field of Agriculture, Food science and Technology; ...

  4. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow


    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  5. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This strategic plan is in direct response to the call by a broad array of interested parties, for the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) to reduce fragmentation and increase focus. This plan outlines goals for saving energy, three key strategies to accomplish these goals, and a commitment to improving how they do business.

  6. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 18, 2009 ... Key words: Biotechnology, innovation system, research institutions, universities and agricultural development programme. INTRODUCTION ... technology is the application of indigenous and / or scientific knowledge to the .... professionals, public attitude to genetic engineering organisms and products, and ...

  7. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products. (United States)

    Stöger, Eva


    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Systems architecture: a new model for sustainability and the built environment using nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science with living technology. (United States)

    Armstrong, Rachel


    This report details a workshop held at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, to initiate interdisciplinary collaborations for the practice of systems architecture, which is a new model for the generation of sustainable architecture that combines the discipline of the study of the built environment with the scientific study of complexity, or systems science, and adopts the perspective of systems theory. Systems architecture offers new perspectives on the organization of the built environment that enable architects to consider architecture as a series of interconnected networks with embedded links into natural systems. The public workshop brought together architects and scientists working with the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science and with living technology to investigate the possibility of a new generation of smart materials that are implied by this approach.

  9. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  10. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology. (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y


    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  11. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology. (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio


    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development. (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats


    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh


    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  14. Introducing the new BTS Guideline: Management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). (United States)

    Haworth, Charles S; Floto, R Andres


    The new BTS Guidelines for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease combine the best available evidence with expert consensus to generate a set of pragmatic Guidelines, published as a supplement to this issue of Thorax, to assist in the management of these challenging infections. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Environmental biotechnology for sustainability. (United States)

    Verstraete, W


    In the post-industrial society, waste management is integrated in the concepts of responsibility, reliability and continuity. Therefore industry and public office are obliged to implement the concepts of structured environmental management systems more and more strictly. The endpoints are dependent on the type of wastes and on the priorities set by society. They will with time evolve towards more restriction of all kinds of emissions. This will require increasing inputs of labour, information technology and energy into waste treatment and overall waste management. Particularly for aqueous and gaseous wastes that are not contained, continuously improving treatment with maximum re-use and minimum dissipation in the ecosphere will be the trend of the future. Moreover, the public in general and the individual citizen in particular will request to have (bio)assays to monitor regularly and autonomously the quality of his environment. Such advanced waste management requires considerable energy input. It thus may come in conflict with current concerns about CO2-emissions and the Kyoto agreements. Innovative approaches to combine waste management and the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) directives, for instance by implementing biological carbon sequestration, are therefore warranted. Biotechnology has a major role to play particularly in terms of advanced treatment down to ng/l-levels and in terms of validating the quality of the environment by means of powerful and intelligent bio-monitoring devices.

  16. [Sixteen Cases of Colon Stenting as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)for Obstructive Colorectal Cancer]. (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryo; Saito, Shuji; Hirayama, Ryouichi; Miura, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Miyajima, Ayako; Kuwamoto, Nobutsuna; Kataoka, Ryoko; Shindo, Yukito; Fujita, Rikiya


    Colonic stent insertion is widely used as a bridge to surgery(BTS)for obstructive colorectal cancer. Stenting can shorten hospitalization and decrease complication and colostomy rates in comparison with emergency surgery. We investigated patients who underwent colonic stent insertion for BTS in our hospital. Sixteen patients(8 men, 8 women) with a colorectal obstruction score of 0 or 1 who underwent colonic stent insertion as a BTS between April 2015 and April 2017 period were investigated. Mean patient age was 68.2(45-94)years. Technical success was obtained in all patients, and clinical success in 14(87%). Total colonoscopy was possible via stent in 10 patients. Nine patients were temporarily discharged from the hospital, and median time to operation was 18(2-43)days. Laparoscopic resection was performed in 14 patients, and anastomotic leakage was a postoperative complication in 1 patient. Colostomy was performed in only 1 patient with anastomotic leakage. Good results were obtained with careful patient selection and safe colonic stent insertion.

  17. Does body shadow improve the efficacy of virtual reality-based training with BTS NIRVANA? (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; De Luca, Rosaria; Naro, Antonino; Sciarrone, Francesca; Aragona, Bianca; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Manuli, Alfredo; Bramanti, Alessia; Casella, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore


    Abstract Background: Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the presence of body shadows during virtual reality (VR) training with BTS NIRVANA (BTs-N) may lead to a better functional recovery. Methods: We enrolled 20 poststroke rehabilitation inpatients, who underwent a neurocognitive-rehabilitative training consisting of 24 sessions (3 times a week for 8 weeks) of BTs-N. All the patients were randomized into 2 groups: semi-immersive virtual training with (S-IVTS group) or without (S-IVT group) body shadows. Each participant was evaluated before (T0) and immediately (T1) after the end of the training (Trial Registration Number: NCT03095560). Results: The S-IVTS group showed a greater improvement in visuo-constructive skills and sustained attention, as compared with the S-IVT group. The other measures showed nonsignificant within-group and between-group differences. Conclusion: Our results showed that body shadow may represent a high-priority class of stimuli that act by “pushing” attention toward the body itself. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of body shadow in promoting the internal representation construction and thus self-recognition. PMID:28930852

  18. Baecklund transformations and zero-curvature representations of systems of partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.


    It is shown that Baecklund transformations (BTs) and zero-curvature representations (ZCRs) of systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) are closely related. The connection is established by nonlinear representations of the symmetry group underlying the ZCR which induce gauge transformations relating different BTs. This connection is used to construct BTs from ZCRs (and vice versa). Furthermore a procedure is outlined which allows a systematic search for ZCRs of a given system of PDEs. (orig.)

  19. Biotechnological production of vanillin. (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A


    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  20. Agave biotechnology: an overview. (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N


    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  1. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer


    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  2. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment and Evaluation System for Biotechnology Specialty Students: An Effective Evaluation System to Improve the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching (United States)

    Li, Suxia; Wu, Haizhen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing


    In an effort to achieve high success in knowledge and technique acquisition as a whole, a biochemistry and molecular biology experiment was established for high-grade biotechnology specialty students after they had studied essential theory and received proper technique training. The experiment was based on cloning and expression of alkaline…

  3. Cross-bridge blocker BTS permits direct measurement of SR Ca2+ pump ATP utilization in toadfish swimbladder muscle fibers. (United States)

    Young, Iain S; Harwood, Claire L; Rome, Lawrence C


    Because the major processes involved in muscle contraction require rapid utilization of ATP, measurement of ATP utilization can provide important insights into the mechanisms of contraction. It is necessary, however, to differentiate between the contribution made by cross-bridges and that of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pumps. Specific and potent SR Ca2+ pump blockers have been used in skinned fibers to permit direct measurement of cross-bridge ATP utilization. Up to now, there was no analogous cross-bridge blocker. Recently, N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (BTS) was found to suppress force generation at micromolar concentrations. We tested whether BTS could be used to block cross-bridge ATP utilization, thereby permitting direct measurement of SR Ca2+ pump ATP utilization in saponin-skinned fibers. At 25 microM, BTS virtually eliminates force and cross-bridge ATP utilization (both BTS. At 25 microM, BTS had no effect on SR pump ATP utilization. Hence, we used BTS to make some of the first direct measurements of ATP utilization of intact SR over a physiological range of [Ca2+]at 15 degrees C. Curve fits to SR Ca2+ pump ATP utilization vs. pCa indicate that they have much lower Hill coefficients (1.49) than that describing cross-bridge force generation vs. pCa (approximately 5). Furthermore, we found that BTS also effectively eliminates force generation in bundles of intact swimbladder muscle, suggesting that it will be an important tool for studying integrated SR function during normal motor behavior.

  4. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  5. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  6. National Center for Biotechnology Information (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  7. Biotechnological advances in Lilium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Tuyl, van Jaap M.


    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to

  8. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  9. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi


    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  10. State responses to biotechnology. (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C


    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  11. Biotechnology in weed control (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  13. Biotechnology: interferon patent contested. (United States)

    Earl, C; Beardsley, T

    Biogen, a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass., and Geneva, Switzerland, has been notified by the European Patent Office that it will receive a product patent for its alpha interferon synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, a San Francisco company which claims priority for producing mature interferon, is planning a vigorous appeal of the decision.

  14. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  15. Management of spontaneous pneumothorax compared to British Thoracic Society (BTS) 2003 guidelines: a district general hospital audit. (United States)

    Medford, Andrew Rl; Pepperell, Justin Ct


    In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). These were refined in 2003. To determine adherence to the 2003 BTS SP guidelines in a district general hospital. An initial retrospective audit of 52 episodes of acute SP was performed. Subsequent intervention involved a junior doctor educational update on both the 2003 BTS guidelines and the initial audit results, and the setting up of an online guideline hyperlink. After the educational intervention a further prospective re-audit of 28 SP episodes was performed. Management of SP deviated considerably from the 2003 BTS guidelines in the initial audit - deviation rate 26.9%. After the intervention, a number of clinical management deviations persisted (32.1% deviation rate); these included failure to insert a chest drain despite unsuccessful aspiration, and attempting aspiration of symptomatic secondary SPs. Specific tools to improve standards might include a pneumothorax proforma to improve record keeping and a pneumothorax care pathway to reduce management deviations compared to BTS guidelines. Successful change also requires identification of the total target audience for any educational intervention.

  16. Is the BTS/SIGN guideline confusing? A retrospective database analysis of asthma therapy. (United States)

    Covvey, Jordan R; Johnston, Blair F; Wood, Fraser; Boyter, Anne C


    The British guideline on the management of asthma produced by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) describes five steps for the management of chronic asthma. Combination therapy of a long acting β2-agonist (LABA) and an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is recommended as first-line therapy at step 3, although the dose of ICS at which to add a LABA is subject to debate. To classify the inhaled therapy prescribed to patients with asthma in NHS Forth Valley according to two interpretations of the BTS/SIGN guideline and to evaluate the use of combination therapy in this population. A retrospective analysis including patients from 46 general practitioner surgeries was conducted. Patients with physician diagnosed asthma were classified according to the BTS/SIGN guideline based on treatment prescribed during 2008. Patient characteristics were evaluated for the overall step classification, and specifically for therapy in step 3. 12,319 patients were included. Guideline interpretation resulted in a shift of 9.2% of patients (receiving medium-dose ICS alone) between steps 2 and 3. The largest proportion of patients (32.3%) was classified at step 4. Age, sex, smoking status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease co-morbidity, and utilisation of short-acting β2-agonists and oral corticosteroids all correlated with step; however, no differences in these characteristics were evident between low-dose combination therapy and medium-dose ICS alone at step 3. Further studies are needed to evaluate prescribing decisions in asthma. Guideline recommendations regarding the use of ICS dose escalation versus combination therapy need to be clarified relative to the published evidence.

  17. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  18. Environmental Biotechnology in China (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  19. Pd-Catalyzed Acetoxylation of γ-C(sp3)-H Bonds of Amines Directed by a Removable Bts-Protecting Group. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Song, Weibin; Zhu, Yefu; Wei, Bole; Xuan, Lijiang


    Pd-catalyzed acetoxylation of γ-C(sp 3 )-H bonds directed by Bts-protected amines using inexpensive PhI(OAc) 2 as oxidant is reported. The Bts-protecting group is easily introduced and removed under mild conditions. This protocol provides an important strategy for the construction of γ-hydroxyl amine derivatives.

  20. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg


    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  1. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles (United States)

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.


    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  2. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann


    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wideranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an interdisciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  3. Biotechnology's foreign policy. (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl


    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  4. Biotechnology in soybean breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarić Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Biotechnology can be defined broadly as a set of tools that allows scientists to genetically characterize or improve living organisms. Several emerging technologies, such as molecular characterization and genetic transformation, are already being used extensively for the purpose of plant improvement. Other emerging sciences, including genomics and proteomics, are also starting to impact plant improvement. Tools provided by biotechnology will not replace classical breeding methods, but rather will help provide new discoveries and contribute to improved nutritional value and yield enhancement through greater resistance to disease, herbicides and abiotic factors. In soybeans, biotechnology has and will continue to play a valuable role in public and private soybean breeding programs. Based on the availability and combination of conventional and molecular technologies, a substantial increase in the rate of genetic gain for economically important soybean traits can be predicted in the next decade. In this paper, a short review of technologies for molecular markers analysis in soybean is given as well as achievements in the area of genetic transformation in soybean.

  5. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications. (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian


    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA). (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y


    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen


    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  8. Studi Awal Perencanaan Jumlah Kebutuhan BTS dalam Penerapan Menara Bersama Telekomunikasi di Kota Palangka Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Gunadi Palilu


    Full Text Available Tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa perkembangan teknologi komunikasi bergerak (seluler saat ini semakin meningkat, hal ini terlihat dari semakin banyak dibangunnya menara  telekomunikasi,   terutama   di   Kota  Palangka  Raya. Menara telekomunikasi yang merupakan faktor pendukung dari layanan telekomunikasi seluler terus-menerus dibangun sebagai bentuk dari kebutuhan masyarakat dalam berkomunikasi. Dalam pembangunan menara telekomunikasi tentunya harus memperhatikan beberapa syarat-syarat umum seperti yang terdapat dalam Surat Edaran Direktur Jenderal Penataan Ruang Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum Nomor:06/SE/Dr/2011 tentang Petunjuk Teknis Kriteria Lokasi Menara Telekomunikasi, yang salah satu syaratnya ialah harus memperhatikan aspek estetika ruang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung jumlah kebutuhan Base Transceiver Station (BTS sebagai bentuk awal dalam penerapan pembangunan menara telekomunikasi sebagai menara bersama. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut, perhitungan jumlah pelanggan seluler dan kapasitas trafik menjadi metode perencanaan yang dibutuhkan dalam menentukan jumlah BTS dan menara bersama telekomunikasi dalam kurun waktu 5 (lima tahun ke depan. Diharapkan penelitian ini dapat menjadi referensi awal bagi pemerintah kota Palangka Raya dalam membuat suatu perencanaan atau pedoman dalam pembangunan dan pemberian izin pendirian menara telekomunikasi yang nantinya akan menjadi suatu regulasi mengenai menara telekomunikasi, sehingga pembangunan menara bersama dapat tertata dengan baik dengan tetap memperhatikan kualitas layanan bagi masyarakat.

  9. The vertical pattern of microwave radiation around BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antennae in Hashtgerd township. (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Monazzam, Mohammadreza; Beheshti, Meisam; Zare, Sajad; Mahvi, Amirhosein


    New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its height was collected from radio communication office, and then the measurements were carried out according to IEEE STD 95. 1 by the SPECTRAN 4060. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS16 using Kolmogorov Smirnov test and multiple regression method. Results indicated that in both operators of Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval (First Operator), the power density rose with an increase in measurement height or decrease in the vertical distance of broadcaster antenna. With mix model test, a significant statistical relationship was observed between measurement height and the average power density in both types of the operators. With increasing measuring height, power density increased in both operators. The study showed installing antennae in a crowded area needs more care because of higher radiation emission. More rigid surfaces and mobile users are two important factors in crowded area that can increase wave density and hence raise public microwave exposure.

  10. Thecamoebians: occurrence and distribution in Iguape Bay/BTS – Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ferreira da Cruz


    Full Text Available The Iguape Bay (12º00’ – 13º00’S and 38º30’ – 39º30’ is an estuary located at the mouth of the Paraguaçu River, inside Todos os Santos Bay (BTS, in Bahia, Brazil. It is 30km downstream from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam, which is the second largest dam in Brazil. The water in Iguape Bay is influenced by ocean tides originating from the BTS and the discharge of the Paraguaçu River. The effects of the currents as well as the variation in the outflow from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam have intensified the natural stress of this paralic environment. The main goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of Thecamoeba species present in the bottom sediments of Iguape Bay, in order to produce data that can be used to interpret the processes operating in this ecologically complex environment. The density of the living and dead species of Thecamoeba was determined by the volume of sediment collected, and the diversity index, constancy, evenness and richness of Thecamoeba were calculated. Sedimentological analyses were also performed in order to classify sediment types in the selected profiles.

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The First Spanish Experience (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite


    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković


    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  13. Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran. (United States)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Karbalae, Mojtaba; Moradi, Habib Allah; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad


    In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (BTS antenna (>300 m). It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Aryadi


    Full Text Available Seiring dengan perkembangan kebutuhan bit rate dan kapasitas layanan data yang meningkat di wilayah Kota Denpasar, diperlukan perencanaan lokasi site BTS (Base Transceiver Station yang dapat melayani kebutuhan pelanggan secara kuantitas maupun kualitas. Untuk memperoleh nilai bit rate yang maksimal dibutuhkan jari-jari sel yang kecil. Dengan perbandingan luas wilayah sebesar 130,48 km2 jika dibagi dengan 399 balai banjar di Kota Denpasar maka diperoleh coverage area 0,327 km2 per banjar dengan jari-jari sel sekitar 285 m. Maka pada penelitian ini lokasi site BTS yang digunakan adalah pada Balai Banjar di Kota Denpasar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merancang lokasi site BTS layanan 3G-WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access untuk wilayah Pemerintah Kota Denpasar sesuai data sebaran penduduk dan mengetahui perbandingan jumlah site BTS secara teoritis untuk layanan 3G-WCDMA memanfaatkan Balai Banjar Pemerintah Kota Denpasar dengan model pemetaan secara geografis. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 3 alur, yaitu perkiraan pertumbuhan pelanggan 3G-WCDMA dan Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ per desa di Kota Denpasar, Perhitungan jumlah dan jari-jari site secara teoritis per desa di Kota Denpasar, dan Pemetaan site di Kota Denpasar memanfaatkan Balai Banjar. Perhitungan secara teoritis menunjukkan bahwa 257 site yang diperlukan untuk melingkupi seluruh wilayah Denpasar. Sementara pemetaan secara geografis dengan memanfaatkan lokasi Balai Banjar adalah sebanyak 311 site. Dari 311 site, 155 site (49,84% terdapat pada kawasan Balai Banjar dan 156 site (50,16% terdapat di luar kawasan Balai Banjar.

  15. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study and Open Learning Graduates. Narayan S Punekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 77-78 ...

  16. Forest biotechnology and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopriva, S.; Rennenberg, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie


    Forest biotechnology is a relatively young area of applied plant molecular biology that presently concentrates on (i) manipulation of lignin content and composition, (ii) pathogen-, pesticide-, and stress resistance, and (iii) improvement of growth. Transgenic trees have a great potential also in other areas of applied and environmental research, e.g. in the production of phytochemicals and in phytoremediation of polluted soils. To implement the use of biotechnology for these and other purposes improvement of the acceptance in public of genetic engineering general, and the application of transgenic technologies to trees species in particular, is essential. (orig.) [German] Bei der forstlichen Biotechnologie handelt es sich um ein vergleichsweise junges Gebiet der angewandten pflanzlichen Molekularbiologie, das sich derzeit auf folgende Fragestellungen konzentriert: (a) Manipulation des Ligningehalts und der Lignin-Zusammensetzung; (b) Verbesserung der Resistenz gegenueber Pathogenen, Pestiziden und verschiedenen Formen von Stress; (c) Verbesserung des Wachstums. Transgene Baeume haben darueber hinaus ein grosses Potential fuer andere Gebiete der angewandten Forschung und der Umweltforschung, so z.B. fuer die Produktion pflanzlicher Naturstoffe und die Phytosanierung belasteter Boeden. Um die Verwendung biotechnologischer Verfahren fuer diese und andere Zwecke zu implementieren, ist es dringend erforderlich, die Akzeptanz von 'genetic engineering' im allgemeinen und den Einsatz von Technologien zur Herstellung transgener Baeume im besonderen in der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern. (orig.)

  17. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology. (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David


    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors. (United States)

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H


    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  19. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews some biotechnological tools that could be harnessed in promoting conservation and sustainable use of bioresources. Key words: Bioresources, genetic conservation, biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12) ...

  20. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the growing science base, biotechnology companies can successfully be located and thrive in these countries. The rewards which can flow from the successful exploitation of research should encourage investment in biotechnological activities. Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION.

  1. Department of Biotechnology | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology. Department of Biotechnology Awards; National Woman Bioscientist Awards; Biotech Product & Process Development & Commercialization Awards; Awardees of National Bioscience Awards for Career Development. Department of Biotechnology Awardees. Year: 2012 Innovative Young ...

  2. Repeated administration of the monoamine reuptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat without sensitizing motor behaviours. (United States)

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S C; Jenner, P


    BTS 74 398 (1-[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio)ethanone monocitrate) is a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that reverses motor deficits in MPTP-treated (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) common marmosets without provoking established dyskinesia. However, it is not known whether BTS 74 398 primes the basal ganglia for dyskinesia induction. In this study, the ability of BTS 74 398 to sensitize 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats for the production of abnormal motor behaviours and the induction of striatal DeltaFosB were determined in comparison with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (L-dopa). Acute administration of BTS 74 398 induced a dose-dependent ipsilateral circling response in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats whereas L-dopa produced dose-dependent contraversive rotation. The ipsilateral circling response to BTS 74 398 did not alter during 21 days of administration. In contrast, L-dopa treatment for 21 days caused a marked increase in rotational response. Repeated administration of both L-dopa and BTS 74 398 increased general motor activity and stereotypic behaviour. In L-dopa-treated rats, orolingual, locomotive, forelimb and axial abnormal movements developed whereas BTS 74 398 produced only locomotion with a side bias but no other abnormal movements. Sensitization of circling responses and the development of abnormal movements in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats have been associated with the potential of dopaminergic drugs to induce dyskinesia. Furthermore, striatal DeltaFosB immunoreactivity, shown to correlate with dyskinesia induction, was increased by L-dopa but was unaffected by repeated BTS 74 398 administration. The lack of such changes following repeated BTS 74 398 treatment suggests that it may be an effective antiparkinsonian therapy that is unlikely to produce involuntary movements.

  3. Diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines. (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles


    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the risk factors predisposing to development, initial features and diagnosis. It is important that the risk of developing PTLD is considered when using post transplant immunosuppression and that the appropriate investigations are carried out when there are suspicions of the diagnosis. These must include tissue for histology and computed tomography scan to assess the extent of disease. These recommendations have been made primarily for adult patients, there have been some comments made with regard to paediatric practice.

  4. Pleural procedures and patient safety: a national BTS audit of practice. (United States)

    Hooper, Clare E; Welham, Sally A; Maskell, Nick A


    The BTS pleural procedures audit collected data over a 2-month period in June and July 2011. In contrast with the 2010 audit, which focussed simply on chest drain insertions, data on all pleural aspirations and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) was also collected. Ninety hospitals submitted data, covering a patient population of 33 million. Twenty-one per cent of centres ran a specialist pleural disease clinic, 71% had a nominated chest drain safety lead, and 20% had thoracic surgery on site. Additionally, one-third of centres had a physician-led LAT service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim


    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  6. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb


    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  7. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo


    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  8. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  9. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use. (United States)

    Paolella, Mary Jane


    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  10. Recent Progress in Mountain Permafrost Modelling using BTS in North America (United States)

    Bonnaventure, P. P.; Lewkowicz, A. G.


    This presentation reports on progress in mapping and modelling mountain permafrost in North America over the past 5 years using the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) technique. It describes the methodology and some of the challenges in our current study aimed at modelling permafrost at a resolution of 30 x 30 m, for the entire southern half of the Yukon Territory, an area of 250 x 103 km2. This mountainous region differs from those in Europe and Asia by having a sparse population, very limited base-line information (such as climate data) and relatively low levels of infrastructure. However, major infrastructure projects, such as pipelines, roads, railways and mines are being proposed and climate change is expected to affect permafrost distribution and characteristics, including potentially triggering landslides and other natural hazards. The research involves developing BTS-based models validated using late-summer ground-truthing. Models have been created for three areas and work is currently underway in five other locations in the Yukon with possible future sites in northern British Columbia. Work to date has examined the suitability of the method in differing climatic zones, the interchangeability of models between areas, and the potential effects of climatic change. Current data collection is focused on the potential impact of atmospheric temperature inversions on permafrost distribution: each of the study areas has been equipped with a network of air, ground surface and permafrost surface temperature sensors as well as snow-depth monitoring devices, located within different topographic situations. Another challenge is the interpolation of permafrost probabilities between distant study areas: information developed from a data-base of more than 1500 rock glaciers is expected to help in this regard. The project, which is scheduled for completion within the next 12 months, will provide essential information relating to the spatial attributes and sensitivities of

  11. Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Biotechnological advances in Lilium. (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M


    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  14. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.


    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  15. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology (United States)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank


    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adpated at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICASL COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90 spaceshuttle missions and the

  16. Yeast biotechnology: teaching the old dog new tricks (United States)


    Yeasts are regarded as the first microorganisms used by humans to process food and alcoholic beverages. The technology developed out of these ancient processes has been the basis for modern industrial biotechnology. Yeast biotechnology has gained great interest again in the last decades. Joining the potentials of genomics, metabolic engineering, systems and synthetic biology enables the production of numerous valuable products of primary and secondary metabolism, technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins. An overview of emerging and established substrates and products of yeast biotechnology is provided and discussed in the light of the recent literature. PMID:24602262

  17. Crossing boundaries: the importance of cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Jezierska, Sylwia; Van Bogaert, Inge N A


    How small molecules cross cellular membranes is an often overlooked issue in an industrial microbiology and biotechnology context. This is to a large extent governed by the technical difficulties to study these transport systems or by the lack of knowledge on suitable efflux pumps. This review emphasizes the importance of microbial cellular membranes in industrial biotechnology by highlighting successful strategies of membrane engineering towards more resistant and hence better performing microorganisms, as well as transporter and other engineering strategies for increased efflux of primary and secondary metabolites. Furthermore, the benefits and limitations of eukaryotic subcellular compartmentalization are discussed, as well as the biotechnological potential of membrane vesicles.

  18. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney


    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the integral application of biological and engineering sciences for the technological use of living organisms, biologically active acellular structures and molecular analogues for the production of goods and services.The role of biotechnology is very important in the food industry; this is a biotechnology because agro-food raw materials are biological products and therefore their conservation until consumption, fresh or industrialization involves the control of the enzymatic activity of the vegetal and animal tissues or of the microflora contamination.

  20. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications


    Reis, N.


    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  1. Public attitude towards modern biotechnology | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the ...

  2. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Malikhatun Badriyah


    Full Text Available The development of telecommunications business major effect on development. However, this requires a relatively large funds , so that the telecommunications service provider is in need of funds from the bank to the credit agreement . Bank has a big risk in lending this , so we need guarantees, one of which fiduciary guarantee with objects Base Transceiver Station . The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the use of Base Transceiver Station in the credit agreement and what if the debtor defaults. The research  method is a normative juridical. From the results it can be seen that the Base Transceiver Station ( BTS is a moving object that can be the object of fiduciary guarantee . If the debtor defaults , BTS can be executed in accordance with the stipulated in Fiduciary Guarantee Act.

  4. [Findings from Total Colonoscopy in Obstructive Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Underwent Stent Placement as a Bridge to Surgery(BTS)]. (United States)

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Tsuyuki, Hajime; Kojima, Tadahiro; Koreyasu, Ryohei; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Ito, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Kota; Ikeda, Takashi; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki


    We clinically investigated 34 patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who underwent placement of a colonic stent as a bridge to surgery(BTS), focusing on endoscopic findings after stent placement.Twenty -nine patients(85.3%)underwent colonoscopy after stent placement, and the entire large intestine could be observed in 28(96.6%).Coexisting lesions were observed in 22(78.6%)of these 28 patients.The lesions comprised adenomatous polyps in 17 patients(60.7%), synchronous colon cancers in 5 patients(17.9%), and obstructive colitis in 3 patients(10.7%), with some overlapping cases.All patients with multiple cancers underwent one-stage surgery, and all lesions were excised at the same time.Colonoscopy after colonic stent placement is important for preoperative diagnosis of coexisting lesions and planning the extent of resection. These considerations support the utility of colonic stenting for BTS.

  5. Effects of a myosin-II inhibitor (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide, BTS) on contractile characteristics of intact fast-twitch mammalian muscle fibres. (United States)

    Pinniger, G J; Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Ranatunga, K W


    We have examined the effects of N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), a potent and specific inhibitor of fast muscle myosin-II, using small bundles of intact fibres or single fibres from rat foot muscle. BTS decreased tetanic tension reversibly in a concentration-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibition at approximately approximately 2 microM at 20 degrees C. The inhibition of tension with 10 microM BTS was marked at the three temperatures examined (10, 20 and 30 degrees C), but greatest at 10 degrees C. BTS decreased active muscle stiffness to a lesser extent than tetanic tension indicating that not all of the tension inhibition was due to a reduced number of attached cross-bridges. BTS-induced inhibition of active tension was not accompanied by any change in the free myoplasmic Ca2+ transients. The potency and specificity of BTS make it a very suitable myosin inhibitor for intact mammalian fast muscle and should be a useful tool for the examination of outstanding questions in muscle contraction.

  6. Effects of BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide), an inhibitor for myosin-actin interaction, on myofibrillogenesis in skeletal muscle cells in culture. (United States)

    Kagawa, Maiko; Sato, Naruki; Obinata, Takashi


    Actin filaments align around myosin filaments in the correct polarity and in a hexagonal arrangement to form cross-striated structures. It has been postulated that this myosin-actin interaction is important in the initial phase of myofibrillogenesis. It was previously demonstrated that an inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction, BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime), suppresses myofibril formation in muscle cells in culture. However, further study showed that BDM also exerts several additional effects on living cells. In this study, we further examined the role of actin-myosin interaction in myofibril assembly in primary cultures of chick embryonic skeletal muscle by applying a more specific inhibitor, BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide), of myosin ATPase and actin-myosin interaction. The assembly of sarcomeric structures from myofibrillar proteins was examined by immunocytochemical methods with the application of BTS to myotubes just after fusion. Addition of BTS (10-50 microM) significantly suppressed the organization of actin and myosin into cross-striated structures. BTS also interfered in the organization of alpha-actinin, C-protein (or MyBP-C), and connectin (or titin) into ordered striated structures, though the sensitivity was less. Moreover, when myotubes cultured in the presence of BTS were transferred to a control medium, sarcomeric structures were formed in 2-3 days, indicating that the inhibitory effect of BTS on myotubes is reversible. These results show that actin-myosin interaction plays a critical role in the process of myofibrillogenesis.

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite


    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  8. Field reconstruction and estimation of the antenna support structure effect on the measurement uncertainty of the BTS1940 antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey


    The 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL is applied to the BTS1940 antenna, recently measured at the DTUESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. The antenna was measured mounted on the antenna tower through a custom support structure. The purpose of this paper is to investigat...... by traditional microwave holography and by the inverse Fourier transform of the plane wave spectrum with knowledge of the invisible region....

  9. [Application of molecular biotechnology in Pharmacognosy]. (United States)

    Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jun-Wen; Yang, Ce; Huang, Man-Ting; Li, Hai-Yan


    Using the methods of informetrics analysis, articles retrieved from the database of CNKI were statistically analyzed on development course and knowledge system, so as to reflect the overall situation of pharmacognostical studies by molecular biotechnology. The result shows that the research on pharmacognosy by molecular biotechnology is an inter-disciplinary research area, the major research fields can be divided into 7 categories, including molecular identification of Chinese medicinal materials, molecular systematics and genetic diversity analysis of Chinese medicinal materials, biosynthesis and bioregulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants, molecular mechanism and genetic basis of Dao-di Herbs, and tissue culture and molecular breeding in medicinal plants. The research on pharmacognosy by molecular have achieved remarkable progress in recent 20 years, and have broad development prospects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs. (United States)

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C


    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials.

  11. Does body shadow improve the efficacy of virtual reality-based training with BTS NIRVANA?: A pilot study. (United States)

    Russo, Margherita; De Luca, Rosaria; Naro, Antonino; Sciarrone, Francesca; Aragona, Bianca; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Manuli, Alfredo; Bramanti, Alessia; Casella, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore


    Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the presence of body shadows during virtual reality (VR) training with BTS NIRVANA (BTs-N) may lead to a better functional recovery. We enrolled 20 poststroke rehabilitation inpatients, who underwent a neurocognitive-rehabilitative training consisting of 24 sessions (3 times a week for 8 weeks) of BTs-N. All the patients were randomized into 2 groups: semi-immersive virtual training with (S-IVTS group) or without (S-IVT group) body shadows. Each participant was evaluated before (T0) and immediately (T1) after the end of the training (Trial Registration Number: NCT03095560). The S-IVTS group showed a greater improvement in visuo-constructive skills and sustained attention, as compared with the S-IVT group. The other measures showed nonsignificant within-group and between-group differences. Our results showed that body shadow may represent a high-priority class of stimuli that act by "pushing" attention toward the body itself. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of body shadow in promoting the internal representation construction and thus self-recognition.

  12. Summary of the 2008 BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the management of asthma. (United States)

    Levy, Mark L; Thomas, Mike; Small, Iain; Pearce, Linda; Pinnock, Hilary; Stephenson, Paul


    The 2008 BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the management of asthma provides comprehensive updated evidence-based guidance on asthma management for healthcare professionals. This primary care-focussed summary has been produced to aid dissemination and implementation of the key guideline messages into primary care. The section on diagnosis emphasises the new integrated symptom-based approach with clinicians using their deductive skills to determine the probability that the patient has asthma. The various tools used for monitoring asthma are discussed. There are sections on both non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of chronic asthma in adults and children. Treatment options for children are subdivided into the under-5s and children aged 5-12 years. Poor asthma control is manifested by exacerbations and acute asthma. Personalised asthma action plans for guided self management should be provided and used when levels of asthma control change. There are sections on difficult asthma and the treatment of exacerbations and acute severe asthma. Various outcome measures for auditing the quality of asthma care are discussed.

  13. Production, purification, and characterization of lipase from thermophilic and alkaliphilic Bacillus coagulans BTS-3. (United States)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kikon, Khyodano; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Kanwar, Shamsher S; Gupta, Reena


    A thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 produced an extracellular alkaline lipase, the production of which was substantially enhanced when the type of carbon source, nitrogen source, and the initial pH of culture medium were consecutively optimized. Lipase activity 1.16 U/ml of culture medium was obtained in 48 h at 55 degrees C and pH 8.5 with refined mustard oil as carbon source and a combination of peptone and yeast extract (1:1) as nitrogen sources. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 55 degrees C and pH 8.5, and was stable between pH 8.0 and 10.5 and at temperatures up to 70 degrees C. The enzyme was found to be inhibited by Al3+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ ions while K+, Fe3+, Hg2+, and Mg2+ ions enhanced the enzyme activity; Na+ ions have no effect on enzyme activity. The purified lipase showed a variable specificity/hydrolytic activity towards various 4-nitrophenyl esters.

  14. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines. (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann


    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  15. Strategic management of biotechnology agents. (United States)

    Huber, S L


    The use of biologic response modifiers to demonstrate a value-driven approach to strategic management by pharmacists is described. To participate in decisions on the use of technology in their institutions, pharmacists must practice strategic management. This process includes environmental scanning, analysis of clinical and pharmacoeconomic data, and development of clinical management approaches. It is ideal for analyzing biologic response modifiers such as filgrastim and sargramostim. Emphasis must be placed on maximizing the fit among the products, the institution, and the health care environment. Pharmacists will find plentiful opportunities for clinical management with biotechnology agents. Practitioners who specialize in determining the total cost of care by using pharmacoeconomic methods are needed, as are practitioners trained to monitor the complicated biotechnology agents. Also, the institution needs to forecast accurately the impact of emerging biotechnology agents. If pharmacists can develop and control clinical, pharmacoeconomic, and reimbursement information databases for biotechnology agents, the pharmacy profession will be in a strong position to meet the challenges of biotechnology and realize the inherent opportunities.

  16. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility. (United States)

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu


    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  17. Is biotechnology the new alchemy? (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana


    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  18. Sitaxsentan (ICOS-Texas Biotechnology). (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J R


    ICOS-Texas Biotechnology is developing the endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist, sitaxsentan, for the potential treatment of pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subarachnoid hemorrhage [205713], [302200]. The compound is in phase IIa trials as an iv formulation for CHF and has completed phase I safety trials as an oral formulation [272071]. Phase II/III trials for pulmonary hypertension are planned for the first quarter of 2001 [3945711]. In June 2000, ICOS and Texas Biotechnology established a joint venture to develop and commercialize endothelin antagonists [370007]. US-05591761 was issued to Texas in January 1997, covering TBC-11251 and several related isomers [2309301.

  19. Solution-phase synthesis of a hindered N-methylated tetrapeptide using Bts-protected amino acid chlorides: efficient coupling and methylation steps allow purification by extraction. (United States)

    Vedejs, E; Kongkittingam, C


    N-Benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl (Bts)-protected amino acid chlorides were used to prepare the hindered cyclosporin 8-11 tetrapeptide subunit 1. The synthesis was performed via 3a and the deprotected amines 5a, 13, and 19, including three repeated cycles involving N-methylation using iodomethane/potassium carbonate, deprotection of the Bts group, and N-acylation with a N-Bts-amino acid chloride such as 9b or 9c. Among three Bts cleavage methods compared (H3PO2/THF; NaBH4/EtOH; PhSH/K2CO3), the third gave somewhat higher overall yields. N-Acylation of 5a with the Bts-protected N-methylamino acid chloride 10b followed by deprotection was also highly efficient and could be used as an alternative route to 11. Each of the deprotected amines was isolated without chromatography using simple extraction methods to remove neutral byproducts. The tetrapeptide 1 was obtained in analytically pure form as the monohydrate.

  20. Biotechnology developments in Uganda and associated challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biotechnology programmes and strengthening interactions among the actors both locally and internationally; integrating biotechnology into institutional programmes and regulatory instruments; putting in place technology management policies and developing capacities for their implementation; encouraging private sector ...

  1. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen


    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  2. Analisis Penerapan Metode Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU Upgrading Untuk Mengatasi Traffic Congestion Jaringan GSM Pada BTS Area Purwokerto Kota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman


    Full Text Available Semakin banyaknya pengguna selular maka akan semakin banyak trafik yang akan tertampung. Trafik yang melebihi kapasitas kanal yang disediakan dapat menyebabkan kondisi Traffic Congestion. Untuk menanganinya diperlukan metode penambahan kapasitas kanal agar semua trafik dapat tertampung dengan baik. Metode ini disebut dengan TRU Upgrading. Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU adalah hardware yang terletak pada Radio Base Station dalam BTS yang berisi slot-slot kanal sedangkan metode TRU Upgrading adalah metode dengan menambahkan/upgrade kapasitas kanal yang tersedia dari konfigurasi TRU yang telah ada sebelumnya, misalkan pada BTS Pabuaran memiliki konfigurasi 3x2x3 karena terjadi kejenuhan pelanggan maka konfigurasi TRU diupgrade menjadi 3x4x3. Perubahan konfigurasi TRU maka merubah konfigurasi BTS-nya serta menambah kapasitas kanalnya. Key Performance Indicator (KPI yang baik pada Indosat adalah menggunakan batas GoS 2%. Nilai GoS ini dikaitkan dengan tabel Erlang untuk mendapatkan sebuah nilai intensitas trafik. Jika nilai intensitas trafik konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan kurang dari nilai intensitas trafik pelanggan maka disebut traffic congestion. Sebagai akibat dari traffic congestion adalah kondisi blocking. TRU Upgrading ini dilakukan dengan harapan nilai blocking panggilan menjadi 0 %. Pada Purwokerto kota, diterapkan  TRU Upgrading untuk cell Grendeng 3, Pabuaran 2, dan Unsoed 1 karena trafik pelanggan yang terjadi melebihi nilai intensitas trafik dari konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan.   Untuk cell Unsoed 1 dan Grendeng 3 meski telah dilakukan TRU Upgrading menjadi 4 buah TRU tetap terjadi traffic congestion sebesar 8 sampai dengan 15 Erlang dikarenakan pada cell-cell ini mengcover area yang padat penduduk. Sedang untuk Pabuaran 2 penerapan TRU upgrading mencapai keefektifan sebesar 100%.

  3. Endoscopic stenting as bridge-to-surgery (BTS) in left-sided obstructing colorectal cancer: Experience with conformable stents. (United States)

    Parodi, Andrea; De Ceglie, Antonella; De Luca, Luca; Conigliaro, Rita; Naspetti, Riccardo; Arpe, Paola; Coccia, Gianni; Conio, Massimo


    Compared to emergency surgery, self-expandable metallic stents are effective and safe when used as bridge-to-surgery (BTS) in operable patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. In this study, we report data on the new conformable colonic stents. To evaluate clinical effectiveness of conformable stents as BTS in patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at six Italian Endoscopic Units. Data about patients with acute malignant colorectal obstruction were collected between 2007 and 2012. All patients were treated with conformable stents as BTS. Technical success, clinical success, rate of primary anastomosis and colostomy, early and late complications were evaluated. Data about 88 patients (62 males) were reviewed in this study. Conformable SEMS were correctly deployed in 86 out of 88 patients, with resolution of obstruction in all treated patients. Tumor resection with primary anastomosis was possible in all patients. A temporary colostomy was performed in 40. Early complications did not occur. Late complications occurred in 11 patients. Stent migration was significantly higher in patients treated with partially-covered stents compared to the uncovered group (35% vs. 0%, P<0.001). Endoscopical re-intervention was required in 12% of patients. One patient with rectal cancer had an anastomotic dehiscence after surgery and he was successfully treated with endoscopic clipping. One year after surgery, all patients were alive and local recurrence have not been documented. This was a retrospective and uncontrolled study. Preliminary data from this large case series are encouraging, with a high rate of technical and clinical success and low rate of clinically relevant complications. Partially-covered SEMS should be avoided in order to reduce the risk of endoscopic re-intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Effects of virtual reality-based training with BTs-Nirvana on functional recovery in stroke patients: preliminary considerations. (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Russo, Margherita; Naro, Antonino; Tomasello, Provvidenza; Leonardi, Simona; Santamaria, Floriana; Desireè, Latella; Bramanti, Alessia; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore


    Cognitive impairment occurs frequently in post-stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality training (VRT) with BTs-Nirvana (BTsN) on the recovery of cognitive functions in stroke patients, using the Interactive-Semi-Immersive Program (I-SIP). We enrolled 12 subjects (randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG); and control group (CG)), who attended the Laboratory of Robotic and Cognitive Rehabilitation of IRCCS Neurolesi of Messina from January to June 2016. The EG underwent a VRT with BTsN, whereas CG received a standard cognitive treatment. Both the groups underwent the same conventional physiotherapy program. Each treatment session lasted 45 minutes and was repeated three times a week for 8 weeks. All the patients were evaluated by a specific clinical-psychometric battery before (T0), immediately (T1), and one month (T2) after the end of the training. At T1, the EG presented a greater improvement in the trunk control test (p = 0.03), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.01), the selective attention assessment scores (p = 0.01), the verbal memory (p = 0.03), and the visuospatial and constructive abilities (p = 0.01), as compared to CG. Moreover, such amelioration persisted at T2 only in the EG. According to these preliminary data, VRT with I-SIP can be considered a useful complementary treatment to potentiate functional recovery, with regard to attention, visual-spatial deficits, and motor function in patients affected by stroke.

  5. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology. (United States)

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin


    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky


    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  7. The Development of Plant Biotechnology. (United States)

    Torrey, John G.


    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  8. The Future of Plant Biotechnology (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  9. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  10. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, R.


    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2015), s. 163-182 ISSN 2306-5354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biotechnological applications * Bacterial cellulases * Cellulose degradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Biological Constraints in Algal Biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Masojídek, Jiří; Vonshak, A.


    Roč. 8, - (2003), s. 338-348 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : outdoor cultures * photobioreactors * oxygen stress Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2003

  12. Re-Framing Biotechnology Regulation. (United States)

    Peck, Alison

    Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations. This Article offers a proposal for new legislation that would reshape biotechnology regulation to better meet these goals. Key reforms include tying regulation to risk rather than technology category; consolidating agency review; capturing distinct regulatory expertise through inter-agency consultations; creating a clearinghouse to help guide applicants and disseminate information; setting up more comprehensive monitoring of environmental effects; and providing federal leadership to fill key data gaps and address socio-economic impacts.

  13. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... ensure food security and to boost the country's economy. (Latifah et al., 2007). Successful development and commercialisation of modern biotechnology products in. *Corresponding author. E-mail:, Tel: + 603-. 89216907. Fax: +603-89252976. Abbreviations: GMOs, Genetically modified ...

  14. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Seminar on Nano-biotechnology. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1191-1191. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  15. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.


    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  16. Management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines. (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles


    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the therapeutic options recommended including reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), transplant organ resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Effective therapy should be instituted before progressive disease results in declining performance status and multi-organ dysfunction. The goal of treatment should be a durable complete remission with retention of transplanted organ function with minimal toxicity.

  17. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H


    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  18. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 fails to evoke established dyskinesia but does not synergise with levodopa in MPTP-treated primates. (United States)

    Hansard, Matthew J; Smith, Lance A; Jackson, Michael J; Cheetham, Sharon C; Jenner, Peter


    Long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa (L-dopa) induces dyskinesia that, once established, is provoked by each dose of L-dopa or a dopamine (DA) agonist. In contrast, monoamine reuptake inhibitors may reverse motor deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates without provoking established involuntary movements. We now examine whether the potent monoamine reuptake blocker BTS 74 398 induces established dyskinesia in MPTP-treated common marmosets primed previously with L-dopa and whether co-administration of BTS 74 398 with L-dopa potentiates motor behaviour and dyskinesia induced by acute L-dopa treatment. Administration of BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg, p.o.) in MPTP-treated common marmosets increased locomotor activity and reduced motor disability in a dose-related manner but did not provoke involuntary movements. BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg p.o.) co-administered with a threshold dose of L-dopa (2.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not evoke a motor response or induce dyskinesia. Similarly, concomitant administration of BTS 74 398 (5.0 mg/kg p.o.) with a submaximal L-dopa dose (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not potentiate the motor response produced by L-dopa alone and there was no alteration in the dyskinesia provoked by L-dopa challenge. BTS 74 398 reverses motor abnormalities in MPTP-treated marmosets without evoking established dyskinesia but no additive improvement occurs when administered in combination with L-dopa. The lack of synergy with L-dopa may suggest different sites of drug action. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  19. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology. (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S


    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida (United States)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.


    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  1. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology. (United States)

    van Der Heijden, Robert; Jacobs, Denise I; Snoeijer, Wim; Hallard, Didier; Verpoorte, Robert


    The Catharanthus (or Vinca) alkaloids comprise a group of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids. Vinblastine is now marketed for more than 40 years as an anticancer drug and became a true lead compound for drug development. Due to the pharmaceutical importance and the low content in the plant of vinblastine and the related alkaloid vincristine, Catharanthus roseus became one of the best-studied medicinal plants. Consequently it developed as a model system for biotechnological studies on plant secondary metabolism. The aim of this review is to acquaint a broader audience with the recent progress in this research and with its exciting perspectives. The pharmacognostical aspects of the Catharanthus alkaloids cover botanical (including some historical), phytochemical and analytical data. An up-to-date view on the biosynthesis of the alkaloids is given. The pharmacological aspects of these alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives are only discussed briefly. The biotechnological part focuses on alternative production systems for these alkaloids, for example by in vitro culture of C. roseus cells. Subsequently it will be discussed to what extent the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated genetically ("metabolic engineering"), aiming at higher production levels of the alkaloids. Another approach is to produce the alkaloids (or their precursors) in other organisms such as yeast. Despite the availability of only a limited number of biosynthetic genes, the research on C. roseus has already led to a broad scientific spin-off. It is clear that many interesting results can be expected when more genes become available.

  2. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki


    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  3. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae]. (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R


    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  4. Interface of nuclear and biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Diaz-Balart, F.


    Addressing nuclear and biotechnologies in the International Year of Physics should begin by highlighting the important role that this science has played in the development of both branches of science and technologies. The first as a direct consequence of the Theory of Relativity, the further was considerably influenced by Schroedinger's remarks that there must be a code of some kind that allowed molecules in cells to carry information, making a connection between genes and proteins. Both, like any highly technical endeavor, have also in common that the use of technologies demands a vast accumulation of knowledge, i.e. volumes of scientific research, engineering analysis, strict regulatory controls and a huge amount of information combined with a complex assortment of people with the required educational background, expertise and skills to master it. This presentation briefly explores the ways in which nuclear technology has been used in the last decades of the 20th century in the field of biomedicine applications, which includes the use of radiation to obtain accurate images as well as in diagnosis and therapy. The paper looks at the present prospects of some nuclear methods and instrumentation in the so-called Red biotechnology and its genetically engineered therapeutic agents and diagnostic tests as well as some related perspectives in the field of bioinformatics. As an example of biotechnology being successfully applied to health problems in developing countries the presentation gives an outlook of relevant Cuban achievements in this field. (author)

  5. Scientific underpinnings of biotechnology regulatory frameworks. (United States)

    Gleim, Savannah; Smyth, Stuart J


    Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zappelli


    Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.

  7. The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smallholders farming system offer a bright prospect of meeting the growing demand for food by improving both yield and nutritional quality of crops and reducing the impact on the environment. Keywords: Biotechnology, food security, sustainable agriculture, developing countries, technology integration, population growth ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 5, No 15 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology: The possibilities and limits in the case of GMOs · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Influence of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in south west Nigeria · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Tanzania for the past 20 years. Researches on production of bio-energy, enzymes and organic acids are reviewed. Furthermore, researches related to wastewater treatment systems including water stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are covered.

  10. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam


    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent...

  11. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL


    The world obtains 86% of its energy from fossil fuels, 40% from petroleum, a majority of which goes to the transportation sector ( Well-recognized alternatives are fuels derived from renewable sources known as biofuels. There are a number of biofuels useful for transportation fuels, which include ethanol, biobutanol, mixed alcohols, biodiesel, and hydrogen. These biofuels are produced from biologically derived feedstock, almost exclusively being plant materials, either food or feed sources or inedible plant material called biomass. This chapter will discuss technologies for production of liquid transportation biofuels from renewable feedstocks, but hydrogen will not be included, as the production technology and infrastructure are not near term. In addition, a specific emphasis will be placed upon the research opportunities and potential for application of system biology tools to dissect and understand the biological processes central to production of these biofuels from biomass and biological materials. There are a number of technologies for production of each of these biofuels that range from fully mature processes such as grain-derived ethanol, emerging technology of ethanol form cellulose derived ethanol and immature processes such thermochemical conversion technologies and production of hydrogen all produced from renewable biological feedstocks. Conversion of biomass by various thermochemical and combustion technologies to produce thermochemical biodiesel or steam and electricity provide growing sources of bioenergy. However, these technologies are outside of the scope of this chapter, as is the use of biological processing for upgrading and conversion of fossil fuels. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the current status of production of biofuels produced from biological-derived feedstocks using biological processes. Regardless of the status of development of the biological process for production of the biofuels, each process can benefit from

  12. A Methodology for Measuring Voice Quality Using PESQ and Interactive Voice Response in the GSM Channel Designed by OpenBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila


    Full Text Available This article discusses a methodology for rating the quality of mobile calls. Majority telecommunications service from the perspective of the whole world is using mobile telephony networks. One of the problems affecting this service and its quality are landscape barriers, which prevent the spread signal. Price and complex construction of classic BTS does not allow their dense distribution. In such cases, one solution is to use OpenBTS technology. Design of OpenBTS is more available, so it can be applied to much more places and more complex points. Purpose of this measurement is a model for effective stations deployment, due to shape and distribution of local barriers that reduce signal power, and thus the quality of speech. GSM access point for our mobile terminals is OpenBTS USRP N210 station. The PESQ method for evaluating of speech quality is compared with the subjective evaluation, which provides Asterisk PBX with IVR call back. Measurement method was taken into account the call quality depending on terminal position. The measured results and its processing bring knowledge to use this technology for more complicated locations with degraded signal level and increases the quality of voice services in telecommunications.

  13. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie TDT; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G


    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. Significance Statement Chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers potential as a host for the production of high value compounds for industrial biotechnology. Synthetic biology provides a mechanism to generate generic, well characterised tools for application in the rational genetic manipulation of organisms: if synthetic biology principles were adopted for manipulation of C. reinhardtii, development of this microalga as an industrial biotechnology platform would be expedited. PMID:25641561

  14. Biotechnology information service of the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetzsch, E.


    The paper gives a survey of the biotechnology information in the GDR and describes the establishment of the Biotechnology Information Service of the GDR (BioInfo GDR). BioInfo GDR is a referral database and is to provide information on information sources available in the GDR, and on institutions working in the various fields of biotechnology in the GDR. In addition, some general problems of the building and use of databases are discussed. (author). 8 refs

  15. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  16. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois


    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry


    Popov Stevan


    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  18. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Biotechnology Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anttonen, John; Darnauer, Trish; Douglas, Tim; Ferrari, John; Zimdahl, Jennifer; Hall, Ian M; King, William; Klotzsche, Carl; Miller, Doug; Packard, Doug; Renegar, Mike; Rimback, Ed; Rogers, Gordon; Schnedar, Chris; Sekulovski, Zoran


    Defined broadly as the manipulation of genetic material in living organisms or the derivatives thereof, biotechnology represents a veritable gold mine of possibilities for improving the human condition...

  19. Biotechnological uses of archaeal extremozymes. (United States)

    Eichler, J


    Archaea have developed a variety of molecular strategies to survive the often harsh environments in which they exist. Although the rules that allow archaeal enzymes to fulfill their catalytic functions under extremes of salinity, temperature or pressure are not completely understood, the stability of these extremophilic enzymes, or extremozymes, in the face of adverse conditions has led to their use in a variety of biotechnological applications in which such tolerances are advantageous. In the following, examples of commercially important archaeal extremozymes are presented, potentially useful archaeal extremozyme sources are identified and solutions to obstacles currently hindering wider use of archaeal extremozymes are discussed.

  20. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009 (United States)

    2009-01-01 12 In 2007, the US share of world production was 42.6% for corn, 32.0% for soybeans , 9.3% for wheat, and 1.5...for rice. Of global exports, the US accounted for 64.5% for corn, 39.4% for soybeans , 32.1% for wheat, and 9.7% for rice. Jim Monke, CRS Report...papers.cfm?abstract_id=1321054 28 Monsanto Company, "Conversations About Plant Biotechnology," April 25, 2009, gmo /asp

  1. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  2. BTS randomised feasibility study of active symptom control with or without chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma: ISRCTN 54469112. (United States)

    Muers, M F; Rudd, R M; O'Brien, M E R; Qian, W; Hodson, A; Parmar, M K B; Girling, D J


    The incidence of mesothelioma is rising rapidly in the UK. There is no generally accepted standard treatment. The BTS recommends active symptom control (ASC). It is not known whether chemotherapy in addition prolongs survival or provides worthwhile palliation with acceptable toxicity. Palliation as recorded by patients has been fully reported for only two regimens: mitomycin, vinblastine, and cisplatin (MVP), and vinorelbine (N). The BTS and collaborators planned to conduct a phase III randomised trial comparing ASC only, ASC+MVP, and ASC+N in 840 patients with survival as the primary outcome measure. The aim of the present study was to assess the acceptability of the trial design to patients and the suitability of two standard quality of life (QL) questionnaires for mesothelioma. Collaborating centres registered all new patients with mesothelioma. Those eligible and giving informed consent completed EORTC QLQ-C30+LC13 and FACT-L QL questionnaires and were randomised between all three or any two of (1) ASC only, (2) ASC+4 cycles of MVP, and (3) ASC+12 weekly doses of N. During 1 year, 242 patients were registered of whom 109 (45%) were randomised (55% of the 197 eligible patients). Fifty two patients from 20 centres were randomised to an option including ASC only. This translates into a rate of 312 per year from 60 centres interested in collaborating in the phase III trial. The EORTC QL questionnaire was superior to FACT-L in terms of completeness of data and patient preference. Clinically relevant palliation was achieved with ASC. The planned phase III trial is feasible.

  3. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh


    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  4. National Rail Network: 1:100,000 (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_lin_BTS_2006 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  5. National Rail Network 1:2,000,000 (node), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_nd_BTS_2006 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  6. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns. (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R


    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Nikovskaya


    Full Text Available Analysis of information on air-conditioning contaminated with heavy metals sludge municipal wastewater points to the actual ecological and chemical problem and its solution could be implemented within the framework of the biological process involving heterotrophic microorganisms. Information on the spread, toxicity, biochemistry, microbiology, colloidal and chemical properties of sludge sediments of municipal wastewater biological treatment is given in the review. These sediments contain vitamins, amino acids, organic matter, heavy metals (micro- and macroelements. Therefore the most rational approach to sludge wastes utilization is their use as an agricultural fertilizer after partial removal of heavy metals. Hence, the interaction of sludge components with heavy metals, modern methods of their removing from biocolloidal systems and biotechnologies of conversion of sludge wastes into fertilizer based on the enhancing of vital ability of sludge biocenoses are discussed.

  8. Biotechnological interventions in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (United States)

    Singh, Pritika; Guleri, Rupam; Singh, Varinder; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kataria, Hardeep; Singh, Baldev; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar


    Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have facilitated the validation of therapeutic potential of the phytochemicals derived from W. somnifera and have provided necessary impetus for gaining deeper insight into the mechanistic aspects involved in the mode of action of these important pharmaceutically active constituents. The present review highlights some of the current developments and future prospects of biotechnological intervention in this important medicinal plant.

  9. Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorocki Sławomir


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

  10. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato


    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  11. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To map entrepreneurial collaboration we conducted a brief survey on collaborations of health biotechnology/pharmaceutical firms in developing nations. The survey was sent to firms in five developing countries that have been identified as having relatively strong health biotechnology sectors, Brazil, China, Cuba, India and ...

  12. Biotechnology - The role of perceptions of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Heerden


    Full Text Available The development of Biotechnology is aimed at creating improved products. Without the acceptance of biotechnology enhancements by consumers, the development of new products will be hampered. Consumers in different countries perceive genetic engineering differently. In this article the views of foreign and local consumers are investigated.

  13. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has been identified as the new engine of growth for the transformation of Malaysia into a developed nation by 2020. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of National Policy on biotechnology on media reporting in four Malaysian newspapers. Towards this end, a content analysis of four Malaysian ...

  14. Some limitations of the biotechnological revolution | Onyia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to challenge and possibly change the notion that biotechnology alone is the magic wand that brings solution to all of agriculture's pitfalls, by clarifying misconceptions concerning these underlying assumptions. The article reviews some of the highlights of modern plant biotechnology and ...

  15. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  16. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture | Ayoola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...

  17. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, ...

  18. Agricultural biotechnology research and development in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country that can have enormous benefit from the applications of biotechnology for increasing its agricultural productivity. The country is at initial stages of research and development in agricultural biotechnology with scattered efforts underway in various public institutions. Research efforts and ...

  19. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W


    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the

  20. Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Prospects and Challenges | Edun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased public demands for fish and dwindling natural marine habitats have encouraged scientists to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of fish and shellfish. Biotechnology allows scientists to identify and combine traits in fish and shellfish to increase productivity and improve quality. This article ...

  1. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  2. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host. (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G


    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China. (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai


    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  4. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai


    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world’s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. Objective: In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Conclusion: Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology. PMID:28553577

  5. [Occupational risk and prevention in the biotechnology industry: a review]. (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Colombi, A; Imbriani, M


    The biotechnology industry has expanded greatly in the last 20-30 years and has led to a number of applications in different sectors of work, i.e., medical and pharmaceutical, agricultural, chemical, energetic and others. Nowadays hundreds of thousands of workers worldwide are employed in biotechnology plants. Health and safety issues related to such working activities are considered as relevant to workers as well as to the general public. In particular, when compared to traditional biotechnology, modern methods of processing microrganisms have given rise to public concern that they might generate hazards to human beings and to the environment. After summarizing the most important products and fields of application, the paper sets out to detail potential adverse effects for the health of biotechnology workers; in addition, an analysis of the literature highlights the various concepts of primary and secondary prevention. Along with occupational risk factors common to other working activities (i.e. the well-known physical and chemical hazards), the peculiarity of handling microrganisms and/or different biologic systems may induce infections, immunological alterations or non-infective and non-immunologic toxic reactions in the workers involved The need is emphasized for an accurate risk assessment, careful control by means of the current monitoring strategies and implementation of the confinement measures, taking into account the criteria set by Italian legislation for occupational biological risk. Lastly, attention is focussed on examinations for the medical surveillance of workers at risk.

  6. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR


    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  7. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology. (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E


    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  8. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology. (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y


    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. Copyright © 2013

  9. New technologies in agricultural biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs


    Full Text Available Technologies that emerged during the last decade as new tools occasionally represent fundamentally new means of genome modification, which, in addition to the scientific novelty, faces legislators with new challenge by giving a new meaning to both the biochemical/molecular biological and legal meaning to genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Emerging plant genetic technologies are categorized as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN technology; oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis; cisgenesis and intragenesis; RNA-dependent DNA methylation by RNA interference; grafting on GM rootstock; reverse breeding; agro-infiltration; and synthetic genomics. Although all these methods apply biotechnology processes to create new plant varieties, it debated whether all result in GMOs according to the current legal definition. Official risk assessment of these technologies is a task of outstanding weight of the authority.

  10. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang


    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  11. DNA polymerases and biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Joos; Marx, Andreas


    A multitude of biotechnological techniques used in basic research as well as in clinical diagnostics on an everyday basis depend on DNA polymerases and their intrinsic capability to replicate DNA strands with astoundingly high fidelity. Applications with fundamental importance to modern molecular biology, including the polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, would not be feasible without the advances made in characterizing these enzymes over the course of the last 60 years. Nonetheless, the still growing application scope of DNA polymerases necessitates the identification of novel enzymes with tailor-made properties. In the recent past, DNA polymerases optimized for diverse PCR and sequencing applications as well as enzymes that accept a variety of unnatural substrates for the synthesis and reverse transcription of modified nucleic acids have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit


    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  13. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida


    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  14. Comparative analysis of LytS/LytTR-type histidine kinase/response regulator systems in γ-proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Behr

    Full Text Available Bacterial histidine kinase/response regulator systems operate at the interface between environmental cues and physiological states. Escherichia coli contains two LytS/LytTR-type histidine kinase/response regulator systems, BtsS/BtsR (formerly YehU/YehT and YpdA/YpdB, which have been identified as pyruvate-responsive two-component systems. Since they exhibit remarkable similarity, we analyzed their phylogenetic distribution within the γ-proteobacteria, and experimentally characterized them in a set of representative species. We found that BtsS/BtsR is the predominant LytS/LytTR-type two-component system among γ-proteobacteria, whereas YpdA/YpdB primarily appears in a supplementary role. Based on our observations in E. coli, we used the highly conserved DNA-binding motifs to test the in vivo functionality of both systems in various genera, including Salmonella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Xenorhabdus, Yersinia, Aeromonas and Vibrio. The results suggest that, in all cases tested, BtsS/BtsR and YpdA/YpdB respond to different levels of pyruvate in the environment.

  15. Biomaterials and biotechnology: from the discovery of the first angiogenesis inhibitors to the development of controlled drug delivery systems and the foundation of tissue engineering. (United States)

    Langer, Robert


    This paper describes the discovery of the first inhibitors of angiogenesis; the discoveries that led to the development of the first biocompatible controlled release systems for macromolecules, and findings that helped to create the field of tissue engineering. In addition, new paradigms for creating biomaterials, early work on nanotechnology in medicine and intelligent drug delivery systems are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu


    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  17. Colloidal Characteristics of Water Systems of Rhamnolipid Biocomplex of Strain Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 with Tween-80 and their Prospects for Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Karpenko


    Conclusions. The peculiarities of colloid-chemical characteristics of RBC and Tween-80 systems are determined, the prospects of their use for increasing efficiency of emulsification and sunflower growth stimulation are determined.

  18. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.


    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  19. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology]. (United States)

    Jiang, Ning


    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  20. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1. (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V


    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  1. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach. (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa


    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  2. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  3. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  4. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui


    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  5. Yeasts: From genetics to biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, S.; Poli, G. [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Siman-Tov, R.B. [Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)


    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the {open_quotes}biotechnological revolution{close_quotes} by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry. 175 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez


    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  7. Analysis of slope slip surface case study landslide road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan/Bts Jatim Km 89+400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnomo, Joko Sidik; Purwana, Yusep Muslih; Surjandari, Niken Silmi


    Wonogiri is a region of south eastern part of Central Java province which borders with East Java and Yogyakarta Province. In Physiographic its mostly undulating hills so that the frequent occurrence of landslides, especially during the rainy season. Landslide disaster that just happened that on the road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan / Bts Jatim Km 89 + 400 were included in the authority of the Highways Department of Central Java Province. During this time, Error analysis of slope stability is not caused by a lot of presumption shape of slip surface, but by an error in determining the location of the critical slip surface. This study aims to find the shape and location slip surface landslide on segment Purwantoro - Nawangan Km 89 + 400 with the interpretation of soil test results. This research method is with the interpretation of CPT test and Bore Hole as well as modeling use limit equilibrium method and finite element method. Processing contours of the slopes in the landslide area resulted in three cross section that slopes A-A, B-B and C-C which will be modeling the slopes. Modeling slopes with dry and wet conditions at the third cross section slope. It was found that the form of the slope slip surface are known to be composite depth 1.5-2 m with safety factor values more than 1.2 (stable) when conditions are dry slopes. But its became failure with factor of safety < 0.44 when conditions are wet slopes. (paper)

  8. Enhanced thermostability of silica-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 and synthesis of ethyl propionate. (United States)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Pahujani, Shweta; Ola, R P; Kanwar, S S; Gupta, Reena


    A lipase from the thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was produced and purified. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified lipase was immobilized on silica and its binding efficiency was found to be 60%. The enzyme took 60 min to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of immobilized lipase were same as those of the free enzyme, i.e. 8.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The immobilized enzyme had shown marked thermostability on the elevated temperatures of 55, 60, 65 and 70 degrees C. The immobilized enzyme was reused for eigth cycles as it retained almost 80% of its activity. The catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme was enhanced in n-hexane and ethanol. The immobilized enzyme when used for esterification of ethanol and propionic acid showed 96% conversion in n-hexane in 12 h at 55 degrees C.



    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov


    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  10. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike


    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  11. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement


    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.


    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improve...

  12. The role of biotechnology in art preservation. (United States)

    Ramírez, José Luis; Santana, María A; Galindo-Castro, Iván; Gonzalez, Alvaro


    Biotechnology has played a key role in medicine, agriculture and industry for over 30 years and has advanced our understanding of the biological sciences. Furthermore, the tools of biotechnology have a great and largely untapped potential for the preservation and restoration of our cultural heritage. It is possible that these tools are not often applied in this context because of the inherent separation of the worlds of art and science; however, it is encouraging to see that during the past six years important biotechnological applications to artwork preservation have emerged and advances in biotechnology predict further innovation. In this article we describe and reflect upon a unique example of a group of scientists and art restoration technicians working together to study and treat of a piece of colonial art, and review some of the new applications in biotechnology for the preservation of mankind's cultural heritage. We predict an expansion in this field and the further development of biotechnological techniques, which will open up new opportunities to both biologists and artwork preservers.

  13. Biotechnology to improve the environment; Biotecnologias para el remedio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Gil, J.; Ramos-Sanchez, M.C.; Martin-Gil, F.J. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)


    Whereas soil incineration perturbs the environment, and adsorption and stripping techniques do not destroy pollutants, the biotechnology promises to deliver important strategies for cleaning up the environment. The principle of the biological method is that microorganisms degrade organic pollutants and, in many cases, can use these compounds as growth substrate. By doing so, they detoxify or mineralize the pollutants to innocuous products. Bioremediation technologies use shotgun approaches, ultramicrobacteria systems, methanotrophs, bioluminescent bioreporter genes into bacteria, extremozymes, white rot fungi and supermicroalgi. Faced with the question of risk and despite the stringent regulatory requirements from EPA, European Union policies have contributed greatly to convincing that reasonable public health standards made feasible almost the types of bioremediation. In an economical view, the biotechnologies are less expensive than the physical and chemical methods and the companies are adopting them as their first choice. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Biotechnology of siderophores in high-impact scientific fields. (United States)

    De Serrano, Luis O


    Different aspects of bacterial and fungal siderophore biotechnological applications will be discussed. Areas of application presented include, but are not limited to agriculture, medicine, pharmacology, bioremediation, biodegradation and food industry. In agriculture-related applications, siderophores could be employed to enhance plant growth due to their uptake by rhizobia. Siderophores hindered the presence of plant pathogens in biocontrol strategies. Bioremediation studies on siderophores discuss mostly the mobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides; the emulsifying effects of siderophore-producing microorganisms in oil-contaminated environments are also presented. The different applications found in literature based in medicine and pharmacological approaches range from iron overload to drug delivery systems and, more recently, vaccines. Additional research should be done in siderophore production and their metabolic relevance to have a deeper understanding for future biotechnological advances.

  15. Opening remarks SIVB congress 2001: opportunities and challenges in plant biotechnology. (United States)

    Bond, Christopher


    U.S. Senator Christopher Bond joined Dr. Roger Beachy at the podium during the Society for In Vitro Biology's 2001 Congress Plenary Session on Opportunities and Challenges in Plant Biotechnology to Benefit Health and Sustainability, on June 17, 2001, in St. Louis, Missouri. Senator Bond presented an advocate's view regarding the benefits of plant biotechnology development. The strengths of the biotechnology regulatory system were extolled. The opportunities of this new technology to produce more and nutritionally superior food, additional plant-based medicines and vaccines, plant-based renewable sources of energy, and renewable industrial products were outlined. The benefits to the environment by adopting plant biotechnological innovations were discussed. Developing public policy regarding this new technology should be based on facts, science, and reason.

  16. Chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali


    Full Text Available Biotechnology is expected to be a great technological revolution followed by information technology. It is an application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide better goods and services to mankind. Commercially its techniques are applied long back in 6 th century in the art of brewing, wine making and baking. It has progressed there after crossing different land marks. Modern biotechnology has developed significantly in the late 19 th century with groundbreaking discoveries applicable in medicine, food, agriculture, chemistry, environmental protection and many more industries. It is widely used in the development of high-yielding, disease-resistant, better quality varieties by applying tissue culture and recombinant DNA techniques. It has wide application in animal breeding using techniques such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Specific enzymes used in laundry, fuel and leather industries for better quality, economically feasible and environmental friendly production. Biotechnology in healthcare system uses body′s own tools and weapons to fight against diseases, manufacturing of targeted therapeutic proteins, gene therapy and so on. Novel approaches such as proteomics and structural biology are contributing to understanding the chemistry of life and diseases. Malfunctioning gene replaced with correctly functioning gene by using gene therapy. Tissue engineering has opened up the use of in vitro developed tissue or organ in repairing wounded tissue and system biology which is a computer-based approach to understand cell functions. Although every new discovery related to biology and its implications is significant and has taken the technology ahead. This includes applications, commercialization, controversies, media exposure and so on. Hence, we have enlisted some of the chronological development avenues in biotechnology across the world.

  17. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology. (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh


    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology. (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun


    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche


    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  20. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer


    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  1. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak


    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  2. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  3. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Giuliano, Mariateresa; De Rosa, Mario


    Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest. PMID:15803645

  4. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy. (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng


    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  5. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic......, translation, transformation and transmission of information. The idea is also to investigate how this debate may influence the “integrative agenda” in biology, especially at a time in which biotechnology is considered to be the industrial use of “biological information”. I introduce concepts....... Finally I make a connection between a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology and sustainability, with a glimpse into the future....

  6. Biotechnology: Health care, agriculture, industry, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikyta, B.; Pavlasova, E.; Stejskalova, E.


    New developments in different branches of biotechnology are discussed. The production of peptide hormones, new interferons and other lymphokines by the microbial and cell cultures, and new enzyme inhibitors of microbial origin are the most important for health care and pharmacy. The main direction in research in the agriculture represents the development of the new, very effective methods of nitrogen fixation and the production of animal growth hormones by gene manipulated microorganisms. One of the most important field of application of biotechnology is the chemical industry, c.f. microbial production of polymers and biotransformation of compounds previously produced by chemical methods (acrylamide, adipic acid, naphthalene conversion, etc.). Several novel methods of degradation of the cellulosic materials are mentioned and exploitation of biotechnology in environmental protection is also discussed.

  7. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: qualitative comparative case study in primary care. (United States)

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Huby, Guro; Pinnock, Hilary; Gillies, John; Sheikh, Aziz


    Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff's knowledge or increased clinical resource and time, which are

  8. Biosafety Assessment of Microbial Strains Used in Biotechnology According to Their Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Sheina


    Full Text Available A great variety of biotechnological products are now widely used in different ways in agriculture, medicine, food manufacturing and other areas of our life. Industrialized societies now more than ever depend on the use of genetically engineered products, with many of them synthesized using recombinant strains of microorganisms. There is an opinion that microbial strains used in biotechnology are potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Similar to many other countries, we have enacted environmental legislation in an effort to balance the risks and benefits of using biotechnological strains. Although environmental monitoring rules focus mainly on safety assessments of chemicals, the biosafety assessment of microbial strains used in biotechnology is a very important issue as well. This article summarizes 15 years of research on the biotechnological strains of microbes widely used as producers of various biological substances for industrial purposes, and their environmental and biotechnological applications. In our survey, we tried to evaluate possible adverse effects (general toxicity and damage to the immune system, potential sensitizing effects, and damage to normal microbiota caused by these microbes. It was shown that microscopical fungi of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Candida, and some gram-negative bacteria can affect the immune system and disrupt the normal balance of microbial flora of the intestinal tract in rats. The actinomycetes are less dangerous in that they cause fewer side effects. The investigation data obtained can be used to develop safety and hygienic standards for industrial microbes that will help decrease or minimize the occupational risk of infection or damage to the immune system when working with biotechnological strains of microbes.

  9. Microbial biotechnology addressing the plastic waste disaster. (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; O'Connor, Kevin E


    Oceans are a major source of biodiversity, they provide livelihood, and regulate the global ecosystem by absorbing heat and CO 2 . However, they are highly polluted with plastic waste. We are discussing here microbial biotechnology advances with the view to improve the start and the end of life of biodegradable polymers, which could contribute to the sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems (UN Sustainability development goal 14). © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes. (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio


    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  11. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.



    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  12. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura


    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  13. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"? (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward


    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  14. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in interfirm cooperation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, e; Claassen, E.


    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  15. Biotechnology Commercialization Strategies: Risk and Return in Interfirm Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernald, K.D.S.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Claassen, E.


    The management and exploitation of biotechnological product innovation have proven to be more difficult than initially expected because the number of currently marketed biotechnological products is far from sufficient to counter deficits in pharmaceutical innovation. This study provides insight into

  16. The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the rapid exploitation of biotechnology for the socioeconomic development of Cameroon, subject to the mobilization of the necessary venture capital. Keywords: Cameroon, Biotechnology, GMO, Biodiversity, Economic Development, Recombinant DNA JOURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.

  17. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.


    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  18. Nuclear technology and biotechnology for enhancing agricultural production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Osman


    The presentation discussed the following subjects: sustainable development, agriculture in Malaysia, role of biotechnology, role of nuclear technology, improving crops through induced mutations with Malaysian experience in rice and roselle, fusion of nuclear and biotechnology challenges and opportunities


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considering national priorities for application of biotechnology for more than a decade ... while safeguarding human health and environmental integrity. .... NACBAA, 1991. National Advisory Committee on Biotechnology Advances and Their. Applications. Ministry of Research, Technical. Training & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Agricultural Biotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges for the Philippines


    Padolina, William G.


    Developing countries, still heavily dependent on agriculture, must now harness biotechnology to modernize agricultural production and diversify product outputs. The Philippines was one of the first Asian countries to establish a biotechnology research and development program. However, not much progress in harnessing the tools of biotechnology has been achieved, especially in the area of varietal improvement. Although there was an early realization of the importance of biotechnology in nationa...

  1. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  2. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of ... security and provide the genetic material needed for industry, agriculture and biotechnology. In agriculture .... benefit assessment in different fields is of fundamental importance in moulding any policy. Even.

  3. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.


    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  4. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko


    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  5. Democratization of Science and Biotechnological Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mandela government that came into power in 1994 made the democratization of science and technology a priority in post-apartheid South Africa. Attendant ideas of Science Communication and Public Understanding of Biotechnology have hitherto become currency in South Africa's public sector drive towards the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that ...

  7. Biotechnology, genetic conservation and sustainable use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    technologies. The use of biotechnological tools and “bioprospecting” will open new vistas in medicine, agriculture, silviculture, horticulture, environment and other important issues. This paper reviews ... E-mail: human needs ..... (iii) Particle mediated gene transfer, using gene gun. REFERENCES.

  8. Magnetic nano- and microparticles in biotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava


    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 497-505 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic particles * smart material Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  9. Linking Biotechnology and Agricultural Biodiversity Resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern economic activities are heavily dependent on using diversity of biological resources. Africa has a wealth of biodiversity resources which, with the appropriate application of biotechnological tools for conservation and use, can serve as sources of wealth creation. Proper harnessing of the linkages between ...

  10. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  11. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu


    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB), a new broad-based journal, was founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting research in all areas of applied biochemistry, industrial microbiology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics, food and agricultural technologies, and metabolic engineering. Secondly ...

  13. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making. (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  14. Optimizing the acceleration of biotechnology innovation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science biotechnology has been attributed a superior platform in Malaysian government plan for wealth creation in the 9th Malaysian plan and policy of Malaysia's science and technology in 21st century; it has been accepted and categorized as a complicated emerging issue to illustrate high prominence combined with ...

  15. The dynamic and ubiquitous nature of biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... plant breeding, and tissue culture and the medical sciences in the area of gene therapy, production of bioactive products for the quick diagnosis and treatment of diseases, this paper discusses the use of biotechnology in other areas of human endeavours like computer science, physics, mathematics,.

  16. Dendritic platforms for biomimicry and biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Nagpal, Kalpana; Mohan, Anand; Thakur, Sourav; Kumar, Pradeep


    Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures". An extensive biotech/biomimicry application profiling of dendrimers is provided with focus on complex archetypical designs such as protein biomimicry (angiogenic inhibitors, regenerative hydroxyapatite and collagen) and biotechnology applications. In terms of biotechnological advances, dendrimers have provided distinctive advantages in the fields of biocatalysis, microbicides, artificial lights, mitochondrial function modulation, vaccines, tissue regeneration and repair, antigen carriers and even biosensors. In addition, this review provides overview of the extensive chemo-functionalization opportunities available with dendrimers which makes them a perfect candidate for forming drug conjugates, protein hybrids, bio mimics, lipidic derivatives, metal deposits and nanoconjugates thereby making them the most multifunctional platforms for diverse biotechnological applications.

  17. Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On the conference 'Modern trends in biochemistry and biotechnology' several lectures concerned influence of ionizing radiation on the animal cells. Changes in the cell division caused by radiation induced DNA damage were discussed. Application of single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) in assessment of DNA damages was the subject of dedicated session

  18. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology. (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl


    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  19. Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose biotechnology: issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. ... and secondly to highlight some of the modern approaches which potentially could be used to tackle one of the major impediments, namely high enzyme cost, to speed-up the extensive commercialisation of the lignocellulose bioprocessing.

  20. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 29, 2008 ... potential to improve the quality and quantity of fish reared in aquaculture, although, not without significant contro ... benefits both producers and consumers of aquacultural products. Areas of biotechnology in .... become easier with the development of artificial breeding techniques, such as the use of pituitary ...

  1. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    May 2013. This Course is aimed at giving the participants a hands-on training on some modern biotechnological techniques including DNA/RNA isolation from various sources, molecular cloning, PCR and RT-PCR. A variety of teaching methods like lectures by eminent scientists, discussion and laboratory work focussing ...

  2. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently

  3. Biotechnology issues in four Malaysian mainstream newspapers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... Data analysis found that tones in this study are more positive, (which is used by journalist to report issue concerning biotechnology) compared with negative tones. (Table 6). Analysis using the chi-square method revealed a chi-square value of 8.245 which was significant at the. 0.05 level (P = 0.004).

  4. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has scaled many hurdles of advancement into a science that now covers all realms of human endeavours. It has been elevated into a pedestal of solving many of man's intractable problems of survival in this planet. Researches in biotech has now been intensified in medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, ...

  5. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk


    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have

  6. The Brave New World of Biotechnology (United States)

    Reese, Susan


    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  7. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger


    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  8. Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at attempts that have been made to develop legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology. The discussion is limited to the regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) technology by the two leading producers and exporters of GMOs in Africa: South Africa and Kenya. The international and ...

  9. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia. (United States)

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu


    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology]. (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen


    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  11. Assessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies: Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The workshop on which this volume is based represents one of the first formal activities of the "Canada–Latin America Initiative on Biotechnology, the Environment and Sustainable Development" (CamBioTec). The decision by IDRC to host this workshop reflects a recognition of the need for careful, rigorous analysis of the ...

  12. Industrial use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, S.J.


    In the past the biological research was restricted within the boundary of laboratories and the subsequent results were often employed merely to strengthen the research knowledge and information. In life sciences, the traditional methods took years in proving the biological facts. At the leg of last century, the practical application of biotechnology provided a powerful tool to mankind that has led to a revolutionary change in modern agriculture. In the present era, the economy of agro-based countries all over the world is dependent on the adaptation of the pattern of crop-production and their improvement through modern biotechnological means. Biotechnology is in fact the name of a combination of techniques involved to make the full use of living organisms, either in total or in part, for the benefit of plants, animals or human beings. Progressive and dynamic investors, associated with researches/scientists, should be encouraged to step forward for the mobilization of emerging trend of biotechnological industry in agriculture. Researcher/Scientists of biological programmes in Pakistan should be encouraged at Government level to come forward in contributing their tremendous role to boost Agr- industry in the country. (author)

  13. Regulation of Biotechnology in Cameroon W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, enabled Cameroon to be among the pioneers in the African Region in enacting a national legislation on Biosafety. Law No. 2003/ O06 of 21*'. April 2003 regulating Safety in Modern Biotechnology in Cameroon, translates the Cartagena. Protocol into national realities.

  14. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Modern Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    knowledge to boost their confidence in handling modern instruments used in the discipline of life sciences and modern biotechnology. Skills gained during this Course will help them effectively fulfill their role as better researchers and teachers. The Course will consist of 2–3 lectures everyday followed by equal duration of ...

  15. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and minimize (or totally obviate) the need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

  16. National strategy of safety of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document was drafted in the frame of the sustainable development, the social fairness, the citizen participation; in Bolivia the management of the biotechnology and the security of the same one are identified for the first time to the actors involved in constituting in a document for the sustainable management of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in Bolivia [es

  17. Awareness and knowledge on modern biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 30, 2011 ... modern biotechnology among the Malaysian public in the. Klang Valley region and to compare their awareness and knowledge level across several demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The research data was collected by means of a face to face survey of adult (age 18 years old and ...

  18. Biotechnology: Advances and Prospects for Sustainability, in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is a multi-disciplinary branch of science whose applications are diverse and because science is dynamic, there is tremendous development in the use of biotechnology in the world. Advances of biotechnology are prominent in Nigeria, where government initiative, the private sector as well as that of NGOs are ...

  19. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol


    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  20. Analyses of Methods and Algorithms for Modelling and Optimization of Biotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Stoyanov


    Full Text Available A review of the problems in modeling, optimization and control of biotechnological processes and systems is given in this paper. An analysis of existing and some new practical optimization methods for searching global optimum based on various advanced strategies - heuristic, stochastic, genetic and combined are presented in the paper. Methods based on the sensitivity theory, stochastic and mix strategies for optimization with partial knowledge about kinetic, technical and economic parameters in optimization problems are discussed. Several approaches for the multi-criteria optimization tasks are analyzed. The problems concerning optimal controls of biotechnological systems are also discussed.

  1. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in. (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred


    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  2. The role of biotechnology to ensure rice food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, P.S.


    Rice as a food is key to the survival of more than 60% of the world population, most of whom live in Asia. Food security in Asia is therefore strongly dependent on an adequate, available supply of affordable rice. Experts estimate that global rice supply would need to increase at an average of 1.7% per annum for the next 20 years, and average rice yields must roughly double in the next 20 years in both the irrigated and favourable rainfed lowland environments, if a global shortage is to be avoided. At the same time that the need to increase total production, and unit area productivity is being felt, society is also demanding that agricultural practices be environment friendly and be part of a sustainable agricultural system. Rice breeders have seen increased difficulties to source and utilize new genetic resources for genetic improvement of yield potential from within the rice genome. As with other cereals, rice yield potential has not been dramatically increased in the last decade when compared to the quantum increase of the early Green Revolution years. Furthermore, pest-induced losses currently account for up to 30% of the loss in yield potential. Biotechnology, especially recombinant DNA technology, offers tools to transfer genes from outside the rice genome to address the critical issues of raising the yield potential, increasing tolerance or resistance to insects, diseases and a biotic stresses, to increase the efficiency of pest management, and also to improve the nutritive value of the rice grain. Genetically modified crops have a demonstrated record of environmental and food safety, and all such crops undergo a process of safety assessment and regulatory approval before they are put into the marketplace. Serious social issues, however, arise in matching the capacity of biotechnology to change crops, and in what changes society is willing to accept; and at this early stage of biotechnology applications, science-based approaches are important so that emotion

  3. Application of a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for PCB Removal from Older Structures on DoD Facilities (United States)


    that fell on floors, collected in concrete pores, settled or condensed onto pipes, beams and equipment during production of ammunition ( Plexus containerized by the sampling personnel in approved Department of Transportation (DOT) drums that can be sealed, locked and transported to a...Kit saran wrap buckets Fire Exinguisher waste disposal (ie.drums) flow through cell/beakers HASP zip lock bags field filters LEL meter blue ice waste

  4. Using the Battlefield Telemedicine System (BTS) to train deployed medical personnel in complicated medical tasks - a proof of concept. (United States)

    Irizarry, Daniel; Wadman, Michael C; Bernhagen, Mary A; Miljkovic, Nikola; Boedeker, Ben H


    This work describes the use of Adobe Connect software along with algorithm software to provide the necessary audio visual communication platform for telementoring a complex medical procedure to novice providers located at a distant site.

  5. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain


    Björnberg, Karin; Jonas, Elisabeth; Marstorp, Håkan; Tidåker, Pernilla


    Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, p...

  6. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.


    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  7. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy


    Antoine Harfouche; Sacha Khoury; Francesco Fabbrini; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza


    The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lig...

  8. Biotechnological potential of marine natural products


    Fusetani, Nobuhiro


    The number of marine natural products (MNPs) that have been applied to biotechnological industry is very limited, although nearly 20000 new compounds were discovered from marine organisms since the birth of MNPs in the early 1970s. However, it is apparent that they have a significant potential as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, research tools, and others. This article focuses on selective antitumor metabolites isolated from marine sponges and tunicates, and their modes of action, ...

  9. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation


    Les Levidow; Susan Carr


    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  10. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms


    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial producti...

  11. Additive Biotech-Chances, challenges, and recent applications of additive manufacturing technologies in biotechnology. (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Lode, Anja; Seidel, Julia; Bley, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael; Steingroewer, Juliane


    The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity. This review discusses the historical background of these technologies, their most promising current implementations and the associated workflows, fabrication processes and material specifications, together with some of the major challenges associated with using AM in biotechnology/bioprocess engineering. To illustrate the great potential of AM, selected examples in microfluidic devices, 3D-bioprinting/biofabrication and bioprocess engineering are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotechnology of the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta: a little investigated member of the Apocynaceae family. (United States)

    Akhgari, Amir; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko


    Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that is widely distributed in the Middle East and Indian sub-continent. It produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) some of which possess important pharmacological properties. However, the yields of these compounds are very low. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient transformation method and induction of hairy roots system is a vital prerequisite for application of biotechnology in order to improve secondary metabolite yields. In the present review, recent biotechnological attempts and advances in TIAs production through transformed hairy root cultures in R. stricta are reviewed to draw the attention to its metabolic engineering potential.

  13. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology. (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L


    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  14. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects. (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M


    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir


    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  16. Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-Regulation Dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prosnitz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Velsko, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop on August 19, 2016 to consider “Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-­Regulation Dilemma”. The topic was motivated by the observation that non-­government funded biotechnology research and development activities have grown and diversified tremendously over the past decade. This sector encompasses a broad range of actors and activities: individuals with private laboratories, community “hackerspaces,” biotechnology incubators, and individual startups. Motivations and aspirations are diverse and include such things as personal curiosity, community education, the invention of new products or services, and even the realization of certain economic, political, or social goals. One driving force is the “democratization” of ever more powerful biological technologies, allowing individual citizens and groups access to capabilities that have traditionally only been available to researchers in universities, research institutes, national laboratories, and large commercial concerns. Another is the rise of alternative financing mechanisms such as “crowdsourcing,” which ostensibly provide greater freedom to innovate, and greater public visibility, but entail looser management oversight and transparency.

  17. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology. (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico


    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented.

  18. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: Qualitative comparative case study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Methods Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. Results There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. Conclusion In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff

  19. Striatal output markers do not alter in response to circling behaviour in 6-OHDA lesioned rats produced by acute or chronic administration of the monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398. (United States)

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S; Jenner, P


    The monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats without induction of abnormal motor behaviours associated with L-dopa administration. We examined whether this was reflected in the expression of peptide mRNA in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways.6-OHDA lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway increased striatal expression of PPE-A mRNA and decreased levels of PPT mRNA with PPE-B mRNA expression remaining unchanged. Acute L-dopa administration normalised PPE-A mRNA and elevated PPT mRNA while PPE-B mRNA expression remained unchanged. Acute administration of BTS 74 398 did not alter striatal peptide mRNA levels. Following chronic treatment with L-dopa, PPE-A mRNA expression in the lesioned striatum continued to be normalised and PPT mRNA was increased compared to the intact side. PPE-B mRNA expression was also markedly increased relative to the non-lesioned striatum. Chronic BTS 74 398 administration did not alter mRNA expression in the 6-OHDA lesioned striatum although small increases in PPT mRNA expression in the intact and sham lesioned striatum were observed. The failure of BTS 74 398 to induce changes in striatal neuropeptide mRNA correlated with its failure to induce abnormal motor behaviours or behavioural sensitisation but does not explain how it produces a reversal of motor deficits. An action in another area of the brain appears likely and may explain the subsequent failure of BTS 74 398 and related compounds to exert anti-parkinsonian actions in man.

  20. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds. (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J


    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  1. Oligosaccharide biotechnology: an approach of prebiotic revolution on the industry. (United States)

    Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; da Silva, Juliana Bueno; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessoa, Marina Gabriel; Pastore, Gláucia Maria


    Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12.7% in the next 8 years, so manufacturers are developing new alternatives to obtain sustainable and efficient processes for application on a large scale. Most studied examples of biotechnological processes involve the development of new strategies for fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide, and mannanooligosaccharide synthesis. Among these, the use of whole cells in fermentation, synthesis of microbial enzymes (β-fructofuranosidases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, and β-mannanases), and enzymatic process development (permeabilization, immobilization, gene expression) can be highlighted, especially if the production costs are reduced by the use of agro-industrial residues or by-products such as molasses, milk whey, cotton stalks, corncobs, wheat straw, poplar wood, sugarcane bagasse, and copra meal. This review comprises recent studies to demonstrate the potential for biotechnological production of oligosaccharides, and also aspects that need more investigation for future applications in a large scale.

  2. Stability studies needed to define the handling and transport conditions of sensitive pharmaceutical or biotechnological products. (United States)

    Ammann, Claude


    Many pharmaceutical or biotechnological products require transport using temperature-controlled systems to keep their therapeutic properties. There are presently no official guidelines for testing pharmaceutical products in order to define suitable transport specifications. After reviewing the current guidance documents, this paper proposes a methodology for testing pharmaceutical products and defining appropriate transport conditions.

  3. Metallic nanoparticles: microbial synthesis and unique properties for biotechnological applications, bioavailability and biotransformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.; Mehboob, F.; Stams, A.J.M.; Mota, M.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Alves, M.M.


    The impact of nanotechnology in all areas of science and technology is evident. The expanding availability of a variety of nanostructures with properties in the nanometer size range has sparked widespread interest in their use in biotechnological systems, including the field of environmental

  4. Biotechnology development for biomedical applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Michael; Brozik, Susan Marie; Rogers, David Michael; Rempe, Susan L.; Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Hatch, Anson V.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Sukharev, Sergei (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Anishken, Andriy (University of Maryland, College Park, MD); Cicotte, Kirsten; De Sapio, Vincent; Buerger, Stephen P.; Mai, Junyu


    Sandia's scientific and engineering expertise in the fields of computational biology, high-performance prosthetic limbs, biodetection, and bioinformatics has been applied to specific problems at the forefront of cancer research. Molecular modeling was employed to design stable mutations of the enzyme L-asparaginase with improved selectivity for asparagine over other amino acids with the potential for improved cancer chemotherapy. New electrospun polymer composites with improved electrical conductivity and mechanical compliance have been demonstrated with the promise of direct interfacing between the peripheral nervous system and the control electronics of advanced prosthetics. The capture of rare circulating tumor cells has been demonstrated on a microfluidic chip produced with a versatile fabrication processes capable of integration with existing lab-on-a-chip and biosensor technology. And software tools have been developed to increase the calculation speed of clustered heat maps for the display of relationships in large arrays of protein data. All these projects were carried out in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX.

  5. Nootkatone--a biotechnological challenge. (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco A; Berger, Ralf G; Zorn, Holger


    Due to its pleasant grapefruit-like aroma and various further interesting molecular characteristics, (+)-nootkatone represents a highly sought-after specialty chemical. (+)-Nootkatone is accumulated in its producer plants in trace amounts only, and the demand of the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry is currently predominantly met by chemical syntheses. These typically require environmentally critical reagents, catalysts and solvents, and the final product must not be marketed as a "natural flavour" compound. Both the market pull and the technological push have thus inspired biotechnologists to open up more attractive routes towards natural (+)-nootkatone. The multifaceted approaches for the de novo biosynthesis or the biotransformation of the precursor (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone are reviewed. Whole-cell systems of bacteria, filamentous fungi and plants, cell extracts or purified enzymes have been employed. A prominent biocatalytic route is the allylic oxidation of (+)-valencene. It allows the production of natural (+)-nootkatone in high yields under mild reaction conditions. The first sequence data of (+)-valencene-converting activities have just become known.

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits. (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo


    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The role of biotechnology in combating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, Philipp; Gagalac, Florabelle; Scholderer, Joachim


    Biotechnology is a platform technology that may significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, biotechnology is hardly ever referred to as “clean technology”. This paper investigates why biotechnology tends to be ignored in this context. A global stakeholder survey...... on biotechnology and climate change was conducted with 55 representatives of 44 institutions. The results of a perception pattern analysis show that the majority of stakeholder representatives had a neutral or positive attitude towards the use of biotechnology and regarded its potential to address climate change...... problems as significant. The survey results further reveal a significant relationship between a representative’s institutional and disciplinary background and his or her attitude. The respective background appears to determine to a considerable extent whether biotechnology is framed as a risk...

  8. From the tumor-inducing principle to plant biotechnology and its importance for society. (United States)

    Angenon, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Montagu, Marc


    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc Van Montagu. Research in the group of Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell in the 1970s was essential to reveal how the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA to host plants to cause crown gall disease. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying gene transfer, subsequently led to the development of plant transgene technology, an indispensable tool in fundamental plant research and plant improvement. In the early 1980s, Marc Van Montagu founded a start-up company, Plant Genetic Systems, which successfully developed insect-resistant plants, herbicide-tolerant plants and a hybrid seed production system based on nuclear male sterility. Even before the first transgenic plant had been produced, Marc Van Montagu realized that the less developed countries might benefit most from plant biotechnology and throughout his subsequent career, this remained a focus of his efforts. After becoming emeritus professor, he founded the Institute of Plant Biotechnology Outreach (IPBO), which aims to raise awareness of the major role that plant biotechnology can play in sustainable agricultural systems, especially in less developed countries. Marc Van Montagu has been honored with many prizes and awards, the most recent being the prestigious World Food Prize 2013. In this paper, we look to the past and present of plant biotechnology and to the promises this technology holds for the future, on the basis of the personal perspective of Marc Van Montagu.

  9. Carbon, food and fuel security - will biotechnology solve this irreconcilable trinity? (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne


    The emergence of food security as a key policy issue in developed nations has been concomitant with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the implementation of Environmental Management Systems in primary industries. Biotechnological interventions such as biorefinery platforms that produce chemicals and fuels provide opportunities to reconcile the security and environmental sustainability criteria increasingly sought after by governments. Indeed, sustainable and more carbon neutral options have been positively benchmarked against scenarios based solely on petrochemical feedstocks. Notably, biotechnology companies are beginning to use Environmental Management Systems employed by other industries to advocate the benefits of green technologies that employ GM, industrial enzymes and bio-materials. Management systems such as Life Cycle Analysis are providing a powerful means to measure benefits and augment change in the biotechnology sector. These methods are discussed here in the context of the emergent 21st Century debates on security. The evidence presented leads to a conclusion where biotechnologies are likely to offer increasingly high impact options for sustainability and security criteria required for food and fuel supply.

  10. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review


    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Pr?as, M?nica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; D?az, Paula; L?pez, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe


    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  11. Production and employment impacts of new technologies: analysis for biotechnology


    Wydra, Sven


    Biotechnology is often regarded as a key technology with high potential for far-reaching social, environmental and economic impacts. Among others, the development and diffusion of biotechnology may have considerable economic effects on production and employment. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of different diffusion paths of biotechnology in some major application fields. Bottom-up technology information from literature, expert judgements and explicit scenario assumptions for variou...

  12. The role of plant biotechnology methods in sustainable agriculture


    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka


    Plant biotechnology is set of different scientific approaches and methods that are utilized to improve and modify plants for human and environmental benefit. Plant biotechnology can be used to meet the increasing need for food by improving yields, improving the nutritional quality of crops and recuing the impact on the environment. Plant biotechnology can assist to creation of varieties resistant to frost, droughts and floods, pests and disease, and other abiotic and biotic stresses. Similarl...



    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.


    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  14. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics]. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang


    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  15. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success. (United States)

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I


    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  16. Culture collections and the biotechnology deal. (United States)

    Sievers, Martin; Dasen, Gottfried; Wermelinger, Tobias; Landert, Silvano; Frasson, David


    Culture collections provide starting material for life science research, development and production. Especially in biotechnology, well characterised and pure microbial strains are essential for reproducible and safe bioprocesses. Culture collections also play a role as repositories of biological material for future applications and help to preserve biological diversity. In addition, they also maintain the know-how needed for more complex identification methods and help to develop new techniques. To enable culture collections to achieve higher quality standards, new certification guidelines for biological resource centres are currently being developed.

  17. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath


    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  18. Production of vanillin: a biotechnological opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugsch, Andreas; Pastores, Glaucia .


    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the food and fragrance industry. Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was isolated from the vanilla beans in 1816 and its world consumption has reached today about 12000 tons per year. But only approximately 50 tons per year are extracted from vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia). The remainder is provided by synthetic vanillin. This review is about alternative processes to produce natural vanillin de novo or by biotransformation using biotechnological methods involving enzymes, microorganisms and plant cells. (author)

  19. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta


    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  20. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.


    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  1. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community (United States)

    Andrée, Maria


    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  2. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community (United States)

    Andrée, Maria


    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  3. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. (United States)


    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. A waiver from any provision of this system of accounts or reports may be made by the BTS upon its...

  4. Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis. (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Tonelli, Flávia C P; Costa, Guilherme M J; de França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R


    The history of transgenesis is marked by milestones such as the development of cellular transdifferentiation, recombinant DNA, genetic modification of target cells, and finally, the generation of simpler genetically modified organisms (e.g. bacteria and mice). The first transgenic fish was developed in 1984, and since then, continuing technological advancements to improve gene transfer have led to more rapid, accurate, and efficient generation of transgenic animals. Among the established methods are microinjection, electroporation, lipofection, viral vectors, and gene targeting. Here, we review the history of animal transgenesis, with an emphasis on fish, in conjunction with major developments in genetic engineering over the past few decades. Importantly, spermatogonial stem cell modification and transplantation are two common techniques capable of revolutionizing the generation of transgenic fish. Furthermore, we discuss recent progress and future biotechnological prospects of fish transgenesis, which has strong applications for the aquaculture industry. Indeed, some transgenic fish are already available in the current market, validating continued efforts to improve economically important species with biotechnological advancements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes. (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki


    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.


    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  7. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health. (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar


    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  8. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang


    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria. (United States)

    Santos-Gandelman, Juliana F; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Oelemann, Walter M R; Laport, Marinella S


    As sessile and filter-feeding metazoans, marine sponges represent an ecologically important and highly diverse component of marine benthic communities throughout the world. It has been suggested that marine sponges are hosts to many microorganisms which can constitute up to 40-60% of its biomass. Recently, sponges have attracted a high interest from scientific community because two important factors. First there is the fact that sponges have a wide range of associated bacteria; and, second, they are a rich source of bioactive substances. Since 1950, a number of bioactive substances with various pharmacological functions have been isolated from marine sponges. However, many of these substances were subsequently shown to be actually synthesized by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacteria associated with marine sponges constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential such as antimicrobial substances, enzymes and surfactants. In addition, these bacteria may be biofilm forming and can act as bioindicators in bioremediation processes of environmental pollution caused by oil and heavy metals. This review focuses on the biotechnological applications of these microorganisms.

  10. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  11. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances. (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A


    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  12. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias


    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  13. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology. (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin


    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  14. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan


    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  15. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops. (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B


    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population.

  16. Microbial mat ecosystems: Structure types, functional diversity, and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Prieto-Barajas


    Full Text Available Microbial mats are horizontally stratified microbial communities, exhibiting a structure defined by physiochemical gradients, which models microbial diversity, physiological activities, and their dynamics as a whole system. These ecosystems are commonly associated with aquatic habitats, including hot springs, hypersaline ponds, and intertidal coastal zones and oligotrophic environments, all of them harbour phototrophic mats and other environments such as acidic hot springs or acid mine drainage harbour non-photosynthetic mats. This review analyses the complex structure, diversity, and interactions between the microorganisms that form the framework of different types of microbial mats located around the globe. Furthermore, the many tools that allow studying microbial mats in depth and their potential biotechnological applications are discussed.

  17. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential. (United States)

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G


    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Tišáková


    Full Text Available Bacteriophage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases, produced in the lytic system of bacteriophage in order to lyse host peptidoglycan from within and release virions into the environment. Phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria express endolysin genes with the characteristic modular structure, consisting of at least two functional domains: N-terminal enzymatically active domain (EAD and C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD. CBDs specifically recognize ligands and bind to the bacterial cell wall, whereas EAD catalyze lysis of the peptidoglycan bonds. The reveal of endolysin modular structure leads to new opportunities for domain swapping, construction of chimeras and production of specifically engineered recombinant endolysins and their functional domains with the diverse biotechnological applications from without, such as in detection, elimination and biocontrol of pathogens, or as anti-bacterials in experimental therapy.

  19. Keystone conference on environmental biotechnology. Summary -- Results of conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This symposium brought together a unique mix of scientists, engineers and policy makers to discuss the latest applications of biotechnology to in situ bioremediation and ex situ biodegradation of pollutants and industrial wastes. Several new topics were prominent in the discussions. Chief among these were issues related to environmentally acceptable endpoints, command and control versus incentive driven regulations, bioavailability of pollutants to microbial action, delivery of biodegrading organisms to pollutant plumes, value added production, and genetic probes for monitoring the status of soil consortia. These new issues gave a new perspective to the more traditional topics of the molecular genetics of microorganisms, marine bioremediation, bioprocessing of industrial and agricultural wastes, and engineered bioremediation systems which were featured.

  20. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.


    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these

  1. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah


    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  2. Climate Change and Food Security: the role of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robert M. Yawson


    Aug 5, 2012 ... significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move ... commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology ... need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as ...

  3. Role of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural experts in the field of biotechnology in Iran were surveyed in order to explore their perception about factors influencing the participation of public sector in developing agricultural biotechnology in Iran. Based on the results of the study, policy making, marketing, infrastructural, educational and research factors ...

  4. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando


    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  5. Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology | Quaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However ...

  6. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.


    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  7. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.


    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  8. The relevance of biotechnology in the development of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of biotechnology techniques for the development of functional food plants with higher levels of bioactive components or increased availability of nutrients would greatly benefit most populations in developing countries and improve the health and nutritional status overall. Key words: Biotechnology, functional ...

  9. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues. (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.


    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  10. Application of biotechnology for the domestication of Dacryodes edulis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology applications give a scope for rapid improvement and also facilitate the breeding program. Advantages of biotechnology application using molecular markers in breeding programs includes: study of genetic diversity, DNA fingerprinting of individuals, easy identification of specific traits or genes of interest, rapid ...

  11. Challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major purpose of this study was to determine challenges in commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agicultural sector of Iran. The total population for this study was 50 participants who attended a workshop on commercialization of nano and biotechnologies in agriculture at biotech 2010 exhibition in Tehran.

  12. Policy Implication of the Awareness and Use of Biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that majority (88.3 percent) of the respondents are aware of the existence of biotechnology products and majority (76.7 percent) of the respondents use biotechnology products. It was observed that genetically modified cassava variety is the most used biotech product in the study area as it scored a mean ...

  13. (Review paper) The role of biotechnology in crop improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is currently playing a vital role in the improvement of crop plants generally. This is because of its abil ity to overcome the shortcomings of other conventional practices of crop improvement. This paper therefore considered the two broad aspects of Biotechnology in crop improvement name I); Genetic ...

  14. Sectoral innovation foresight. Biotechnology sector. Final Reeport. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.W.; Meis, M.


    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s (e.g. recombinant DNA technology) into the full grown economic activity of today. The set of technologies that constitute the field of biotechnology thus find their applications in different sectors, most notably in

  15. Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was ...

  16. The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board? | Obembe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of plant biotechnologies has been very rapid in recent times, especially in the developed countries. The technologies have created a new branch of biotechnology known as molecular farming, where plants are engineered to produce pharmaceutical and technical proteins in large quantities. An evaluation ...

  17. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook (United States)

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.


    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  18. Recent biotechnology developments and trends in the Russian Federation. (United States)

    Osmakova, Alina; Kirpichnikov, Michael; Popov, Vladimir


    This paper addresses recent government initiatives in biotechnology and various federal and regional initiatives. It presents an overview of the most visible industrial biotechnology projects under implementation and highlights changes in legislation affecting development of the bioeconomy in the Russian Federation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics. (United States)

    Streltsova, Ekaterina; Linton, Jonathan D


    The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) account for 25% of global biotechnology patents. To understand the current and future landscape of the domain, it is important to better understand the capacity of these contributors. Here, we consider the thematic priorities, strategies, and key players of the BRICS countries in biotechnology patenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review Article: Biotechnology in aquaculture | OGARA | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to optimize results in new breeding programmes, genetic engineering and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) offer new possibilities. Biotechnology allows ... Whatever the pros and cons of biotechnological development, institutions of developing nations must grow abreast with the rest of the world. Key words: ...

  1. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton (United States)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  2. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari


    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  3. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers? (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed


    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  6. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal


    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  7. Essentials of Conservation Biotechnology: A mini review (United States)

    Merlyn Keziah, S.; Subathra Devi, C.


    Equilibrium of biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of the ecosystem as they are interdependent on each other. The decline in biodiversity is a global problem and an inevitable threat to the mankind. Major threats include unsustainable exploitation, habitat destruction, fragmentation, transformation, genetic pollution, invasive exotic species and degradation. This review covers the management strategies of biotechnology which include sin situ, ex situ conservation, computerized taxonomic analysis through construction of phylogenetic trees, calculating genetic distance, prioritizing the group for conservation, digital preservation of biodiversities within the coding and decoding keys, molecular approaches to asses biodiversity like polymerase chain reaction, real time, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, single sequence repeats, DNA finger printing, single nucleotide polymorphism, cryopreservation and vitrification.

  8. Nonclinical statistics for pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries

    CERN Document Server


    This book serves as a reference text for regulatory, industry and academic statisticians and also a handy manual for entry level Statisticians. Additionally it aims to stimulate academic interest in the field of Nonclinical Statistics and promote this as an important discipline in its own right. This text brings together for the first time in a single volume a comprehensive survey of methods important to the nonclinical science areas within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Specifically the Discovery and Translational sciences, the Safety/Toxiology sciences, and the Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls sciences. Drug discovery and development is a long and costly process. Most decisions in the drug development process are made with incomplete information. The data is rife with uncertainties and hence risky by nature. This is therefore the purview of Statistics. As such, this book aims to introduce readers to important statistical thinking and its application in these nonclinical areas. The cha...

  9. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson


    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  10. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology (United States)


    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al. PMID:22905695

  11. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.


    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  12. Application of biofilm bioreactors in white biotechnology. (United States)

    Muffler, K; Lakatos, M; Schlegel, C; Strieth, D; Kuhne, S; Ulber, R


    The production of valuable compounds in industrial biotechnology is commonly done by cultivation of suspended cells or use of (immobilized) enzymes rather than using microorganisms in an immobilized state. Within the field of wastewater as well as odor treatment the application of immobilized cells is a proven technique. The cells are entrapped in a matrix of extracellular polymeric compounds produced by themselves. The surface-associated agglomerate of encapsulated cells is termed biofilm. In comparison to common immobilization techniques, toxic effects of compounds used for cell entrapment may be neglected. Although the economic impact of biofilm processes used for the production of valuable compounds is negligible, many prospective approaches were examined in the laboratory and on a pilot scale. This review gives an overview of biofilm reactors applied to the production of valuable compounds. Moreover, the characteristics of the utilized materials are discussed with respect to support of surface-attached microbial growth.

  13. Biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms. (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    This mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. Limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. Limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. Therefore, complementary microbial production of limonene would be interesting. Since limonene can be derivatized to high-value compounds, microbial platforms also have a great potential beyond just producing limonene. In this review, we discuss the ins and outs of microbial limonene production in comparison with plant-based and chemical production. Achievements and specific challenges for microbial production of limonene are discussed, especially in the light of bulk applications such as biomaterials.

  14. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology? (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin


    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.

  15. Complex Biochemistry and Biotechnological Production of Betalains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Krsnik-Rasol


    Full Text Available The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Betalains are nitrogen-containing plant pigments whose colours range from red-violet betacyanins to yellow betaxanthins. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. Betalains have attracted additional interest because of their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. The main source of commercially produced betalains is red beet root, but alternative sources are found in plants from the Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae families. Another alternative source is plant cell culture in bioreactors, although optimization of pigment production seems necessary. In this paper we synthesize the results of recent studies on betalain biosynthesis, chemical properties, sources, biotechnology and applications.

  16. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN


    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  17. Membrane engineering in biotechnology: quo vamus? (United States)

    Rios, Gilbert M; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine


    Membranes are essential to a range of applications, including the production of potable water, energy generation, tissue repair, pharmaceutical production, food packaging, and the separations needed for the manufacture of chemicals, electronics and a range of other products. Therefore, they are considered to be "dominant technologies" by governments and industry in several prominent countries--for example, USA, Japan and China. When combined with catalysts, membranes are at the basis of life, and membrane-based biomimetism is a key tool to obtain better quality products and environmentally friendly developments for our societies. Biology has a main part in this global landscape because it simultaneously provides the "model" (with natural biological membranes) and represents a considerable field of applications for new artificial membranes (biotreatments, bioconversions and artificial organs). In this article, our objective is to open up this enthralling area and to give our views about the future of membranes in biotechnology.

  18. Biotechnological potential of Clostridium butyricum bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Szymanowska-Powałowska


    Full Text Available In response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. Microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, particularly C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum. A well-known property of C. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/L. A conversion rate of 0.66 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Results of the studies described in the present paper broaden our knowledge of characteristic features of C. butyricum specific isolates in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation, fermentation capacity and antibacterial properties.

  19. From cell biology to biotechnology in space. (United States)

    Cogoli, A


    In this article I discuss the main results of our research in space biology from the simple early investigations with human lymphocytes in the early eighties until the projects in tissue engineering of the next decade on the international space station ISS. The discovery that T lymphocyte activation is nearly totally depressed in vitro in 0 g conditions showed that mammalian single cells are sensitive to the gravitational environment. Such finding had important implications in basic research, medicine and biotechnology. Low gravity can be used as a tool to investigate complicated and still obscure biological process from a new perspective not available to earth-bound laboratories. Low gravity may also favor certain bioprocesses involving the growth of tissues and thus lead to commercial and medical applications. However, shortage of crew time and of other resources, lack of sophisticated instrumentation, safety constraints pose serious limits to biological endeavors in space laboratories.

  20. Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan. (United States)

    Zafar, Yusuf


    Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations.

  1. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)


    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  2. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal


    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  3. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane


    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  4. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria for the Development of Extraterrestrial Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; McKay, D. S.


    In-situ production of consumables (mainly oxygen) using local resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human exploration and settlement of the solar system, starting with the Moon. With few exceptions, nearly all technologies developed to date have employed an approach based on inorganic chemistry. None of these technologies include concepts for integrating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production system. Therefore, a new concept based on the cultivation of cyanobacteria (CB) in semi-closed biogeoreactor, linking ISRU, a biological life support system, and food production, has been proposed. The key feature of the biogeoreactor is to use lithotrophic CB to extract many needed elements such as Fe directly from the dissolved regolith and direct them to any technological loop at an extraterrestrial outpost. Our studies showed that siderophilic (Fe-loving) CB are capable to corrode lunar regolith stimulants because they secrete chelating agents and can tolerate [Fe] up to 1 mM. However, lunar and Martian environments are very hostile (very high UV and gamma-radiation, extreme temperatures, deficit of water). Thus, the selection of CB species with high potential for extraterrestrial biotechnologies that may be utilized in 15 years must be sponsored by NASA as soon as possible. The study of the genomes of candidate CB species and the metagenomes of the terrestrial environments which they inhabit is critical to make this decision. Here we provide preliminary results about peculiarities of the genomes of siderophilic CB revealed by analyzing the genome of siderophilic cyanobacterium JSC-1 and the metagenome of iron depositing hot spring (IDHS) Chocolate Pots (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). It has been found that IDHS are richer with ferrous iron than the majority of hot springs around the world. Fe2+ is known to increase the magnitude of oxidative stress in prokaryotes

  5. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  6. The Prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes Following Exposure to Radio Frequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model in Rat Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar


    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency wave (RFW generated by base transceiver station (BTS has been reported to make deleterious effects on liver and kidney, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency wave (RFW-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on this organs by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity including: glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: control, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage, test (exposed to 900MHz RFW and the treated group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW. At the end of the experiment all animals were sacrificed and their liver and kidney were removed and were used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. Results: The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p<0.05. In the treated group vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared to the test group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in liver and kidney, and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  7. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the clinical management of acute COPD in 233 UK hospitals: results from the RCP/BTS 2003 National COPD Audit. (United States)

    Kaul, Sundeep; Pearson, Michael; Coutts, Ian; Lowe, Derek; Roberts, Michael


    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a clinically proven, cost-effective intervention for acidotic exacerbations of COPD that is recommended by UK national guidelines. This study examines the extent to which these recommendations are being followed in the UK. Between August and October 2003 a national audit of COPD exacerbations was conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and the British Thoracic Society. 233 (94%) UK hospitals submitted data for 7,529 prospectively recruited acute COPD admissions, documenting process of care and outcomes from a retrospective case note audit. They also completed a resources and organisation of care proforma. Nineteen hospitals (8%) reported they did not offer NIV. There was no access to NIV in 92 (39%) intensive care units in 88 (36%), high-dependency units or on general wards of 85 (34%) hospitals. In 74 (30%) NIV was available on all 3 sites. A low pH (BTS guidelines. These observational audit data do not demonstrate benefits of NIV on survival when compared to conventional management, contrary to results from randomised trials. Reasons for this are unclear but unmeasured confounding factors and poor patient selection for NIV are likely explanations.

  8. Microbial biotechnology and circular economy in wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Nielsen, Per Halkjaer


    Microbial biotechnology is essential for the development of circular economy in wastewater treatment by integrating energy production and resource recovery into the production of clean water. A comprehensive knowledge about identity, physiology, ecology, and population dynamics of process-critical microorganisms will improve process stability, reduce CO2 footprints, optimize recovery and bioenergy production, and help finding new approaches and solutions. Examples of research needs and perspectives are provided, demonstrating the great importance of microbial biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Comparing the Governance of Novel Products and Processes of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus

    The emergence of novel products and processes of biotechnology in medicine, industry and agriculture has been accompanied by promises of healthier, safer and more productive lives and societies. However, biotechnology has also served as cause and catalyst of social controversy about the physical...... to start to fill this gap and develop a conceptual framework for comparing and analysing new and emerging modes of governance affiliated with biotechnology in the light of more general approaches to governance. We aim for a framework that can facilitate comparative inquiries and learning across different...

  10. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy. (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley


    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014. (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong


    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  12. Science and power over life: science fiction and biotechnology in films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Irene Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the informational status related to a future projection about the future of biotechnology and the human body from the analysis of "Gattaca”. It  focuses on discipline, biopower and information as the organizer and designer of a society which controls the body and the social corpus. In “Gattaca”, genetic information develops mechanisms of control, exclusion and distinction in a social system in which biopower is organized based on this dual level of information.This paper discusses the informational status related to a future projection about the future of biotechnology and the human body from the analysis of "Gattaca”. It  focuses on discipline, biopower and information as the organizer and designer of a society which controls the body and the social corpus. In “Gattaca”, genetic information develops mechanisms of control, exclusion and distinction in a social system in which biopower is organized based on this dual level of information.

  13. Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research (United States)

    Gray, Charlotte


    Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.

  14. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg


    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  15. The Future of Bio-technology (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan


    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  16. Plant genome resources at the national center for biotechnology information. (United States)

    Wheeler, David L; Smith-White, Brian; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Resenchuk, Sergei; Dombrowski, Susan M; Pechous, Steven W; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ostell, James


    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) integrates data from more than 20 biological databases through a flexible search and retrieval system called Entrez. A core Entrez database, Entrez Nucleotide, includes GenBank and is tightly linked to the NCBI Taxonomy database, the Entrez Protein database, and the scientific literature in PubMed. A suite of more specialized databases for genomes, genes, gene families, gene expression, gene variation, and protein domains dovetails with the core databases to make Entrez a powerful system for genomic research. Linked to the full range of Entrez databases is the NCBI Map Viewer, which displays aligned genetic, physical, and sequence maps for eukaryotic genomes including those of many plants. A specialized plant query page allow maps from all plant genomes covered by the Map Viewer to be searched in tandem to produce a display of aligned maps from several species. PlantBLAST searches against the sequences shown in the Map Viewer allow BLAST alignments to be viewed within a genomic context. In addition, precomputed sequence similarities, such as those for proteins offered by BLAST Link, enable fluid navigation from unannotated to annotated sequences, quickening the pace of discovery. NCBI Web pages for plants, such as Plant Genome Central, complete the system by providing centralized access to NCBI's genomic resources as well as links to organism-specific Web pages beyond NCBI.

  17. Potential of industrial biotechnology with cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. (United States)

    Wijffels, René H; Kruse, Olaf; Hellingwerf, Klaas J


    Both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae are promising organisms for sustainable production of bulk products such as food, feed, materials, chemicals and fuels. In this review we will summarize the potential and current biotechnological developments. Cyanobacteria are promising host organisms for the production of small molecules that can be secreted such as ethanol, butanol, fatty acids and other organic acids. Eukaryotic microalgae are interesting for products for which cellular storage is important such as proteins, lipids, starch and alkanes. For the development of new and promising lines of production, strains of both cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae have to be improved. Transformation systems have been much better developed in cyanobacteria. However, several products would be preferably produced with eukaryotic microalgae. In the case of cyanobacteria a synthetic-systems biology approach has a great potential to exploit cyanobacteria as cell factories. For eukaryotic microalgae transformation systems need to be further developed. A promising strategy is transformation of heterologous (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) genes in established eukaryotic hosts such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Experimental outdoor pilots under containment for the production of genetically modified cyanobacteria and microalgae are in progress. For full scale production risks of release of genetically modified organisms need to be assessed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Immobilization of an integral membrane protein for biotechnological phenylacetaldehyde production. (United States)

    Oelschlägel, Michel; Riedel, Anika; Zniszczoł, Aurelia; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Jarzębski, Andrzej B; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk


    Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) has previously been shown to be an integral membrane protein performing a highly selective, hydrolytic ring opening reaction of epoxides to yield pure aldehydes. Earlier studies had also shown a high sensitivity of SOIs toward their product phenylacetaldehyde which caused an irreversible inhibition and finally complete loss of activity at higher aldehyde concentrations. Here we report on the covalent immobilization of a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) on SBA-15 silica carriers. The production of the SOI from a Rhodococcus strain was optimized, the enzyme was enriched and immobilized, and finally the biocatalyst was applied in aqueous as well as in two-phase systems. Linkage of the protein to epoxide or amino groups on the SBA-based carriers led to relatively poor stabilization of the enzyme in an aqueous system. But, improved stability was observed toward organic phases like the non-toxic phthalate-related 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (Hexamol DINCH) which here to our knowledge was used for the first time in a biotechnological application. With this two-phase system and the immobilized SOI, 1.6-2.0× higher product yields were reached and the lifetime of the biocatalyst was tremendously increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena


    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  20. How-to-Do-It: Biotechnology in Three Days. (United States)

    Gardner, Alan M.


    Outlines a three-day unit for presenting biotechnology. States that the approach surveys the processes of enzyme restriction, ligation, transformations of recombinant plasmids, and gel electrophoresis. Diagrams accompany the article. (RT)