Sample records for biosolids

  1. Biosolids and Sludge Management. (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena


    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.

  2. Perfluorinated Compounds In Lime-Treated Biosolids (United States)

    Land application of wastewater treatment residuals, or biosolids, is a common practice in the United States, about 50% of all biosolids being applied to agricultural land as a soil amendment. Incidents have been reported in Germany and the United States where biosolids containin...


    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  4. Wind erosion potential following application of biosolids (United States)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. These benefits could also possibly reduce the threat of wind erosion in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, we assessed the impact of biosolids on wind erosion of agricultural land at Li...

  5. Indicators for managing biosolids in Ireland. (United States)

    Amajirionwu, Magnus; Connaughton, Noel; McCann, Brian; Moles, Richard; Bartlett, John; O'Regan, Bernadette


    Sustainable development indicators (SDIs) have emerged as a tool to measure progress towards sustainable development for a number of fields. However, no indicator initiative to date has been aimed at biosolids management at local authority, regional or national levels. This paper presents a study where stakeholders involved in the management of biosolids in Ireland participated in the development of SDIs for managing biosolids at the local/regional level. A significant 81% of participating stakeholders find SDIs either 'useful' or 'very useful' as a tool for managing biosolids. A suite of 22 indicators has been developed and arranged according to the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator framework. The indicators address all the domains of biosolids management namely, production, quality, cost, legislation/regulation, training/research and recycling/disposal. The stakeholder approach is recognition that no effective indicator set can be developed without the input of stakeholders.

  6. Nitrogen loss during solar drying of biosolids. (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, S A; Song, I; Artiola, J F; Choi, C Y


    Solar drying has been used extensively to dewater biosolids for ease of transportation and to a lesser degree to reduce pathogens prior to land application. The nitrogen in biosolids makes them a relatively inexpensive but valuable source of fertilizer. In this study, nitrogen loss from tilled and untilled biosolids was investigated during the solar drying process. Samples of aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids during three solar drying experiments were analyzed for their nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) ions concentrations. Nitrogen losses varied depending on the solar drying season and tillage. Although not directly measured, the majority of nitrogen loss occurred through ammonia volatilization; organic nitrogen content (organic N) remained relatively stable for each sample, nitrate concentrations for the majority of samples remained below detectable levels and the decline of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) generally followed the trend of moisture loss in the biosolids.

  7. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman


    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.


    The objective of this presentation is to discuss pathogens of concern in biosolids, the analytical techniques used to evaluate microorganisms in biosolids, and to discuss standardization and validation of analytical protocols for microbes within a complex matrix. Implications of ...

  9. Restoring Ecosystem Function in Degraded Urban Soil Using Biosolids, Biosolids Blend, and Compost. (United States)

    Basta, N T; Busalacchi, D M; Hundal, L S; Kumar, K; Dick, R P; Lanno, R P; Carlson, J; Cox, A E; Granato, T C


    Many soils at former industrial sites are degraded. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of compost, biosolids, and biosolids blends to improve soil ecosystem function with minimal potential impact to surface water. Treatments rototilled into the top 12.5 cm of soil were biosolids at 202 Mg ha; biosolids at 404 Mg ha; compost at 137 Mg ha; or a blend consisting of biosolids applied at 202 Mg ha, drinking water treatment residual, and biochar. Rainfall runoff from experimental plots was collected for 3 yr. One year after soil amendments were incorporated, a native seed mix containing grasses, legumes, and forbs was planted. Soil amendments improved soil quality and nutrient pools, established a dense and high-quality vegetative cover, and improved earthworm reproductive measures. Amendments increased soil enzymatic activities that support soil function. Biosolids treatments increased the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index for grasses. For the forbs group, control plots had the lowest diversity index and the biosolids blend had the highest diversity index. Biosolids and compost increased the number of earthworm juveniles. In general, biosolids outperformed compost. Biosolids increased N and P in rainfall runoff more than compost before vegetation was established. Several microconstituents (i.e., pharmaceutical and personal care products) were detected in runoff water but at concentrations below the probable no-effect levels and therefore should pose little impact to the aquatic environment. Future restoration design should ensure that runoff control measures are used to control sediment loss from the restored sites at least until vegetation is established.

  10. Urban attitude towards land application of municipal and industrial biosolids


    Taffese Tanto, Mebrate; Magette, W. L.


    Managing municipal and industrial biosolids by recycling through the land is currently a strategic policy direction in Ireland. Although recycling biosolids is a plausible management alternative it can also be a contentious issue. A descriptive- correlational study was conducted in the city of Dublin, Ireland to determine the public’s knowledge about biosolids and attitude to biosolids recycling. Door-to-door surveys of 500 households were conducted. Data were evaluated with respect to popula...


    A considerable controversy exists over the biosolid phase (organic or inorganic) responsible for the reduction in phytoavailable Cd in soils amended with biosolids as compared to soils amended with inorganic salts. To test the importance of these two phases, 2 biosolids, 15 bioso...

  12. Fate of triclosan and methyltriclosan in soil from biosolids application (United States)

    Biosolids contain synthetic chemicals that have the potential to alter soil microbial communities and disrupt endocrine functions if they move offsite. In this study, the persistence of triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial compound normally found in biosolids and in soils after biosolids applications ...

  13. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo


    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  14. Land Application of Biosolids in the USA: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lu


    Full Text Available Land application of biosolids has proven a cost-effective method of waste disposal by beneficially recycling organic matter and nutrients and improving soil quality; however, it may also pose potential threat to the environment and human health. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on recent research progresses and regulation efforts regarding land application of biosolids, including forms and types and nutrient values of biosolids, environmental and health concerns, and related best management practices (BMPs of biosolids application, with emphasis on its land application in agriculture. More research and regulations are expected to minimize potential risks of biosolids land application, especially its long-term impacts.

  15. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research (United States)

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  16. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen


    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in soils

  17. Fate of Triclosan and Triclocarban in Land-Applied Biosolids (United States)

    The heavily-used antimicrobials, triclosan and triclocarbon, are commonly present in biosolids generated in waste water treatment plants. A common practice for handling biosolids is to use them as soil amendments. We have embarked on a cooperative study with the Blue Plains Waste Water Treatment P...

  18. Hyperthermophilic hydrogen production from wastewater biosolids by caldicellulosiruptor bescii (United States)

    Wastewater biosolids are abundant renewable resources that are rich in organic matter and offer a low cost potential feedstock for biohydrogen production. Relevant literature indicates that biosolids conversion rates are relatively low and therefore this option is not considered feasible. This study...


    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...


    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain from biosolids application on soils has been studied for decades. The early hypothesis known as "Time Bomb" has been questioned by recent research results which tend ...

  1. Sustainability of land application of class B biosolids. (United States)

    Pepper, Ian L; Zerzghi, Huruy; Brooks, John P; Gerba, Charles P


    Land application of Class B biosolids is routinely undertaken in the United States. However, due to public concern over potential hazards, the long-term sustainability of land application has been questioned. Thus, the objective of this review article was to evaluate the sustainability of land application of Class B biosolids. To do this we evaluated (i) the fate and transport of potential biological and chemical hazards within biosolids, and (ii) the influence of long-term land application on the microbial and chemical properties of the soil. Direct risks to human health posed by pathogens in biosolids have been shown to be low. Risks from indirect exposure such as aerosolized pathogens or microbially contaminated ground water are also low. A long-term land application study showed enhanced microbial activity and no adverse toxicity effects on the soil microbial community. Long-term land application also increased soil macronutrients including C, N, and, in particular, P. In fact, care should be taken to avoid contamination of surface waters with high phosphate soils. Available soil metal concentrations remained low over the 20-yr land application period due to the low metal content of the biosolids and a high soil pH. Soil salinity increases were not detected due to the low salt content of biosolids and irrigation rates in excess of consumptive use rates for cotton. Our conclusion, based on these studies, is that long-term land application of Class B biosolids is sustainable.

  2. Interactions in Natural Colloid Systems "Biosolids" - Soil and Plant (United States)

    Kalinichenko, Kira V.; Nikovskaya, Galina N.; Ulberg, Zoya R.


    The "biosolids" are complex biocolloid system arising in huge amounts (mln tons per year) from biological municipal wastewater treatment. These contain clusters of nanoparticles of heavy metal compounds (in slightly soluble or unsoluble forms, such as phosphates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides, and etc.), cells, humic substances and so on, involved in exopolysaccharides (EPS) net matrix. One may consider that biosolids are the natural nanocomposite. Due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements (heavy metals), vitamins, aminoacids, etc., the biosolids are a depot of bioelements for plant nutrition. Thus, it is generally recognized that most rationally to utilize them for land application. For this purpose the biocolloid process was developed in biosolids system by initiation of microbial vital ability followed by the synthesis of EPS, propagation of ecologically important microorganisms, loosening of the structure and weakening of the coagulation contacts between biosolids colloids, but the structure integrity maintaining [1,2]. It was demonstrated that the applying of biosolids with metabolizing microorganisms to soil provided the improving soil structure, namely the increasing of waterstable aggregates content (70% vs. 20%). It occurs due to flocculation ability of biosolids EPS. The experimental modelling of mutual interactions in systems of soils - biosolids (with metabolizing microorganisms) were realized and their colloid and chemical mechanisms were formulated [3]. As it is known, the most harmonious plant growth comes at a prolonged entering of nutrients under the action of plant roots exudates which include pool of organic acids and polysaccharides [4]. Special investigations showed that under the influence of exudates excreted by growing plants, the biosolids microelements can release gradually from immobilized state into environment and are able to absorb by plants. Thus, the biosolids can serve as an active

  3. Evaluation of the potential for bioaerosols from land applied biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Benjamin; Brooks, John; Josephseon, Karen; Gerba, Charles; Pepper, Ian


    The overall objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively document the potential hazards of biological aerosols derived from land applied biosolids, and ultimately develop risk assessment models and land-management strategies for safe, effective use of biosolids. The specific objectives were: i) Quantify bacterial and viral microorganisms emitted as bioaerosols from point sources of biosolids, and area (land-applied) sources of biosolids; ii) Develop risk assessment models based on a) hazard identification, b) dose response, c) exposure assessment; d) risk characterization. Research has consisted of laboratory studies at the University of Arizona and field studies at several regional U.S. locations. Bioaerosol samples have been collected via ''Impingement'' using SKC biosamplers. The biologicals monitored for included: i) viruses: enteroviruses, calciviruses; ii) phage e.g, MS2; iii) E. coil; iv) Salmonella; v) total coliforms; vi) Clostridium perfringens; vii) Aspergillus spp.; viii) Endotoxin. Air samples were collected at discrete distances torn both biosolid piles (point sources), or land applied biosolids (area sources). (author)


    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  5. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash


    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.


    We hypothesized not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in soil systems. To test this hypothesis we conducted Cd adsorption experiments on different fractions of biosolids, biosolid amended soils, and unamended soils. Soils were c...

  7. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan dissipation in soils after biosolid application (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS) is removed in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) primarily as biosolids (approx. 66%). Therefore, biosolids disposal as land applications represents a significant path for release to the environment. Biosolids collected over three years from a large WWTP had concentrations of TCS ...

  8. Biosolids Effects in Chihuahuan Desert Rangelands: A Ten-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Wester


    Full Text Available Arid and semiarid rangelands are suitable for responsible biosolids application. Topical application is critical to avoid soil and vegetation disturbance. Surface-applied biosolids have long-lasting effects in these ecosystems. We conducted a 10-year research program investigating effects of biosolids applied at rates from 0 to 90 dry Mg ha−1 on soil water infiltration; runoff and leachate water quality; soil erosion; forage production and quality; seedling establishment; plant physiological responses; nitrogen dynamics; biosolids decomposition; and grazing animal behavior and management. Biosolids increased soil water infiltration and reduced erosion. Effects on soil water quality were observed only at the highest application rates. Biosolids increased soil nitrate-nitrogen. Biosolids increased forage production and improved forage quality. Biosolids increased leaf area of grasses; photosynthetic rates were not necessarily increased by biosolids. Biosolids effects on plant establishment are expected only under moderately favorable conditions. Over an 82-mo exposure period, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and total and available phosphorus decreased and inorganic matter increased. Grazing animals spent more time grazing, ruminating, and resting in biosolids-treated areas; positive effects on average daily gain were observed during periods of higher rainfall. Our results suggest that annual biosolids application rates of up to 18 Mg ha−1 are appropriate for desert rangelands.

  9. Impact of tilling on biosolids drying and indicator microorganisms survival during solar drying process. (United States)

    Song, Inhong; Dominguez, Teodulo; Choi, Christopher Y; Kang, Moon Seong


    As biosolids application to croplands becomes a common practice, potential harm from pathogenic microbes needs to be mitigated for its safe reuse. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of tilling treatment on biosolids drying and microbial inactivation during the solar drying process in a semi-arid and temperate region. Solar drying experiments were conducted in sand and gravel dying beds open-to-the-air and under covering structures with biosolids to 20 cm depth from 2004 to 2006. Anaerobically- and Aerobically-digested biosolids received different tilling treatments throughout the drying process, while a series of biosolids samples were collected to determine the impact on total solids and microbial concentrations (Salmonella spp and heminth ova). Tilling treatments appeared to enhance the biosolids drying and microbial inactivation. Tilling was more effective during the cold season compared with the summer season and tilling treatments were also helpful in elevating biosolids temperature by expediting biosolids drying. The combined effect of temperature increase and moisture decrease by tilling may have resulted in faster microbial inactivation, particularly for persistent helminth ova. It was concluded that incorporation of tilling into biosolids solar drying can expedite biosolids drying as well as microbial inactivation, and thus can be an effective measure for shortening the biosolids conversion to Class A biosolids in which pathogens are reduced to below detectable levels.

  10. Phosphorous Speciation in WTR-treated Biosolids Using XANES (United States)

    Zhang, T. Q.; Huff, D.; Lin, Z.-Q.


    The concept of co-application of biosolids and drinking water treatment residues (DWTRs) represents an environmentally sustainable and economically sound strategy for the management of municipal solid wastes. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing water-soluble P in biosolids-amended agricultural soil by the addition of DWTRs. Results showed that total P in soil leachate was significantly reduced during the initial 42-days of a 200-day greenhouse study when biosolids (50 g kg-1) were applied along with DWTRs (40 g kg-1). Particulate P was the dominant fraction of P in the soil leachate, which decreases with increasing DWTR application rate. The application of DWTRs does not significantly decrease the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The primary P chemical composition in biosolids include cupper phytate [Cu(IP6)6], barium phytate [Ba6IP6], and cupper phosphate [Cu3(PO4)2]. The addition of DWTRs to biosolids alternated the P speciation, and the P speciation change became significant with increasing the incubation time of the mixture of biosolids and DWTRs. The chemical component of Cu3(PO4)2 became non significant (<5%) with the addition of DWTRs. During the 14-day incubation time period, the proportion of P that was adsorbed on amorphous Fe(OH)3 increased substantially from 8 to 46% and Ba6IP6 increased steadily from 30 to 50%, while the proportion of Cu(IP6)6 decreased significantly from 53 to 5%. The amorphous Fe(OH)3-adsorbed P and Ba6IP6 formed the dominant P chemical components in the mixture of biosolids and DWTRs.

  11. Application of self-sustaining smouldering combustion for the destruction of wastewater biosolids. (United States)

    Rashwan, Tarek L; Gerhard, Jason I; Grant, Gavin P


    Managing biosolids, the major by-product from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), persists as a widespread challenge that often constitutes the majority of WWTP operating costs. Self-sustained smouldering combustion is a new approach for organic waste treatment, in which the waste - the combustion fuel - is destroyed in an energy efficient manner after mixing it with sand. Smouldering has never been applied to biosolids. Column experiments, using biosolids obtained from a WWTP, were employed to identify if, and under what conditions, smouldering could be used for treating biosolids. The parameter space in which smouldering was self-sustaining was mapped as a function of key system metrics: (1) sand/biosolids mass fraction, (2) biosolids moisture content, and (3) forced air flux. It was found that a self-sustaining reaction is achievable using biosolids with water content as high as 80% (with a biosolids lower heating value greater than 1.6 kJ/g). Moreover, results suggest that operator-controlled air flux can assist in keeping the reaction self-sustaining in response to fluctuations in biosolids properties. This proof-of-concept demonstrates the potential for smouldering as a new energy efficient biosolids disposal method for very wet (i.e., minimally processed) biosolids that may offer WWTPs significant operating cost savings. This study emphasizes smouldering's usefulness as a novel waste management technique.

  12. Assessing Nutrients Availability of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Biosolids for the Agriculture Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Sanchez, Monica


    Irradiation provides a fast and reliable means to disinfect biosolids generated by municipal wastewater treatment processes. The chemical integrity of some substances may be altered thus change the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical analyses on the biosolids showed a release of mineral forms of Nitrogen while Phosphorus chemical forms were not altered. Higher amounts of mineralized N were indirectly demonstrated in soils with irradiated biosolids by a respiration experiment, and higher nitrate concentrations were measured in the irradiated biosolids amended soils at field experiments. Crop field experiments (lettuce and sugarcane) confirmed that irradiated biosolids have higher fertilizing capability than equal amounts of non-irradiated biosolids. Maximum dose rate had no additive effect but a depleted result, thus marking the importance of the use of moderate biosolids rates. (author)

  13. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Sean; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob


    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood....... This will be of importance for the value of the biosolids when used to fertilise crops. We sourced AD biosolids from a Danish waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and dried it in the laboratory at 70, 130, 190 or 250 °C to >95 % dry matter content. Also, we sourced biosolids from the WWTP dried using its in-house thermal...... drying process (input temperature 95 °C, thermal fluid circuit temperature 200 °C, 95 % dry matter content). The drying process reduced the ammonium content of the biosolids and reduced it further at higher drying temperatures. These findings were attributed to ammonia volatilisation. The percentage...

  14. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Naidu, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia)


    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} Mg{sup −1} biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C

  15. Downward Movement of Potentially Toxic Elements in Biosolids Amended Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Irene Torri


    Full Text Available Potentially toxic elements (PTEs in soils are mainly associated with the solid phase, bound to the surface of solid components, or precipitated as minerals. For most PTEs, only a small portion is dissolved in the soil solution. However, there is an interest in following the fate of mobile PTEs in the environment, for a growing amount of evidence indicates that downward movement of PTEs may occur in biosolids amended soils, leading to groundwater contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that control the release of these elements after land application of biosolids, in order to overcome problems related to downward movement of PTEs in the soil profile.

  16. Particulate matter composition and emission rates from the disk incorporation of class B biosolids into soil (United States)

    Paez-Rubio, Tania; Xin, Hua; Anderson, James; Peccia, Jordan

    Biosolids contain metal, synthetic organic compound, endotoxin, and pathogen concentrations that are greater than concentrations in the agricultural soils to which they are applied. Once applied, biosolids are incorporated into soils by disking and the aerosols produced during this process may pose an airborne toxicological and infectious health hazard to biosolids workers and nearby residents. Field studies at a Central Arizona biosolids land application site were conducted to characterize the physical, chemical, and biological content of the aerosols produced during biosolids disking and the content of bulk biosolids and soils from which the aerosols emanate. Arrayed samplers were used to estimate the vertical source aerosol concentration profile to enable plume height and associated source emission rate calculations. Source aerosol concentrations and calculated emission rates reveal that disking is a substantial source of biosolids-derived aerosols. The biosolids emission rate during disking ranged from 9.91 to 27.25 mg s -1 and was greater than previously measured emission rates produced during the spreading of dewatered biosolids or the spraying of liquid biosolids. Adding biosolids to dry soils increased the moisture content and reduced the total PM 10 emissions produced during disking by at least three times. The combination of bulk biosolids and aerosol measurements along with PM 10 concentrations provides a framework for estimating aerosol concentrations and emission rates by reconstruction. This framework serves to eliminate the difficulty and inherent limitations associated with monitoring low aerosol concentrations of toxic compounds and pathogens, and can promote an increased understanding of the associated biosolids aerosol health risks to workers and nearby residents.

  17. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids (United States)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz


    This paper will present collective results of 25 years of research by the authors into the use of municipal biosolids (sewage sludge) and other residuals to reclaim sites disturbed by a range of mining and construction activities. Loading rate experiments and demonstrations have been conducted on areas drastically disturbed by coal mining, sand mining, heavy mineral mining, urbanization, airport construction and heavy metal processing. At all sites, the post-mining soils were devoid of organic matter, very low in nutrients and frequently quite acidic. At all sites, addition of biosolids at higher than agronomic rates resulted in complete stabilization of the resultant mine soils and vigorous stable vegetation that persisted for > 5 years and has allowed enhanced invasion of native herbaceous species. Application of higher rates is not compatible with establishment of certain native tree species (e.g. Pinus sp.), however, due to adverse effects of soluble salts, nutrient enrichment and enhanced competition by grasses. An underlying goal of this program has been to develop approaches that use higher than agronomic rates of biosolids while simultaneously minimizing losses of N and P to local ground- and surface-waters. In the early 1980's, working on USA coal mining spoils, we determined that that approximately 100 Mg/ha of secondary cake biosolids was optimal for revegetation with herbaceous species, but water quality monitoring was not a concern at that time. This finding raised concerns, however, that the large amounts of total N applied (> 2500 kg/ha) would lead to nitrate-N contamination of local waters. Subsequent work in the early 1990's indicated that similar rates of biosolids could be mixed with woodchips (high palatable C source) and land-applied to large (> 100 ha) coal mining sites with no losses of nitrate-N to surface or ground-water due to microbial immobilization of the applied N. Follow-up work at three sand mining (sand & gravel and mineral sands

  18. Characterization of the biosolids composting process by hyperspectral analysis. (United States)

    Ilani, Talli; Herrmann, Ittai; Karnieli, Arnon; Arye, Gilboa


    Composted biosolids are widely used as a soil supplement to improve soil quality. However, the application of immature or unstable compost can cause the opposite effect. To date, compost maturation determination is time consuming and cannot be done at the composting site. Hyperspectral spectroscopy was suggested as a simple tool for assessing compost maturity and quality. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in knowledge regarding several compost maturation characteristics, such as dissolved organic carbon, NO3, and NH4 contents. In addition, this approach has not yet been tested on a sample at its natural water content. Therefore, in the current study, hyperspectral analysis was employed in order to characterize the biosolids composting process as a function of composting time. This goal was achieved by correlating the reflectance spectra in the range of 400-2400nm, using the partial least squares-regression (PLS-R) model, with the chemical properties of wet and oven-dried biosolid samples. The results showed that the proposed method can be used as a reliable means to evaluate compost maturity and stability. Specifically, the PLS-R model was found to be an adequate tool to evaluate the biosolids' total carbon and dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen, and nitrate content, as well as the absorbance ratio of 254/365nm (E2/E3) and C/N ratios in the dry and wet samples. It failed, however, to predict the ammonium content in the dry samples since the ammonium evaporated during the drying process. It was found that in contrast to what is commonly assumed, the spectral analysis of the wet samples can also be successfully used to build a model for predicting the biosolids' compost maturity.

  19. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids. (United States)

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R


    A broad spectrum of organic chemicals is essential to modern society. Once discharged from industrial, domestic and urban sources into the urban wastewater collection system they may transfer to the residual solids during wastewater treatment and assessment of their significance and implications for beneficial recycling of the treated sewage sludge biosolids is required. Research on organic contaminants (OCs) in biosolids has been undertaken for over thirty years and the increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the majority of compounds studied do not place human health at risk when biosolids are recycled to farmland. However, there are 143,000 chemicals registered in the European Union for industrial use and all could be potentially found in biosolids. Therefore, a literature review of 'emerging' OCs in biosolids has been conducted for a selection of chemicals of potential concern for land application based upon human toxicity, evidence of adverse effects on the environment and endocrine disruption. To identify monitoring and research priorities the selected chemicals were ranked using an assessment matrix approach. Compounds were evaluated based upon environmental persistence, human toxicity, evidence of bioaccumulation in humans and the environment, evidence of ecotoxicity and the number and quality of studies focussed on the contaminant internationally. The identified chemicals of concern were ranked in decreasing order of priority: perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS, PFOA); polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs); organotins (OTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC); benzothiazoles; antibiotics and pharmaceuticals; synthetic musks; bisphenol A, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), steroids; phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs). A number of issues were identified and recommendations for the prioritisation of further research and monitoring of 'emerging' OCs for the

  20. Phosphorus forms in biosolids-amended soils and losses in runoff: effects of wastewater treatment process. (United States)

    Penn, Chad J; Sims, J Thomas


    Continuous addition of municipal biosolids to soils based on plant nitrogen (N) requirements can cause buildup of soil phosphorus (P) in excess of crop requirements; runoff from these soils can potentially contribute to nonpoint P pollution of surface waters. However, because biosolids are often produced using lime and/or metal salts, the potential for biosolids P to cause runoff P losses can vary with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process. This study was conducted to determine the effect of wastewater treatment process on the forms and amounts of P in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and in runoff from biosolids-amended soils. We amended two soil types with eight biosolids and a poultry litter (PL) at equal rates of total P (200 kg ha(-1); unamended soils were used as controls. All biosolids and amended soils were analyzed for various types of extractable P, inorganic P fractions, and the degree of P saturation (acid ammonium oxalate method). Amended soils were placed under a simulated rainfall and all runoff was collected and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), iron-oxide-coated filter paper strip-extractable phosphorus (FeO-P), and total phosphorus (EPA3050 P). Results showed that biosolids produced with a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process caused the highest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP. Alternatively, biosolids produced with iron only consistently had the lowest extractable P and caused the lowest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP when added to soils. Differences in soil and biosolids extractable P levels as well as P runoff losses were related to the inorganic P forms of the biosolids.

  1. Dynamics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in soil amended with irradiated, pasteurized and limed biosolids. (United States)

    Franco-Hernández, Olivia; Mckelligan-Gonzalez, Alba Natalia; Lopez-Olguin, Ana Maria; Espinosa-Ceron, Fabiola; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar; Dendooven, Luc


    Sewage biosolids contain high concentrations of pathogens, which limits their use as soil amendment. This study investigated how application of lime (Ca(OH)2), irradiation, or pasteurization reduced pathogens in biosolids and how its application affected soil characteristics. A soil sampled outside the canopy of Mesquite trees (Prosopis laevigata) and from a pasture at Lerma (Mexico) was amended with treated or untreated biosolids, characterized and incubated aerobically while dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were monitored. Heavy metals concentrations in the biosolids were low, so it was of excellent quality (USEPA). The amount of pathogens in the biosolids made it a class "B" (USEPA) which can be used in forests. Only irradiation sufficiently reduced faecal coliforms to make it a class "A" biosolids without restrictions in application. C mineralization increased significantly when biosolids were added, but not concentrations of available P (P < 0.05). Ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in soil amended with biosolids were higher compared to unamended soil, but not the concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) except when biosolids treated with Ca(OH)2 was added to the Lerma soil.

  2. Meta-analysis of biosolid effects on persistence of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. (United States)

    Fu, Qiuguo; Sanganyado, Edmond; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay


    Biosolids are extensively used in agriculture as fertilizers while offering a practical solution for waste disposal. Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), such as triclosan and triclocarban, are enriched in biosolids. Biosolid amendment changes soil physicochemical properties, which may in turn alter the persistence of PPCPs and hence the risk for secondary contamination such as plant uptake. To delineate the effect of biosolids on PPCPs persistence, triclosan and triclocarban were used as model compounds in this study and their sorption (Kd) and persistence (t1/2) were determined in different soils before and after biosolid amendment. Biosolids consistently increased sorption of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. The Kd of triclosan increased by 3.9-21 times following amendment of a sandy loam soil with biosolids at 2-10%. The persistence of both compounds was prolonged, with t1/2 of triclosan increasing from 10 d in the unamended soil to 63 d after biosolid amendment at 10%. The relationship between t1/2 and Kd was further examined through a meta-analysis using data from this study and all relevant published studies. A significant linear relationship between t1/2 and Kd was observed for triclosan (r(2) = 0.69, p triclosan was prolonged by 7.5 d, while t1/2 of triclocarban was extended by 4.7 d. Therefore, biosolid amendment greatly enhances persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to enhanced sorption or decreased chemical bioavailability. This finding highlights the importance to consider the effect of biosolids when evaluating the environmental risks of these and other biosolid-borne PPCPs.

  3. Biosolids disposal: An international overview of current and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B


    The current trend in wastewater treatment is toward optimization, reuse, and beneficial use of biosolids. Key considerations in the selection of a sludge management process include long-term viability, sludge quality, markets for sludge-derived products, storage requirements, and whether the project will be able to obtain approvals. Beneficial uses of biosolids include agriculture and landscaping, construction materials, and energy; emerging technologies for utilizing sludges include biobrick production, animal feed production, vermiculture, pyrolysis of sludge to produce oil, manufacturing cement using sludge, and sludge liming for use in agriculture. An important use of sludge in Canada will be the use of solids as fertilizer in cleared-out areas of forest. A review is presented of practices in sludge disposal and utilization in Canada, the USA, Europe, and Japan. Some future trends are also noted. 4 tabs.

  4. Estimated occupational risk from bioaerosols generated during land application of Class B biosolids (United States)

    It has been speculated that bioaerosols generated during land application of biosolids pose a serious occupational risk, but few scientific studies have been performed to assess levels of aerosolization of microorganisms from biosolids and to estimate the occupational risks of infection. This study ...


    Series of Cd sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd-salt, and unamended soils (control) to test the hypothesize that not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in...


    Biosolids and Cd salt-amended soils were collected from a long-term field experiment established in 1976. Cadmium sorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd salt, and unamended soils (control). The organic carbon (OC) of soils ...

  7. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids-amended, semiarid grassland soil (United States)

    Predicting trace metal solid phase speciation changes associated with long-term biosolids land application is important for understanding and improving environmental quality. Biosolids were surface-applied (no incorporation; 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 tons per acre) to a semi-arid grassland in 1991 (si...

  8. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids


    J. L. Ghezzi; A. D. Karathanasis; C. J. Matocha; Unrine, J.; Thompson, Y. L.


    Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using sca...

  9. Monitoring Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates And Degradation Products After Land Application Of Anaerobically Digested Biosolids (United States)

    Annually, over 3 million dry tons of treated sewage sludge (or biosolids) are applied on agricultural lands in the U.S. In 2002, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended an examination of biosolids management practices including chemicals such as surfactants used in clean...


    In the US, the use and disposal of biosolids (including domestic septage) are regulated under 40 CFR Part 503. Subpart D of this regulation protects public health and the environment through requirements designed to reduce the potential for contact with pathogens in biosolids app...

  11. Predicting pathogen transport and risk of infection from land-applied biosolids (United States)

    Olson, M. S.; Teng, J.; Kumar, A.; Gurian, P.


    Biosolids have been recycled as fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and to stimulate plant growth for over forty years, but may contain low levels of microbial pathogens. The Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") is an environmental transport, exposure and risk model that compiles knowledge on the occurrence, environmental dispersion and attenuation of biosolids-associated pathogens to estimate microbial risk from biosolids land application. The SMART Biosolids model calculates environmental pathogen concentrations and assesses risk associated with exposure to pathogens from land-applied biosolids through five pathways: 1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, 2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, 3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, 4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and 5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. The SMART Biosolids model can be applied under a variety of scenarios, thereby providing insight into effective management practices. This study presents example results of the SMART Biosolids model, focusing on the groundwater and surface water pathways, following biosolids application to a typical site in Michigan. Volumes of infiltration and surface water runoff are calculated following a 100-year storm event. Pathogen transport and attenuation through the subsurface and via surface runoff are modeled, and pathogen concentrations in a downstream well and an adjacent pond are calculated. Risks are calculated for residents of nearby properties. For a 100-year storm event occurring immediately after biosolids application, the surface water pathway produces risks that may be of some concern, but best estimates do not exceed the bounds of what has been considered acceptable risk for recreational water use (Table 1); groundwater risks are very uncertain and at the

  12. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)


    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  13. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids. (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard


    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  14. Slow pyrolysis enhances the recovery and reuse of phosphorus and reduces metal leaching from biosolids. (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Whelan, Anna; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A


    In this study, biochar is produced from biosolids with and without alum at a range of temperatures and simulated oxidative aging of the biochars is conducted to quantify the long-term leaching of P and metals. While biosolids containing alum had negligible amounts of plant-available P, after pyrolysis >90% of the P became immediately available for plant growth. When biosolids with no alum were converted into biochar there was a small increase in the availability of P but a larger pool was available after oxidation. Both of the biosolids leached significant amounts of metals after oxidation. In contrast, the biochars had a very low available metal content and this did not increase with oxidation, demonstrating a stable metal content. Pyrolysis is an effective waste management strategy for biosolids that can simultaneously reduce the leaching of metals and increase the efficiency of recycling of P for beneficial re-use.

  15. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids. (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas


    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  16. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso


    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  17. Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi. (United States)

    Tarango Rivero, S H; Nevárez Moorillón, V G; Orrantia Borunda, E


    The application of anaerobically digested biosolids as a nutrient source for pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangeh.) K. Koch, cultivar Western, was evaluated. Conventional NPK fertilizers (CF) and biosolids included a treatment with the rhizospheric fungi Pisolithus tinctorius+Scleroderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. After an average of three years, the tree trunks with biosolid treatment grew 9.5% more than with CF; the length of the bearing shoots was 18.1 and 18.3cm and the production of nuts/tree was 9.26 and 8.75kg for pecans with CF and with biosolids, respectively. Western foliar nutrient concentration and nut quality were statistically equal in trees with CF and with biosolids. Soil inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi improved shoot growth by 19.4% when CF was applied, but did not when biosolids were used. Nutrient status and yield did not increase with mycorrhizal fungi. The addition of Trichoderma sp. did not favor any of the variables evaluated with both nutrient sources. Biosolids are efficient fertilizer at promoting the growth, production and nut quality of pecan trees.

  18. Toxicity of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban to six crop species. (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K


    Biosolids are an important source of nutrients and organic matter, which are necessary for the productive cultivation of crop plants. Biosolids have been found to contain the personal care products triclosan and triclocarban at high concentrations relative to other pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The present study investigates whether exposure of 6 plant species (radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, spring wheat, and corn) to triclosan or triclocarban derived from biosolids has an adverse effect on seed emergence and/or plant growth parameters. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids at a realistic agronomic rate. Biosolids were spiked with triclosan or triclocarban to produce increasing environmentally relevant exposures. The concentration of triclosan and triclocarban in biosolids-amended soil declined by up to 97% and 57%, respectively, over the course of the experiments. Amendment with biosolids had a positive effect on the majority of growth parameters in radish, carrot, soybean, lettuce, and wheat plants. No consistent triclosan- or triclocarban-dependent trends in seed emergence and plant growth parameters were observed in 5 of 6 plant species. A significant negative trend in shoot mass was observed for lettuce plants exposed to increasing concentrations of triclocarban (ptriclosan and triclocarban pose a negligible risk to seed emergence and growth of crop plants.

  19. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig


    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  20. Metal stress and decreased tree growth in response to biosolids application in greenhouse seedlings and in situ Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Cline, Erica T; Nguyen, Quyen T N; Rollins, Lucy; Gawel, James E


    To assess physiological impacts of biosolids on trees, metal contaminants and phytochelatins were measured in Douglas-fir stands amended with biosolids in 1982. A subsequent greenhouse study compared these same soils to soils amended with fresh wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids-amended field soils had significantly higher organic matter, lower pH, and elevated metals even after 25 years. In the field study, no beneficial growth effects were detected in biosolids-amended stands and in the greenhouse study both fresh and historic biosolids amendments resulted in lower seedling growth rates. Phytochelatins - bioindicators of intracellular metal stress - were elevated in foliage of biosolids-amended stands, and significantly higher in roots of seedlings grown with fresh biosolids. These results demonstrate that biosolids amendments have short- and long-term negative effects that may counteract the expected tree growth benefits.

  1. The phytoavailability of cadmium to lettuce in long-term biosolids-amended soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.L.; Chaney, R.L. [Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Angle, J.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Ryan, J.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.


    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13 to 15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil used a variety of biosolids. Two of the biosolids had total Cd concentrations of 13.4 and 210 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. A Cd salt treatment, with Cd added to soil at a rate equivalent to the Cd added by the higher Cd biosolids applied at 100 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}, was also included. The lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia) cultivar (Paris Island Cos) used in the initial study was also used in the current study. Lettuce Cd was compared between treatments, and in relation to the soil Cd/soil organic C (OC) ratio. There has been no significant increase in plant Cd since the initial cropping. With 16% of the biosolids added OC remaining, lettuce grown on the soil amended with the more contaminated biosolids was not different than that of the initial cropping. Further, significantly less Cd was taken up by lettuce grown on biosolids-amended soil than lettuce grown on soil amended with equivalent rates of Cd salt. The Cd concentration in lettuce grown in the low Cd biosolids treatment was not different from the control. These results indicate that the potential hazards associated with food chain transfer of biosolids-applied Cd are substantially lower than equivalent Cd salt treatments, and that the hazards do not increase over time.

  2. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication. (United States)

    Rampton, Sheldon


    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  3. Quantification of enteric viruses, pathogen indicators, and Salmonella bacteria in class B anaerobically digested biosolids by culture and molecular methods. (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene


    The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

  4. Multimedia Sampling During the Application of Biosolids on a Land Test Site (United States)

    This project integrated research from several disciplines to evaluate the effects of land application of biosolids on air and volatile emissions and soil microbial characteristics. Measurements included chemical, physical, and microbiological analytes.

  5. Evaluation Of Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations Associated With Management Of Crop Grown On Applied Biosolids (United States)

    Public health concerns have been expressed regarding inhalation exposure associated with the application of biosolids on cropland, which is due to the potential aerosolization of microorganisms, cell wall products, volatile chemicals, and nuisance odors. Endotoxin is a component...


    Development, standardization, and validation of analytical methods provides state-of-the-sciencetechniques to evaluate the presence, or absence, of select PPCPs in biosolids. This researchprovides the approaches, methods, and tools to assess the exposures and redu...

  7. Fermentative hydrogen gas production using biosolids pellets as the inoculum source. (United States)

    Kalogo, Youssouf; Bagley, David M


    Biosolids pellets produced from anaerobically digested municipal wastewater sludge by drying to greater than 90% total solids at 110-115 degrees C for at least 75 min, were tested for their suitability as an inoculum source for fermentative hydrogen production. The hydrogen recoveries (mg gaseous H(2) produced as COD/mg added substrate COD) for glucose-fed batch systems were equal, 20.2-21.5%, between biosolids pellets and boiled anaerobic digester sludge as inoculum sources. Hydrogen recoveries from primary sludge were 2.4% and 3.5% using biosolids pellets and boiled sludge, respectively, and only 0.2% and 0.8% for municipal wastewater. Biosolids pellets should be a practical inoculum source for fermentative hydrogen reactors, although the effectiveness will depend on the wastewater treated.

  8. Production of class a biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Orf, M.M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R.S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D.


    The feasibility of full-scale anoxic disinfection of dewatered and digested sludge from Winnipeg, Manitoba with low lime doses and lagoon fly ash was investigated to determine if a class A product could be produced. Lime doses of 50g, 100g, and 200g per kg of biosolids (dry) were used along with fly ash doses of 500g. 1000g. and 1500g per kg of biosolids (dry). The mixed product was buried in eight-10 cubic meter trenches at the West End Water Pollution Control Center In Winnipeg. The trenches were backfilled with dirt and trapped to simulate anoxic conditions. Sampling cages were packed with the mixed product and pathogens non-indigenous to Winnipeg's biosolids. The cages were buried amongst the mixed biosolids in the trench. The non-indigenous pathogens spiked in the laboratory were the helminth Ascaris suum and the enteric virus reovirus. Samples were removed at days 12, 40, 69, 291, and 356 and were tested for the presence of fecal Coliform, Clostridium perfringens spores, Ascaris suum eggs, and reovirus. The pH, total solids, and free ammonia content of the mixed product were also determined for each sample. Odor was quantified for samples at both 291 and 356 days. Fecal Coliform bacteria and reovirus were completely inactivated for doses as low as 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) and 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry). Spores of the bacteria C. perfringens experienced a 4-log reduction when treated with 100g lime per kg biosolids and a 5-log reduction when treated with doses as low as 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Ascaris eggs were completely inactivated in 5 gram packets for all treatments involving 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Class A pathogen requirements were met for all treatments involving a lime dose of at least 100g per kg biosolids. The odor potential from the produced biosolids is also assessed. (author)

  9. Infrequent composted biosolids applications affect semi-arid grassland soils and vegetation. (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Paschke, M W; Brobst, R B


    Monitoring of repeated composted biosolids applications is necessary for improving beneficial reuse program management strategies, because materials will likely be reapplied to the same site at a future point in time. A field trial evaluated a single and a repeated composted biosolids application in terms of long-term (13-14 years) and short-term (2-3 years) effects, respectively, on soil chemistry and plant community in a Colorado semi-arid grassland. Six composted biosolids rates (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 21, 30 Mg ha(-1)) were surface applied in a split-plot design study with treatment (increasing compost rates) as the main factor and co-application time (1991, or 1991 and 2002) as the split factor applications. Short- and long-term treatment effects were evident in 2004 and 2005 for soil 0-8 cm depth pH, EC, NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, total N, and AB-DTPA soil Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, P, and Ba. Soil organic matter increases were still evident 13 and 14 years following composted biosolids application. The repeated composted biosolids application increased soil NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N and decreased AB-DTPA extractable Ba as compared to the single composted biosolids application in 2004; differences between short- and long-term applications were less evident in 2005. Increasing biosolids rates resulted in increased native perennial grass cover in 2005. Plant tissue Cu, Mo, Zn, and P concentrations increased, while Ba content decreased depending on specific plant species and year. Overall, the lack of many significant negative effects suggests that short- or long-term composted biosolids application at the rates studied did not adversely affect this semi-arid grassland ecosystem.

  10. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States. (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R


    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  11. Measured physicochemical characteristics and biosolids-borne concentrations of the antimicrobial Triclocarban (TCC). (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C


    Triclocarban (TCC) is an active ingredient in antibacterial bar soaps, a common constituent of domestic wastewater, and the subject of recent criticism by consumer advocate groups and academic researchers alike. Activated sludge treatment readily removes TCC from the liquid waste stream and concentrates the antimicrobial in the solid fraction, which is often processed to produce biosolids intended for land application. Greater than half of the biosolids generated in the US are land-applied, resulting in a systematic release of biosolids-borne TCC into the terrestrial and, potentially, the aquatic environment. Multiple data gaps in the TCC literature (including basic physicochemical properties and biosolids concentrations) prevent an accurate, quantitative risk assessment of biosolids-borne TCC. We utilized the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guidelines to measure TCC solubility and log K(ow) values as 0.045 mg L(-1) and 3.5, respectively. The measured physicochemical 2 properties differed from computer model predictions. The mean concentration of TCC in 23 biosolids representative of multiple sludge processing methods was 19+/-11 mg kg(-1).

  12. Amendment of biosolids with waste materials and lime: Effect on geoenvironmental properties and leachate production. (United States)

    Kayser, Claudia; Larkin, Tam; Singhal, Naresh


    Residuals from wastewater treatment operations (biosolids) were mixed with lime, fly ash, lime kiln dust, or two smelter slags to assess their efficacy as potential stabilisation agents by assessing their effects on the shear strength, compressibility, and solids content of mixtures. In addition, the minerals formed and leachate produced during stabilisation were determined. Tests were performed to explore the change of the geoenvironmental properties of the amended biosolids, while under pressure, at different scales using laboratory, pilot and field scale tests. The settlement characteristics of the amended biosolids under a range of applied pressures were determined using a consolidometer. All amended biosolids mixtures showed higher strength than the unamended biosolids, with mixtures containing a combination of 20% fly ash and 20% lime giving the highest (up to eightfold) increase in strength, and that with lime kiln dust and the smelter slags showing the lowest (up to twofold). The biosolids mixtures with only lime gave the second highest increase in strength (up to fourfold), but produced the largest amount of leachate, with higher level of dissolved calcium. The increase in strength correlated with availability of calcium oxide in the mixtures which lead to calcium carbonate formation, accompanied with higher leachate production and settlement during consolidation. Copper, nickel and zinc concentrations increased with alkaline additives and corresponded to higher pH and DOC levels. Nonetheless, concentrations were within the New Zealand regulatory limits for Class A landfills.

  13. Biosolids, its management and agricultural recycling; Biosolidos, su gestion y reciclado agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llagostera Pujol, R.; Pigem Martinench, J. [Sociedad de Explotacion de Aguas Residuales. Barcelona (Spain); Salgot de Marcay, M. [Univeristat de Barcelona (Spain)


    The application of the ED 91/271 about wastewater treatment has been the reason of the construction of great number of wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). This great number of WWTP built has implied the increase of the production of biosolids and the global cost of the treatment. This increase has been motivated not only by the process, management or recyling of biosolids, but allso it will be due to the application environment exacting standards that will be fit and reduce boisolids use and disposal. Biosolids management forces the elimination in sanitary landfills when biosolids does not fulfill the law because of its heavy metals content. When biosolids can be recycled in the agriculture the problem of the correct environment management appears. Nowadays due to the lack of develop Spanish law of waste (Law 10/1998), the management has several options. Two models of management that has been adopted by Regional government of Catalonia are shown as alternatives of biosolids management recycling in agriculture. Several characteristics his real problematic are also shown.

  14. Field dissipation and risk assessment of typical personal care products TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils. (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao


    The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900 days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83 days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB.

  15. Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, Kate A., E-mail: [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Adelaide (Australia); Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia); Warne, Michael StJ. [Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia); Smernik, Ronald J. [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Adelaide (Australia); Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S. [Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia)


    This study compared the degradation of indigenous bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in a biosolids-amended soil, to the degradation of spiked labelled surrogates of the same compounds (BPA-d{sub 16} and TCS-{sup 13}C{sub 12}). The aim was to determine if spiking experiments accurately predict the degradation of compounds in biosolids-amended soils using two different types of biosolids, a centrifuge dried biosolids (CDB) and a lagoon dried biosolids (LDB). The rate of degradation of the compounds was examined and the results indicated that there were considerable differences between the indigenous and spiked compounds. These differences were more marked for BPA, for which the indigenous compound was detectable throughout the study, whereas the spiked compound decreased to below the detection limit prior to the study completion. The rate of degradation for the indigenous BPA was approximately 5-times slower than that of the spiked BPA-d{sub 16}. The indigenous and spiked TCS were both detectable throughout the study, however, the shape of the degradation curves varied considerably, particularly in the CDB treatment. These findings show that spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict the degradation and persistence of organic compounds following land application of biosolids. - Highlights: ► Degradation of indigenous and spiked compounds from biosolids were compared. ► Differences were observed for both the rate and pattern of degradation. ► Spiked bisphenol A entirely degraded however the indigenous compound remained. ► TCS was detectable during the experiment however the degradation patterns varied. ► Spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict degradation of organic compounds.

  16. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas


    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  17. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.


    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  18. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun


    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  19. Establishment of Native Grasses with Biosolids on Abandoned Croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurado-Guerra


    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate establishment and forage production of native grasses with application of biosolids, a byproduct of waste-water treatment, at an abandoned field, in Ejido Nuevo Delicias, Chihuahua, Mexico. Four biosolids rates from 0 (control to 30 dry Mg ha−1 and two methods of application, surface applied (BioSur and soil incorporated (BioInc, were evaluated. Seedbed preparation included plowing and harrowing before rainfall. Field plots of 5 × 5 m were manually sown with a mix of blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis (50% and green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia (50% in early August 2005. Experimental design was a randomized block with a split plot arrangement. Grass density, height, and forage production were estimated for three years. Data were analyzed with mixed linear models and repeated measures. Green sprangletop density increased under all biosolids rates regardless of method of application, while blue grama density slightly decreased. Biosolids were more beneficial for green sprangletop height than for blue grama height. Blue grama forage production slightly increased, while green sprangletop forage production increased the most at 10 Mg ha−1 biosolids rate under BioSur method. It was concluded that BioSur application at 10 and 20 Mg ha−1 rates had positive effects on the establishment and forage production of native grasses, especially green sprangletop.

  20. Uptake of pharmaceuticals, hormones and parabens into vegetables grown in soil fertilized with municipal biosolids. (United States)

    Sabourin, Lyne; Duenk, Peter; Bonte-Gelok, Shelly; Payne, Michael; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward


    Several recent greenhouse studies have established the potential for uptake of human pharmaceuticals from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids into a variety of crops. In the present study, a field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of organic micropollutants from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids at a regulated application rate into tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and sweet corn produced under normal farming conditions. The vegetables were grown according to farming practices mandated by the province of Ontario Canada, the key feature being a one-year offset between biosolid application and the harvest of crops for human consumption. Biosolids at application, and crop samples following harvest were analyzed for 118 pharmaceuticals and transformation products, 17 hormones or hormone transformation products, and 6 parabens. Analyte concentrations in the biosolids were consistent with those detected in other surveys. Eight of the 141 analytes were detected in one or two crop replicates at concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 6.25 ng/g dry weight, but no analytes were consistently detected above the detection limit in all triplicate treated plots. Overall, this study suggests that the potential for micropollutant uptake into crops under normal farming conditions is low.

  1. Effect of the application of acid treated biosolids on marigold (Tagetes erecta) development. (United States)

    Díaz-Avelar, J; Barrios, J A; Jiménez, B


    The use of biosolids for land restoration and crop production is a potential solution to improve food production worldwide. However, the microbial content usually restricts its application in crops that are consumed uncooked. An alternative practice is their use in floriculture. In this study, the effects of acid treated sludge on the development of marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants were evaluated under green house conditions. Biosolids were applied at the agronomic rate (AR) based on nitrogen requirements of the marigold. In addition, higher rates (10 and 20xAR) were applied to study their effect on the plants. Biosolids were mixed with tepetate (hard volcanic indurate layers). Due to its origin, tepetate lacks nutrients and organic matter to adequately support plant development. The best treatment for marigold development was 10xAR, as plants reached an average height of 107 cm, with a growing speed of 1.01 cm/d, which is 20 times more than the control. Plants that received no biosolids produced 0.25 buds and 0.5 flowers per plant. In contrast, AR and 10xAR showed a production that ranged from 2 to 29 buds/plant and 4 to 15 flowers/plant, respectively. These results indicate the viability of reusing acid treated biosolids to improve marigold development.

  2. Effects of biosolids application on nitrogen dynamics and microbial structure in a saline-sodic soil of the former Lake Texcoco (Mexico). (United States)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M; Dendooven, L; Garza-Avendaño, L; Souza, V; Philippot, L; Cabirol, N


    The saline-sodic soil of the former Lake Texcoco, a large area exposed to desertification, is a unique environment, but little is known about its microbial ecology. The objective of this study was to examine bacterial community structure, activity, and function when biosolids were added to microcosms. The application rates were such that 0, 66, 132, or 265 mg total Nk g(-1) were added with the biosolids (total C and N content 158 and 11.5 g kg(-1) dry biosolids, respectively). Approximately 60% of the biosolids were mineralized within 90 days. Microbial respiration and to a lesser extent ammonification and nitrification, increased after biosolids application. The rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) patterns for the biosolids and unamended soil bacterial communities were different, indicating that the microorganisms in the biosolids were distinct from the native population. It appears that the survival of the allochthonous microorganisms was short, presumably due to the adverse soil conditions.

  3. Leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil. (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Harrigan, Tim; Xagoraraki, Irene


    Much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. Biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. In this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (MAD) biosolids were applied at 56,000 L/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (Zea mays L.). Portable rainfall simulators were to maintain the lysimeters under a nearly saturated (90%, volumetric basis) conditions. Lysimeter leachate and surface ponded water samples were collected and analyzed for somatic phage, adenoviruses, and anionic (chloride) and microbial (P-22 bacteriophage) tracers. Neither adenovirus nor somatic phage was recovered from the leachate samples. P-22 bacteriophage was found in the leachate of three lysimeters (removal rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.2 log(10)/m). Although the peak of the anionic tracer breakthrough occurred at a similar pore volume in each lysimeter (around 0.3 pore volume) the peak of P-22 breakthrough varied between lysimeters (worm holes or other natural phenomena. The concentration of viral contaminants collected in ponded surface water ranged from 1 to 10% of the initial concentration in the applied biosolids. The die off of somatic phage and P-22 in the surface water was fit to a first order decay model and somatic phage reached background level at about day ten. In conclusion, sandy-loam soils can effectively remove/adsorb the indigenous viruses leached from the land-applied biosolids, but there is a potential of viral pollution from runoff following significant rainfall events when biosolids remain on the soil surface.

  4. Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC). (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A


    Triclocarban (TCC) is monitored under the USEPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. The compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a two-tiered human health and ecological risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calculated to estimate risk to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values indicative of significant risks to exposed organisms (including humans), even under worst-case land application scenarios. The two pathways for which the conservative screening-level HQ values exceeded one (i.e. Pathway 10: biosolids➔soil➔soil organism➔predator, and Pathway 16: biosolids➔soil➔surface water➔aquatic organism) were then reexamined using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained greater than one for Exposure Pathway 10, with the exception of the final adjusted HQ values under a one-time 5 Mg ha(-1) (agronomic) biosolids loading rate scenario for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, which include additional measurements of toxicological effects and TCC concentrations in environmental matrices at the field level.

  5. Characterization of Phosphorus Species in Biosolids and Manures Using XANES Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shober,A.; Hesterberg, D.; Sims, J.; Gardner, S.


    Received for publication March 10, 2006. Identification of the chemical P species in biosolids or manures will improve our understanding of the long-term potential for P loss when these materials are land applied. The objectives of this study were to determine the P species in dairy manures, poultry litters, and biosolids using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and to determine if chemical fractionation techniques can provide useful information when interpreted based on the results of more definitive P speciation studies. Our XANES fitting results indicated that the predominant forms of P in organic P sources included hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides, and phytic acid in lime-stabilized biosolids and manures; hydroxylapatite, PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, and phytic acid in lime- and Fe-treated biosolids; and PO{sub 4} sorbed on ferrihydrite, hydroxylapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), and often PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides in Fe-treated and digested biosolids. Strong relationships existed between the proportions of XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to Al hydroxides and NH{sub 4}Cl- + NH{sub 4}F-extractable P, XANES PO{sub 4} sorbed to ferrihydrite + phytic acid and NaOH-extractable P, and XANES hydroxylapatite + {beta}-TCP and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)- + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable P ({gamma}{sup 2} = 0.67 [P = 0.01], 0.78 [P = 0.01], and 0.89 [P = 0.001], respectively). Our XANES fitting results can be used to make predictions about long-term solubility of P when biosolids and manures are land applied. Fractionation techniques indicate that there are differences in the forms of P in these materials but should be interpreted based on P speciation data obtained using more advanced analytical tools.

  6. Dynamics of nitrogen in a PAHs contaminated soil amended with biosolid or vermicompost in the presence of earthworms. (United States)

    Contreras-Ramos, S M; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Dendooven, L


    Nitrogen mineralization in PAHs contaminated soil in presence of Eisenia fetida amended with biosolid or vermicompost was investigated. Sterilized and unsterilized soil was contaminated with PAHs, added with E. fetida and biosolid or vermicompost and incubated aerobically for 70 days, while dynamics of inorganic N were monitored. Addition of E. fetida to sterilized soil increased concentration of NH(4)(+) 100> mg N kg(-1), while concentrations in unsterilized remained 80 mg kg(-1). Addition of PAHs had no significant effect on concentration of NH(4)(+) compared to the unamended soil, except in the soil added with biosolid. Addition of E. fetida to sterilized soil increased concentration of NO(2)(-) 15> mg N kg(-1) while concentrations in unsterilized soil remained 20 mg kg(-1). Addition of PAHs had no significant effect on concentration of NO(2)(-) compared to the unamended soil. Addition of biosolid and vermicompost increased concentration of NO(3)(-), while addition of E. fetida decreased concentration of NO(3)(-) in biosolid amended soil. It was found that NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) oxidizers were present in the gut of E. fetida, but their activity was not sufficient enough to inhibit a temporarily increase in concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-). Contamination with PAHs induced immobilization of N in biosolid or vermicompost amended soil, as did feeding of E. fetida on biosolid or vermicompost.

  7. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment. (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Clarke, Bradley O; Pritchard, Deborah L; Meehan, Barry; Beshah, Firew; Smith, Stephen R; Porter, Nichola A


    International controls for biosolids application to agricultural land ensure the protection of human health and the environment, that it is performed in accordance with good agricultural practice and that nitrogen (N) inputs do not exceed crop requirements. Data from the scientific literature on the total, mineral and mineralizable N contents of biosolids applied to agricultural land under a wide range of climatic and experimental conditions were collated. The mean concentrations of total N (TN) in the dry solids (DS) of different biosolids types ranged from 1.5% (air-dried lime-treated (LT) biosolids) to 7.5% (liquid mesophilic anaerobic digestion (LMAD) biosolids). The overall mean values of mineralizable N, as a proportion of the organic N content, were 47% for aerobic digestion (AeD) biosolids, 40% for thermally dried (TD) biosolids, 34% for LT biosolids, 30% for mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) biosolids, and 7% for composted (Com) biosolids. Biosolids air-dried or stored for extended periods had smaller total and mineralizable N values compared to mechanically dewatered types. For example, for biosolids treated by MAD, the mean TN (% DS) and mineralizable N (% organic N) contents of air-dried materials were 3% and 20%, respectively, compared to 5% and 30% with mechanical dewatering. Thus, mineralizable N declined with the extent of biological stabilization during sewage sludge treatment; nevertheless, overall plant available N (PAN=readily available inorganic N plus mineralizable N) was broadly consistent across several major biosolids categories within climatic regions. However, mineralizable N often varied significantly between climatic regions for similar biosolids types, influencing the overall PAN. This may be partly attributed to the increased rate, and also the greater extent of soil microbial mineralization of more stable, residual organic N fractions in biosolids applied to soil in warmer climatic zones, which also raised the overall PAN

  8. Temperature Effects on Phosphorus Release from a Biosolids-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Silveira


    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of temperature on the potential leachable P pool and distribution of chemical P forms in a biosolids-amended soil. A P-deficient Spodosol was incubated with seven biosolids and inorganic P fertilizer at 20 and 32°C for 90 days. Amendments were applied to provide a total P concentration of 112 mg kg−1 soil, which correspond to a field application of ~224 kg P ha−1. Cumulative P mass leached during the 90 d study for any P source was <2% of the applied P, but greater cumulative P mass was released from the biological P removal and composted biosolids than from the heat-dried materials. Increasing temperature (20 to 32°C generally decreased cumulative P mass leached, suggesting greater soil affinity to retain P at 32°C than at 20°C. In a static incubation experiment (no leaching, soil water-extractable P concentrations were reduced over time, but no temperature effect was observed. Similarly, P distribution among the various fractions was not affected by temperature. The relatively great ability of the soil to sorb P masked differences in biosolids properties and the potential impacts of temperature on P lability. Additional work using low P-sorbing soils is warranted.


    Adsorption isotherms for soils from long-term biosolids-field experiments and their inorganic fractions were obtained by equilibration of the samples with cadmium nitrate. The cadmium nitrate solution was replaced with a calcium nitrate solution to obtain desorbed Cd. Results sho...


    A field study was conducted to assess the phytoavailability of Cd in long-term biosolids-amended field plots managed at high and low pH. The experiment, established 13-15 yr prior to the present cropping, on a Christiana fine sandy loam soil (a clayey, kaolinitic, mesic Typic Pa...

  11. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility (United States)

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a commonly used practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation, concerns remain that they may become sources of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the...

  12. Community engagement in the management of biosolids: lessons from four New Zealand studies. (United States)

    Goven, Joanna; Langer, E R Lisa; Baker, Virginia; Ataria, James; Leckie, Alan


    Biosolids management has been largely overlooked as an issue for environmental co-management, collaborative learning and public participation. This paper summarises four research projects on facilitating community involvement in biosolids management in New Zealand. The authors situate these studies both in relation to the New Zealand institutional and policy context for the management of biosolids and in relation to the themes of public participation and social learning in the literature on community involvement in environmental management. From the studies it can be concluded that: the incorporation of the knowledge and views of Māori is important from both public-participation and social-learning perspectives; both public-participation and social-learning approaches must consider the role of issue-definition in relation to willingness to participate; democratic accountability remains a challenge for both approaches; and locating biosolids management within an integrated water-and-wastewater or sustainable waste-management strategy may facilitate wider community participation as well as better-coordinated decision-making.

  13. Agronomic Efficiency of Biosolid as Source of Nitrogen to Banana Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira


    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS or biosolid has been studied as source of nutrient for several different plant species. It also contributes to soil fertility recycling organic matter and plant nutrients. This followup work examines a three-year (2001–2004 field experiment designed to evaluate the response of banana plants (Cavendish subgroup to the application of biosolid as source of nitrogen. The treatments consisted of control (mineral PK, no N, three rates of sludge, and two rates of mineral NPK fertilizer. Plant and soil N concentration, fruit yield, plant height, stem diameter, and foliar endurance index were measured. Fruit yield with mineral fertilization or sludge applications did not differ statistically (P>0.05. Application of biosolid resulted in statistically significant higher agronomic efficiency (P<0.05 in comparison to mineral fertilizers. The concentration of soil mineral nitrogen increased using mineral fertilizer or sludge until 0.80 m after three years of application. The effect of the source of N was smaller than the effect of the rate. Biosolid can be used as source of N for banana growers.


    Current federal regulations (40 CFR 503) require enumeration of fecal coliform or salmonellae prior to land application of biosolids. This regulation specifies use of enumeration methods included in "Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 18th Edition," (SM)...

  15. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids into edible crops via land applied biosolids: Field and greenhouse studies (United States)

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids destined for use in agriculture has raised concerns about their potential to enter the terrestrial food chain via bioaccumulation in edible plants. Uptake of PFAAs by greenhouse lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) and tomato (Lycope...

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  17. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing. (United States)

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...


    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  19. Reclamation of acid sulfate soils using lime-stabilized biosolids. (United States)

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Fanning, Delvin S


    Excavation of sulfidic materials during construction has resulted in acid rock drainage (ARD) problems throughout Virginia. The most extensive documented uncontrolled disturbance at a single location is Stafford Regional Airport (SRAP) in Stafford, Virginia. Beginning in 1998, over 150 ha of sulfidic Coastal Plain sediments were disturbed, including steeply sloping cut surfaces and spoils placed into fills. Acid sulfate soils developed, and ARD generated on-site degraded metal and concrete structures and heavily damaged water quality with effects noted over 1 km downstream. The site was not recognized as sulfidic until 2001 when surface soil sampling revealed pH values ranging from 1.9 to 5.3 and peroxide potential acidity (PPA) values ranging from 1 to 42 Mg CaCO(3) per 1000 Mg material. In February 2002 a water quality program was established in and around the site to monitor baseline pH, EC, NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, Fe, Al, Mn, and SO(4)-S, and initial pH values as low as 2.9 were noted in on-site receiving streams. In the spring and fall of 2002, the site was treated with variable rates of lime-stabilized biosolids, straw-mulch, and acid- and salt-tolerant legumes and grasses. By October 2002, the site was fully revegetated (> or = 90% living cover) with the exception of a few highly acidic outcrops and seepage areas. Surface soil sampling in 2003, 2004, and 2006 revealed pH values typically > 6.0. Water quality responded quickly to treatment, although short-term NH(4)(+) release occurred. Despite heavy loadings, no significant surface water P losses were observed.

  20. Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb distribution in biosolid pellets used as soil amendment (United States)

    Jordán, Manuel M.; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro Pedreño, Jose; Gómez Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Pardo, Francisco


    The application of biosolids to a soil is a method that offers important benefits (Navarro et al. 2003). The transport and application costs are quite low (mostly if they are dehydrated biosolids or pellets) if soils are located near a wastewater treatment plant. It is possible to recycle nutrients (N, P, and K) and organic matter by improving the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and by reducing the fertilizer costs. However, the use of biosolids may also has several problems, such as the presence of quantities of metals that could be toxic for plants or could contaminate ground-waters after being leached. Heavy metals are one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of its high toxicity, abundance and easy accumulation by plant (Soriano-Disla et al. 2014; Rosen and Chen 2014). Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of biosolids is subject to rigorous controls within the European Union. The present study was designed to examine the partition of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. Samples were collected from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of a wastewater processing plant. The samples correspond to biosolids with humidities below 20% and are representative of the three horizons within the pile: the isolation surface (H1), the mesophilous area (H2), and the thermophilous area (H3). Biosolid aggregates were placed in a pellet press and then compacted. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate samples were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The

  1. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids-amended, semiarid grassland soil. (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Brobst, R B


    Predicting trace-metal solid-phase speciation changes associated with long-term biosolids land application is important for understanding and improving environmental quality. Biosolids were surface-applied (no incorporation; 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 21, and 30 Mg ha) to a semiarid grassland in 1991 (single application) and 2002 (repeated application). In July 2003, soils were obtained from the 0- to 8-, 8- to15-, and 15- to 30-cm depths in all plots. Using soil pH, soluble anion and cation concentrations from 0.01 mol L CaCl extractions, dissolved organic C (DOC) content, and an estimate of solid phase humic and fulvic acids present, Cu and Zn associated with minerals, hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), organically complexed, electrostatically bound to organic matter (OM), or DOC phases was modeled using Visual Minteq. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXRA) was also used to identify solid-phase metal associations present in single and repeated biosolids-amended soils. Based on soil solution chemistry in all depths, as modeled using Visual Minteq, >90% of the Cu and >95% of the Zn from the single or repeated biosolids-applied soils were sorbed electrostatically or as mono- or bidentate solid-phase OM complexes. Up to 10 and 5% of the Cu and Zn, respectively, was associated with HFO, with negligible amounts associated with DOC. The SEM-EDXRA of clay-sized separates from all soil depths led to direct observation of Fe-Cu and Fe-Zn associations. Results implied that after surface-applying biosolids either once or twice with up to 30 Mg ha, some shifts occurred in phases controlling Cu and Zn solubility, but solution concentrations remained below drinking water standards.

  2. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms. (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C


    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively.

  3. In Situ Generated Colloid Transport of Cu and Zn in Reclaimed Mine Soil Profiles Associated with Biosolids Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod O. Miller


    Full Text Available Areas reclaimed for agricultural uses following coal mining often receive biosolids applications to increase organic matter and fertility. Transport of heavy metals within these soils may be enhanced by the additional presence of biosolids colloids. Intact monoliths from reclaimed and undisturbed soils in Virginia and Kentucky were leached to observe Cu and Zn mobility with and without biosolids application. Transport of Cu and Zn was observed in both solution and colloid associated phases in reclaimed and undisturbed forest soils, where the presence of unweathered spoil material and biosolids amendments contributed to higher metal release in solution fractions. Up to 81% of mobile Cu was associated with the colloid fraction, particularly when gibbsite was present, while only up to 18% of mobile Zn was associated with the colloid fraction. The colloid bound Cu was exchangeable by ammonium acetate, suggesting that it will release into groundwater resources.

  4. Modeling Uptake of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products into Food Crops from Biosolids-Amended Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosser, Ryan S.; Trapp, Stefan; Sibley, Paul K.


    Biosolids contain a variety of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have observed the uptake of PPCPs into plants grown in biosolids-amended soils. This study examined the ability of Dynamic Plant Uptake (DPU) model and Biosolids-amended Soil Level IV (BASL4) model to predict...... the concentration of eight PPCPs in the tissue of plants grown in biosolids-amended soil under a number of exposure scenarios. Concentrations in edible tissue predicted by the models were compared to concentrations reported in the literature by calculating estimated human daily intake values for both sets of data...... and comparing them to an acceptable daily intake value. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) portion of BASL4 overpredicted the concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban, and miconazole in root and shoot tissue by two to three orders of magnitude, while the dynamic carrot root (DCR) portion overpredicted...

  5. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils. (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth F; Gunsch, Claudia K; Stapleton, Heather M


    A comprehensive understanding of the fate of contaminant-laden biosolids is needed to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of biosolid land application. The present study examined the fate of several flame retardants and triclosan in biosolid-amended soil in a 90-d greenhouse experiment. Objectives included evaluating the persistence of these compounds in soil, their phytoaccumulation potential by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and potential degradation reactions. Concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners BDE-47 and BDE-209 and the antimicrobial triclosan declined significantly over time in biosolid-amended soil planted with alfalfa and then reached a steady state by day 28. In contrast, no significant losses of those analytes were observed from soil in nonvegetated pots. The amount of an analyte lost from vegetated soil ranged from 43% for the flame retardant di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate to 61% for triclosan and was significantly and negatively related to the log octanol-water partition coefficient. Alfalfa roots and shoots were monitored for the compounds, but no clear evidence of phytoaccumulation was observed. Methyl triclosan formation was observed in the biosolid-amended soils during the study period, indicating in situ biotransformation of triclosan. The present study demonstrates that, although they are highly recalcitrant, PBDEs, selected alternate brominated flame retardants, and triclosan are capable of undergoing dissipation from biosolid-amended soils in the presence of plants.

  6. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua


    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification.

  7. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.


    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.

  8. Dispersion Modeling and Characterization of Particulates from Land Application of Class B Biosolids (United States)

    Bhat, Abhishek S.

    This study presents a comprehensive approach to understand the particle characteristics, identify the source profile, develop new equations for emission rates, analyze the source-receptor relationship, and develop and evaluate a numerical model for the dispersion and transport of particles released during the injection of biosolids. Two field studies were conducted in the summer of 2008 and 2009 to collect airborne particulate matter emitted during the injection application of class B biosolids. The sampling was carried out before (pre-application), during (application), and after (post-application) the application. The research work characterized the particulate emissions deposited on the aerosols spectrometer. The mass concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM 1.0) particles were highest during the pre-application. The mass concentration of thoracic fraction (PM2.5-10) increased significantly during the application. A bimodal size distribution was observed throughout the sampling. Nuclei mode formation was predominant during the pre-application and the post-application, whereas the accumulation mode was distinctive during the application. Airborne particles were collected on filter papers during the biosolids application process using an aerosol spectrometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) tool was used to analyze particles collected before, during, and after injection of biosolids. The major emphasis of the analysis was on providing in depth information on particle count, size, shape, morphology, and chemical composition. The particle count was significantly sensitive towards the different activities surrounding the application. The combination of SEM, particle analysis software, and EDS technique was capable of revealing detailed information on the size, shape, morphology, and chemical composition of individual particles. These techniques proved to be an effective non-destructive method for the

  9. Analytical Results for Municipal Biosolids Samples from a Monitoring Program near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.), 2007 (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.; Berry, C.J.; Adams, M.G.


    Since late 1993, the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado (U.S.A.). In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring ground water at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program recently has been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock ground water, and streambed sediment. Streams at the site are dry most of the year, so samples of streambed sediment deposited after rain were used to indicate surface-water effects. This report will present only analytical results for the biosolids samples collected at the Metro District wastewater treatment plant in Denver and analyzed during 2007. We have presented earlier a compilation of analytical results for the biosolids samples collected and analyzed for 1999 through 2006. More information about the other monitoring components is presented elsewhere in the literature. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity. Nitrogen and chromium also were priority parameters for ground water and sediment components. In general, the objective of each component of the study was to determine whether concentrations of priority parameters (1

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Sulfide within Enclosed Environments in Biosolids Recovery Facilities. (United States)

    Matos, Rita Ventura; Matias, Natércia; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José Saldanha


      Hydrogen sulfide emissions from wastewater affect human health and equipment durability, thus presenting a complex issue for utilities. Several VOC emission models have been used before to predict H2S in collection systems and water resources recovery operations, even if with restrictions. By contrast, fewer studies focus on biosolids emissions and modelling. This paper presents a dynamic modelling approach to predict H2S concentration in a tank headspace of a wastewater biosolids recovery facility. Data from one of the largest Portuguese water resources recovery facilities was collected under different facility operating modes. The developed model adequately predicted H2S concentration, with R2 values of 0.89 and 0.78, for different periods of the year, thus showing how modelling may reliably contribute to utility operation decisions.

  11. A quantitative risk assessment for metals in surface water following the application of biosolids to grassland. (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel; Peyton, Dara; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Cummins, Enda


    During episodic rainfall events, land application of treated municipal sludge ('biosolids') may give rise to surface runoff of metals, which may be potentially harmful to human health if not fully treated in a water treatment plant (WTP). This study used surface runoff water quality data generated from a field-scale study in which three types of biosolids (anaerobically digested (AD), lime stabilised (LS), and thermally dried (TD)) were spread on micro-plots of land and subjected to three rainfall events at time intervals of 24, 48 and 360h following application. Making the assumption that this water directly entered abstraction waters for a WTP without any grassed buffer zone being present, accounting for stream dilution, and modelling various performance scenarios within the WTP, the aim of this research was to conduct a human health risk assessment of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr), which may still be present in drinking water after the WTP. Different dose-response relationships were characterised for the different metals with reference to the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and the Hazard Quotient (HQ). The results for the LADD show that child exposure concentrations were highest for Cu when the measured surface runoff concentrations from the LS biosolids treatment were used as input into the model. The results for the HQ showed that of all the scenarios considered, Cu had the highest HQ for children. However, values were below the threshold value of risk (HQ<0.01 - no existing risk). Under the conditions monitored, metal concentrations in the biosolids applied to grassland were not considered to result in a risk to human health in surface water systems.

  12. Biosolids conditioning and the availability of Cu and Zn for rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Adriana Marlene Moreno


    Full Text Available Sewage treatment process is a factor to be considered for biosolid use in agriculture. The greatest sewage treatment facility of São Paulo State (Barueri/SP altered in the year 2000 of its sludge treatment. The addition of ferric chloride and calcium oxide was substituted by the addition of polymers. This change can modify heavy metal phytoavailability. A green house experiment, using 2 soils treated with biosolids (three with and one without polymers with and without polymers was performed to evaluate Cu and Zn phytoavailability using rice (Oryza sativa L. as test plant. Three kilograms of two soils (Haphorthox abd Hapludox were placed in pots and the equivalent to 50 Mg ha-1 (dry basis of biosolid was added and incorporated. The statistical design adopted was completely randomized experiment, with five treatments (control plus four different biossolids each soil and four replications. Soil pH before and after harvesting, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot were evaluated. Tukey (5% was used to compare the results. DTPA, HCl 0.1 mol L-1 and Mehlich 3 were used to estimate soil available Cu and Zn. Amounts extracted were correlated to those presented in rice shoot, to evaluate the efficiency of predicting Cu and Zn phytoavailabilities. Biosolids with polymers presented higher Cu and Zn phytoavailabilities, possibly due to the lower pH of these residues. In this case soil presented lowest values of pH and plant shoot had highest. All extractants were representative of Cu and Zn availability to rice plants.

  13. Genomic and functional characterization of qnr-encoding plasmids from municipal wastewater biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates


    Ella eKaplan; Noa eSela; Adi eDoron-faigenboim; Shiri eNavon-Venezia; Edouard eJurkevitch; Eddie eCytryn


    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be hotspots for antibiotic resistance since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is e...

  14. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates


    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie


    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be “hotspots” for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon i...

  15. Biosolids recycling : a proposed methodology for the assessment of the impact on groundwater


    Robins, N.S.


    A groundwater risk assessment protocol is needed for land restoration schemes using recycled biosolids. A hydrogeological risk assessment for the Darnconner site in East Ayrshire [NS5723 to NS5823] has been used as a case study to develop the protocol. The proposed outline for developing the protocol included the following components: 1. Gather available geological information for the site and environs from 1: 50 000 scale geological maps and more detailed information where ava...

  16. Selective quantification of viable Escherichia coli bacteria in biosolids by quantitative PCR with propidium monoazide modification. (United States)

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin


    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter(-1).

  17. Optimizing Waste Heat Recovery for Class A Biosolids Production from a Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroushian, Fred


    The City of Corona serves a rapidly growing area of Southern California, The City operates three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that produce reclaimed water for unrestricted reuse. The sludge from the three WWTPs is transported to a central sludge treatment facility located at WWTP No. 1. The sludge treatment facility consists of sludge receiving, thickening, anaerobic digestion, and dewatering. In the year 2000, the City was faced with two crises. First, the California power shortage and escalating cost of power severely impacted the industry and businesses. Second, bans on Class B biosolids land application and the shutdown of a local privatized composting facility where the bulk of the City's biosolids were processed or reused forced the City to transport bulk waste a much greater distance. To cost-effectively respond to these crises, the City decided to start generating and supplying power to its constituents by constructing a nominal 30-megawatt (MW) power plant. The feasibility study proved that locating the power plant at the City's largest WWTP produced significant synergies. The reclaimed water from the WWTP could be used for power plant cooling, the waste heat from the power plant could be recovered and used in Class A biosolids processes, the digester gas could be used for supplementing the fuel needs of the sludge dryer, and the combined facilities operation was more efficient than physically separate facilities. This paper presents the results of this analysis as well as the construction and operational aspects of the project. (author)

  18. Cu and Zn Speciation in an Acid Soil Amended with Alkaline Biosolids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fractionation of metals in a granite-derived acid sandy loam soil amended with alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge biosolids was conducted in order to assess metal bioavailability and environmental mobility. Soil solution was extracted by a centrifugation and filtration technique. Metal speciation in the soil solution was determined by a cation exchange resin method. Acetic acid and EDTA extracting solutions were used for extraction of metals in soil solid surfaces. Metal distribution in different fractions of soil solid phase was determined using a three-step sequential extraction scheme. The results show that the metals in the soil solution existed in different fractions with variable lability and metals in the soil solid phase were also present in various chemical forms with potentially different bioavailability and environmental mobility. Alkalinestabilised biosolids could elevate solubility of Cu and proportion of Cu in organically complexed fractions both in soil liquid and solid phases, and may therefore increase Cu mobility. In contrast, the biosolids lowered the concentrations of water-soluble Zn (labile fraction) and exchangeable Zn and may hence decrease bioavailability and mobility of Zn. However, Fe and Mn oxides bound and organic matter bound fractions are likely to be Zn pools in the sludge-amended soil. These consequences possibly result from the liming effect and metal speciation of the sludge product and the difference in the chemistry between the metals in soil.

  19. Community Engagement and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Kaikōura’s Biosolid Reuse Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Leckie


    Full Text Available This paper reports a life cycle assessment undertaken to assess the environmental impact of a range of biosolid reuse options selected by the Kaikōura community. The reuse options were identified as: vermiculture and open-air composting; mixture with biochar; direct land application to disturbed sites for forestry using native tree species; and application to exotic forestry plantations or pastoral farmland. The aim of the study was to calculate the possible environmental impacts of the reuse options so the information can be used in a community dialogue process where the fate of the biosolids is decided upon. All reuse options showed improved environmental performance relative to landfilling. The direct application to land options showed the least environmental impact and the composting options had the most environmental impact. This is the first time this approach has been applied to biosolids management in New Zealand, and whilst there are limitations, the approach should be encouraged in other communities because it increases the engagement of the community with waste management decision-making and the environment.

  20. Relationship between Mineral Soil Surface Area and the Biological Degradation of Biosolids Added to Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqi Wen


    Full Text Available Geochemical and biological processes that operate in the soil matrix and on the soil surface are important to the degradation of biosolids in soil. Due to the large surface area of soils it is assumed that the microbial ecology is associated with mineral soil surface area. The total mineral surface areas were determined for soils from eight different fields selected from a long term study (1972–2006 of annual biosolids application to 41 fields in central Illinois varying in size from 3.6 to 66 ha. The surface areas for the soils varied from 1 to 9 m2/g of soil. The biological degradation rates for the eight soils were determined using a biological degradation rate model (DRM and varied from 0.02 to 0.20/year−1. Regression analysis revealed that the degradation rate was positively associated with mineral soil surface area (1 m2/g produces 0.018 year−1 increase in the degradation rate. The annual soil sequestration rate was calculated to increase from 1% to 6% when the soil total surface area increased from 1 to 9 m2/g of soil. Therefore, land application of biosolids is an effective way to enhance carbon sequestration in soils and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


    The environmental impact of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain has been studied for decades. From the related literature, it can be concluded that, by addition of biosolids to soil, the overall chemical reactivity in the soil system is altered beyond ...

  2. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability (United States)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. sewage sludges and biosolids: temporal and geographical trends and uptake by corn following land application. (United States)

    Hale, Robert C; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen; Chen, Da; Mainor, Thomas M; Luellen, Drew R; Hundal, Lakhwinder S


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively to flame-retard polymers and textiles. These persistent chemicals enter wastewater streams following manufacture, use, and disposal, concentrating in the settled solids during treatment. Land application of stabilized sewage sludge (known as biosolids) can contribute PBDEs to terrestrial systems. Monitoring sludge/biosolids contaminant burdens may be valuable in revealing trends in societal chemical usage and environmental release. In archived Chicago area sludges/biosolids from 1975 to 2008, penta-BDE concentrations increased and then plateaued after about 2000. Penta-BDE manufacture in the United States ended in December 2004. Deca-BDE concentrations in biosolids rose from 1995 to 2008, doubling on a 5-year interval. Evaluation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey data from 2006 to 2007 revealed highest penta-BDE biosolids levels from western and lowest from northeastern wastewater treatment plants (2120 and 1530 μg/kg, respectively), consistent with patterns reported in some recent indoor dust and human blood studies. No significant regional trends were observed for deca-BDE concentrations. Congener patterns in contemporary Chicago biosolids support the contention that BDE-209 can be dehalogenated to less brominated congeners. Biosolids application on agricultural fields increased PBDE soil concentrations. However, corn grown thereon did not exhibit measurable PBDE uptake; perhaps due to low bioavailability of the biosolids-associated flame retardants.

  4. Field-Scale Evaluation of Biosolids-Derived Organomineral Fertilisers Applied to Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes L. Antille


    Full Text Available A field-scale experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of two organomineral fertiliser (OMF formulations (OMF10—10 : 4 : 4 and OMF15—15 : 4 : 4 with urea and biosolids granules applied to perennial ryegrass. Results showed a 25% to 30% increase in dry matter yield (DMY with application of OMF compared with biosolids granules but about 5% lower than urea. For OMF, an average input of yielded which was similar to that of urea; whereas, for biosolids, a yield of required an input of but DMY was lower (. Agronomic efficiencies with OMF were in the range of 26 to 35 kg , approximately double those of biosolids but about 5% to 10% lower than urea. Soil extractable P levels remained close to constant; therefore, soil P Index was not affected by OMF application. This result supported the reasons for the proposed OMF formulations and demonstrated the advantage of the products compared with biosolids which induced an increase (, in soil extractable P. The application of OMF at rates which do not exceed the optimum N rate for the grass crop should not induce significant changes in soil P Index including application to soils with satisfactory P levels. OMF application strategies are discussed which will enable minimising environmental concerns and maximising fertiliser use efficiency.

  5. Effect of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban on the colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Lissemore, L; Shahmohamadloo, R S; Sibley, P K


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a symbiotic relationship with the majority of crop plants. AMF provide plants with nutrients (e.g., P), modulate the effect of metal and pathogen exposure, and increase tolerance to moisture stress. The benefits of AMF to plant growth make them important to the development of sustainable agriculture. The land application of biosolids is becoming an increasingly common practice in sustainable agriculture, as a source of nutrients. However, biosolids have been found to contain numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products including antimicrobial chemicals such as triclosan and triclocarban. The potential risks that these two compounds may pose to plant-AMF interactions are poorly understood. The current study investigated whether biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban affect the colonization of the roots of lettuce and corn plants by AMF. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids that contained increasing concentrations of triclosan (0 to 307 μg/g dw) or triclocarban (0 to 304 μg/g dw). A relationship between the concentration of triclosan or triclocarban and colonization of plants roots by AMF was not observed. The presence of biosolids did not have a significant (p>0.05) effect on percent colonization of corn roots but had a significant, positive effect (ptriclosan and triclocarban did not inhibit the colonization of crop plant roots by AMF.

  6. Fate of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles in a pilot wastewater treatment plant and in processed biosolids. (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Judy, Jonathan D; Unrine, Jason M; Durenkamp, Mark; Martin, Ben; Jefferson, Bruce; Lowry, Gregory V


    Chemical transformations of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) during wastewater treatment and sludge treatment must be characterized to accurately assess the risks that these nanomaterials pose from land application of biosolids. Here, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and supporting characterization methods are used to determine the chemical speciation of Ag and Zn in sludge from a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that had received PVP coated 50 nm Ag NPs and 30 nm ZnO NPs, dissolved metal ions, or no added metal. The effects of composting and lime and heat treatment on metal speciation in the resulting biosolids were also examined. All added Ag was converted to Ag2S, regardless of the form of Ag added (NP vs ionic). Zn was transformed to three Zn-containing species, ZnS, Zn3(PO4)2, and Zn associated Fe oxy/hydroxides, also regardless of the form of Zn added. Zn speciation was the same in the unamended control sludge. Ag2S persisted in all sludge treatments. Zn3(PO4)2 persisted in sludge and biosolids, but the ratio of ZnS and Zn associated with Fe oxy/hydroxide depended on the redox state and water content of the biosolids. Limited differences in Zn and Ag speciation among NP-dosed, ion-dosed, and control biosolids indicate that these nanoparticles are transformed to similar chemical forms as bulk metals already entering the WWTP.

  7. Bioaugmenting anaerobic digestion of biosolids with selected strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetes species for increased methanogenesis and odor control. (United States)

    Duran, Metin; Tepe, Nalan; Yurtsever, Deniz; Punzi, Vito L; Bruno, Charles; Mehta, Raj J


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bioaugmenting anaerobic biosolids digestion with a commercial product containing selected strains of bacteria from genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetes, along with ancillary organic compounds containing various micronutrients. Specifically, the effects of the bioaugment in terms of volatile solids destruction and generation and fate of odor-causing compounds during anaerobic digestion and during storage of the digested biosolids were studied. Two bench-scale anaerobic digesters receiving primary and secondary clarifier biosolids from various full-scale biological wastewater treatment plants were operated. One of the digesters received the bioaugment developed by Organica Biotech, while the other was operated as control. The bioaugmented digester generated 29% more net CH(4) during the 8 weeks of operation. In addition, the average residual propionic acid concentration in the bioaugmented digester was 54% of that in the control. The monitoring of two organic sulfide compounds, methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3)), clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of the bioaugmentation in terms of odor control. The biosolids digested in the bioaugmented digester generated a negligible amount of CH(3)SH during 10 days of post-digestion storage, while CH(3)SH concentration in the control reached nearly 300 ppm(v) during the same period. Similarly, peak CH(3)SCH(3) generated by stored biosolids from the bioaugmented digester was only 37% of that from the control.

  8. Long-term use of biosolids as organic fertilizers in agricultural soils: potentially toxic elements occurrence and mobility. (United States)

    Marguí, E; Iglesias, M; Camps, F; Sala, L; Hidalgo, M


    The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may hinder a more widespread application of biosolids in agriculture. At present, the European Directive 86/278/CEE limit the total concentrations of seven metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg) in agricultural soils and in sewage sludges used as fertilizers but it has not taken into consideration the potential impacts of other emerging micropollutants that may be present in the biosolids as well as their mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation and mobility of 13 elements (including regulated metals and other inorganic species) in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with biosolids for 15 years. Firstly, three digestions programs using different acid mixtures were tested to evaluate the most accurate and efficient method for analysis of soil and sludge. Results demonstrated that sewage sludge application increased concentrations of Pb and Hg in soil, but values did not exceed the quality standard established by legislation. In addition, other elements (As, Co, Sb, Ag, Se and Mn) that at present are not regulated by the Spanish and European directives were identified in the sewage sludge, and significant differences were found between Ag content in soils amended with biosolids in comparison with control soils. This fact can be related to the increasing use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products due to their antibacterial properties. Results from the leaching tests show up that, in general, the mobility degree for both regulated and non-regulated elements in soils amended with biosolids was quite low (<10 %).

  9. Impacts of tilling and covering treatments on the biosolids solar drying conversion from class B to class A. (United States)

    Song, Inhong; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tillage and cover treatments of solar drying on the conversion of class B treated sewage sludge to a class A product. The experiments were performed over two years at Green Valley, Arizona in steel-constructed sand-filled drying beds of 1.0 m (width) x 3.0 m (length) x 0.6 m (depth). Freshly produced aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids from nearby wastewater treatment plants received tillage and cover treatments for expediting solar drying and microbial inactivation. During the summer drying, covered drying bed increased faecal inactivation rate by 26% over other treatments and automated rain shield abated faecal coliform regrowth from summer rains. Tilling accelerated evaporation of moisture from the biosolids and increased the inactivation rate of faecal coliforms during the summer season. An automated retractable roof to protect the biosolids from rain aided in maintaining class A criteria by preventing dried biosolids from re-wetting by rainfall. However, results from tilling and passive solar heating during the cold winter seasons did not improve the faecal coliform inactivation rate due mainly to lower ambient temperatures. Thus, tilling and cover treatments can be effective in accelerating biosolids solar drying and thus enhancing pathogen inactivation during the summer season. Investigation on the effects of tillage depth and frequency is recommended to determine optimal tilling practice.

  10. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004-2010 (United States)

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Crock, James G.; Smith, David B.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hageman, Philip L.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District (Metro District), studied biosolids composition and the effects of biosolids applications on groundwater quality and trace-element concentrations in crops of the Metro District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 2004 through 2010. Priority parameters for each monitoring component included the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc); other constituents also were analyzed. All concentrations for the priority parameters in monthly biosolids samples were less than Colorado regulatory limits, and the concentrations were relatively consistent. Biosolids likely were the largest source of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Metro District properties. Plutonium isotopes were not detected in the biosolids, but many organic wastewater compounds (organic wastewater compounds: wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) were detected in substantial concentrations relative to minimum reporting levels and various surface-water concentrations. Bismuth, copper, mercury, nitrogen, phosphorus, silver, biogenic sterols, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature to indicate the presence of Metro District biosolids in soil or streambed sediment from the study area. Antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen, phosphorus, selenium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, detergent degradates, disinfectants, fire retardants, fragrances, pharmaceuticals or their degradates, and plasticizers would be the most likely biosolids signature for groundwater and surface water in the study area. More biosolids-signature components detected and larger concentration differences from untreated materials, baseline, and blank samples indicate more evidence of biosolids presence or effects

  11. Phosphorus and heavy metal extraction from wastewater treatment plant sludges using microwaves for generation of exceptional quality biosolids. (United States)

    Danesh, Paymon; Hong, Seung M; Moon, Kyong W; Park, Jae K


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the amount of phosphorus and metals in sludge that can be released into solution by microwave irradiation when applied to sludge before anaerobic digestion and determine the effectiveness of subsequent lime precipitation. The fraction of phosphorus in the soluble form increased to 23 to 28% for thickened sludge and to 31 to 38% for unthickened sludge, after raising temperatures by microwave heating to 50 to 70 degrees C. Microwave irradiation also caused the release of arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium into solution to 33, 15, 13, and 28% for thickened sludge and 63, 61, 37, and 27% for unthickened sludge, respectively. Microwave irradiation has been found to destruct pathogens in sludge to meet Class A biosolids requirements. Therefore, the reduction of phosphorus and metals in biosolids using microwave heating is economically attractive when considered as a secondary benefit to the use of microwave heating to generate Class A biosolids.

  12. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil (United States)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.


    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  13. Copper, nickel and zinc speciation in a biosolid-amended soil: pH adsorption edge, μ-XRF and μ-XANES investigations. (United States)

    Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Sayen, Stéphanie; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Guillon, Emmanuel


    Metal solid phase speciation plays an important role in the control of the long-term stability of metals in biosolid-amended soils. The present work used pH-adsorption edge experiments and synchrotron-based spectroscopy techniques to understand the solid phase speciation of copper, nickel and zinc in a biosolid-amended soil. Comparison of metal adsorption edges on the biosolid-amended soil and the soil sample showed that Cu, Ni, and Zn can be retained by both soil and biosolid components such as amorphous iron phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These data are combined with microscopic results to obtain structural information about the surface complexes formed. Linear combination fitting of K-edge XANES spectra of metal hot-spots indicated consistent differences in metal speciation between metals. While organic matter plays a dominant role in Ni binding in the biosolid-amended soil, it was of lesser importance for Cu and Zn. This study suggests that even if the metals can be associated with soil components (clay minerals and organic matter), biosolid application will increase metals retention in the biosolid-amended soil by providing reactive organic matter and iron oxide fractions. Among the studied metals, the long-term mobility of Ni could be affected by organic matter degradation while Cu and Zn are strongly associated with iron oxides.

  14. Characterisation of Organomineral Fertilisers Derived from Nutrient-Enriched Biosolids Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes L. Antille


    Full Text Available Organomineral fertilisers (OMFs were produced by coating biosolids granules with urea and potash. Two OMF formulations with N : P2O5 : K2O compositions: 10 : 4 : 4 (OMF10 and 15 : 4 : 4 (OMF15 were developed for application in grassland and arable crops. Routine fertiliser analyses were conducted on four batches of OMF and biosolids granules and compared with a sample of urea to determine key physical and chemical properties of the materials which affect handling and spreading, soil behaviour, and fertiliser value. Bulk and particle densities were in the range of 608 to 618 kg m−3, and 1297 to 1357 kg m−3, respectively. Compression tests showed that OMF particles undergo deformation followed by multiple failures without disintegration of the granules when vertical load was applied. Static particle strength was between 1.18 and 4.33 N mm−2 depending on the particle diameter. The use of a model for fertiliser particle distribution studies showed that OMF granules should be between 1.10 and 5.50 mm in diameter with about 80% of the particles in the range of 2.25 to 4.40 mm to enable application at 18 m tramline spacing. This research utilises novel technology to improve the fertiliser value of biosolids, reduce disposal costs, and deliver a range of environmental benefits associated with recycling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh, M. R. Shahmansouri, H. Pourmoghadas


    Full Text Available The composting process is a useful method of producing a stabilized material that can be used as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. Maturity of compost is essential for its optimal use as a soil amendment and a source of plant nutrients as well. Immature composts pose problems of malodors and flies and phytotoxicity and pollution during use. Stability and maturity both are required for compost quality control. Compost maturity tests can be classified into physical, chemical, plant, and microbial activity assays. In this study, several methods of evaluating the stability and maturity of composted biosolids were compared based on chemical and biological properties. The sludge used of windrow composting was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that, C/N ratio after 100 days of composting reached to 15/1; NH4/NO3 ratio decreased with increase of the time dewatered sludge compost, which this loss is 57.3%. The content of volatile solids, 28.8% decreased with composting time. The number of fecal coliforms in the initial sewage sludge compost was 17.9´106 and at the end of composting was 898MPN/g of total solids and the compost process provided class A pathogen criteria. Use of chemical and biological parameters exhibited three phases: rapid decomposition (day 40, stabilization (day 80 and maturation (day 100 in biosolids compost. Thus, the biosolid compost was mature and ready for use as an agricultural substrate after about 100 days of composting.

  16. Effects of co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals on corn growth and bioavailable phosphorus and aluminum in alkaline soils in egypt. (United States)

    Mahdy, A M; Elkhatib, E A; Fathi, N O; Lin, Z-Q


    The co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTRs) has been previously trialed to reduce excessive bioavailable P in the soil treated with biosolids. However, uncertainty still exists regarding the environmental consequences of the co-application of biosolids and WTRs, especially in alkaline soils in Egypt or the Middle East region. A greenhouse pot study was conducted with Egyptian alkaline soils to (i) quantify the effects of co-application of biosolids and drinking WTRs on biomass production of corn (Zea mays L. cultivar single hybrid 10), (ii) determine the co-application effects on Olsen-P and KCl-extractable Al in relation to their accumulation in plant tissues, and (iii) optimize the co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs for the best yield and effective reduction of soil bioavailable P. The results show that, among the studied soils treated with 1% biosolids along with various rates of WTRs, the corn yield increased significantly (P soil water holding capacity that increased with the addition of WTRs. Phosphorus uptake by plants significantly (P soils that were treated with 1, 2, or 3% WTRs. The application of 4% WTRs in the biosolid-amended soils resulted in a significant reduction in soil Olsen-P values, but without having observable phytotoxicity of metals (such as Al) to corn during the growth period. The effective co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs, for increasing corn yield and minimizing the potential for bioavailable P in runoff, was approximately 1:1 at the application rate of 3% biosolids and 4% WTRs in the alkaline soils.

  17. Bioaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban in plants grown in soils amended with municipal dewatered biosolids. (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Lissemore, Linda; Topp, Edward; Sibley, Paul K


    Biosolids generally contain the microbiocidal agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) that are persistent during wastewater treatment and sorp to organic material. The present study investigated the concentration of TCS in tissues of radish, carrot, and soybean grown in potted soil amended with biosolids. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish, carrot, and soybean root tissue midway through the life cycle were 24.8 ng/g, 49.8 ng/g, and 48.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively; by the conclusion of the test, however, concentrations had declined to 2.1 ng/g, 5.5 ng/g, and 8.4 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Highest mean concentrations of TCS in radish and carrot shoot tissue were 33.7 and 18.3 ng/g dry weight at days 19 and 45, respectively, but had declined to 13.7 ng/g and 5.5 ng/g dry weight at days 34 and 69, respectively. Concentration of TCS in all samples of soybean seeds was below method detection limit (i.e., 2.8 ng/g dry wt). The present study also examined the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of green pepper, carrot, cucumber, tomato, radish, and lettuce plants grown in a field amended with biosolids. Triclosan was detected only in cucumber and radish up to 5.2 ng/g dry weight. Triclocarban was detected in carrot, green pepper, tomato, and cucumber up to 5.7 ng/g dry weight. On the basis of the present study and other studies, we estimate that vegetable consumption represents less than 0.5% of the acceptable daily intake of TCS and TCC. These results demonstrate that, if best management practices for land application of biosolids in Ontario are followed, the concentration of TCS and TCC in edible portions of plants represents a negligible exposure pathway to humans.

  18. Development of mint (Mentha piperita L. grown on biosolids: evaluation of productivity and essential oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Scavroni


    Full Text Available Development of Mentha piperita L . on biosolids amended soil with levels equivalent to 0, 28, 56 and 112 t ha-1 was evaluated. In order to measure the productivity and its relation with mint essential oil yield, different indices were determined: leaf area, total and several organ dry matter, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate at 30, 44, 58, 72 and 86 days after planting (DAP, and essential oil yield at 90, 110 and 120 DAP. Physiological indices revealed that biosolids prolonged the vegetative phase of the plants, which adapted themselves to the presence of biosolids with time. Plants showed inverse behaviors in relation to productivity, resulting from the primary metabolism, represented by the shoot dry matter yield, and oil yield, resulting from the secondary metabolism. Adaptation of the mint plants to the growth on biosolids could be due to a phytoremediation function of this species. The intrinsic mechanisms of these processes could be better understood in a further evaluation of residual effects in mint plant shoots.Níveis de biossólido equivalentes a 0, 28, 56 e 112 t ha-1 foram avaliados no desenvolvimento de Mentha piperita L. Determinaram-se área foliar e matéria seca total e dos diferentes órgãos, os índices fisiológicos razão de área foliar, área foliar específica, taxa assimilatória líquida e taxa de crescimento relativo, aos 30, 44, 58, 72 e 86 dias após plantio (DAP e o rendimento de óleo essencial aos 90, 110 e 120 DAP. Os índices fisiológicos revelaram que o biossólido prolongou a fase vegetativa das plantas, que se adaptaram com o tempo e apresentaram comportamentos inversos em relação à produtividade, resultado de seu metabolismo primário e representada pela produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e produção de óleo, resultado do metabolismo secundário. A referida adaptação das plantas de menta à presença do biossólido pode ser devido à fun

  19. Rapid determination of natural and synthetic hormones in biosolids and poultry manure by isotope dilution GC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L


    The release of hormones into the environment due to land application of biosolids and manure is a cause of concern for their potential impacts. This paper presents the development of a rapid and sensitive method, based on extraction, for the analysis of 13 hormones in biosolids and poultry manure. A simultaneous derivatization of hydroxyl and ketone groups was carried out for the determination of hormones by GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in three matrices (sewage sludge, manure, and broiler litter). Recoveries from spiked samples at three concentration levels (50, 25, and 10 ng/g) ranged from 76 to 124% with relative SDs ≤ 16%. Method detection limits for the three matrices were in the range of 0.5–3.0 ng/g dry weight. The optimized method was applied to biosolid and poultry manure samples collected in Spain. Only seven of the 13 studied hormones were detected in the different samples. trans-Androsterone was detected at high levels (up to 3.1 μg/g in biosolid samples). Estrone and estradiol were the two hormones detected at higher levels in layer manure, whereas estrone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione presented the highest levels in broiler litter.

  20. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea. (United States)

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H


    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits.

  1. On-site assessment of extractable soil nutrients after long-term biosolids applications to perennial forage (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate soil nutrient loading and depth distributions of extractable nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) after long-term, continuous annual surface-applications of anaerobically-digested Class B biosolids at a municipal recycling facility in central Te...

  2. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem (United States)

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  3. Alleviation of Soil Acidity and Aluminium Phytotoxicity in Acid Soils by Using Alkaline-Stabilised Biosolids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A pot experiment was carried out to study alleviation of soil acidity and Al toxicity by applying an alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge product (biosolids) to an acid clay sandy loam (pH 5.7) and a strongly acid sandy loam (pH 4.5). Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was used as a test crop and was grown in the sewage sludge-amended (33.5 t sludge DM ha-1) and unamended soils. The results showed that the alkaline biosloids increased soil pH from 5.7 to 6.9 for the clay sandy loam and from 4.5 to 6.0 for the sandy loam. The sludge product decreased KCl-extractable Al from 0.1 to 0.0 cmol kg-1 for the former soil and from 4.0 to 0.1 cmol kg-1 for the latter soil. As a result, barley plants grew much better and grain yield increased greatly in the amended treatments compared with the unamended controls. These observations indicate that alkaline-stabilised biosolids can be used as a liming material for remedying Al phytotoxicity in strongly acid soils by increasing soil pH and lowering Al bioavailability.

  4. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry. (United States)

    de Sena, Rennio F; Tambosi, José L; Floriani, Silvia L; Virmond, Elaine; Schröder, Horst Fr; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J


    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content--polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)--were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  5. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ghezzi


    Full Text Available Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potentials and cation exchange capacities assessed surface charge and chemical reactivity. The estimated average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles was nearly twice the ideal 100 nm range, apparently due to irregular particle shapes and partial aggregation. Nanoparticles were also found attached to surfaces of macrocolloids, forming macro-nano aggregates and obscuring some of their physical and chemical characteristics. However, nanocolloids exhibited greater surface reactivity, likely due to their smaller size, poor crystallinity, and morphological shape distortions. In spite of some behavior modification due to nanoaggregation phenomena, nanocolloids appeared to be much more potent vectors of contaminant transport in subsurface environments than their macrosize fractions. Nevertheless, their heterogeneous nature brings to light important considerations in addressing pollution prevention and remediation challenges.

  6. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  7. Accumulation and Movement of Four Potentially Toxic Elements in Soils Throughout Five Years, During and After Biosolid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Zubillaga


    Full Text Available In this research, we have studied the accumulation of four PTEs (Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during and after biosolid application, in two soils with different clay content and their eventual movement with depth. The study was performed in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on a Typic Argiudoll and on a Typic Hapludoll. Treatments were: control and biosolid application, at doses of 14 Mg ha-1year-1 (dry matter. There were two types of sampling: (i Topsoil sampling, at 0-0.15 m depth, taken throughout five years and (ii Depth soil sampling at regular intervals of 0.33 m from top soil to 3-4 m depth, taken two years after biosolid application. All samples were taken on April. PTEs, extracted hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids (total or extracted with DiethyleneTriaminePentaacetic acid-DTPA (available, were determined by ICP. Total concentrations of PTEs in topsoils of both soils did not increase significantly due to biosolid application. The exception was the significantly high Pb concentration in the Typic Hapludoll. DTPA extractable metals showed some concentration changes throughout the studied period. Total and available PTEs did not show mobility with the depth of both soils. The exception was total Cd in the Typic Argiudoll, which moved in depth. With only those two exceptions, there is neither PTEs accumulation in topsoils nor PTEs movements in soil depth. The first could be attributed to biosolid composition and dosage used in the region. The lack of movement in depth appears more related to the characteristics of the studied soils.

  8. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on soil, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999-2003 (United States)

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District, studied natural geochemical effects and the effects of biosolids applications to the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 1999 through 2003 because of public concern about potential contamination of soil, crops, ground water, and surface water from biosolids applications. Parameters analyzed for each monitoring component included arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc (the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids), gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, and plutonium, as well as other parameters. Concentrations of the nine regulated trace elements in biosolids were relatively uniform and did not exceed applicable regulatory standards. All plutonium concentrations in biosolids were below the minimum detectable level and were near zero. The most soluble elements in biosolids were arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium. Elevated concentrations of bismuth, mercury, phosphorus, and silver would be the most likely inorganic biosolids signature to indicate that soil or streambed sediment has been affected by biosolids. Molybdenum and tungsten, and to a lesser degree antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium, would be the most likely inorganic 'biosolids signature' to indicate ground water or surface water has been affected by biosolids. Soil data indicate that biosolids have had no measurable effect on the concentration of the constituents monitored. Arsenic concentrations in soil of both Arapahoe and Elbert County monitoring sites (like soil from all parts of Colorado) exceed the Colorado soil remediation objectives and soil cleanup standards, which were determined by back-calculating a soil concentration equivalent to a one-in-a-million cumulative cancer risk. Lead concentrations

  9. Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Lapen, David R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Department of Biology, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)


    In many jurisdictions land application of municipal biosolids is a valued source of nutrients for crop production. The practice must be managed to ensure that crops and adjacent water are not subject to contamination by pharmaceuticals or other organic contaminants. The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ), and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NAP) are widely used and are carried in biosolids. In the present study, the effect of biosolids and depth of placement in the soil profile on the rates of TCS, TCC, CBZ, and NAP dissipation were evaluated under semi-field conditions. Aggregates of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) supplemented with {sup 14}C-labeled residues were applied either on the soil surface or in the subsurface of the soil profile, and incubated over several months under ambient outdoor conditions. The dissipation of TCS, TCC and NAP was significantly faster in sub-surface than surface applied biosolid aggregates. In contrast the dissipation rate for CBZ was the same in surface applied and incorporated aggregates. Overall, the present study has determined a significant effect of depth of placement on the dissipation rate of biodegradable molecules. - Highlights: • We characterized the soil fate of four organic contaminants carried in biosolids. • Biosolids were placed on the soil surface or incorporated within the soil profile. • Naproxen, triclosan and triclocarban were dissipated more rapidly when incorporated. • Depth of placement did not influence the rate of carbamazepine dissipation. • Soil incorporation of biosolids will result in more rapid dissipation of contaminants.

  10. Genomic and functional characterization of qnr-encoding plasmids from municipal wastewater biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella eKaplan


    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be hotspots for antibiotic resistance since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp, multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to 5 different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7-9Kbp and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other p

  11. Release dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soil amended with biosolids (United States)

    Trifonov, Pavel; Ilani, Talli; Arye, Gilboa


    Among the soil organic matter (SOM) components, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the link between the solid phase and the soil solution. Previous studies emphasize the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) in soils as major pathways of element cycling. In addition to DOM contribution to carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient budgets, it also influence soil biological activity, reduces metal-ion toxicity, increase the transport of some compounds and contribute to the mineral weathering. Amending soils with biosolids originated from sludge have become very popular in the recent years. Those additions significantly affect the quantity and the composition of the DOM in agricultural soils. It should be noted that under most irrigation habitants, the soil is subjected to drying and re-wetting cycles, inducing a complex changes of soil structure, aggregation, SOM quality and micro-flora. However, most studies that addressed the above issues (directly or indirectly) are engaged with soils under cover of naturally occurring forests of relatively humid areas rather than agricultural soils in arid areas. In the current study we examined the DOC and DON release dynamic of sand and loess soils sampled from the Negev Desert of Israel. Each one of the soils were mixing with 5% (w/w) of one of the biosolids and packed into a Plexiglass column (I.d. 5.2 cm, L=20 cm). The flow-through experiments were conducted under low (1 ml/min) or high (10 ml/min) flow rates in a continuous or interrupted manner. The leachates were collected in time intervals equivalent to about 0.12 pore volume of a given soil-biosolids mixture. The established leaching curves of DOC, DON, NO3-, NH4+ and Cl- are analyzed by water flow and solute transport model for saturate (continuous runs) or variably saturate water flow conditions (interrupted runs). The chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium (i.e. equilibrium and/or kinetics adsorption/desorption) versions of the convection dispersion

  12. Genomic and Functional Characterization of qnr-Encoding Plasmids from Municipal Wastewater Biosolid Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates. (United States)

    Kaplan, Ella; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Cytryn, Eddie


    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered to be "hotspots" for antibiotic resistance, since they conjoin high densities of environmental and fecal bacteria with selective pressure in the form of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. Discharged effluents and biosolids from these facilities can disseminate antibiotic resistant genes to terrestrial and aquatic environments, potentially contributing to the increasing global trend in antibiotic resistance. This phenomenon is especially pertinent when resistance genes are associated with mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which can be transferred between bacterial phyla. Fluoroquinolones are among the most abundant antibiotic compounds detected in wastewater treatment facilities, especially in biosolids, where due to their hydrophobic properties they accumulate to concentrations that may exceed 40 mg/L. Although fluoroquinolone resistance is traditionally associated with mutations in the gyrA/topoisomerase IV genes, there is increasing evidence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, which is primarily encoded on qnr genes. In this study, we sequenced seven qnr-harboring plasmids from a diverse collection of Klebsiella strains, isolated from dewatered biosolids from a large wastewater treatment facility in Israel. One of the plasmids, termed pKPSH-11XL was a large (185.4 kbp), multi-drug resistance, IncF-type plasmid that harbored qnrB and 10 additional antibiotic resistance genes that conferred resistance to five different antibiotic families. It was highly similar to the pKPN3-like plasmid family that has been detected in multidrug resistant clinical Klebsiella isolates. In contrast, the six additional plasmids were much smaller (7-9 Kbp) and harbored a qnrS -type gene. These plasmids were highly similar to each other and closely resembled pGNB2, a plasmid isolated from a German wastewater treatment facility. Comparative genome analyses of pKPSH-11XL and other pKPN3-like


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The storage of waste dump gravely deteriorates the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties, both in the storage area and the surrounding zones. In time, serious perturbations may occur in the biocenosis from the surrounding ecosystems, through the sweeping away of the inorganic matter or through precipitations. The main problem in this case is to find the most suitable phytoremediation method for these waste dumps, by sowing plant species (grasses, in order to stop the erosion generated by wind and rain. Establishing a herbaceous “carpet” , in time, is very difficult, because the waste dump contains no organic matter, has a weak water retaining capacity and has a high bareness index. The purpose of this study was the experimentation of a method of cultivating the waste dumps using alfalfa, fescue and biosolids as fertilizers.

  14. New mechanistically based model for predicting reduction of biosolids waste by ozonation of return activated sludge. (United States)

    Isazadeh, Siavash; Feng, Min; Urbina Rivas, Luis Enrique; Frigon, Dominic


    Two pilot-scale activated sludge reactors were operated for 98 days to provide the necessary data to develop and validate a new mathematical model predicting the reduction of biosolids production by ozonation of the return activated sludge (RAS). Three ozone doses were tested during the study. In addition to the pilot-scale study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted with mixed liquor suspended solids and with pure cultures to parameterize the biomass inactivation process during exposure to ozone. The experiments revealed that biomass inactivation occurred even at the lowest doses, but that it was not associated with extensive COD solubilization. For validation, the model was used to simulate the temporal dynamics of the pilot-scale operational data. Increasing the description accuracy of the inactivation process improved the precision of the model in predicting the operational data.

  15. Application of phytotoxicity data to a new Australian soil quality guideline framework for biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia)], E-mail:; Warne, Michael St.J. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia)], E-mail:; Broos, Kris [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia)], E-mail:; Bell, Mike [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Queensland 4610 (Australia)], E-mail:; Nash, David [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821 (Australia)], E-mail:; McLaughlin, Mike [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia)], E-mail:; Whatmuff, Mark [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide, South Australia 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4 Richmond NSW 2753 (Australia)], E-mail:; Barry, Glenn [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)], E-mail:; Pritchard, Deb [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam, Western Australia 6401 (Australia)], E-mail:; Penney, Nancy [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, Western Australia 6001 (Australia)], E-mail:


    To protect terrestrial ecosystems and humans from contaminants many countries and jurisdictions have developed soil quality guidelines (SQGs). This study proposes a new framework to derive SQGs and guidelines for amended soils and uses a case study based on phytotoxicity data of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from field studies to illustrate how the framework could be applied. The proposed framework uses normalisation relationships to account for the effects of soil properties on toxicity data followed by a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method to calculate a soil added contaminant limit (soil ACL) for a standard soil. The normalisation equations are then used to calculate soil ACLs for other soils. A soil amendment availability factor (SAAF) is then calculated as the toxicity and bioavailability of pure contaminants and contaminants in amendments can be different. The SAAF is used to modify soil ACLs to ACLs for amended soils. The framework was then used to calculate soil ACLs for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). For soils with pH of 4-8 and OC content of 1-6%, the ACLs range from 8 mg/kg to 970 mg/kg added Cu. The SAAF for Cu was pH dependant and varied from 1.44 at pH 4 to 2.15 at pH 8. For soils with pH of 4-8 and OC content of 1-6%, the ACLs for amended soils range from 11 mg/kg to 2080 mg/kg added Cu. For soils with pH of 4-8 and a CEC from 5-60, the ACLs for Zn ranged from 21 to 1470 mg/kg added Zn. A SAAF of one was used for Zn as it concentrations in plant tissue and soil to water partitioning showed no difference between biosolids and soluble Zn salt treatments, indicating that Zn from biosolids and Zn salts are equally bioavailable to plants.

  16. Ciprofloxacin residues in municipal biosolid compost do not selectively enrich populations of resistant bacteria. (United States)

    Youngquist, Caitlin P; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H; Jones, Stephen S; Call, Douglas R


    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria.

  17. Characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance and qnr diversity in Enterobacteriaceae from municipal biosolids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella eKaplan


    Full Text Available Municipal biosolids produced during activated sludge treatment applied in waste water treatment plants, are significant reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, since they assemble both natural and fecal microbiota, as well as residual concentrations of antibiotic compounds. This raises major concerns regarding the environmental and epidemiological consequences of using them as fertilizers for crops. The second generation fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is probably the most abundant antibiotic compound detected in municipal biosolids due to its widespread use and sorption properties. Although fluoroquinolone resistance was originally thought to result from mutations in bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes, it is becoming apparent that it is also attributed to plasmid-associated resistance factors, which may propagate environmental antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the activated sludge process on fluoroquinolone resistance. The scope of resistances and mobile genetic mechanisms associated with fluoroquinolone resistance were evaluated by screening large collections of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains from sludge (n=112 and from raw sewage (n=89. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (qnrA, B and S were readily detected in isolates from both environments, the most dominant being qnrS. Interestingly, all qnr variants were significantly more abundant in sludge isolates than in the isolates from raw sewage. Almost all of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotic compounds. The sludge isolates were on the whole resistant to a broader range of antibiotic compounds than the raw sewage isolates; however this difference was not statistically significant. Collectively, this study indicates that the activated sludge selects for multiresistant bacterial strains, and that mobile quinolone-resistance elements may have a selective advantage in the activated

  18. Bench and full-scale studies for odor control from lime stabilized biosolids: the effect of mixing on odor generation. (United States)

    Krach, Kenneth R; Li, Baikun; Burns, Benjamin R; Mangus, Jessica; Butler, Howard G; Cole, Charles


    Lime stabilization is a means to raise the pH of biosolids to meet specific pathogen requirements. Along with controlling the microbial growth, lime stabilization reduces the potential for offensive odors. Lime stabilized biosolids can be beneficially used as a soil amendment and also for land reclamation. However, if biosolids are not properly incorporated with the lime, there is a potential for microbial growth, which consequently leads to the emanation of offensive odors and growth of pathogens. Proper mixing was found to be an important factor for the reduction of offensive odors in biosolids treatment. To better understand the effects of mixing on odorous products, bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted to assess the lime stabilization process and investigate mixing quality at a wastewater treatment plant to help reduce odors associated with known odorants. The results of 4-week laboratory bench-scale tests showed that mixing had the largest effect on odor. The hedonic tone test of the control samples with poor mixing showed a hedonic tone of -2.9 initially and then dropped to -7.3 on Day 29. The hedonic tone of the 3.5%, 7%, and 10% lime mixed biosolids had similar hedonic tones (-2.8 to -2.5) on Day 1 and slightly fluctuated over time and ended at -1.6 to -2.7 on Day 29, which was less odorous than the controls. The control sample with poor mixing showed a rapid pH drop from 12.1 on Day 1 to 8.4 on Day 7. The pH of the control sample was considerably lower than the mixed samples and ended up on Day 28 with a pH of 8.0. The pH of the 7% and 10% samples were relatively stable throughout the 4-week period with a pH still higher than 12 on Day 28. The biosolids with better mixing had a less offensive odor and weaker odor strength than the controls collected at the plant with poor mixing. The lime stabilization process in the wastewater treatment plant was modified in a full-scale study by prolonging the mixing time. The samples collected from the



    Giudice, Ben D.; Young, Thomas M.


    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from...

  20. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils. (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E


    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  1. Combining sewage sludge and algae biomass to a valuable biosolid composite: Literature review on treatment and applications


    Liao, Z


    Increasing amount of sewage sludge is produced in Romania and there is stricter requirement to treat and dispose sewage sludge after the EU Landfill Directive and Sludge Directive applied in Europe. In this report, the sludge issue is briefly reviewed from scientific and engineering points of views, with focus on sterilisation of biosolids. Based on the review and the experiences from Norway and other countries in Europe, it is believed that sewage sludge and marine algae from the coast of th...


    Giudice, Ben D.; Young, Thomas M.


    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the EDCs bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of sixteen metals; and estrogenic activity via the ER-CALUX bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3–17.3 ng/L), triclosan (ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, though unknown contributors and/or matrix effects were also found. PMID:21786314

  3. Mobilization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and estrogenic activity in simulated rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. (United States)

    Giudice, Ben D; Young, Thomas M


    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds, heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of 16 metals; and estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3-17.3 ng/L), triclosan (ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, although unknown contributors or matrix effects were also found.

  4. Full-scale application of focused-pulsed pre-treatment for improving biosolids digestion and conversion to methane. (United States)

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Lee, Hyung-sool; Zhang, Husen; Alder, Jared; Banaszak, James E; Lopez, Ronald


    We tested at full-scale the innovative Focused Pulsed (FP) technology for pre-treating waste sludge in order to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion, but without incurring problems of odors, toxicity, and high costs for chemical or energy consumption. FP pre-treatment of a mixture of primary and secondary sludge increased the soluble COD by 160% and DOC 120% over the control. FP pre-treatment of 63% of the input waste sludge increased biogas production by over 40% and reduced biosolids requiring disposal by 30% when compared to the plant baseline. FP pre-treatment also correlated with a shift of the bacterial and archaeal communities. The most significant change was that the acetate-cleaving Methanosaeta became the dominant methanogen. Full FP pre-treatment should increase biogas production and biosolids removal by 60% and 40%, respectively. Full FP pre-treatment should generate energy benefits of at least 2.7 times and as high as 18 times the FP energy input, depending on heat recovery from FP treatment. For a plant treating 76,000 m3/d of wastewater (380 m3-sludge/d), FP treatment should generate an annual economic benefit of approximately $540,000 net of electricity and other operating and maintenance costs. This represents a payback period of three years or less.

  5. Land co-applications of Alum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals (Al-WTRs and biosolids: Effects on heavy metals bioavailability and bioaccessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two Lysimeter experiments were conducted in Egypt to: explore possible effects of land-applying Al-WTRs and /or biosolids on the environment, and recommends ways to minimize human and animal impacts. The specific objectives were to (1 determine the co-application effects on Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (DTPA-extractable heavy metals in relation to their accumulation in plant, (2 assess the effectiveness of WTRs in reducing bioavailability of heavy metals in the soils amended with different rates of biosolids, and (3 quantify the optimum application ratio of WTRs to biosolids in relation to the reduction of plant metal accumulation. Thus, in these lysimeter experiments, the WTRs and biosolids were obtained twice in 1999 and 2008. The used soil was classified as Typic torrifluvent. Treatments in both experiments consisted of the combination of WTRs (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 Mg.ha-1 and biosolids (0, 25, and 50 Mg.ha-1, DW by fixing one rate of biosolids and with varying the rate of WTRs. The results showed that land application of biosolids increases the accumulation of toxic metals in corn tissues in slightly alkaline soils. However, WTRs-application of (20, 40, 80 and 160 Mg.ha-1 to the soil amended with (0, 25 and 50 Mg.ha-1 of biosolids decreases significantly the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations. The reduction in DTPA-extractable metals resulting from the application of WTRs to biosolid-amended soils can be explained by formation of metal-sulfate, low solubility product, and the floc-adsorption and the co-precipitation processes, in which the formation of a mixed solid phase by the incorporation of metal ions into the crystal lattice of another precipitating solid phase is expected. The combined studies clearly demonstrate that Al-WTRs should have no negative impacts on the environment when appropriate rates are land applied. Thus, Al-WTRs are safe soil amendments to control heavy metals contamination in soil and water bodies.

  6. Development of a chemical kinetic model for a biosolids fluidized-bed gasifier and the effects of operating parameters on syngas quality. (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Cooper, C David; Mackie, Kevin R; Cairney, Paul


    In an effort to decrease the land disposal of sewage sludge biosolids and to recover energy, gasification has become a viable option for the treatment of waste biosolids. The process of gasification involves the drying and devolatilization and partial oxidation of biosolids, followed closely by the reduction of the organic gases and char in a single vessel. The products of gasification include a gaseous fuel composed largely of N2, H2O, CO2, CO, H2, CH4, and tars, as well as ash and unburned solid carbon. A mathematical model was developed using published devolatilization, oxidation, and reduction reactions, and calibrated using data from three different experimental studies of laboratory-scale fluidized-bed sewage sludge gasifiers reported in the literature. The model predicts syngas production rate, composition, and temperature as functions of the biosolids composition and feed rate, the air input rate, and gasifier bottom temperature. Several data sets from the three independent literature sources were reserved for model validation, with a focus placed on five species of interest (CO, CO2, H2, CH4, and C6H6). The syngas composition predictions from the model compared well with experimental results from the literature. A sensitivity analysis on the most important operating parameters of a gasifier (bed temperature and equivalence ratio) was performed as well, with the results of the analysis offering insight into the operations of a biosolids gasifier.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) accumulation by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to biosolids-, polyurethane foam microparticle-, and Penta-BDE-amended soils. (United States)

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C


    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been used in consumer polymers at up to percent levels. While long viewed as biologically inaccessible therein, PBDEs may become bioaccessible following volatilization or polymer deterioration. PBDEs may then enter soils via polymer fragmentation or following land application of sewage sludge-derived biosolids. Studies of direct PBDE uptake from these materials by soil organisms are scarce. We thus exposed earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) to artificial soil amended with a Class B anaerobically digested biosolid (ADB), an exceptional quality composted biosolid (CB), PBDE-containing polyurethane foam (PUF) microparticles, and Penta-BDE-spiked artificial soil (SAS). Worms accumulated mg/kg (lipid) ∑Penta-PBDE burdens from all substrates. Biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for worms exposed to ADB- and CB-amended soils were comparable after 28 d. BSAFs generally decreased with increasing congener KOW and substrate dosage. Biosolids-associated PBDE bioavailability was lower than spiked PBDEs. BSAFs for worms exposed to PUF microparticles ranged from 3.9 to 33.4, with ∑Penta-PBDE tissue burdens reaching 3740 mg/kg lipid. Congener accumulation patterns were similar in worms and polyethylene passive sampling devices immersed in ADB-amended soil coincident with exposed worms. However, passive sampler accumulation factors were lower than BSAFs. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs may accumulate in organisms ingesting soils containing biosolids or waste plastics. Such organisms may then transfer their burdens to predators or translocate them from the site of application/disposal.

  8. Brominated diphenyl ether levels. A comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Reiner, E.J. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ho, T.; Kleywegt, S. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dove, A.; Marvin, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)


    PBDEs are persistent in the environment, have low water solubility and are known to have a tendency to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. There are 209 possible PBDE congeners. There has been concern over the bioaccumulation of these compounds since they have been found in mother's milk. Some of the brominated diphenyl ethers are known to metabolize into hydroxylated compounds and these metabolites are known to compete with and reduce thyroxine (T4) from binding to the thyroxine binding protein, transthyretin. This disrupts the thyroid hormone system interaction that has recently been notable amongst women in the form of hypothyroidism that can affect the fetus development in the form of neurodevelopmental deficits. There have been reports of estrogenic activities regarding PBDEs and their hydroxylated counterparts. Information such as this is indicative that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBDEs have a high binding affinity to particulates and accumulate in sediments. Various reports on sediments and sludge type matrices have been reported in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands and Canada. The following paper is a presentation of levels of PBDEs found in Tributary sediments and their comparison of levels to nearby biosolid sampling locations along Lake Ontario.

  9. Comparison of Overall Resource Consumption of Biosolids Management System Processes Using Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment. (United States)

    Alanya, Sevda; Dewulf, Jo; Duran, Metin


    This study focused on the evaluation of biosolids management systems (BMS) from a natural resource consumption point of view. Additionally, the environmental impact of the facilities was benchmarked using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive assessment. This is the first study to apply a Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) method for an in-depth resource use assessment of BMS where two full-scale BMS and seven system variations were analyzed. CEENE allows better system evaluation and understanding of how much benefit is achievable from the products generated by BMS, which have valorization potential. LCA results showed that environmental burden is mostly from the intense electricity consumption. The CEENE analysis further revealed that the environmental burden is due to the high consumption of fossil and nuclear-based natural resources. Using Cumulative Degree of Perfection, higher resource-use efficiency, 53%, was observed in the PTA-2 where alkaline stabilization rather than anaerobic digestion is employed. However, an anaerobic digestion process is favorable over alkaline stabilization, with 35% lower overall natural resource use. The most significant reduction of the resource footprint occurred when the output biogas was valorized in a combined heat and power system.

  10. Effect of liquid municipal biosolid application method on tile and ground water quality. (United States)

    Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Sabourin, L; Curnoe, W; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Rahman, S; Ball-Coelho, B; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; McLaughlin, N


    This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation.

  11. Dissolution of Metals from Biosolid-Treated Soils by Organic Acid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Park


    Full Text Available Results for the solubilization of metals from biosolid- (BSL- treated soils by simulated organic acid-based synthetic root exudates (OA mixtures of differing composition and concentrations are presented. This study used two BSL-treated Romona soils and a BSL-free Romona soil control that were collected from experimental plots of a long-term BSL land application experiment. Results indicate that the solubility of metals in a BSL-treated soil with 0.01 and 0.1 M OA mixtures was significantly higher than that of 0.001 M concentrations. Differences in composition of OAs caused by BSL treatment and the length of growing periods did not affect the solubility of metals. There were no significant differences in organic composition and metals extracted for plants grown at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The amount of metals extracted tended to decrease with the increase of the pH. Results of metal dissolution kinetics indicate two-stage metal dissolution. A rapid dissolution of metals occurred in the first 15 minutes. For Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, approximately 60–70% of the metals were released in the first 15 minutes while the initial releases for Cr and Pb were approximately 30% of the total. It was then followed by a slow but steady release of additional metals over 48 hours.

  12. Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2 in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Margolin


    Full Text Available The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  13. Impact of biosolids on the persistence and dissipation pathways of triclosan and triclocarban in an agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Scott, Andrew [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada); Lapen, David R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada)


    The broad spectrum antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used in many personal care products. Knowledge concerning the fate of these two compounds in different environmental matrices is scarce. In this study, the fate of TCS and TCC in soil following direct addition, or when residues were applied via either liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) or dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) was investigated in laboratory dissipation experiments and under outdoor conditions using radioisotope methods. In laboratory incubations, {sup 14}C-TCC or {sup 14}C-TCS was added to microcosms containing a loam soil and the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} accumulation and loss of solvent-extractable {sup 14}C were determined during incubation at 30 {sup o}C. Compared to when TCC or TCS was added directly to soil, both chemicals were mineralized more rapidly when applied in LMB, and both were mineralized more slowly when applied in DMB. The application matrix had no effect on the rate of removal of extractable residues. In field experiments, parent compounds were incorporated directly in soil, incorporated via LMB, or a single aggregate of amended DMB was applied to the soil surface. During the experiment soil temperatures ranged from 20 {sup o}C to 10 {sup o}C. Dissipation was much slower in the field than in the laboratory experiments. Removal of non-extractable residues was faster in the presence of LMB than the other treatments. Recovery of extractable and non-extractable residues suggested that there was little atmospheric loss of {sup 14}C. Triclocarban readily formed non-extractable residues with DMB whereas TCS did not. Overall, this study has identified that both the pathways and the kinetics of TCS and TCC dissipation in soil are different when the chemicals are carried in biosolids compared to when these chemicals are added directly to the soil.

  14. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application. (United States)

    Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja


    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms.

  15. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation. (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark


    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  16. Two-phase (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic thermophilic/mesophilic digestion system for producing Class A biosolids from municipal sludge. (United States)

    Rubio-Loza, L A; Noyola, A


    Two different arrangements of two-phase anaerobic sludge systems were operated treating a mixture of primary and secondary sludge. Two steady state periods were evaluated: the first acidogenic thermophilic phase was operated at hydraulic retention times of 3 and 2 days and the second methanogenic (mesophilic and thermophilic) phases at 13 and 10 days. The two-phase systems had an efficient removal of pathogens and parasites, achieving values lower than those specified for Class A biosolids, according to the Mexican Standard NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002. The first thermophilic phase achieved almost complete destruction of pathogens and parasites by itself. During the second steady state period, volatile fatty acids accumulated in the second methanogenic phases (HRT of 10 days and an organic load of 3 kg VS/m(3)d) indicating that the systems were overloaded, mainly the mesophilic digester. In this case, the accumulation of propionic acid may be related to a deficiency of micronutrients. The results show that the two-phase thermophilic/mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion may be considered as an adequate option for the production of Class A biosolids.

  17. Characteristics of landfill leachates and bio-solids of municipal solid waste (MSW in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Al-Wabel


    Full Text Available The liquid and bio-solids (landfill sediments product from landfills has many toxic substances, which may adversely affect on the environmental health. Thus in order to have a better management of characteristics of Riyadh landfill leachates, 80 representative landfill leachate samples were collected and analyzed from February to May 2008. The analysis of landfill leachates includes pH, ECw, concentrations of soluble ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and heavy metals contents. The obtained results showed that the landfill leachates are characterized by high concentrations of COD (13,900–22,350 mg L−1, TSS of (2280–8912 mg L−1, ECw values of (42.5–58.3 dS m−1 but the pH values ranged 5.49–6.32. Moreover, the leachates had higher concentrations of soluble Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, HCO3- and SO42-. In addition, the leachates contained Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu in concentrations equivalent to: 104, 11.0, 1.4, 0.6, 0.25, 0.2 and 0.14 mg L−1, respectively. While in the bio-solids (landfill sediments the average content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and V reached to 10, 242, 234, 48,608, 190, 18, 166 and 24 mg kg−1. The relatively higher variations between the upper and lower limits (maximum and minimum values of the studying parameters lead to conclude that it is essential to conduct a long-term monitoring program to obtain representative information and this fluctuation should be considered when operating the leachate treatment plant.

  18. ESM Calculations for Hydroponic Plant and Fungi Growth Chambers, Biosolids Dewatering Plant System, and Tilapia Growth System--EAC Presentation 2004


    Aydogan, Selen; Blau, Gary; Pekny, Joseph; Reklaitis, Gintaras


    In this work, preliminary Equivalent System Mass (ESM) estimations of the Hydroponic Plant and Fungi Growth Chambers, Biosolids Dewatering Plant and Tilapia Growth Systems are presented. ESM may be used to evaluate a system or technology based on its mass, volume, power, cooling and manpower requirements. This ESM analysis focuses on a hypothetical device, instead of the anticipated technology that is system flight proven in mission operations. We have examined the Evolved Mars Base mission, ...

  19. Impactos da aplicação de biossólidos na microbiota de solos tropicais Impacts of biosolids amendments on the microbiota of tropical soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigues Lambais


    agricultural and forest soils with biosolids from sewage treatment plants (STPs is an alternative to recycle these organic residues. However, biosolids from STPs may contain metals and/or xenobiotics that can affect soil microorganisms. In this study, the impacts of biosolids from the STPs of Barueri and Franca (São Paulo, Brazil, containing high and low metal concentration, respectively, on the microbiota of a Nitisol (clayey and a Dystric Arenosol (sandy were determined in microcosm. Immediately after biosolids application and 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 days after incubation, the basal respiration (BR, C in microbial biomass (CB, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and CB/soil organic C ratio (CB/Corg were evaluated. In general, RB was higher in soils amended with the highest amounts of biosolids, and the greatest increments were observed immediately after biosolids application. In the sandy soil, statistically significant decreases in CB were observed in the treatments with the highest amounts of biosolids. The qCO2 was higher in soils with the highest amounts of biosolids, but decreased during incubation. Regardless of the soil type, CB/Corg was higher in soils without biosolids when compared to soils with metal-rich biosolids. The CB/Corg ratio in soils amended with metal-rich biosolids decreased significantly between 4 and 16 days after incubation, and leveled off thereafter. These data indicate that the amendment of the tested soils with biosolids, independently of the metal content, may cause a transient stress in the microbial community, depending on the applied dose, and that changes in the structure of the microbial communities may have occurred.

  20. An Initial Investigation into the Use of a Flux Chamber Technique to Measure Soil-Atmosphere Gas Exchanges from Application of Biosolids to UK Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Donovan


    Full Text Available While a significant amount of work has been conducted to assess the concentration of pollutants in soils and waterways near land that has been amended with biosolids, a relatively small body of research investigating emissions to atmosphere is available in the literature. Some studies have indicated that while the CO2 emissions from soils decrease with fertiliser application, the CH4 and N2O emissions might be increased, offsetting the benefit. The objective of the research presented in this paper was to address this gap, by the use of a flux chamber technique to measure soil-atmosphere gas exchanges from the application of biosolids to land. This was done by applying three different types of biosolids to soils and measuring gases at the soil-atmosphere interface. The measurements were taken on areas with three different types of vegetation. The gases were collected using a flux chamber technique and analysed by gas chromatography. The results presented here are preliminary findings of an ongoing experiment. Insignificant variation appeared to occur between different areas of vegetation; however, small variations in gas concentrations were observed indicating a need for continued monitoring of soil-atmosphere gas exchanges to determine the long-term impacts on the atmosphere and the environment.

  1. 污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响研究%Influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝; 刘洋; 董慧; 常智慧


    Biosolids contain biologically active substances,such as humus and auxin,which will influence plant growth.The influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)were studied at the same nitrogen level.Split-plot treatments included well-watered and drought stress.Subplot treatments all had nitrogen applied at 75 mg/kg.The control had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by NH4NO3 solu-tion).The biosolids 0.5× rate had 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by biosolids,and 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by NH4 NO3 solution.The biosolids 1× rate had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by biosolids).Nitrogen treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5× rates improved turfgrass quality,leaf relative water content,leaf chloro-phyll content,and reduced leaf wilting rate under drought stress (P<0.05)indicating that biosolids improved the aboveground growth condition of tall fescue under drought stress.Treatment with the biosolids 1 × rate al-so increased leaf water use efficiency of tall fescue and maintained better water metabolism at 50% container ca-pacity (P<0.05).Treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5×rates increased root dry weight of tall fescue under both moisture conditions and improved root viability under severe drought stress.Proline accumulation was al-so promoted by bisolids under both water conditions (P<0.05).It is suggested that biologically active sub-stances in biosolids can enhance drought tolerance of tall fescue.%污泥中含有腐殖质和生长素等生物活性类物质,会对植物的生长产生影响。本试验在相同氮肥条件下,研究了污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响。采用裂区实验设计,主处理包括充分浇水和干旱2个水平;副处理为不同的氮源:对照(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由硝酸铵提供)、半污泥(硝酸铵和污泥各提供37.5 mg/kg的氮素)、全污泥(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由污泥提供)。结果表明,干旱条件下全污泥和半污泥处理能够显著提

  2. Interactions of triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide with biosolid-amended soils: Effects of the level and nature of soil organic matter. (United States)

    Usyskin, Alla; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail


    Triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide, representing acidic and non-ionized hydrophobic organic compounds, are biologically active and can be accumulated during wastewater treatment in sewage sludge. The interactions of these substances with the soils amended by sewage sludge-originating biosolids may control their environmental fate. Therefore, the sorption of three organic compounds was studied in dune sand, loess soil, clay soil and mixtures of these media with three different sewage sludge-originating biosolids that were incubated under aerobic conditions for 6 months. For each compound, 15 sorption isotherms were produced at pH 7.8-8.0. The sorption of triclosan and gemfibrozil on sand-containing sorbents was examined also under acidic conditions. In some soil series, the compound's Freundlich constants (KF) are linearly related to the soil organic carbon (OC) content. Notably, for a given OC content, the sand-containing sorbents tend to demonstrate enhanced interactions with triclosan and galaxolide. This may be related with more hydrophobic and/or less rigid soil organic matter (SOM) as compared with the clay-containing soils, implying indirect effects of minerals. Generally the OC-normalized KF vary among different soil-biosolid combinations which is explained by the differences in the composition and properties of SOM, and is also contributed by the non-zero intercepts of the linear KF upon soil OC dependencies. The negative intercepts suggest that below a certain OC level no considerable organic compound-soil interactions would occur. Interactions of molecular and anionic forms of triclosan with a sand-containing sorbent may be comparable, but interactions involving gemfibrozil molecules could be stronger than interactions involving its anion.

  3. Eliminación de patógenos en biosólidos por estabilización alcalina Eliminating pathogens in biosolids by alkaline stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada


    Full Text Available La Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo -PTAR-C de Cali- Colombia, produce alrededor de 100 t/día de biosólidos que, aunque no tienen restricción por metales pesados, son clase B por el nivel de microorganismos patógenos y parásitos. En un diseño completamente al azar, conformado por seis tratamientos con su respectivo duplicado, se evaluó la estabilización alcalina con dosis del 9% peso a peso de cal viva e hidratada, aplicada a pilas de 0.5 t de biosólidos húmedos (66.5% y secos a temperatura ambiente (25 - 31°C durante 72 h (humedad 50.1%. Con la estabilización alcalina el pH aumentó a valores superiores a 12 unidades durante el tiempo suficiente para garantizar la reducción de patógenos y parásitos, alcanzando un material clase A; sin embargo, el biosólido seco facilitó la formación de grumos que dificultaron las labores de homogenización del sustrato con los alcalinizantes, factor indeseable para la eficiente reducción de patógenos.The Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C based in Cali-Colombia, produces almost 100 t-day-1 of biosolids. Although do not have heavy metals restrictions, it is class B for high contents of pathogens microorganisms and parasites. The alkali stabilization was done with a 9% of dose (w/w of quicklime and hydrated lime applied to different 0.5 ton piles of wet biosolids (66.5% humidity and dry biosolids an environmental temperature (25-31°C for 72 hours (50.1% humidity. The experiment had a completely randomized design and it was composed by 6 treatments with their respective duplicated. With the alkali stabilization, the pH increments above 12 units during enough time to assure pathogens and parasites reduction in order to achieve a class A material level. On the other hand, the dry biosolids facilitate the conditions for lumps formation that reduce the homogenization of the substrate with the alkali material, which it is and undesirable factor for pathogen

  4. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT


    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  6. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque


    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  7. Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteriophage following Soil Fertilization with Dairy Manure or Municipal Biosolids, and Evidence for Potential Transduction. (United States)

    Ross, Joseph; Topp, Edward


    Animal manures and municipal biosolids recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can influence the antibiotic resistome of agricultural soils, but little is known about the contribution of bacteriophage to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this context. In this work, we quantified a set of ARGs in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of agricultural soil by quantitative PCR. All tested ARGs were present in both the bacterial and phage fractions. We demonstrate that fertilization of soil with dairy manure or human biosolids increases ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction but not the bacteriophage fraction and further show that pretreatment of dairy manure can impact ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction. Finally, we show that purified bacteriophage can confer increased antibiotic resistance to soil bacteria when combined with selective pressure. The results indicate that soilborne bacteriophage represents a substantial reservoir of antibiotic resistance and that bacteriophage could play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the context of an agricultural soil microbiome. Overall, our work reinforces the advisability of composting or digesting fecal material prior to field application and suggests that application of some antibiotics at subclinical concentrations can promote bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs in agricultural soil microbiomes.

  8. Biosolids effectiveness to yield ryegrass based on their nitrogen content Eficiência de biossólidos na produção de azevém baseado no conteúdo de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa


    Full Text Available Biosolids have been reported to increase yields and supply plant nutrients. However, complying with health and environmental standards is necessary before applying biosolids to land. Thus, sludge stabilization is required to make biosolids safe enough for their agricultural use. Side effects of stabilization processes on agronomic features of sewage sludge are not quite known, although their understanding is essential for biosolids management. Based on a model equivalent to the Mitscherlich equation, effects of the most common processes for sludge stabilization were evaluated (composting, liming, heat-drying and solar irradiation in relation to the agronomic effectiveness of biosolids to yield Lolium perenne L. on two tropical soils, with NH4H2PO4 as a reference. Sewage stabilization processes have affected the ability of biosolids to promote plant growth. Their effectiveness was usually higher than fertilizer in a Spodosol and lower in an Oxisol. Solar-irradiated sludge presented the highest effectiveness among the biosolids and reached peak yields at the lowest application rate independent on soil type. Biosolids could efficiently substitute fertilizers and even yield more plant dry matter than the NH4H2PO4 reference, depending on the biosolid and soil type.Biossólidos têm sido citados como capazes de aumentar a produção de culturas e suprir nutrientes para plantas. Questões sanitárias e ambientais demandam que eles sejam estabilizados para que sejam usados na agricultura. Os efeitos dos processos de estabilização sobre as propriedades agronômicas de biossólidos não são completamente conhecidos, apesar de essenciais para o seu manejo. Baseado em um modelo equivalente à equação de Mitscherlich, este trabalho avaliou os efeitos dos processos mais comuns para a estabilização de lodos de esgotos (compostagem, caleação, secagem térmica e irradiação solar sobre a eficiência agronômica de biossólidos na produção de Lolium

  9. Avaliação de biossólido de águas servidas domiciliares como adubo em couve Evaluation of biosolid fed by municipal waste-water sludge as a fertilizer in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eiras Moreira da Rocha


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o biossólido e proveniente da estação de tratamento de águas servidas domiciliares, como adubo no cultivo da couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala, grupo Georgia. O trabalho foi em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos de adubação, esterco bovino, biossólido e uréia, com quatro repetições. Amostras de solo de cada tratamento foram analisadas quanto a parâmetros químicos, microbiológicos e parasitológicos. Os níveis de metais pesados encontravam-se abaixo dos permitidos pela legislação internacional. Após 54 dias da incorporação do biossólido ao solo, os coliformes fecais eram praticamente nulos e, a partir dos 60 dias, não foram mais encontradas amostras positivas com ovos de helmintos, apesar do alto grau de contaminação inicial. As plantas adubadas com biossólido, na maior dose, comparadas ao esterco, apresentaram maior produtividade e menores teores de N total nas folhas. O biossólido foi classificado como B, pela concentração de coliformes fecais apresentada, tornando-o impróprio para aplicação em culturas de contato primário como as hortaliças. Os resultados indicam a importância de selecionar indicadores de sanidade que permitam o uso seguro deste adubo.This work aimed to evaluate the biosolid from the municipal waste-water treatment, as fetilizer in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala, group Georgia. The experiment was in a randomized complete block design with three fertilization treatments, cattle manure, biosolid and urea, and four replications. Soil samples from each treatment were chemically, microbiologically and parasitologically analyzed. The heavy metal levels were below those recommended by the international legislation. After 45 days of incorporation of the biosolid into the soil, the fecal coliforms were almost undetectable. After 60 days, none of the samples showed the presence of eggs of parasitic worms, despite the high initial

  10. Hormones, sterols, and fecal indicator bacteria in groundwater, soil, and subsurface drainage following a high single application of municipal biosolids to a field. (United States)

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Russell, P; Lapen, D R


    A land application of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) was conducted on an agricultural field in fall 2008 at a rate of 22Mg dry weight (dw) ha(-1). Pre- and post- application, hormone, sterol and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were measured in tile drainage water, groundwater (2, 4, 6m depth), surface soil cores, and DMB aggregates incorporated in the soil (∼0.2m depth) for a period of roughly 1year post-application. Hormones and sterols were detected up to 1year post-application in soil and in DMB aggregates. Hormone (androsterone, desogestrel, estrone) contamination was detected briefly in tile water samples (22d and ∼2months post-app), at lowngL(-1) concentrations (2-34ngL(-1)). Hormones were not detected in groundwater. Sterols were detected in tile water throughout the study period post-application, and multiple fecal sterol ratios suggested biosolids as the source. Coprostanol concentrations in tile water peaked at >1000ngL(-1) (22d post-app) and were still >100ngL(-1) at 6months post-application. Fecal indicator bacteria were detected throughout the study period in tile water, groundwater (⩽2m depth), soil and DMB aggregate samples. These bacteria were strongly linearly related to coprostanol in tile water (R(2)>0.92, phormones and sterols to tile drainage networks may be attributed to a combination of the hydrophobicity of these compounds and limited macroporosity of the field soil. This transitory contamination from hormones and sterols is unlikely to result in any significant pulse exposure risk in subsurface drainage and groundwater.

  11. Modelling the risk of nitrate leaching from two soils amended with five different biosolids Modelagem do risco de lixiviação de nitrato em dois solos tratados com cinco diferentes biossólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa


    Full Text Available High N concentrations in biosolids are one of the strongest reasons for their agricultural use. However, it is essential to understand the fate of N in soils treated with biosolids for both plant nutrition and managing the environmental risk of NO3--N leaching. This work aimed at evaluating the risk of NO3--N leaching from a Spodosol and an Oxisol, each one treated with 0.5-8.0 dry Mg ha-1 of fresh tertiary sewage sludge, composted biosolids, limed biosolids, heat-dried biosolids and solar-irradiated biosolids. Results indicated that under similar application rates NO3--N accumulated up to three times more in the 20 cm topsoil of the Oxisol than the Spodosol. However, a higher water content held at field capacity in the Oxisol compensated for the greater nitrate concentrations. A 20 % NO3--N loss from the root zone in the amended Oxisol could be expected. Depending on the biosolids type, 42 to 76 % of the NO3--N accumulated in the Spodosol could be expected to leach down from the amended 20 cm topsoil. NO3--N expected to leach from the Spodosol ranged from 0.8 (composted sludge to 3.5 times (limed sludge the amounts leaching from the Oxisol treated alike. Nevertheless, the risk of NO3--N groundwater contamination as a result of a single biosolids land application at 0.5-8.0 dry Mg ha-1 could be considered low.Concentrações altas de nitrogênio (N em biossólidos são uma das maiores razões para a utilização agronômica deles. Entretanto, é essencial entender o destino do N em solos tratados com biossólidos, tanto por motivos de nutrição vegetal quanto para manejar o risco ambiental representado pela lixiviação de nitrato. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o risco de lixiviação de nitrato em um Espodossolo e em um Latossolo, cada um tratado com doses de 0,5 a 8,0 Mg ha-1 de biossólido fresco, biossólido compostado, biossólido caleado, biossólido seco a calor e biossólido irradiado por sol. Os resultados mostraram que

  12. Avaliação agronômica de um biossólido industrial para a cultura do milho Agronomic assessment of an industrial biosolid for corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Barros Trannin


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade agronômica de um biossólido industrial para a cultura do milho. O experimento foi realizado no campo, em um Cambissolo distrófico, nos anos agrícolas 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. A aplicação de 0, 6, 12, 18 e 24 Mg ha-1 de biossólido base seca, suplementado com K2O nos dois anos e 30% do P2O5 recomendado no segundo ano, foi comparada à adubação mineral completa. O biossólido melhorou a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e a produtividade do milho, que apresentou resposta quadrática às doses aplicadas, atingindo a máxima de 9.992 kg ha-1 de grãos com 22,5 Mg ha-1 de biossólido, superando em 21% a adubação mineral e em 74% o controle. Mesmo na maior dose aplicada, os teores de nutrientes, Na e metais pesados no biossólido não causaram fitotoxicidade. A equivalência em produtividade à adubação mineral (7.895 kg ha-1 foi obtida com 10 Mg ha-1 de biossólido. Com base na equivalência ao NPK, o valor do biossólido foi estimado em R$ 43,70 Mg-1 base seca e R$ 8,74 Mg-1 base úmida. Considerando-se o custo de transporte, a aplicação deste biossólido é economicamente viável numa distância de até 66 km da fonte geradora.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of an industrial biosolid for corn. The experiment was carried out on a dystrophic Cambisol in two cropping seasons, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The application of 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 Mg ha-1 of biosolid dry matter basis, supplemented with K2O in both trials and with 1/3 of the recommended P2O5 rate in the second trial was compared to the complete mineral fertilization. Biosolid application enhanced soil fertility, crop nutrition and grain productivity. Yield response to doses was quadratic, and reached the maximum of 9,992 kg ha-1 with 22.5 Mg ha-1 of biosolid, 21% higher than the complete mineral fertilization and 74% higher than the control with no fertilizer added. Even in the largest

  13. Optimization, validation, and application of a real-time PCR protocol for quantification of viable bacterial cells in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids using reporter genes and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    van Frankenhuyzen, Jessica K; Trevors, Jack T; Flemming, Cecily A; Lee, Hung; Habash, Marc B


    Biosolids result from treatment of sewage sludge to meet jurisdictional standards, including pathogen reduction. Once government regulations are met, materials can be applied to agricultural lands. Culture-based methods are used to enumerate pathogen indicator microorganisms but may underestimate cell densities, which is partly due to bacteria existing in a viable but non-culturable physiological state. Viable indicators can also be quantified by realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) used with propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that inhibits amplification of DNA found extracellularly or in dead cells. The objectives of this study were to test an optimized PMA-qPCR method for viable pathogen detection in wastewater solids and to validate it by comparing results to data obtained by conventional plating. Reporter genes from genetically marked Pseudomonas sp. UG14Lr and Agrobacterium tumefaciens 542 cells were spiked into samples of primary sludge, and anaerobically digested and Lystek-treated biosolids as cell-free DNA, dead cells, viable cells, and mixtures of live and dead cells, followed by DNA extraction with and without PMA, and qPCR. The protocol was then used for Escherichia coli quantification in the three matrices, and results compared to plate counts. PMA-qPCR selectively detected viable cells, while inhibiting signals from cell-free DNA and DNA found in membrane-compromised cells. PMA-qPCR detected 0.5-1 log unit more viable E. coli cells in both primary solids and dewatered biosolids than plate counts. No viable E. coli was found in Lystek-treated biosolids. These data suggest PMA-qPCR may more accurately estimate pathogen cell numbers than traditional culture methods.

  14. Diagnose foliar em mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha Curcas L. produzidas com biossólido Foliar analysis of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings grown with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio C. D. Maldonado Reginaldo de Camargo


    Full Text Available O uso do biossólido na agricultura tem-se mostrado a melhor alternativa ambiental e econômica para o destino do lodo de esgoto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial nutricional do biossólido para produção de mudas de pinhão-manso em tubetes. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação tendo, como substrato, esterco bovino, vermiculita e biossólido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, correspondendo às concentrações de biossólido no substrato (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% e ao tratamento ou não das sementes de pinhão-manso com fungicida. Aos 60 dias foi realizada análise foliar. Relativo às concentrações de biossólido verificou-se efeito significativo para os macronutrientes N, P, Ca, Mg e S e micronutrientes B, Cu, Mn e Zn. O tratamento de sementes teve efeito significativo para o Zn. As folhas apresentaram concentração de macronutrientes com a seguinte ordem: N > K > Mg > Ca > P > S. O acúmulo de micronutrientes apresentou a seguinte ordem: Fé > Mn >Zn > B > Cu. Há grande contribuição do biossólido nos teores de nitrogênio, enxofre e micronutrientes foliares, em plantas de pinhão-manso.The use of biosolids in agriculture has proven to be the best alternative for the environmental and economic destination of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of biosolids to produce jatropha seedlings in polytube. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using as substrate manure, biosolids and vermiculite. The experimental design was in randomized block with three replications in a 5 x 2 factorial, corresponding to the substrate concentrations in sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, and the treatment or not of the seeds of jatropha with fungicide. At 60 days, leaf analysis was performed. Regarding the biosolids concentrations, significant effect was verified for the macronutrients N, P, Ca, Mg and S

  15. Efeito de biossólido no crescimento inicial de Corymbia citriodora / The biosolid effect at the Corymbia citriodora initial growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vergili Pérez


    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos da adição de doses de biossólido no desenvolvimento inicial de Corymbia citriodora (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S. Johnson. Utilizaram-se as doses: 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 Mg ha-1 com incorporação destas à camada superficial de 20 cm. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros nas épocas 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300 dias após o transplante: altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro do coleto, área foliar, biomassa seca radicular e aérea, índice de Dickson e eficiência nutricional. A análise dos resultados indicou que a viabilidade de uso está entre 30 e 40 Mg ha-1, pois seus efeitos estão demonstrados positivamente no comprimento da planta (média dos incrementos igual a 38,85 cm, número de folhas (média dos incrementos igual a 43,9 folhas, assim como para diâmetro de coleto e biomassa seca aérea. Devido às evidências na redução do acúmulo de biomassa seca radicular decorrente da aplicação de doses crescentes do biossólido, a dose de 10 Mg ha-1 destacou-se obtendo a maior média, e indicando uma prioridade na estratégia de crescimento da espécie de rápido crescimento. A recomendação da dose 30 Mg ha-1que pode reduzir gastos em transporte e em aplicação comparativamente à dose 40 Mg ha-1.AbstractThis essay aimed to evaluate the effects of the addition of biosolids doses in the initial development of the Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. For this experiment it was utilized doses of biosolids equivalents at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Mg ha-1. With their incorporation to a superficial layer of 20 cm. The parameters evaluated on 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 days after the transplant were: plants length; number of leaves, foliar area, colon diameter and aerial and radicular dry biomasses. The analysis of the results pointed that the viability of the use is between the doses 30 e 40 Mg ha-1, because their effects are positively demonstrated in the parameters: plant length (increases average between 30 e 40 Mg ha

  16. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds? (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A


    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  17. Optimizing mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic%污泥无土草皮基质配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑霞; 张俊卫; 尹少华


    The simplex lattice design was used to optimize the mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic by using coal cinder,mushroom mulch,and sand.The nutrients,heavy metals content,bermudagrass growth and integrated turf quality of 11 mixtures were analyzed over plastic with method of grey correlation coefficient by establishing the correlative regression model between the turf integrated qualities and mixing ingredients.The results of this study indicated than the chlorophyll content kept stable but above and underground biomass,sod weight,root activity,density,establishment rate,and sod-forming rate were significantly different.The optimal mixture was that the content of biosolid,coal cinder,mushroom mulch and sand were 51.41% to 51.83%,18.32% to 18.86%,18.19% to 18.81% and 10.87% to 11.72%,respectively.The turfgrass plant enriched heavy metals and the heavy metal content decreased when turf was harvest,and the heavy metal of which conformed to national farmland environmental quality evaluation standards.%以塑料薄膜为阻隔材料,以污水处理厂污泥为主要基质,煤渣、蘑菇渣和沙等为配材,采用单形格子配方试验设计和灰色关联系数法,对11种不同配方基质的营养成分、重金属含量、无土草皮坪用性状及综合品质进行了评定,建立了草皮综合品质与各配方成分间显著相关的回归模型。结果表明,除叶绿素含量外,其他7种坪用性状差异显著。通过模拟寻优,得到基质优化配方方案为:污泥含量51.41%~51.83%,煤渣含量18.32%~18.86%,蘑菇渣含量18.19%~18.81%,沙含量10.87%~11.72%。草坪草可富集较多的重金属元素,收获草皮后的基质中重金属含量降低且符合农用基质标准。

  18. The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in plants grown in biosolids-amended soils. (United States)

    Wen, Bei; Wu, Yali; Zhang, Hongna; Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen


    The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in seven species of plants from biosolids-amended soils were investigated. The PFOS and PFOA root concentration factors (Croot/Csoil) ranged from 1.37 to 4.68 and 1.69 to 10.3 (ng/groot)/(ng/gsoil), respectively, while the translocation factors (Cshoot/Croot) ranged from 0.055 to 0.16 and 0.093 to 1.8 (ng/gshoot)/(ng/groot), respectively. The PFOS and PFOA accumulations in roots correlated positively with root protein contents (P protein and inhibition effects of lipid on root uptake. The translocation factors correlated positively with the ratios between protein contents in shoots to those in roots (P protein on PFOS and PFOA translocation. This study is the first to reveal the different roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of PFOS and PFOA in plants.

  19. Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field. (United States)

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R


    Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

  20. Toxicogenomic Responses of the Model Legume Medicago truncatula to Aged Biosolids Containing a Mixture of Nanomaterials (TiO₂, Ag, and ZnO) from a Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Unrine, Jason M; Judy, Jonathan D; Lewis, Ricky W; Guo, Jing; McNear, David H; Tsyusko, Olga V


    Toxicogenomic responses in Medicago truncatula A17 were monitored following exposure to biosolids-amended soils. Treatments included biosolids produced using a pilot wastewater treatment plant with either no metal introduced into the influent (control); bulk/ionic TiO2, ZnO, and AgNO3 added to influent (bulk/dissolved treatment); or Ag, ZnO, and TiO2 engineered nanomaterials added to influent (ENM treatment) and then added to soil, which was aged in the field for 6 months. In our companion study, we found inhibition of nodulation in the ENM but not in the bulk/dissolved treatment. Gene expression profiling revealed highly distinct profiles with more than 10-fold down-regulation in 239 genes in M. truncatula roots from the ENM treatment, while gene expression patterns were similar between bulk/dissolved and control treatments. In response to ENM exposure, many of the identified biological pathways, gene ontologies, and individual genes are associated with nitrogen metabolism, nodulation, metal homeostasis, and stress responses. Expression levels of nine genes were independently confirmed with qRT-PCR. Exposure to ENMs induced unique shifts in expression profiles and biological pathways compared with bulk/dissolved treatment, despite the lack of difference in bioavailable metal fractions, metal oxidation state, and coordination environment between ENM and bulk/dissolved biosolids. As populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm2011 were similar in bulk/dissolved and ENM treatments, our results suggest that inhibition of nodulation in the ENM treatment was primarily due to phytotoxicity, likely caused by enhanced bioavailability of Zn ions.

  1. Research on Amount Various of Fecal Coliform in Bio-solids Autothermal Themophilic Aerobic Digestion%生物固体自热好氧消化中粪大肠杆菌数量的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈越; 张健


      自热好氧消化可杀灭生物固体中的粪大肠杆菌,使生物固体达到无害化和可资源化利用标准。文章研究了特定工艺条件下,粪大肠杆菌数量在生物固体自热好氧消化过程中的变化,结果表明,自热好氧消化过程中,当消化时间为26~50 h 时(平均温度为47℃),粪大肠杆菌数量呈大幅度下降的趋势,仅仅24 h,粪大肠杆菌数量减少了95.83%;消化进行到第68 h 时(温度为55℃),粪大肠杆菌的数量已达到“未检出”的水平,为生物固体快速资源化利用提供试验参考。%Fecal coliform in bio-solids can be inactivated in autothermal themophilic aerobic digestion, therefore, the bio-solids become harmlessness and reach the resource reuse standards. In fixed conditions, the paper researched the amount various of fecal coliform, the results showed that when the digestion time was 26~50 h (average temperature was 47 ℃) the amount of fecal coliform was heavily decreased, the amount of fecal coliform was decreased 95.83 % only in 24 h. When the digestion time was 68h (average temperature was 55 ℃), the amount of fecal coliform reached to not detected standard. The paper supplied research reference to bio-solids resource reuse quickly.

  2. Seguimiento a patógenos presentes en biosólido empleado como enmienda para revegetalizar un talud Follow-up to pathogens present in biosolids used as emendation to reforest a slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Jacqueline López Sánchez


    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda orgánica para el establecimiento de vegetación y el control de procesos erosivos superficiales activos, se seleccionó un corte de carretera ubicado sobrela Variante a Caldas (Antioquia. Para darle amarre y cobertura al suelo, se sembraron dos especies vegetales tipo pasto Brachiaria Decumbens y Kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, utilizando biosólido proveniente de la PTAR San Fernando, mezclado con suelo de la zona. Se evaluó el comportamiento de bioindicadores de riesgo ambiental: coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, Salmonella-Shiguella, en las aguas de escorrentía y en el suelo del talud en el tiempo. Ambas especies se adaptaron bien amarrando el suelo; la cobertura fue total y permanente. Los resultados muestran la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda. Sin embargo, la permanencia de los parámetros microbiológicos medidos durante el tiempo de evaluación evidencia la necesidad de sanitizar el biosólido antes de usarlo, ya que estos patógenos constituyen un riesgo ambiental.In order to evaluate the feasibility of biosolids use as an organic emendation for reforestation and controlling active superficial erosive processes, a part of the highway -located near to the alternative route to Caldas (Antioquia. With the purpose of preventing erosion, two types of plants Brachiaria Decumbens and kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum were planted, using biosolids from San Fernando Water Treatment Plant, mixed with soil from the site. The behavior of some environmental risk bioindicators: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Salmonella-Shiguella, were evaluated, in runoff waters and in the slope soil across the time. Both plant species adapted well to soil; the coverage was complete and permanent. Results show the feasibility of bio-solid as emendation. However, microbiological specifications measured during the evaluation time, showed the need for sanitizing

  3. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  4. Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis. (United States)

    Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A


    To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content.

  5. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha


    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  6. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)


    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to asses the potential environmental and health risk associated with biosolids deposition in agricultural soil. However, it is widely accepted that determination of total concentration of heavy metals does not give an accurate estimation of the potential environmental impact. So, it is necessary to apply speciation studies to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability. This study was carried out on sewage sludge samples collected in a municipal waste-water treatment plant, located in Puebla City (Mexico). They are used for amendment agricultural soil. The speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) was made using a sequential extraction procedure. The aim was to determine their concentration in bioavailability fractions. It was got the total concentration of heavy metals using acid digestion in a closed system and was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The total concentrations of heavy metals were lower than that established by Mexican legislation. The heavy metals are mainly associated with the mineral fraction and organic matter and consequently they show low bioavailability. [Spanish] El analisis de metales pesados es una actividad importante cuando se quiere valorar el potencial riesgo ambiental y de salud asociado con la utilizacion de biosolidos en suelos agricolas. Sin embargo, es ampliamente aceptado que la determinacion del contenido total no da una valoracion apropiada del impacto ambiental causado. Por lo tanto, es necesario realizar estudios de especiacion para obtener informacion mas detallada sobre su biodisponibilidad. Este estudio se llevo a cabo con muestras de lodos residuales producidos en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales ubicada en la ciudad de Puebla (Mexico). Estos biosolidos son utilizados para enmendar suelos agricolas. La especiacion de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb y Zn) se realizo usando un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial

  7. Produção de biossólido agrícola por meio da compostagem e vermicompostagem de lodo de esgoto Production of agricultural biosolid by composting and vermicomposting sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Corrêa


    Full Text Available Normas recentes não permitem que biossólidos com significativas concentrações de patógenos humanos sejam usados na agricultura. Dessa forma, o trabalho visa avaliar a exeqüibilidade de se produzir biossólido isento de patógenos por meio da compostagem e vermicompostagem do lodo de esgoto de Brasília. Serragem e poda de árvores e de grama foram misturadas com lodo de esgoto, como fontes de carbono e material estruturante, em pilhas de compostagem. O composto maduro foi então inoculado com minhocas, para ser vermicompostado. As minhocas se desenvolveram bem e melhoraram as características físicas e sanitárias do biossólido compostado. O lodo de esgoto apresentava, originalmente, 4,7 ovos viáveis de helmintos por grama de matéria seca e o processo de compostagem reduziu essa concentração para valores entre não-detectáveis a 0,34 ovos viáveis de helmintos por grama de material seco, que representa uma eficiência de desinfestação entre 93 e 100%. Não foram detectados ovos viáveis de helmintos após a vermicompostagem e, portanto, o processo se mostrou capaz de produzir biossólidos livres de helmintos, que são permitidos para o uso agrícola no Brasil.Recent Brazilian regulations do not allow biosolids rich in human pathogens to be used in agriculture. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pathogen-free biosolids by composting and vermicomposting sewage sludge from city of Brasilia. Sawdust and woodchips or yard trimmings were mixed with tertiary sewage sludge as carbon source and bulk agent to build piles bigger than 5 m³. Mature compost was then inoculated with worms to be vermicomposted. Worms developed well and improved the physical and sanitary characteristics of the composted sludge. The sewage sludge originally presented 4.7 viable eggs g-1 of dry solids and the composting process could reduce it to values from non-detectable to 0.34 viable eggs g-1 of dry solids. Such figures represent

  8. Evaluación de la mineralización de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Evaluation of mineralization rates of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Silva


    Full Text Available Los biosólidos procedentes del tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales tienen alto potencial de aplicación agrícola por sus contenidos de materia orgánica y nutrientes. En esta investigación se evaluó la mineralización de los biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo, Cali- Colombia, mediante el ajuste de modelos de regresión; se realizó el seguimiento del contenido de NH4+, NO3- y NO2- durante 126 días para tres tipos de biosólidos: deshidratado, secado térmicamente y alcalinizado, los cuales fueron aplicados a un suelo Vertic Endoaquepts en dosis de 35.4, 36.4 y 54.5 t ha-1 respectivamente. Para el ajuste de las curvas de regresión, se consideraron los modelos simple exponencial, doble exponencial, hiperbólico, parabólico y algunos modelos estadísticos regulares. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo parabólico propuesto por Broadbent presentó el mejor ajuste para describir el proceso de mineralización del suelo evaluado; el modelo exponencial de Stanford & Smith, se mostró como una segunda opción de modelación, permitiendo corroborar el incremento del nitrógeno orgánico N0 cuando se realiza la aplicación de los biosólidos y el incremento de la mineralización con relación al tratamiento testigo.The biosolids from wastewater Treatment plants have high potential of agricultural application due to the contents of organic matter and nutrients. The mineralization of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant, Cali-Colombia, was evaluated by fitting regression models. The content of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- were monitored during 126 days for three types of biosolids: dehydrated, thermally dried and alkalinized, which were applied to a Vertic Endoaquepts soil using doses of 35.4, 36.4 and 54.5 t ha-1 respectively. To adjust the regression curves, the models used were: simple exponential, double exponential, hyperbolic, parabolic and some regular statistical

  9. Biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de pinhão-manso Biosolid as substrate for production of physic nut seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo de Camargo


    Full Text Available A utilização do lodo de esgoto na agricultura como adubo orgânico, é tida hoje, como a alternativa mais promissora para disposição final deste resíduo, em razão da sua sustentabilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de mudas de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L., a partir de substratos contendo esterco bovino e diferentes concentrações de biossólido, como fontes de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e o tratamento das sementes com fungicida. As sementes tratadas receberam o fungicida Moncerem® PM. Todos os tubetes continham 40% de esterco bovino e as doses de biossólido foram crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%, complementados com vermiculita. Foram avaliados: emergência aos 14 dias, altura de planta, diâmetro de caule, peso seco da parte aérea e de raiz e acúmulo dos metais pesados Cd, Cr, Pb e Ni. O tratamento de sementes teve efeito negativo na emergência aos 14 dias e, consequentemente, prejudicou o posterior crescimento das plantas. De maneira geral, a adição de até 10% de biossólido ao substrato apresentou os melhores resultados de crescimento da muda. Com relação aos metais pesados apenas o níquel foi acumulado crescentemente na planta, à medida em que se aumentaram as doses de biossólido no substrato.The use of sewage sludge in agriculture as an organic fertilizer nowadays is the most promising alternative for final disposal of this residue due to its sustainability. The objective of this work was to evaluate production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings using a substrate containing cattle manure and different concentrations of biosolid, as sources of organic matter and nutrients and the treatment of the seeds with fungicide. The treated seeds received the fungicide Moncerem® PM. All the polytubes contained 40% of cattle manure and the biosolid doses were 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, complemented with vermiculite. The variables evaluated were: emergence on the 14th day, plant height, stem


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco


    de nutrientes (C, N, P, K, Ca, Na, Fe y Zn y materia orgánica, la presencia de metales pesados, o su inadecuada aplicación, puede ir en detrimento del crecimiento y producción de las plantas de rábano.This study was conducted in waste water treatment plant “The Salitre”, in Bogotá, to evaluate the potential of the waste water treatment subproduct “biosolids”, for application in agriculture by means of quantifying growth, development and production of cultivation of red radish, and to establish a possible alternative to the problem of final disposition of 3900 tons of this material generated monthly in the waste water treatment plant. The experimental design employed was a random blocks design, with five treatments and three replications, arranged in 2 m x 2 m plots. The treatments corresponded to mixtures of biosolids with soil in the following proportions: 100 % biosolid (equivalent to 294 ton Ha-1, 75 % biosolid (220 ton Ha-1, 50 % biosolid (147 ton ha-1, 25 % biosólido (73 ton ha-1 and 100 % soil. Red radish Raphanus sativus L. was planted. The variables evaluated were: germination percentage, dry weight of leaves and roots, plant length, foliar area and production. Also, the accumulation of trace was measured in the harvested radishes, to determine risks of consumption. The results showed that the 50 % biosolid and 25 % biosolid, treatments were those that most favored growth, development and production of cultivation radish, while the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatments, showed lower development growth and production of the cultivar. The 100 % biosolid treatment resulted in low germination and also did not show root accumulation, that is the harvested product. The levels of accumulation of heavy metals surpassed the maximum levels with the 75 % biosolid and 100 % biosolid treatment. It was shown that the use of the biosolids in agriculture can produce a great risk, because despite having high nutrient (C, N, P, Ca, Na, Fe y Zn and organic

  11. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke


    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  12. A Perspective on Biosolids Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Apedaile


    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment has evolved into an important mechanism that used to protect public health from infectious disease. In the 1850s, water drawn from the Thames River below London's sewage outfall was found to be a source of a cholera outbreak (1. As a result, 'sewage farms' were established to treat and dispose of wastewater. Gradually, more effective technologies, which required less land, were developed to treat wastewater. The processes of primary and secondary biological treatment eventually eliminated the need for sewage farms in the early part of the past century.

  13. Distribuição e absorção do chumbo por plantas de milho cultivadas em solo tratado com biossólido Distribution and absorption of lead by maize plants cultivated in biosolid treated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Ferrari Barriquelo


    Full Text Available O uso continuado de biossólido no solo pode resultar na acumulação de metais pesados em nível prejudicial ao ambiente. Neste intuito, foi estudado o destino do Pb em um Nitossolo Vermelho, tratado duas vezes com biossólido contaminado, num intervalo de 18 meses. Amostras do solo de 0-80 cm de profundidade foram colocadas em sua posição natural em vasos de PVC. Os solos de 0-20 cm de profundidade de cada tubo receberam cinco tratamentos: um com biossólido sem Pb (controle; dois com biossólido com Pb na concentração 2.500; 5.000 µg g-1; dois, com a mistura de Pb mais cádmio, Cd (interferente na mesma concentração 2.500 + 2.500 e 5.000 + 5.000 µg g-1; respectivamente. As amostras de solo tratado foram recolocadas nos respectivos vasos e o experimento, com três repetições, foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação utilizando o milho como planta teste. Após 75 dias do plantio, foram feitas as coletas das plantas e dos solos. Depois da preparação das amostras e respectivas digestões com solução nitro-perclórica, a concentração de Pb foi determinada pela espectrometria de absorção atômica. As amostras de solo de 0-20 cm, tratadas com biossólido contaminado, apresentaram as maiores concentrações de Pb. A concentração do metal permaneceu constante ao longo do restante da coluna de solo (20-80 cm. A concentração de Pb extraída pelas plantas permaneceu abaixo dos níveis fitotóxicosAlthough sewage sludge (biosolid provides nutrients for plant growth, its successive use may result in the accumulation of heavy metals to levels detrimental to the environment. Pb behaviour in red nitosol with twice-treated contaminated sewage sludge at interval of 18 months was analysed. Soil samples received five different treatments: one with biosolid without Pb (control; two with biosolid with Pb in concentration 2,500; 5,000 µg g-1; two with Pb plus cadmium (Cd (as interferer in the same concentration 2,500 + 2,500 and 5,000 + 5

  14. Avaliação agronômica de biossólidos tratados por diferentes métodos químicos para aplicação na cultura do milho Agronomic evaluation of biosolids treated by different chemical methods for cultivation of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaldete T. Barros


    Full Text Available A presença de patógenos e metais potencialmente tóxicos, são as principais limitações do lodo de esgoto para a reciclagem agrícola. Este trabalho avaliou a aplicação de biossólidos, tratados quimicamente, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de nutrientes pela cultura de milho. O lodo de esgoto foi tratado com cal, hipoclorito de sódio, peróxido de hidrogênio, ácido acético e peracético. Nos biossólidos tratados com os ácidos orgânicos fez-se a neutralização com cal. Os biossólidos foram aplicados em vasos, na dose de 50 t ha-1, cultivado com milho pelo período de 55 dias, quando foram determinadas a produção de matéria seca e concentração de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. A maior produção de matéria seca foi observada no tratamento com ácido peracético e a menor no tratamento com cal. A aplicação de biossólido aumentou os teores dos macronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. Os teores de Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe e Pb nas plantas, estiveram abaixo dos limites fitotóxicos. Os biossólidos mostraram ser uma importante fonte de nutrientes para o desenvolvimento da cultura de milho. Os tratamentos alternativos do lodo podem ser eficientes no controle de patógenos e facilitam a reciclagem agrícola de biossólidos.The presence of pathogens and potentially toxic metals are the main limitations for the agronomic recycling of sewage sludge. This study evaluated the application of biosolids, chemically treated in a distrophic Red Latosol in the production and in the absorption of nutrients by the maize crop. The sludge was treated with lime, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic and acetic acids. Biosolids treated with organic acids were neutralized with lime. The biosolids were applied in pots at a dose equivalent to 50 t ha-1 and maize was grown for a period of 55 days, and later the dry matter production and concentrations of nutrients were determined in

  15. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus rubra amended with low and high metal content biosolids Crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio por Alnus rubra cultivado sob fertilização com biosólidos com altos e baixos teores de metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke


    Full Text Available Forest application of biosolids offers a potential environmentally friendly alternative to landfilling. This two-year investigation was designed to analyze the effects of elevated soil metal concentration resulting from the land application of biosolids on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. High metal biosolids and a modern-day composted biosolid applied at high loading rates of 250, 500, and 1000 Mg ha-1, were used to represent a worst-case scenario for metal contamination. The high metal biosolids were obtained before the current regulations were formulated and had been lagooned prior to use in this study. Total cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in the high metal biosolids were 45, 958, and 2623 mg kg-1 respectively. These metal concentrations are above current regulatory limits in the US. The compost was made using biosolids that are currently produced and had Cd, Pb and Zn of 0.8, 20 and 160 mg kg-1 respectively. Trees were harvested and analyzed for rate of N fixation (as measured by acetylene reduction activity, biomass, and foliar metals. Soils were analyzed for available N, total carbon and N, pH and total Cd, Pb and Zn. Rates of N fixation were not affected by soil amendment. In year 2, shoot biomass of trees grown in both the compost and high metal amendments were higher than the control. Shoot biomass increased with increasing amount of compost amendments, but decreased with increasing amount of high metal amendments. There was no relationship between soil metal concentration and plant biomass. Foliar Cd and Pb were below detection for all trees and foliar Zn increased with increasing amount of both compost and high metal amendment, with concentrations of 249 mg kg-1 for trees grown in the compost amendment and 279 mg kg-1 for the high metal amendment. The results from this study indicate that the growth of A. rubra benefited from both types of biosolids used in the study

  16. Optimizing Biosolid Mixtures for Producing Soilless Manilagrass Sod Over Plastic%污泥生产马尼拉无土草皮基质配方优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢亚萍; 刘宏; 胡惠蓉; 尹少华


    利用污泥等废弃物生产无土草皮可以使废弃物循环利用,还可以降低生产成本,因此以马尼拉(Zoysia matrella)为材料,利用不同废弃物筛选出最优的基质配方,为无土草皮的生产提供依据.采用混料设计中的极端顶点设计,以污泥为主要基质,蘑菇渣、稻壳和沙子为配材,对12个不同配方基质的理化性质、无土草皮的坪用性状及综合品质进行评价,建立草皮综合品质与各配方因子之间显著相关的回归模型.结果表明:不同配方基质草皮的成卷时间、成坪时间、地上生物量、地下生物量、草皮重量、叶绿素、根系活力、密度等坪用性状差异均显著(P<0.05),通过对回归模型的优化分析,筛选出优化配方方案为:污泥71.75%~72.85%,蘑菇渣9.7%~11.7%,稻壳3.13%~3.67%,沙子12.54%~14.66%.马尼拉草坪草可富集较多的重金属元素,收获草皮后的基质中重金属含量大幅降低.%Producing soilless sod using waste not only recycles waste, but also reduces the production cost of sod. Different wastes with manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) are used as material to select an optimal mixture and provide some theoretical guidance for soilless sod production. Extreme vertex design is applied using bio-solid as the major substrate, with mushroom compost, rice hull and sand as mixing ingredients. The physical and chemical properties of twelve tested mixtures, manila grass sod performances and its integrated turf quality are analyzed. The significantly correlative regression model between integrated turf quality and mixture factors is established. Results indicate that sod-forming rate, establishment rate, above and underground biomass, sod weight, chlorophyll content, root activity and density all differ significantly among each tested mixture (P<0. 05). The optimal mixture is bio-solid, mushroom mulch, rice hull and sand at 71.75% to 72.85%, 9.7% to 11.7%, 3.13% to 3.67% and 12


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada


    Full Text Available Uno de los limitantes del aprovechamiento agrícola de lodos y biosólidos producidos por plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas - PTAR es su calidad microbiológica y parasitológica. Se evaluó la estabilización alcalina del compost obtenido a partir la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales Cañaveralejo de Cali, Colombia (PTAR-C, utilizando ceniza de calderas de una industria papelera, Cal Hidratada (CH y Cal Viva (CV, en combinaciones con el compost del 8, 15 y 30% para CH y ceniza y de 15% para CV, en proporciones peso a peso. Durante 13 días se monitoreó temperatura, pH, humedad, coliformes fecales y huevos de helmintos. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que CV y CH al 15% lograron elevar el pH a 12 unidades por más de 72 horas y obtener cero huevos de helmintos viables, lo que muestra una eficiente reducción de patógenos y el alcance de estándares para compost clase A, lo que no se alcanzó con la ceniza en las proporciones evaluadas. En términos de humedad, CV al 15% presentó mejor desempeño que CH, la cual requirió un 30% y de 3 a 5 días para reducir la humedad hasta el 20% sugerido para la aplicación agrícola de compost. Es recomendable evaluar rangos entre 8 y 15% de CV y CH, otras cenizas alcalinas y mezclas para reducir tiempos de tratamiento, requerimientos de área y costos, además considerar la remoción de otros indicadores en plantas y humanos como fitopatógenos y Salmonella.The limitation for agriculture use of sludge and biosolids from wastewater treatment plants is the microbiological and parasitological quality. Alkali stabilization was evaluated in produced compost from biosolids of Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C, based in Cali, Colombia . Ashes, quick and slake lime were applied to compost. Doses of 8, 15 and 30% of ash and hydrated lime and 15% of quick lime were the concentration (in weight used; during 13th days TºC, pH, humidity, faecal coliforms and helmints

  18. Caracterización y evaluación de biosólidos producidos por digestión anaerobia de residuos agroindustriales Characterization and evaluation of biosolids produced by anaerobic digestion of agroindustrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabelia del Pino


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización y evaluación de los biosólidos (lodos producidos en un reactor piloto alimentado con residuos agroindustriales. La caracterización química de los lodos y la estimación de la variabilidad de los parámetros se realizó a partir de muestras tomadas durante cinco semanas. En las muestras se determinó pH, materia seca (MS y contenidos totales de C, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn y Zn. Para estudiar los patrones de descomposición y liberación de nutrientes de los lodos se incubaron dos suelos de diferente textura con dosis de lodo equivalentes a 80 y 160 kg ha-1 de N, comparándose con dosis iguales de N como fertilizante y un tratamiento testigo sin agregados. En el experimento de incubación se determinó la respiración del suelo y liberación de nutrientes durante 115 días. El contenido promedio de MS de los lodos fue 5,2%, el pH alcalino y las mayores concentraciones de nutrientes correspondieron a N, P y Ca. Hubo variabilidad entre muestreos, aunque los coeficientes de variación fueron menores a 20%. Los niveles de Na y micronutrientes no estuvieron en el rango considerado como riesgo para el ambiente. El agregado de lodo promovió la actividad microbiana del suelo. En el suelo limoso se perdió como CO2 aproximadamente un tercio y en el franco arenoso un quinto del C agregado. El N del lodo se mineralizó rápidamente, llegando a niveles similares de N mineral a los suelos fertilizados. El agregado de lodo incrementó el contenido de P disponible, N mineral, Ca y Mg intercambiables, por lo tanto se concluye que fue beneficioso para la fertilidad del suelo.The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the biosolids (slurry produced in a pilot reactor feed with agroindustrial residues. The chemical characterization of the biosolids and variability estimation were conducted on slurry samples taken during five weeks. Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM, pH, and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramirez Pisco


    estabilidad de agregados y la retención de humedad, y disminuyéndose la densidad aparente y densidad real.The biosolids are organic materials, derived from wastewater treatment of domestic and industrial sewage. One of the main problems of wastewater treatment plants is the final destination of the biosolids. Their deposit in sanitary fillers, the incineration and land application are the main methods of dispose; the first two methods are expensive, while the last one, is gaining acceptance, because the biosolids are a resource that can be used as supplementary organic fertilizer. Furthermore, land application of biosolids can help to improve declined soil fertility in degraded soils, but it can be generated contamination problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of biosolids application on the growth of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Gualanday and the changes on physical and chemical conditions of a degraded soil. This arboreal specie was planted in a degraded soil amended with biosolids, and was grown in a greenhouse. The treatments corresponded to contents of organic matter in the mixture (soil-biosolid of 0 %, 2 %, 4 % and 8 %, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and ten replications. Monthly samplings were realized to get information about the variables: survival, height and diameter of stem, and number of leaves. The dry biomass was evaluated at the end of the study. The physical and chemical analyses were made at the beginning of the experiment and three months later. The chemical analyses included pH, oxidable organic carbon, Al, Ca, Mg, K, CICE, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, P, S, B, NO3-, NH4+, and the physical analyses included aggregate stability, bulk density, real density and water retention. The statistical analysis between treatments was realized every month, by analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test, using a 95 % confidence level. The treatment with a 2 % of organic matter was not affected the plant growth and was similar

  20. Qualidade da matéria orgânica e estoques de carbono e nitrogênio em Latossolo tratado com biossólido e cultivado com eucalipto Organic matter quality and carbon and nitrogen stocks in an Oxisol treated with biosolids and cultivated with eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Alberto de Andrade


    -30 e 30-60 cm. Cerca de 50 % do total de CO esteve presente no compartimento denominado lábil, comportamento típico de áreas com espécies e, ou, manejo que favorecem o retorno de resíduos vegetais ao solo. Dos compostos orgânicos determinados, somente a lignina mostrou alteração de acordo com os tratamentos. Os tratamentos 40 t ha-1 + K e Fert. Mineral apresentaram a MO do solo na camada de 0-5 cm mais enriquecida com lignina, em comparação aos demais, sendo esse efeito atribuído à maior deposição de folhas nesses dois tratamentos e à natureza recalcitrante da lignina. Os resultados de CTC não evidenciaram efeitos dos tratamentos na qualidade da MO, pelo menos no que se refere a esta propriedade. A CTC (pH natural mostrou-se mais dependente dos valores de pH do solo do que dos teores de C.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of increasing doses of an alkaline biosolid on carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks, as well as on the organic matter quality of an Oxisol cultivated with eucalyptus, after five years of biosolids application. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of ESALQ/USP, in Itatinga County, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was initiated in March 1998 on an area where a seven-year-old Eucalyptus grandis plantation had been harvested and substituted by a new one planted under the minimum cultivation system. Four months later, anaerobic digested biosolid with original moisture content was applied over the soil surface and in-between plant rows, with no posterior incorporation. Five treatments were evaluated: (a Control; (b Mineral Fertilization with N, P, K, B and Zn (Mineral Fert.; (c 10 t ha-1 of biosolids + K (10 t ha-1 + K; (d 20 t ha-1 of biosolids + K (20 t ha-1 + K; e (e 40 t ha-1 of biosolids + K (40 t ha-1 + K. Soil samples were collected in layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-60 cm deep in September 2003, after five years of biosolids application. Total C concentrations and soil

  1. Características biológicas do solo indicadoras de qualidade após dois anos de aplicação de biossólido industrial e cultivo de milho Biological characteristics indicators of soil quality after two years of application of an industrial biosolid and corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Barros Trannin


    parâmetros avaliados, indicando que as alterações na quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica, promovidas pela aplicação do biossólido, refletiram na dinâmica da microbiota e influenciaram positivamente os parâmetros biológicos de qualidade do solo.The agricultural use of biosolids has been stimulated, however, as the chemical composition of these residues is varied, the agronomic value and effects on soil quality characteristics need to be individually assessed in order to establish safety norms for their application. The present work evaluated biological characteristics after the application for two consecutive years of increasing doses (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 t ha-1 dry matter of biosolid generated by a PET fiber and resin industry. There was also a complete mineral fertilizer treatment in corn cultivation in a Cambisol, compared to an adjacent area under Brachiaria sp. without cultivation for the last ten years. The microbial biomass C and N, basal respiration and urease, beta-glucosidase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activities were increased, while the acid phosphatase activity was reduced with the increase of biosolid rates. The different biosolid doses had no effect on the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2. The decrease in phosphatase activity was related to the increase in phosphorus availability in soil rather than representing an adverse effect to biosolid application. With the application of 12 Mg ha-1 biosolid (agronomic recommendation, the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis were higher and the phosphatase activity lower than in the soil that received mineral fertilizer, while the other parameters were not affected by these treatments. The mycorrhizal colonization of Brachiaria sp. did not differ among spontaneously growing plants in plots previously cultivated with corn and those of adjacent area. In spite of the lower spore number, an enrichment in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species was observed in the

  2. Root Characteristics of Winter Wheat as Affected by Co-application of Biosolids and Water Treatment Residuals%有机污泥与水处理残渣混施对冬小麦根系特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟本; 胡全才


    虽然水处理残渣与有机污泥混施可以减少土壤P过量积累以及P对地表和地下水的污染.但随着水处理残渣施用量增大,又有可能导致土壤P不足或对植物的铝毒作用.本研究通过对植物根系形态特征的分析,对温室控制环境下有机污泥与水处理残渣合施对冬小麦(Triticum aestivium L.)生长的影响作用进行了研究.实验设6种处理,生物污泥(g·kg-1干土)与水处理残瀣(g·kg-1干土)之比分别为0:0:0;80;50:0;50:10;50: 40和50:80.结果表明,与不施用有机污泥相比,施用有机污泥后冬小麦根系长度、根系表面积、根体积和根长密度均显著增加,分别平均增加139.4%,140.1%,157.6%和139.4%.在现有施用量范围内,水处理残渣使用量加大没用对各种根系参数(即根长、根表面积、根平均直径、根体积、根长密度和比根长)产生不利作用.证明水处理残渣与有机污泥混施,即可降低对环境质量的不利影响,在农业生产上具有良好应用前景.%Co-application of water treatment residuals (WTR) with biosolids can reduce the buildup of P in soil as well as the risk of P losses to surface and ground water.However,co-application of WTR and biosolids may result in P deficiency in soil and plant AI toxicity with increasing WTR rate. In this study,their co-application effects on the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L. ) were studied in terms of morphological characteristics of plant roots in a greenhouse experiment. Treatments included WTR alone (0, 80 g · kg-1 soil) and combinations of biosolids at 50 g · kg-1 soil with WTR at 0,10,40,and 80 g · kg-1 soil,respectively. Biosolids addition increased root length (RL),root surface area (RSA).root volume (RV) and root length density (RLD) by 139. 4 %,140. 1 % ,157. 6 % and 139. 4 % (respectively. Increasing WTR application rate did not resuft in adverse effects on all root parameters [RL,RSA,RD (root average diameter),RV,RLD and SRL

  3. Cinética de degradação da matéria orgânica de biossólidos após aplicação no solo e relação com a composição química inicial Degradation kinetics of biosolids organic matter after soil application and its relationship with initial chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Alberto de Andrade


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a degradação de biossólidos após aplicação no solo, relacionando com a composição química inicial da matéria orgânica (MO desses resíduos. Foram utilizados quatro biossólidos e um composto orgânico à base de lodo de esgoto, provenientes de diferentes sistemas de tratamento de esgotos e/ou estabilização do lodo e/ou condicionamento químico para desidratação e/ou etapa complementar visando à melhor adequação ao uso agrícola. A degradação dos biossólidos foi determinada com quantificação do CO2 emanado a partir de experimento de incubação de misturas de amostras de um Latossolo, com dose dos resíduos correspondente a 40 t ha-1. As taxas de degradação da fração orgânica dos resíduos variaram entre 5% e 22%. De modo geral, a degradação da fração orgânica dos biossólidos foi descrita por equação de cinética química com duas fases: a primeira fase caracterizou-se pela elevada velocidade de degradação de compostos orgânicos presentes em quantidades limitadas, cuja exaustão do substrato ocorreu em poucos dias (2 a 20 dias; a segunda fase caracterizouse pela redução da velocidade da reação de degradação e aumento da quantidade de carbono mineralizado (65% do total de C mineralizado no período. A proteína bruta, expressa como porcentagem do conteúdo orgânico dos resíduos, foi o parâmetro que melhor correlacionou com a taxa de degradação dos biossólidos no fim de 70 dias de incubação (r = 0,999 e Prob. > t inferior a 10-4, sendo promissora sua utilização na previsão da taxa de degradação da MO de biossólidos após aplicação no solo. A participação do compartimento protéico foi crescente com o tempo de incubação, comprovando que no início do período de avaliação outros compostos orgânicos mais lábeis funcionaram como fonte de carbono e de energia para a microbiota edáfica.The aim of this study was to evaluate biosolids degradation


    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  5. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Basil


    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  6. Fertilidade e contaminação por metais pesados e microrganismos fecais de um solo sob pastagem pela aplicação de lama residual urbana Soil fertility and contamination by heavy metals and faecal microorganisms as affected by biosolids application in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão


    Full Text Available Em vastas áreas do Alentejo, os solos sob pastagem natural apresentam baixa fertilidade. A aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU veicula matéria orgânica (M.O. e nutrientes para o solo, mas também pode introduzir metais pesados e bactérias de origem fecal, pelo que é conveniente monitorizar o solo após a adição destes resíduos. Comparam-se as fertilizações orgânica com LRU e a mineral, nos efeitos em alguns índices de fertilidade e contaminação metálica e fecal de um solo derivado de xistos e grauvaques, no Alentejo, no 1º ano de um campo experimental com pastagens. O campo, com um esquema experimentalem “split-plot”, foi constituído por seis talhões de 0,5 ha, correspondentes a três tratamentos de fertilização (nula, mineral e orgânica, com LRU, em dois tipos de pastagem, natural e semeada. Aplicaram-se cerca de 13 t/ha de uma mistura de LRU das ETARs de tratamento secundário de Alvito e de Vila Nova de Baronia, com teores apreciáveis de M.O., N e Ca. A adubação incluiu N, P, K, Zn e Mo. Determinaram-se os valores de pH (H2O e os teores de M.O. total, N total, P e K “assimiláveis”, catiões de troca e de Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraíveis por água régia, em amostras de terra (fracção In wide areas of Alentejo, soils under natural pasture have low fertility. Urban biosolids (UB application introduce organic matter (O.M. and nutrients in the soil, but it can also add heavy metals and bacteria of faecal origin. Thus, soil monitoring after the application of these residues is required. Organic with UB and mineral fertilisations were compared regarding their effects on some fertility and metallic and faecal pollution indicators of a soil derived from schists and grauwacks, in the 1st year of a field experiment with pastures. The experimental layout was a split-plot design, with six plots of 0.5 ha, referring to three fertilisation treatments (“nil”, mineral, and organic, with UB, in natural and sown

  7. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)


    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  8. Fate of triclosan in agricultural soils after biosolid applications (United States)

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxy]-phenol (TCS) is a bactericidal compound that is added to a wide variety of household and personal care products. The consumer use of these products releases TCS into urban wastewater and this compound ends up in the environment when agricultural land is ...

  9. Fate of triclocarban and triclosan in soils receiving biosolids applications (United States)

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxy]-phenol (TCS) and triclocarban (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N’-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea) (TCC) are bactericidal compounds that are added to a wide range of household and personal care products such as hand soap, dish washing products, laundry detergents, cleaning w...

  10. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen


    solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dynamic respiration index (DRI), nutrients (total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), potassium (K), heavy metals and faecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.). According to the results, the dry matter content increased from...

  11. Challenges in Analysis of PBDEs in Biosolids and Soil Samples (United States)

    There is increased concern about the presence of organic chemicals in wastewater treatment plant effluents as many of these chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors. In this study we developed an analytical method for the determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in bios...

  12. Bioaerosol release, transport, and fate during land application of manure and biosolid residuals (United States)

    Bioaerosols (biological aerosols) are environmentally ubiquitous, both in rural and urban settings. Aerosol transport is a critical, mostly un-accounted for, and unseen mechanism of microbial environmental dispersal. Agriculture and other anthropogenic activities contribute to this transport system,...

  13. Microbial reduction of sulfur dioxide with anaerobically digested municipal sewage biosolids as electron donors. (United States)

    Selvaraj, P T; Sublette, K L


    A concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is produced by regeneration of the sorbent in certain new regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. We have previously proposed that this SO2 can be converted to elemental sulfur for disposal or byproduct recovery using a microbial/Claus process. In this process, two-thirds of the SO2-reducing gas stream would be contacted with a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), where SO2 would act as an electron acceptor with reduction to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This H2S could then be recombined with the remaining SO2 and sent to a Claus unit to produce elemental sulfur. The sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, has been immobilized by coculture with flocforming heterotrophs from an anaerobic digester, resulting in a SO2-reducing floc that may be collected from the effluent of a continuous reactor for recycle by gravity sedimentation. The carbon and energy source for these cultures was anaerobically digested municipal sewage solids. The maximum specific activity for SO2 reduction in these cultures, in terms of dry weight of D. desulfuricans biomass, was 9.1 mmol of SO2/h.g. The stoichiometry with respect to the electron donor was 15.5 mg of soluble COD/mmol of SO2 reduced.

  14. Production of biosolid fuels from municipal sewage sludge: Technical and economic optimisation. (United States)

    Wzorek, Małgorzata; Tańczuk, Mariusz


    The article presents the technical and economic analysis of the production of fuels from municipal sewage sludge. The analysis involved the production of two types of fuel compositions: sewage sludge with sawdust (PBT fuel) and sewage sludge with meat and bone meal (PBM fuel). The technology of the production line of these sewage fuels was proposed and analysed. The main objective of the study is to find the optimal production capacity. The optimisation analysis was performed for the adopted technical and economic parameters under Polish conditions. The objective function was set as a maximum of the net present value index and the optimisation procedure was carried out for the fuel production line input capacity from 0.5 to 3 t h(-1), using the search step 0.5 t h(-1). On the basis of technical and economic assumptions, economic efficiency indexes of the investment were determined for the case of optimal line productivity. The results of the optimisation analysis show that under appropriate conditions, such as prices of components and prices of produced fuels, the production of fuels from sewage sludge can be profitable. In the case of PBT fuel, calculated economic indexes show the best profitability for the capacity of a plant over 1.5 t h(-1) output, while production of PBM fuel is beneficial for a plant with the maximum of searched capacities: 3.0 t h(-1). Sensitivity analyses carried out during the investigation show that influence of both technical and economic assessments on the location of maximum of objective function (net present value) is significant.

  15. Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Marc E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fertilisation of land with processed sewage sludges, which often contain low levels of pathogens, endotoxins, and trace amounts of industrial and household chemicals, has become common practice in Western Europe, the US, and Canada. Local governments, however, are increasingly restricting or banning the practice in response to residents reporting adverse health effects. These self-reported illnesses have not been studied and methods for assessing exposures of residential communities to contaminants from processed sewage sludges need to be developed. Methods To describe and document adverse effects reported by residents, 48 individuals at ten sites in the US and Canada were questioned about their environmental exposures and symptoms. Information was obtained on five additional cases where an outbreak of staphylococcal infections occurred near a land application site in Robesonia, PA. Medical records were reviewed in cases involving hospitalisation or other medical treatment. Since most complaints were associated with airborne contaminants, an air dispersion model was used as a means for potentially ruling out exposure to sludge as the cause of adverse effects. Results Affected residents lived within approximately 1 km of land application sites and generally complained of irritation (e.g., skin rashes and burning of the eyes, throat, and lungs after exposure to winds blowing from treated fields. A prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and respiratory tract was found. Approximately 1 in 4 of 54 individuals were infected, including 2 mortalities (septicaemia, pneumonia. This result was consistent with the prevalence of S. aureus infections accompanying diaper rashes in which the organism, which is commonly found in the lower human colon, tends to invade irritated or inflamed tissue. Conclusions When assessing public health risks from applying sewage sludges in residential areas, potential interactions of chemical contaminants with low levels of pathogens should be considered. An increased risk of infection may occur when allergic and non-allergic reactions to endotoxins and other chemical components irritate skin and mucus membranes and thereby compromise normal barriers to infection.

  16. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, R. K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Salomon, S. N.; Jones, A.; Chiu, W. A.; Setlow, L. W.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Yu, C.; Goodman, J.; Lenhart, T.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. EPA; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NJ Dept of Environmental Radiation; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District


    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts.

  17. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  18. Fate of triclocarban, triclosan and methyltriclosan during wastewater and biosolids treatment processes (United States)

    Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) are two antibacterial chemicals present in household and personal care products. Methyltriclosan is a biodegradation product of TCS formed under aerobic conditions. TCC and TCS are discharged to Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) where they are removed from ...

  19. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José


    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

  20. Influence of Stabilized Biosolids Application on Availability of Phosphorus, Copper, and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shaheen


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the influence of sewage sludge (SS and stabilized SS application on Olsen-P and DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn in relation to soil type, sewage source, mixing rate and incubation time. Two different SS were mixed with amendments by mixing rates 10 and 25%. These amendments include coal fly ash (CFA, bentonite (B, sugar beet factory lime (SBFL, calcium carbonate, rice straw (RS, water hyacinth (WH, and cotton stalks (CS. Treated and untreated SS had been applied to fluvial and calcareous soil with application rate 2.5% and incubated for one and two month. After incubation, soil samples were analyzed for Olsen-P and DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn. Application of SS increased significantly Olsen-P and DTPA extractable Cu and Zn compared to control. Application of stabilized SS increased significantly Olsen-P, with high increasing rate with SBFL and WH-stabilized SS. Stabilized-SS decreased significantly Cu and Zn availability compared to mono SS treatment. Bentonite-, SBFL and CFA-stabilized SS were the highest among inorganic treatments for reducing available Cu and Zn either in fluvial or calcareous soil, while WH and RS-stabilized SS treatment were the most suitable organic ones for reducing DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn.


    Soils in many locations are mineralized or were contaminated by industry (e.g. mine wastes; smelter emissions). Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu ores often caused severe Zn phytotoxicity which killed vegetation and prevented normal colonization; severe N and P infertility also contributed to difficul...


    Soils in many locations are mineralized or were contaminated by industry (e.g. mine wastes; smelter emissions). Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu ores often caused severe Zn phytotoxicity which killed vegetation and prevented normal colonization; severe N and P infertility also contributed to difficul...

  3. Extractability of Cu in Alkaline Biosolids-Amended Soils as Influenced by γ-Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the microbial biomass associated Cu in four contrasting soils to which an alkaline stabilised sewage sludge cake was applied. The organisms of sludgeamended and control soils were killed using γ-irradiation technique, and the aqueous and acid-extractable Cu concentrations were determined. Addition of the sludge product increased significantly the concentration of both the aqueous and dilute HOAc-extractable Cu in all the irradiated soils compared to the non-sterilised sludge/soil mixtures, but the increase was more pronounced in the dilute acid-extractable Cu, indicating that the Cu rendered extractable in water and dilute acetic acid by γ-irradiation existed in the both soil liquid and solid phases. The additional increase in extractable Cu following the biocidal treatment is likely to be due to release of Cu from the same fraction of soil microbial biomass.

  4. Evaluation of Microbial Quality in Biosolids Generated from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ghoreishi


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Qualitative evaluation of sewage sludge before any kind of application is essential. The present study was aimed to investigate Total coliform, Fecal coliform and Salmonella in sewage sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants in Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Nine wastewater treatment plants were chosen in East Azerbaijan Province, and their sludge from drying bed was studied. Total coliforms, thermo-tolerant coliforms, and Salmonella spp., were surveyed during winter time, 2015. Total and thermos-tolerant coliforms were enumerated by EPA method 1680 and salmonella was counted using EPA method 1682.   Results: In the case of total coliform, sludge sample from Jolfa with 1.82×106 MPN/g showed the highest contamination, while Sarab showed lowest fecal coliform count with 2.02×103 MPN/g. As in the case for fecal coliform, the bacteria count for thermo-tolerant coliforms was higher in Jolfa than other cities; on the other hand, Ahar with no fecal coliform count or less than 2.2 showed the minimum contamination rate to fecal coliforms. In case of Salmonella spp., sludge samples from Ahar and Bostan Abad did not show any salmonella. While sludge sample from Tabriz wastewater treatment plant was determined as the most contaminant sludge with bacteria count equal to 84 per  g. Moreover, sludge sample from Sarab wastewater treatment plant showed the least contamination rate, and bacteria count was 6 per  g. Conclusion: From the stand point of microbial quality, all sludge samples met class B standards set by USEPA, while none of them could provide class A standards. Thus, special precautions must be taken in case of soil amendments by the sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants. 

  5. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains energy and absorption data for XANES spectra indicated in Figure 1 of the manuscript. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  6. Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China. (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Qian; Ruan, Ting; Yu, Miao; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin


    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) along with methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) have been frequently identified as natural compounds in marine environment and also assumed as metabolites of PBDEs. In the present study, nine OH-PBDE, nine MeO-PBDE and 10 PBDE congeners were studied in the sewage sludge collected from 36 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 27 cities of China. The results suggest that OH-PBDEs and PBDEs are ubiquitous in sewage sludge in China, however, methoxylated PBDEs were not detectable. Composition profiles of detected OH-PBDE congeners were different depending on the sampling location. ΣOH-PBDEs in WWTPs sludge ranged from 0.04 to 2.24 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean: 0.35 ng g(-1) dry weight). The total amount of the two most prominent congeners (6-OH-BDE-47+2'-OH-BDE-68) accounted for about 53.3-100% of the sum of all six identified congeners. A significant linear relationship was found between 6-OH-BDE-47 and 2'-OH-BDE-68. A distinct geographical distribution of ΣOH-PBDEs was observed with greater concentrations of OH-PBDEs at coastal areas than inland regions in China.

  7. A systematic study of the gaseous emissions from biosolids composting: raw sludge versus anaerobically digested sludge. (United States)

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni


    Volatile organic compound (VOC) and ammonia, that contribute to odor pollution, and methane and nitrous oxide, with an important greenhouse effect, are compounds present in gaseous emission from waste treatment installations, including composting plants. In this work, gaseous emissions from the composting of raw (RS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) have been investigated and compared at pilot scale aiming to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present. CH4 and N2O emissions were higher in ADS composting (0.73 and 0.55 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in RS composting (0.01 kg Mg(-1) sludge for both CH4 and N2O). NH3 and VOCs emitted were higher during the RS composting process (19.37 and 0.21 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in ADS composting (0.16 and 0.04 kg Mg(-1) sludge). Significant differences were found in the VOC compositions emitted in ADS and RS composting, being more diverse in RS than ADS composting.

  8. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria


    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson. 2002. "Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Organic Toxicants by Composting." The Scientific World Journal 2: 407-420. Fytili, D., and A. Zabaniotou. 2008. "Utilization of Sewage Sludge in EU Application of Old and New Methods - A Review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12: 116-140. Noble, R., and S.J. Roberts. 2004. "Eradication of Plant Pathogens and Nematodes during composting: A Review." Plant Patology 53: 548-568.

  9. Groundwater Monitoring of Land Application with Manure, Biosolids, and other Organic Residuals (United States)

    Harter, T.; Lawrence, C.; Atwill, E. R.; Kendall, C.


    Regulatory programs frequently require monitoring of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. Traditionally, these programs have focused on monitoring of incidental discharges from industrial sites. Increasingly, sources with an implied groundwater recharge are subject to monitoring requirements. These recharging sources include, for example, land application of municipal, food processing, or animal waste to irrigated cropland. Groundwater monitoring of a recharging source requires a different approach to groundwater monitoring than traditional (incidental source) monitoring programs. Furthermore, the shallow groundwater aquifer targeted for compliance monitoring commonly consists of highly heterogeneous unconsolidated alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, glacial, or subaeolian sediments of late tertiary or quaternary age. Particularly in arid and semi-arid climates, groundwater is also frequently subject to significant seasonal and interannual groundwater level fluctuations that may exceed ten feet seasonally and several tens of feet within a three- to five-year period. We present a hydrodynamically rigorous approach to designing groundwater monitoring wells for recharging sources under conditions of aquifer heterogeneity and water level fluctuations and present the application of this concept to monitoring confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) with irrigated crops located on alluvial fans with highly fluctuating, deep groundwater table.

  10. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids (United States)

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  11. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids (United States)

    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  12. Enzymatic stability control of biosolids; Control enzimatico de la estabilidad de biosolidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Sanchez, J.; Coello Oviedo, J. M.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.


    At the moment, more than 6.5 million tons of dry sludge are produced every year in Europe and it is anticipated that this volume increases faster and faster in the next years. The management of water purifier sludge costs more than 1 million of kECU/year, 150 million ECU/year for the works of control and operation of the digestion of sludge and an amount still unknown, but similar, for industrial sludge. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Application of Gamma irradiation in treatment of Waste Activated Sludge to Obtain Class a Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I. AL-Ghonaiem


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of the current study was investigation of the possible application of Gamma irradiation for treatment of the activated sludge generated wastewater treatment stations, to achieve the standard requirements in term of pathogens content. Approach: Activated sludge samples were collected from Riyadh wastewater plant and analyzed quantitatively for the presence of important bacterial parameters including fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. The collected samples were treated with various doses of Gamma irradiation and bacterial count was determined. Results: The results indicated that all tested sludge samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp, with different counts in different stages of wastewater treatment. The raw sludge showed to have the highest coliforms and Salmonella spp counts of 1.1×108 and 2×103 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. Furthermore, coliforms and Salmonella spp were detected in final resulted sludge with count of 2.5×107 and 6×102 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. It was found that treatment of samples with gamma irradiation was able to reduce the fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp effectively and the reduction efficiency was increased by increasing the irradiation dose. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella counts were reduced to less than 100 MPN g-1 dry sludge by exposing to 1.5 and 0.25 kGy respectively. Furthermore, Gamma radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was able to remove both fecal coliforms and Salomnella spp completely. In addition, D10 values were determined and was found to be 0.25 and 0.24 kGy for fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results indicating that the resulted activated sludge generated from Riyadh wastewater plant are rich with important pathogens and therefore further treatment procedures are necessary to achieve the required standards, before any land application. Application of Gamma irradiation in treatment of the activated sludge showed to be a promising safe technology for this purpose.

  14. High-Iron Biosolids Compost-Induced Changes in Lead and Arsenic Speciation and Bioaccessibility in Co-contaminated Soils (United States)

    The safety of urban farming has been questioned due to the potential for contamination in urban soils. A laboratory incubation, a field trial, and a second laboratory incubation were conducted to test the ability of high-Fe biosolids–based composts to reduce the bioaccessibil...

  15. ThP05 Biogeneration of Volatile Selenium Compounds in Biosolids/Biofuels and Quantification by VD/GC/ICPMS (United States)

    A noval analytical approach that uses VD/GC/ICPMS for the on-line extraction and quantificationof volatile organopmetalloids is described. Several species of arsenic, selenium, antimony, bismuth and tellurium are amenable to this technique. Preliminary results of a study on the...

  16. The influence of amendment material on biosolid composting of sludge from a waste-water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada


    Full Text Available Aerobic composting employing manual turning was evaluated by using the sludge produced by EMCALI EICE ESP's Cañaverlejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C. Compost (in 1,0 ton piles consisted of sludge, a fixed proportion of bulking agent (10% and amendment material. Sugarcane waste and solid organic (marketplace waste were evaluated as amendment material using 20/80 and 40/60 weight/weight (amendment/sludge ratios. Incorporating the amendment material improved the compost, being reflected in a faster start for the thermophilic phase, higher temperatures beign maintained (>55°C and better C/N ratio obtained in the compost in all treatments compared to the pile which had no amendment added to it. Incorporating the bulking agent improved sludge manageability during composting; the best combination was 54% sludge + 10% sugacane bagasse + 36% liquid sugarcane waste.


    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  18. The effect of broiler litter, swine effluent, and municipal biosolids land application on small plot pathogen, antibiotic resistance, and nutrient levels (United States)

    Land applying agricultural and municipal wastes carries an inherent risk associated with nutrient and pathogen runoff and contamination, but with that risk comes a potentially sustainable process to reclaim otherwise residual waste material. Few studies compare the two residuals. The purpose of th...

  19. Kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion of sewage sludge[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Udaquiola, S. [Univ. Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina). Lab. Tec. Amb., Inst. de Ing. Qca; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G. [PROMES-CNRS, Font-Romeu Odeillo (France); Mazza, G. [Univ. Nacional Del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Martinez, O. [Univ. Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina). CINDECA-CONICET


    In thermochemical conversion processes that produce energy, the kinetics of waste decomposition must be considered. The rate of mass loss due to thermal decomposition determines the available fuel on the fire triangle of heat, fuel and oxygen. Heating rates in thermobalance experiments are low, and are often used to study the primary reactions in the decomposition of solids since their cracking is negligible. Thermogravimetry is an option for determining the decomposition profile of a solid in terms of its temperature versus the kinetics of its decomposition. This paper presented the thermal analysis and results of a study that used thermogravimetric analyses on dry samples of sewage sludge from San Juan, Argentina in an inert and oxidative atmosphere. Three peaks were observed in all differential thermogravimetric curves during the organic matter decomposition. In order to explain the experimental data, various reaction schemes were set up. The first two schemes considered 3 fractions decomposing in parallel during pyrolysis, with oxidative pyrolysis of all fractions during combustion or only two. The third scheme considered the decomposition of 2 fractions only but with dissymmetrical behavior during the whole pyrolysis and combustion phenomenon. It was concluded that the simulations were a good agreement with the experimental data for the first 2 schemes only, and overall, the fit was better with the second scheme. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Impact of sludge thickening on energy recovery from anaerobic digestion[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchajda, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Oleszkiewicz, J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    The anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge leads to production of a biogas mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. The technology of anaerobic digestion has been applied in various configurations and generally claims greater biogas production and additional stability to the process as compared to conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion. However, biogas production is only one of many components of anaerobic digester energy balance. This paper presented energy balances for various digestion systems, including single mesophilic digestion; single thermophilic digestion; two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion; and systems at elevated solids content in sludge. Energy balance included two components, namely energy demand and recoverable energy. Energy demand is defined as energy required for process operation such as heat requirement to elevate sludge temperature, and heat losses through digesters walls. Recoverable energy is defined as energy associated with methane content in biogas, that can be recovered either in the form of heat or electricity, and heat recovered through heat exchangers. The paper identified the assumptions used in all energy balance calculations. It presented the objectives and methods of the study as well as the results. It was concluded that two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic digestion system generate more available energy than single mesophilic digestion and single thermophilic digestion systems. Sludge thickening offers the greatest amount of available energy. However, that energy surplus is offset by the cost of thickening. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Compostaje de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de águas residuales Plant biosolids composting of wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres


    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a compostagem dos biossólidos gerados na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos - ETE, de Cañaveralejo, da cidade de Cali - Colômbia. Ainda que o processo se mostrasse viável, a incorporação de materiais de suporte e emenda foi favorável ao mesmo e à qualidade do produto final ao melhorar as condições de manejo, estrutura e porosidade do biossólido (B, além de melhorar as relações carbono/nitrogênio. Dos materiais avaliados, os que apresentaram melhor desempenho como materiais de suporte (MS e Emenda (ME, foram os resíduos de poda e a cachaça, respectivamente; a relação ótima B:MS:ME, em percentagem, foi 72:10:18. Do ponto de vista da gestão dos resíduos e considerando o crescente incremento no número de ETEs municipais, este estudo mostrou que o composto produzido a partir de biossólidos pode ser considerado um material com potencial agrícola; adicionalmente, nos casos em que a única opção é a disposição final, o processo permitiu reduzir o volume a ser disposto até em 70%.It was evaluated the bio solid composting in Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant in Cali - Colombia. Although the process was viable, the bulking agent (BA incorporation improved the final product C/N relation. Municipal yard trimmings and sugar cane waste were the best bulking agent and amendment material, respectively. The B:BA:AM optimal relation, on percent, was 72:10:18. In terms of waste management and considering the increasing on the municipal wastewater treatment plants number, this study showed that the bio solid compost could be considered as a material with agricultural potential use; additionally when the option is just the bio solid final disposition, the composting process can reduce its disposal volume at 70%.

  2. Biosolids energy appraisement. The case of Guadalhorce WWTP (Malaga, Spain); Valoracion energetica de biosolidos. Aplicacion a un caso particular: EDAR Guadlahorce (Malaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, M. C.; Larrubia, M. A.; Herrera, M. C.; Guerrero-Perez, M. O.; Malpartida, I.; Alemany, L. J.


    The increase sustained in the sewage sludge production coming from purification of wastewaters represents a considerable problem in what refers to the location and disposal of this product. Sludge like most organic wastes is abundant in volatile matter and therefore could be a valuable resource (chemical-added-value), which can be converted into useful products if it is subjected to the environmentally-friendly treatments. As an alternative to waste disposal their use like second use way justifies studies that analyzed the viability of reassessment of these materials. It is evident that to evaluate some of the alternatives it become necessary a characterization of these products since their origin and composition conditions its application. (Author) (38 refs)

  3. Improving continuous monitoring OF VOC’s emissions from alternative fertilizers (United States)

    Application of alternative fertilizers, such as biosolids, to agricultural fields is an environmentally-beneficial practice. Concerns regarding nuisance odors caused by specific volatile organic compounds (VOC) have lead to public opposition and may ultimately lead to lack of acceptance of biosolids...

  4. The evaluation of environmental risks due to leachates generated in stocks of biosolids in the fields; Evaluacion del riesgo medioambiental por los lixiviados generados en acopios de biosolidos a pie de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes Carretero, J. A.; Sana Vilaseca, J.; Jurado Candaliga, J. L.


    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the environmental risk arising from the practice of storing sludge from sewage treatment plants for agricultural use in the fields. The different types of sludge studied were placed in appropriate receptacles and watered so as to simulate different rainfall patterns. The volumes of leachates produced were measured and their composition analysed. The results show that the volume of leachates is directly related to the torrential nature of the rainfall and influence by the temperature pattern, COD, and salinity. Total P and N are the only parameters with a significant concentration in the leachates. Even in the most favourable conditions for the generation of leachates, the amounts of N, P and heavy metals that are washed out do not appear to be of concern. Extrapolating the results, it can be stated that storing quantities of sludge required to fertilize one hectare of cereal crops typically grown in this country represents, in the worst of cases, the washing out of 6.7 kg of N. (Author)

  5. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  6. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp. (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  7. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost (United States)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  8. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, D.P. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Healy, M.G. [Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Grant, J. [Teagasc, Ashtown, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Wall, D. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Morrison, L. [Earth and Ocean Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fenton, O., E-mail: [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland)


    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L{sup −1}, respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  9. Fertilizers for Daphnia sp. (Crustacea, Cladocera) production in experimental tanks


    Cunha, Patrícia de Souza Lima; Lanna,Eduardo Arruda Teixeira; Bastos,Rafael Kopschitz Xavier; Quadros,Moisés; Rezende,Fabrício Pereira; Freitas,Leandro Monteiro de


    The current study was aimed at investigating the use of different fertilizers - dicalcium phosphate, biosolid and quail feces - as a strategy for water fertilization in Daphnia sp production. It was used twenty-four 100-L tanks of asbestos cement distributed in a completely randomized split-plot design with six replicates, with plots in the three kinds of fertilizers (biosolid, dicalcium phosphate, and quail feces) and a control without fertilization (WF) and subplots at the times of assessme...

  10. Hybrid poplar and forest soil response to municipal and industrial by-products: a greenhouse study. (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Gilmore, Daniel W; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J; Halbach, Thomas R


    Little research has been conducted in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to evaluate the effects of municipal and industrial by-product applications on the early growth of short rotation woody crops such as hybrid poplar. Anticipated shortages of harvestable-age aspen in the next decade can be alleviated and rural development can be enhanced through the application of by-products to forest soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inorganic fertilizer, boiler ash, biosolids, and the co-application of ash and biosolids application on tree growth and soil properties by measuring hybrid poplar clone NM-6 (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry) yield, nutrient uptake, and select post-harvest soil properties after 15 wk of greenhouse growth. Treatments included a control of no amendment; agricultural lime; inorganic N, P, and K; three types of boiler ash; biosolids application rates equivalent to 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg available N ha(-1); and boiler ash co-applied with biosolids. All of the by-products treatments showed biomass production that was equal to or greater than inorganic fertilizer and lime treatments. A trend of increased biomass with increasing rates of biosolids was observed. Soil P concentration increased with increasing rates of biosolids application. None of the by-products treatments resulted in plant tissue metal concentrations greater than metal concentrations of plant tissue amended with inorganic amendments. Biosolids, boiler ash, and the co-application of biosolids and boiler ash together on forest soils were as beneficial to plant growth as inorganic fertilizers.

  11. Bio solids: direct application in Madrid's Region; Biosolidos: aplicacion directa en la Comunidad de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llogostera Pujol, R.; Monferrer Areite, J.; Garcia Delgado, I.


    A short review of biosolids direct application on agriculture and its practical experience in Madrid area is realized. The importance of doing correctly direct application, the possibilities of biosolids application in this area and the difficulty to do stores on land when meteorological and agronomic factors are adverse, is emphasized. Direct application data, production and destinations from years 2005 and 2006 are shown. Finally some recommendations to get successfully are explained. (Author)

  12. SAPHYR: A new chemical stabilisation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratto, Gilles; Fernandes, Paulo; Patria; Lucie; Cretenot, Didier


    Odour control and dewaterability are the key criteria during biosolids storage either for use on land or incineration. In the case of use on land, stabilisation/sanitisation are also part of the key criteria. Vivendi Water Systems developed the SAPHYR process to answer those three requirements. The SAPHYR process principle is based on an acidification of biosolids associated to the addition of nitrite. The main results are a noticeable odour control lasting other periods of 6 to 9 months, an improved dewaterability (2 to 4 points of dryness) and depending on chemical dosages a stabilisation or a sanitisation of biosolids. Another characteristic is that biosolids conditioned with the Saphyr process can be used both on land or for incineration. After several demonstrations on more than 5 different plants throughout France on a 10 000 p.e. unit, the first industrial reference of the process was installed on a 50 000 population equivalent wastewater treatment plant in 2002 and has been in operation since december 2002. A close monitoring of the process operation, the biosolids quality and its storage and spreading on land is planned from November 2002 to spring 2003. A comparison with lime addition will take place on the same plant. The present paper will produce a presentation of the SAPHYR process, its operation on a 50 000 pe WWTP and its different applications for biosolids storage.

  13. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA) (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.


    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  14. Steam-explosion pretreatment for enhancing anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge. (United States)

    Dereix, Marcela; Parker, Wayne; Kennedy, Kevin


    This study evaluated the use of steam explosion as a pretreatment for municipal wastewater treatment sludges and biosolids as a technique for enhancing biogas generation during anaerobic digestion. Samples of dewatered anaerobic digester effluent (biosolids) and a mixture of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and biosolids were steam-exploded under differing levels of intensity in this study. The results indicate that steam explosion can solublize components of these sludge streams. Increasing the intensity of the steam-explosion pressure and temperature resulted in increased solublization. The steam-explosion pretreatment also increased the bioavailability of sludge components under anaerobic digestion conditions. Increasing the steam-explosion intensity increased the ultimate yield of methane during anaerobic digestion. Batch anaerobic digestion tests suggested that pretreatment at 300 psi was the most optimal condition for enhanced biogas generation while minimizing energy input. Semicontinuous anaerobic digestion revealed that the results that were observed in the batch tests were sustainable in prolonged operation. Semicontinuous digestion of the TWAS/biosolids mixture that was pretreated at 300 psi generated approximately 50% more biogas than the controls. Semicontinuous digestion of the pretreated biosolids resulted in a 3-fold increase in biogas compared with the controls. Based on capillary suction test results, steam-explosion pretreatment at 300 psi improved the dewaterability of the final digested sludge by 32 and 45% for the TWAS/ biosolids mixture and biosolids, respectively, compared with controls. The energy requirements of the nonoptimized steam-explosion process were substantially higher than the additional energy produced from enhanced digestion of the pretreated sludge. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency will be required to make the process viable from an energy perspective.

  15. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florido, Maria del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madrid, Luis, E-mail: madrid@irnase.csic.e [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)


    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance. - Research highlights: Metal bio-accessibility in urban soils is significant for quality of life of citizens. Some metal-rich amendments can alter metal availability in urban soils. Metal contents of amendments in recreational areas must then be kept to a minimum. A case study of a composted biosolid used in urban green areas of Sevilla is given. - Metal-containing amendments can deteriorate the environmental quality of soils of urban recreational areas.

  16. Evaluation of pathogen removal in a solar sludge drying facility using microbial indicators. (United States)

    Shanahan, Emily F; Roiko, Anne; Tindale, Neil W; Thomas, Michael P; Walpole, Ronald; Kurtböke, D Ipek


    South East Queensland is one of the fastest growing regions in Australia with a correspondingly rapid increase in sewage production. In response, local councils are investing in more effective and sustainable options for the treatment and reuse of domestic and industrial effluents. A novel, evaporative solar dryer system has been installed on the Sunshine Coast to convert sewage sludge into a drier, usable form of biosolids through solar radiation exposure resulting in decreased moisture concentration and pathogen reduction. Solar-dried biosolids were analyzed for selected pathogenic microbial, metal and organic contaminants at the end of different drying cycles in a collaborative study conducted with the Regional Council. Although fecal coliforms were found to be present, enteroviruses, parasites, E. coli, and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the final product. However, elevated levels of zinc and copper were still present which restricted public use of the biosolids. Dilution of the dried biosolids with green waste as well as composting of the biosolids is likely to lead to the production of an environmentally safe, Class A end-product.

  17. Evaluation of Pathogen Removal in a Solar Sludge Drying Facility Using Microbial Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. İpek Kurtböke


    Full Text Available South East Queensland is one of the fastest growing regions in Australia with a correspondingly rapid increase in sewage production. In response, local councils are investing in more effective and sustainable options for the treatment and reuse of domestic and industrial effluents. A novel, evaporative solar dryer system has been installed on the Sunshine Coast to convert sewage sludge into a drier, usable form of biosolids through solar radiation exposure resulting in decreased moisture concentration and pathogen reduction. Solar-dried biosolids were analyzed for selected pathogenic microbial, metal and organic contaminants at the end of different drying cycles in a collaborative study conducted with the Regional Council. Although fecal coliforms were found to be present, enteroviruses, parasites, E. coli, and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the final product. However, elevated levels of zinc and copper were still present which restricted public use of the biosolids. Dilution of the dried biosolids with green waste as well as composting of the biosolids is likely to lead to the production of an environmentally safe, Class A end-product.

  18. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco. (United States)

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Dendooven, L


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil restoration. Soil of Texcoco and an agricultural Acolman soil, which served as a control, were spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, added with or without biosolid or inorganic fertilizer (N, P), and dynamics of PAHs, N and P were monitored in a 112-day incubation. Concentrations of phenanthrene did not change significantly in sterilized Acolman soil, but decreased 2-times in unsterilized soil and >25-times in soil amended with biosolid and NP. The concentration of phenanthrene in unsterilized soil of Texcoco was 1.3-times lower compared to the sterilized soil, 1.7-times in soil amended with NP and 2.9-times in soil amended with biosolid. In unsterilized Acolman soil, degradation of BaP was faster in soil amended with biosolid than in unamended soil and soil amended with NP. In unsterilized soil of Texcoco, degradation of BaP was similar in soil amended with biosolid and NP but faster than in the unamended soil. It was found that application of biosolid and NP increased degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, but to a different degree in alkaline-saline soil of Texcoco compared to an agricultural Acolman soil.

  19. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah


    The effective recycling of nutrients in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) domestic (e.g. source separated food waste), agricultural, and commercial and industrial (C&I) biowastes (e.g. food industry wastes, papermill sludge) for use on land, generally following treatment (e.g. composting, anaerobic digestion or thermal conversion technologies) as alternatives to conventional mineral fertilisers in Australia can have economic benefits, ensure food security, and close the nutrient loop. In excess of 75% of Australian agricultural soils have less than 1% organic matter (OM), and, with 40 million tonnes of solid waste per year potentially available as a source of OM, biowastes also build soil carbon (C) stocks that improve soil structure, fertility and productivity, and enhance soil ecosystem services. In recent years, the increasing cost of conventional mineral fertilisers, combined with changing weather patterns have placed additional pressure on regional and rural communities. Nitrogen (N) is generally the most limiting nutrient to crop production, and the high-energy required and GHGs associated with its manufacture mean that, additionally, it is critical to use N efficiently and recycle N resources where possible. Biosolids and biowastes have highly variable organic matter (OM) and nutrient contents, with N often present in a variety of forms only some of which are plant-available. The N value is further influenced by treatment process, storage and fundamental soil processes. The correct management of N in biowastes is essential to reduce environmental losses through leaching or runoff and negative impacts on drinking water sources and aquatic ecosystems. Gaseous N emissions also impact upon atmospheric quality and climate change. Despite the body of work to investigate N supply from biosolids, recent findings indicate that historic and current management of agricultural applications of N from biosolids and biowastes in Australia may still be inefficient leading

  20. Synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) model compounds for filtration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Mogens; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Scales, Peter


    these biosolid/organic systems and thereby make a basis for further theoretical development with respect to filtration.   Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels are synthesized by free-radical surfactant free emulsion polymerization as an organic model system for biosolids. The model system...... concentrations of acrylic acid as co-monomer. The microgels have a charge density between 0.2 and 0.9 mmol/g.   Preliminary filtration experiments show that filtration properties of the microgel model system significantly differs from the properties for inorganic colloidals such as titaniumdioxid....

  1. 77 FR 6560 - Notice of a Project Waiver of the Buy American Requirement of the American Recovery and... (United States)


    ... mixers for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant (BMP) Digester Improvement and Sustainability Project. The required vertical linear motion mixers are... Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and recommendations of the...


    What is the current state of management practices for biosolids production and application, and how can those be made more effective? How effective are Class B disinfection and vector attraction processes, and public access and harvesting restrictions at reducing the public's exp...

  3. Comparing HPLC-ESI-ITMS and UPLC-ESI-OA-TOF-MS in Characterizing Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs in Complex Environmental Matrices (United States)

    Among the challenges of characterizing emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices (e.g., biosolids, sewage, or wastewater) are the co-eluting interferences. For example, surfactants, fats, and humic acids, can be preferentially ionized instead of the analyte(s) of in...

  4. 78 FR 2354 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Prevention of... (United States)


    ... manure management processes; CO 2 from fermentation during ethanol production or other industrial fermentation processes; CO 2 from combustion of the biological fraction of municipal solid waste or biosolids... combustion of biological material, including all types of wood and wood waste, forest residue,...

  5. The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prado


    Full Text Available The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV, rotavirus species A (RVA, norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII and the hepatitis A virus (HAV from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in Brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. Tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage PP7 was used as an internal control. The results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the PCR reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly AdV from biosolid samples. All of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: AdV (90%, RVA, NoV GII (45% and HAV (18%, indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. This is the first study in Brazil to detect the presence of RVA, AdV, NoV GII and HAV in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management.

  6. Evaluating standard operating procedures to mitigate off-flavor from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cultured in a semi-commercial scale recirculating aquaculture system (United States)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire “earthy” or “musty” off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  7. Optimizing depuration of salmon in RAS (United States)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire "earthy" or "musty" off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  8. Evaluation of depuration procedures to mitigate the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market-size in recirculating aquaculture systems (United States)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire “earthy” or “musty” off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  9. Development of an Analytical Method to Extract and Detect Pharmaceuticals in Plant Matrices (United States)

    It has been shown that human-use macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clindamycin, and roxithromycin) are environmentally available in wastewaters, source waters, and biosolids. Since some water authorities use the treated wastewater effluent for non-potable water reuse such as f...

  10. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal. (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke


    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  11. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Colorado Supplement (United States)


    drying tunnel, tumbling basket(s), or other effective method(s) is used to prevent cleaned parts from carrying out solvent liquid or vapor...the dryer exceeds 80 deg C. - Heat treatment--Liquid biosolids are heated to a temperature of 180 deg C or higher for 30 min. - Thermophilic aerobic

  12. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal Contaminated Mine Soils (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contami...

  13. Probabilistic application of a fugacity model to predict triclosan fate during wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Bock, Michael; Lyndall, Jennifer; Barber, Timothy; Fuchsman, Phyllis; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie


    The fate and partitioning of the antimicrobial compound, triclosan, in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is evaluated using a probabilistic fugacity model to predict the range of triclosan concentrations in effluent and secondary biosolids. The WWTP model predicts 84% to 92% triclosan removal, which is within the range of measured removal efficiencies (typically 70% to 98%). Triclosan is predominantly removed by sorption and subsequent settling of organic particulates during primary treatment and by aerobic biodegradation during secondary treatment. Median modeled removal efficiency due to sorption is 40% for all treatment phases and 31% in the primary treatment phase. Median modeled removal efficiency due to biodegradation is 48% for all treatment phases and 44% in the secondary treatment phase. Important factors contributing to variation in predicted triclosan concentrations in effluent and biosolids include influent concentrations, solids concentrations in settling tanks, and factors related to solids retention time. Measured triclosan concentrations in biosolids and non-United States (US) effluent are consistent with model predictions. However, median concentrations in US effluent are over-predicted with this model, suggesting that differences in some aspect of treatment practices not incorporated in the model (e.g., disinfection methods) may affect triclosan removal from effluent. Model applications include predicting changes in environmental loadings associated with new triclosan applications and supporting risk analyses for biosolids-amended land and effluent receiving waters.

  14. Erratum: Probabilistic application of a fugacity model to predict triclosan fate during wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Bock, Michael; Lyndall, Jennifer; Barber, Timothy; Fuchsman, Phyllis; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie


    The fate and partitioning of the antimicrobial compound, triclosan, in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is evaluated using a probabilistic fugacity model to predict the range of triclosan concentrations in effluent and secondary biosolids. The WWTP model predicts 84% to 92% triclosan removal, which is within the range of measured removal efficiencies (typically 70% to 98%). Triclosan is predominantly removed by sorption and subsequent settling of organic particulates during primary treatment and by aerobic biodegradation during secondary treatment. Median modeled removal efficiency due to sorption is 40% for all treatment phases and 31% in the primary treatment phase. Median modeled removal efficiency due to biodegradation is 48% for all treatment phases and 44% in the secondary treatment phase. Important factors contributing to variation in predicted triclosan concentrations in effluent and biosolids include influent concentrations, solids concentrations in settling tanks, and factors related to solids retention time. Measured triclosan concentrations in biosolids and non-United States (US) effluent are consistent with model predictions. However, median concentrations in US effluent are over-predicted with this model, suggesting that differences in some aspect of treatment practices not incorporated in the model (e.g., disinfection methods) may affect triclosan removal from effluent. Model applications include predicting changes in environmental loadings associated with new triclosan applications and supporting risk analyses for biosolids-amended land and effluent receiving waters.

  15. The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Guilayn, Wilma de Carvalho Pereira Bonet; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira


    The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods) used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV), rotavirus species A (RVA), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in Brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. Tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage PP7 was used as an internal control. The results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the PCR reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly AdV from biosolid samples. All of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: AdV (90%), RVA, NoV GII (45%) and HAV (18%), indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. This is the first study in Brazil to detect the presence of RVA, AdV, NoV GII and HAV in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management. PMID:23440119

  16. Metal Availability following Paper Mill and Alkaline Residuals Application to Field Crops. (United States)

    Gagnon, Bernard; Ziadi, Noura; Robichaud, Annie; Karam, Antoine


    Land application of residuals from the forest industry can help to restore soil fertility, but few studies have assessed the effects of metal accumulation in plants. An experimental study was initiated in 2000 on a loamy soil at Yamachiche, QC, Canada, to evaluate the effects of repeated annual applications of combined paper mill biosolids, when applied alone or with several liming by-products. This study assessed the accumulation of Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cd in plants and soil after 6 (soybean [ (L.) Merr.]) and 9 [corn ( L.)] crop yr. Wet paper mill biosolids at 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg ha were surface applied after seeding. Calcitic lime, lime mud, and wood ash were applied wet each at 3 Mg ha with 30 Mg wet paper mill biosolids ha. Repeated applications of paper mill biosolids increased plant and soil metal concentrations after 6 and 9 yr in the order of Cd > Mo (soybean) > Zn > Cu. Liming increased soil pH and Mo availability and decreased Zn and Cd availability. Metals in crop stover responded more positively to applications than those in grains, but the concentrations in plant tissues were generally well below critical values. The Cu/Mo ratio of soybean plants at pH > 6.8 fell below 2:1, however, and may pose a risk for inducing Cu metabolism disorder in ruminants. Results of this study indicate that paper mill biosolids and alkaline residuals, when applied with respect to regulations and soil pH, have a limited effect on metal accumulation in plants and soil.

  17. The many facets of mine reclamation: proceedings of the twenty-ninth annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Hart, B.; Dixon, B.; Jarman, P.; Riordan, B.; Freberg, M.; Howell, C. (eds.)


    The proceedings contain 22 technical papers on reclamation at coal and metal mines and mineral exploration sites. Papers are included on surface erosion protection, sediment management and control, impacts of municipal biosolids, biosolids as cover, residuals reuse, coal waste as a growth medium, copper loading and stream flow, reclamation in the Arctic, reclamation sites in Sweden, damage to fisheries, closure of a gold mine, rate of drying at surface waste rock pile after heavy rainfall, environmental impacts for surface coal mine reclamation, arsenic, cadmium and zinc treatment in an anaerobic bioreactor, soil-based cover systems to mitigate acid rock drainage, remote sensing to monitor aquatic vegetation in ponds, selenium impact in Elk River Valley, and selenium monitoring and management. Four papers have been abstracted for the Coal Abstracts database.

  18. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell


    Full Text Available This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 million kWh annually in the United States. In Texas, anaerobic digestion could save 40.2 to 460 million kWh annually and biosolids incineration could save 51.9 to 1,030 million kWh annually.

  19. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada); Lapen, David R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa ON, Canada K1A 0C6 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada N5V 4T3 (Canada)


    Diclofenac, 2-[2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]phenyl]acetic acid, is an important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used for human and animals to reduce inflammation and pain. Diclofenac could potentially reach agricultural lands through the application of municipal biosolids or wastewater, and in the absence of any environmental fate data, we evaluated its persistence in agricultural soils incubated in the laboratory. {sup 14}C-Diclofenac was rapidly mineralized without a lag when added to soils varying widely in texture (sandy loam, loam, clay loam). Over a range of temperature and moisture conditions extractable {sup 14}C-diclofenac residues decreased with half lives < 5 days. No extractable transformation products were detectable by HPLC. Diclofenac mineralization in the loam soil was abolished by heat sterilization. Addition of biosolids to sterile or non-sterile soil did not accelerate the dissipation of diclofenac. These findings indicate that diclofenac is readily biodegradable in agricultural soils.

  20. Computational Biomechanics Theoretical Background and BiologicalBiomedical Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Masao; Nakamura, Masanori


    Rapid developments have taken place in biological/biomedical measurement and imaging technologies as well as in computer analysis and information technologies. The increase in data obtained with such technologies invites the reader into a virtual world that represents realistic biological tissue or organ structures in digital form and allows for simulation and what is called “in silico medicine.” This volume is the third in a textbook series and covers both the basics of continuum mechanics of biosolids and biofluids and the theoretical core of computational methods for continuum mechanics analyses. Several biomechanics problems are provided for better understanding of computational modeling and analysis. Topics include the mechanics of solid and fluid bodies, fundamental characteristics of biosolids and biofluids, computational methods in biomechanics analysis/simulation, practical problems in orthopedic biomechanics, dental biomechanics, ophthalmic biomechanics, cardiovascular biomechanics, hemodynamics...

  1. N Mineralisation from Bioresources Incubated at 12.5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Ives


    Full Text Available Soils treated with lime-amended biosolids (LAB, poppy seed waste (PSW, anaerobically digested biosolids (ADB and poppy mulch (PM and incubated at 12.5°C for 56 days released 45%, 36%, 25%, and −8%, respectively, of total applied N as plant available nitrogen (PAN by the end of the incubation. The mineralisation rates were contrary to expectations based on the C : N ratios of the four products: LAB (5 : 1, PSW (7 : 1, ADB (3 : 1, and PM (16 : 1. PM showed a significant negative priming effect over the incubation period. These results have implications for production agriculture in temperate regions where application and incorporation of bio-resources traditionally occurs in autumn and spring when soil and air temperatures are relatively low. Current application times may not be suitable for nitrogen release to satisfy crop demand.

  2. Effect of temperature and organic nutrients on the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) during the composting of anaerobically digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Sanz, E; Prats, D; Rodríguez, M; Camacho, A


    Limits on the application of biosolids (anaerobically processed sludges from wastewater treatment plants) as fertilizers for the amendment of soil are becoming greater because of the accumulation of recalcitrant substances, making necessary the use of techniques that bring the concentration of xenobiotics to lower concentrations than those permitted. In general, the biosolids composting process is sufficient to reduce the usual concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to low levels. In this work, an assessment is made on the effect of temperature in the capacity of enriched bacterial populations to biodegrade LAS, together with the influence that the available nutrients may have in the biodegradation of these compounds. The results show that the microbial metabolism of LAS was not observed in the thermophilic range. The optimum temperature for the biodegradation of LAS appears to be around 40 degrees C, this is, the lowest assayed here, and at this temperature the differences in the biodegradation of LAS among the nutritionally supplemented cultures are small.

  3. Persistence and dissipation pathways of the antidepressant sertraline in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongxia; Sumarah, Mark W.; Topp, Edward, E-mail:


    Sertraline is a widely-used antidepressant that is one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It has been detected in biosolids and effluents from sewage treatment plants. Since sertraline can reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water, the persistence and dissipation pathways of {sup 3}H-sertraline were determined in laboratory incubations using three agriculture soils varying in textures and properties. The total solvent extractable radioactivity decreased in all three soils with times to dissipate 50% of material (DT{sub 50}) ranging from 48.1 ± 3.5 (loam soil) to 84.5 ± 13.8 (clay soil) days. Two hydroxylated sertraline transformation products were identified in all three soils by high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–TOF-MS), but the accumulation did not exceed 10% of the initial parent concentration. The addition of liquid municipal biosolids to the loam soil had no effect on the rate of sertraline dissipation, or production of transformation products. In summary, sertraline was persistent in agricultural soils with major dissipation pathways including the production of non-extractable soil-bound residues, and accumulation of hydroxylated transformation products. The biologically active sertraline transformation product norsertraline was not detected in soil. - Highlights: • The antidepressant drug sertraline is carried in biosolids used as fertilizers. • The persistence of this drug in agricultural soils was determined using radioisotope methods. • The half-life ranged from about 50 to 85 days. • Hydroxylated transformation products accumulated to less than 10% of the concentration of the added parent.

  4. Repeated annual paper mill and alkaline residuals application affects soil metal fractions. (United States)

    Gagnon, Bernard; Robichaud, Annie; Ziadi, Noura; Karam, Antoine


    The application of industrial residuals in agriculture may raise concerns about soil and crop metal accumulation. A complete study using a fractionation scheme would reveal build-up in metal pools occurring after material addition and predict the transformation of metals in soil between the different forms and potential metal release into the environment. An experimental study was conducted from 2000 to 2008 on a loamy soil at Yamachiche, Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the effects of repeated annual addition of combined paper mill biosolids when applied alone or with several liming by-products on soil Cu, Zn, and Cd fractions. Wet paper mill biosolids at 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg ha and calcitic lime, lime mud, or wood ash, each at 3 Mg ha with 30 Mg paper mill biosolids ha, were surface applied after seeding. The soils were sampled after 6 (soybean [ (L.) Merr.]) and 9 [corn ( L.)] crop years and analyzed using the Tessier fractionation procedure. Results indicated that biosolids addition increased exchangeable Zn and Cd, carbonate-bound Cd, Fe-Mn oxide-bound Zn and Cd, organically bound Cu and Zn, and total Zn and Cd fractions but decreased Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cu in the uppermost 30-cm layer. With liming by-products, there was a shift from exchangeable to carbonate-bound forms. Even with very small metals addition, paper mill and liming materials increased the mobility of soil Zn and Cd after 9 yr of application, and this metal redistribution resulted into higher crop grain concentrations.

  5. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)


    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  6. Earthworm Preference Bioassays to Evaluate Land Management Practices. (United States)

    Bouldin, Jennifer L; Klasky, John W P; Green, V Steven


    Earthworm preference tests, especially in soil-dosed exposures, can be an informative tool for assessing land management practices. Agricultural management intended to increase crop yield and improve soil sustainability includes physical manipulation of topsoil through conventional tillage, reduced or no-tillage, and/or winter cover crops. Soil amendments include the addition of inorganic nitrogen or organic nitrogen derived from soil amendments including biosolids from sewage treatment plants, poultry litter, or locally available industrial effluent. This study used 48-h Eisenia fetida preference tests to assess impacts of agricultural management practices on soil macrofauna. Although in laboratory-dosed exposures, E. fetida preferred biosolid-dosed soils (80 %-95 % recovery) over control soils, the same results were not found with field soils receiving biosolid amendments (33 % recovery). Poultry litter-amended soils (68 % recovery) were preferred over control soils. No differences were measured between tilled fields and controls, and earthworms preferred control soils over those from fields with no-tillage and cover crops. Soil assessments through laboratory exposures such as these allows science-based agricultural management decisions to maintain or improve soil health.

  7. Persistence and dissipation pathways of the antidepressant sertraline in agricultural soils. (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Sumarah, Mark W; Topp, Edward


    Sertraline is a widely-used antidepressant that is one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It has been detected in biosolids and effluents from sewage treatment plants. Since sertraline can reach agriculture land through the application of municipal biosolids or reclaimed water, the persistence and dissipation pathways of (3)H-sertraline were determined in laboratory incubations using three agriculture soils varying in textures and properties. The total solvent extractable radioactivity decreased in all three soils with times to dissipate 50% of material (DT50) ranging from 48.1±3.5 (loam soil) to 84.5±13.8 (clay soil) days. Two hydroxylated sertraline transformation products were identified in all three soils by high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS), but the accumulation did not exceed 10% of the initial parent concentration. The addition of liquid municipal biosolids to the loam soil had no effect on the rate of sertraline dissipation, or production of transformation products. In summary, sertraline was persistent in agricultural soils with major dissipation pathways including the production of non-extractable soil-bound residues, and accumulation of hydroxylated transformation products. The biologically active sertraline transformation product norsertraline was not detected in soil.

  8. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sally, E-mail: [School of Forest and Environmental Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)


    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO{sub 2} per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals.

  9. Seasonal Microbial Population Shifts in a Bioremediation System Treating Metal and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Baldwin


    Full Text Available Biochemical reactors (BCRs using complex organics for bioremediation of mine-influenced water must operate successfully year round. In cold climates, where many mines in Canada are located, survival of the important microorganisms through the winter months is a concern. In this work, broad phylogenetic surveys, using metagenomics, of the microbial populations in pulp mill biosolids used to remediate metal leachate containing As, Zn, Cd and sulfate were performed to see if the types of microorganisms present changed over the seasons of one year (August 2008 to July 2009. Despite temperature variations between 0 and 17 °C the overall structure of the microbial population was fairly consistent. A cyclical pattern in relative abundance was detected in certain taxa. These included fermenter-related groups, which were out of phase with other taxa such as Desulfobulbus that represented potential consumers of fermentation byproducts. Sulfate-reducers in the BCR biosolids were closely related to psychrotolerant species. Temperature was not a factor that shaped the microbial population structure within the BCR biosolids. Kinetics of organic matter degradation by these microbes and the rate of supply of organic carbon to sulfate-reducers would likely affect the metal removal rates at different temperatures.

  10. Soil and Waste Matrix Affects Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria Filtration during Unsaturated Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Unc


    Full Text Available Discontinuous flows resulting from discrete natural rain events induce temporal and spatial variability in the transport of bacteria from organic waste through soils in which the degree of saturation varies. Transport and continuity of associated pathways are dependent on structure and stability of the soil under conditions of variable moisture and ionic strength of the soil solution. Lysimeters containing undisturbed monoliths of clay, clay loam or sandy loam soils were used to investigate transport and pathway continuity for bacteria and hydrophobic fluorescent microspheres. Biosolids, to which the microspheres were added, were surface applied and followed by serial irrigation events. Microspheres, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens were enumerated in drainage collected from 64 distinct collection areas through funnels installed in a grid pattern at the lower boundary of the monoliths. Bacteria-dependent filtration coefficients along pathways of increasing water flux were independent of flow volume, suggesting: (1 tracer or colloid dependent retention; and (2 transport depended on the total volume of contiguous pores accessible for bacteria transport. Management decisions, in this case resulting from the form of organic waste, induced changes in tortuosity and continuity of pores and modified the effective capacity of soil to retain bacteria. Surface application of liquid municipal biosolids had a negative impact on transport pathway continuity, relative to the solid municipal biosolids, enhancing retention under less favourable electrostatic conditions consistent with an initial increase in straining within inactive pores and subsequent by limited re-suspension from reactivated pores.

  11. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake. (United States)

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability.

  12. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian


    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  13. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby


    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  14. Solid-liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana: implications for nutrient recycling in urban agriculture. (United States)

    Cofie, O O; Agbottah, S; Strauss, M; Esseku, H; Montangero, A; Awuah, E; Kone, D


    This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture. Sludge influent onto drying beds, percolate effluent, and dewatered sludge (biosolids) were monitored over eight loading cycles in 2002. The unplanted drying beds were made of 15 cm of sand (0.2-0.6mm diameter) and 25 cm gravel (10 and 19 mm diameter). The loading rate of sludge ranged from 196 to 321 kg total solids (TS) /m(2)y. Biosolids with TS 20% were obtained after an average drying time of 2 weeks. The drying beds retained 80% of solids and 100% of helminth eggs. The biosolids had average organic matter content of 61%; hence, allowing for co-composting with biodegradable organic solid waste for hygienisation. The process is being investigated further to attain higher efficiency and reliability.

  15. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education


    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  16. Propriedades químicas do solo e nutrição do eucalipto em função da aplicação de lodo de esgoto Soil chemical properties and eucalypt nutrition as a function of sewage sludge addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Carneiro Guedes


    Full Text Available A aplicação do lodo de esgoto em plantações florestais é uma das alternativas para resolver o problema da disposição final desse resíduo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a aplicação de biossólido melhora a fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi montado em colunas de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro, com nove tratamentos (testemunha, adubação mineral, doses crescentes de biossólido variando de 10 a 160 t ha-1 e quatro repetições. O experimento foi realizado durante 12 meses após o plantio das mudas. O biossólido influenciou mais a acidez do que outros atributos químicos do solo. Os teores de N, P e S nas folhas correlacionaram-se com a CTC e com o teor de C orgânico do solo, tendo essas variáveis apresentado valores significativamente mais elevados nas doses de 80 e 160 t ha-1. Observou-se diminuição da matéria orgânica do solo nas doses de 10 a 40 t ha-1. O biossólido alcalino diminui a acidez do solo e melhora sua fertilidade, aumentando a disponibilidade da maioria dos nutrientes.Sewage sludge application in forest plantations is one of the alternatives to solve the problematic final disposal of this residue. This research aimed at evaluating whether biosolids application improves soil fertility and the nutritional status of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The trial was installed in 20 cm diameter PVC columns with nine treatments (control, mineral fertilizer and increasing biosolid rates from 10 to 160 t ha-1 in four replications. The experiment lasted 12 months after planting the seedlings. Biosolids had a greater influence on soil acidity than on the other soil chemical properties. N, P and S leaf concentrations were correlated with CEC and soil organic C content. These variables presented significantly higher values at doses of 80 and 160 t ha-1. It was observed that soil organic matter decreased at biosolid doses from 10 to 40 t ha-1. Alkaline biosolids reduced


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mozena Leandro


    Full Text Available

    Sewage sludge, when treated and considered proper to agronomic application, is called biosolid and can be used to recover degraded areas, as an organic material source for soil conditioning and plant nutrition. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of sewage sludge produced by the Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto (ETE, in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, enriched with 50% (v/v of CaO and growth bio-stimulator, for recovering a degraded area. The evaluated variables were soil covering and the Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão yield. Eight treatments, in randomized complete block design, were evaluated, with four replications. The treatments were: control; mineral fertilizer; 20 Mg ha-1 of biosolid; 20 Mg ha-1 of biosolid + bio-stimulator; 40 Mg ha-1 of biosolid; 40 Mg ha-1 of biosolid + bio-stimulator; 60 Mg ha-1 of biosolid; and 60 Mg ha-1 of biosolid + bio-stimulator. Soil covering and productivity indexes showed no significant differences, if we consider the mineral fertilizing treatments and those with increasing levels of biosolid residues, in the absence of bio-stimulator. All treatments with bio-stimulator showed negative effects over soil recovering and S. guianensis productivity. The research suggests that the biosolid residues produced by ETE present appropriate characteristics for recovering degraded soil, replacing mineral

  18. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets. (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R


    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay K. Sethi


    Breen Energy Solutions (BES) and Western Research Institute (WRI) tested biomass and coal slurries and other carbonaceous substances such as fuel oil/water emulsions as NO{sub x} reburn fuel in the combustion test facility (CTF). The overall goal of the project was to determine the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various biomass and coal reburn fuels, and to identify the optimum conditions for NO{sub x} control. Specific objectives were to inject biomass, biosolids, coal, biomass/coal, and biosolids/coal slurries into the upper furnace of CTF and determine the resulting NO{sub x} reductions and CO emissions, to identify optimum injection rates and injection locations for these reburn fuels, and to install a reaction zone stabilizer device in CTF and determine its effectiveness in reducing CO and further reducing NO{sub x}. Combustion tests achieved 40% to 60% NO{sub x} reductions with 10% to 20% reburn fuel heat input. The project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of slurries including pulverized coal and 75% pulverized coal/25% biosolids by weight, and the ability to utilize the gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel. This work also demonstrated that pulverized coal/water slurries can be successfully gasified and used as reburn fuels, and there is no need for use of micronized coal. Very good burnout of the pulverized coal slurry was demonstrated in this work. Similarly, the project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of oil/water emulsion and the ability to utilize the associated gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel.

  20. Long-term effects of different type and rates of organic amendments on reclamation of copper mine tailing in Central Chile. (United States)

    Arellano, Eduardo; Garreton, Bruna; Ginocchio, Rosanna


    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of a single application of organic amendments on a copper mine tailings. Seven years after seeding of a mix of herbaceous plant and planting of ten native trees, and the application of organic amendment, plant community and soil fertility was measured in replicated plots that received six different treatments of waste water treatment plant biosolids (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha), olive oil waste (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha) and pisco grapes waste (90 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha). A control treatment that received no organic amendment was also measured after seven years. Field measurements demonstrated that application of biosolids and pisco grapes waste, at both rates significantly improved vegetation coverage in comparison to the control treatment (80 and 100% vs control, 25%). The high rates of pisco waste had the highest vegetation diversity and survival in comparison to the other treatments. The high rate of olive oil waste had a negative effect on vegetation development in comparison to the control treatment. The application of organic amendment improved soil fertility in the long-term. All the treatments had a significant higher nitrogen concentration in comparison to the control treatment. The high rates of biosolids and pisco grape waste had a significantly effect of soil carbon concentration. Soil macro-aggregate in the high rate of pisco grape waste were also higher than the control, showing a positive relation between soil recover and vegetation development. We can conclude assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings is likely a technically effective solution for the valorisation of organic residues.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank J. Hartz


    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  2. Management practice effects on phosphorus losses in runoff in corn production systems. (United States)

    Bundy, L G; Andraski, T W; Powell, J M


    Phosphorus losses in runoff from cropland can contribute to nonpoint-source pollution of surface waters. Management practices in corn (Zea mays L.) production systems may influence P losses. Field experiments with treatments including differing soil test P levels, tillage and manure application combinations, and manure and biosolids application histories were used to assess these management practice effects on P losses. Runoff from simulated rainfall (76 mm h(-1)) was collected from 0.83-m2 areas for 1 h after rainfall initiation and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP), bioavailable P, total P (TP), and sediment. In no-till corn, both DRP concentration and load increased as Bray P1 soil test (STP) increased from 8 to 62 mg kg(-1). A 5-yr history of manure or biosolids application greatly increased STP and DRP concentrations in runoff. The 5-yr manure treatment had higher DRP concentration but lower DRP load than the 5-yr biosolids treatment, probably due to residue accumulation and lower runoff in the manure treatment. Studies of tillage and manure application effects on P losses showed that tillage to incorporate manure generally lowered runoff DRP concentration but increased TP concentration and loads due to increased sediment loss. Management practices have a major influence on P losses in runoff in corn production systems that may overshadow the effects of STP alone. Results from this work, showing that some practices may have opposite effects on DRP vs. TP losses, emphasize the need to design management recommendations to minimize losses of those P forms with the greatest pollution potential.

  3. Effects of organic amendments on the reduction and phytoavailability of chromate in mineral soil. (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Adriano, D C; Natesan, R; Koo, B J


    In this study, seven organic amendments (biosolid compost, farm yard manure, fish manure, horse manure, spent mushroom, pig manure, and poultry manure) were investigated for their effects on the reduction of hexavalent chromium [chromate, Cr(VI)] in a mineral soil (Manawatu sandy soil) low in organic matter content. Addition of organic amendments enhanced the rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the soil. At the same level of total organic carbon addition, there was a significant difference in the extent of Cr(VI) reduction among the soils treated with organic amendments. There was, however, a significant positive linear relationship between the extent of Cr(VI) reduction and the amount of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. The effect of biosolid compost on the uptake of Cr(VI) from the soil, treated with various levels of Cr(VI) (0-1200 mg Cr kg(-1) soil), was examined with mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. Increasing addition of Cr(VI) increased Cr concentration in plants, resulting in decreased plant growth (i.e., phytotoxicity). Addition of the biosolid compost was effective in reducing the phytotoxicity of Cr(VI). The redistribution of Cr(VI) in various soil components was evaluated by a sequential fractionation scheme. In the unamended soil, the concentration of Cr was higher in the organic-bound, oxide-bound, and residual fractions than in the soluble and exchangeable fractions. Addition of organic amendments also decreased the concentration of the soluble and exchangeable fractions but especially increased the organic-bound fraction in soil.

  4. Meta-analysis of mass balances examining chemical fate during wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U


    Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (phi), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)). Major challengesto mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only K(OW) or K(OC) as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (> 50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10 K(OW) value of greater than 5.2 (log10 K(OC) > 4.4). In contrast, hydrophobicity had no or only limited value for estimating, respectively, phi and the overall persistence of a chemical during conventional wastewater treatment.

  5. Physical characteristics of conditioned anaerobic digested sludge - A fractal,transient and dynamic rheological viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yili Wang; Emilie Dieude-Fauvel; Steven K Dentel


    The changes in the physical characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) biosolids,such as capillary suction time (CST),yield stress,average size and fractal dimensions,were investigated through a CST test,transient and dynamic rheological test and image analysis.The results showed that the optimum polymer dose range was observed when CST or its reciprocal value was employed as an indicator.There were good correlations between the yield stresses determined from both a controlled shear stress test and a strain amplitude sweep test.The yield stress and storage modulus (G') increased as the polymer dose increased in most cases.A frequency sweep test revealed that polymer conditioning could extend the frequency sweep ranges for their elastic behaviors over viscous behaviors as well as the gel-like structure in the linear viscoelastic range.These results implied that more deformation energy was stored in this rigid structure,and that elastic behavior became increasingly dominant with the addition of the polymer in most cases.In addition,both the average sizes and two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids presented a similar up-climax-down variation trend as the polymer doses increased,whereas the critical polymer doses at the highest average sizes or two-dimensional fractal dimensions,were different.Correlation analysis revealed that the conditioned ADS dewaterability was not correlated with the yield stresses,while the average sizes or the two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids could be taken as the indication parameters for ADS dewaterability.

  6. Pathogen reduction in septic tank sludge through vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Canché, L G; Cardoso Vigueros, L; Maldonado-Montiel, T; Martínez-Sanmiguel, M


    This study evaluated the potential of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. Three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5kgm(-2), were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. The experimental phase lasted 60days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. After 60days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (SEMARNAT-2002) (SEMARNAT, 2002). Thus, sludge treatment with earthworms generated Class A biosolids, useful for forest, agricultural, and soil improvement.

  7. Ultrasound technology effect on wastewater sludge treatment; Efecto de los ultrasonidos en el tratamiento de lodos de depuradora de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesas Diaz, J. A.


    The ultrasound technology has been used since long time ago in the medicine, food industry, cosmetics and cleaning systems; but during the last few years is when this technology has stated to be used in the wastewater and sludge treatment industry. The application of low frequency and high intensity ultrasound in the wastewater and sludge treatment has numerous benefits. The ultrasound technology improves the aerobic and anaerobic digestion process, increases the biogas production, improves the sludge dewatering, reduces the polymer consumption, reduces the final biosolids production, reduces or removes the bulking and foaming problems,and enhances nutrient removal (N, P). (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Reciclagem de lodo de esgoto em plantação de eucalipto: carbono e nitrogênio Sewage sludge recycling in eucalypt plantation: carbon and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Silva de Lira


    Full Text Available O objetivo geral do trabalho desenvolvido foi avaliar como o lodo de esgoto (biossólido altera os estoques de C e N em plantação de eucalipto. O estudo foi conduzido com aplicação de doses até 40 t ha-1 de biossólido, em base seca, para cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis. Os eucaliptos que receberam 10 t ha-1 de biossólido apresentaram igual desenvolvimento aos que receberam adubação mineral completa, produzindo, em média, 107,5 t ha-1 de biomassa acima do solo, 63% a mais do que a testemunha. Esses tratamentos apresentaram também maiores valores de conteúdo de C e N na biomassa. O biossólido tratado com cal, aplicado em superfície, apresentou baixas taxas de decomposição e não contribuiu para aumentar os estoques totais de C e N no solo. O efeito do resíduo sobre o desenvolvimento das árvores é mais importante para fornecer entradas de material orgânico no sistema do que sua própria aplicação.The general aim of this research was to evaluate as the sewage sludge (biosolids modify C and N stocks in eucalypt plantation. The study was installed with application rates up to 40 t h-1 of dry matter biosolids in Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The eucalypts that received 10 t h-1 of biosolids presented even development that it received full mineral fertilizer, producing, on average, 107,5 t ha-1 of aboveground biomass, 63% the more than control. Those treatments also presented larger values of C and N contents in the biomass. The biosolids treated with lime, applied in surface, showed low decomposition rates and it didn’t contribute to increase C and N soil total stocks. The effect of residue on the development of trees is more important to supply input of organic material in system than own application.

  9. A Decontamination Process to Remove Metals and Stabilise Montreal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mercier


    Full Text Available The Montreal Urban Community (MUC treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (tds/day during physicochemical wastewater treatment. The sludges are burned and contribute to the greenhouse effect by producing atmospheric CO2. Moreover, the sludge emanates a nauseating odour during its thermal stabilisation and retains unpleasant odours for the part (25% that is dried and granulated. To solve this particular problem, the treatment plant authorities are currently evaluating an acidic chemical leaching (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid process at a pH between 2 and 3, using an oxidizing agent such as ferric chloride or hydrogen peroxide (METIX-AC technology, patent pending; [20]. They could integrate it to a 70 tds/day granulated sludge production process. Verification of the application of METIX-AC technology was carried out in a pilot plant set up near the sludge production plant of the MUC. The tests showed that METIX-AC technology can be advantageously integrated to the process used at the MUC. The residual copper (274 ± 58 mg/kg and cadmium (5.6 ± 2.9 mg/kg concentrations in the treated sludge meet legislation standards. The results have also shown that odours have been significantly eliminated for the dewatered, decontaminated, and stabilized biosolids (> 97% compared to the non-decontaminated biosolids. A high rate of odour elimination also was obtained for the liquid leached biosolids (> 93%, compared to the untreated liquid biosolids. The fertilising value (N and P is well preserved by the METIX-AC process. Dissolved organic carbon measurements have showed that little organic matter is brought in solution during the treatment. In fact, the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon measured in the treated liquid phase is 966 ± 352 mg/l, whereas it is 1190 ± 325 mg/l in untreated sludge. The treated sludge was first conditioned with an organic polymer and a coagulant aid. It was successfully dewatered with

  10. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Past, Present, and Future. The papers selected for publication include advanced wastewater treatment and monitoring technologies, such as membrane bioreactors, electrochemical systems; denitrifying biofilters, and disinfection technologies. The Issue also contains articles related to best management practices of biosolids, the influence of organic matter on pathogen inactivation and nutrient removal. Collectively, the Special Issue presents an evolution of technologies, from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  11. Biotransformation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge by Two-Stage Integrated Processes -Lsb & Ssb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahangir Alam, A. H. Molla and A. Fakhru’l-Razi


    Full Text Available The study of biotransformation of domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWTP sludge was conducted in laboratory-scale by two-stage integrated process i.e. liquid state bioconversion (LSB and solid state bioconversion (SSB processes. The liquid wastewater sludge [4% w/w of total suspended solids (TSS] was treated by mixed filamentous fungi Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger, isolated, screened and mixed cultured in terms of their higher biodegradation potential to wastewater sludge. The biosolids was increased to about 10% w/w. Conversely, the soluble [i.e. Total dissolve solid (TDS] and insoluble substances (TSS in treated supernatant were decreased effectively in the LSB process. In the developed LSB process, 93.8 g kg-1of biosolids were enriched with fungal biomass protein and nutrients (NPK, and 98.8% of TSS, 98.2% of TDS, 97.3% of turbidity, 80.2% of soluble protein, 98.8% of reducing sugar and 92.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD in treated sludge supernatant were removed after 8 days of treatment. Specific resistance to filtration (1.39x1012 m/kg was decreased tremendously by the microbial treatment of DWTP sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The treated biosolids in DWTP sludge was considered as pretreated resource materials for composting and converted into compost by SSB process. The SSB process was evaluated for composting by monitoring the microbial growth and its subsequent roles in biodegradation in composting bin (CB. The process was conducted using two mixed fungal cultures, Trichoderma harzianum with Phanerochaete chrysosporium 2094 and (T/P and T. harzianum and Mucor hiemalis (T/M; and two bulking materials, sawdust (SD and rice straw (RS. The most encouraging results of microbial growth and subsequent solid state bioconversion were exhibited in the RS than the SD. Significant decrease of the C/N ratio and germination index (GI were attained as well as the higher value of glucosamine was exhibited in compost; which

  12. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis


    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  13. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: a field evaluation. (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H; Neuschütz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn


    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The microbiota soil has an important role as an indicator of the sustainability of agroecosystems, reflecting the environmental changes, particularly the antrophic actions. To evaluate the influence of different fertilizers in populations of Pseudomonas spp, in the common kale was conducted a field experiment with kale at the Agrobiology Embrapa National Center, in Seropédica, RJ, on a Argisol. The experimental design was random blocks in factorial 3 x 4, with treatments (home biosolid, cattle manure and urea fertilization, four dose levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg de N.ha-1 and four replicates. The amount of fertilizer applied was given according to the dosage of nitrogen.ha-1 desired. From the rhizosphere, at 15 and 30 days after transplanting the seedlings to the field, we selected strains showing fluorescence under UV light with a wavelength of 366 nm. For grouping the isolates were considered the main morphological characteristics. The majority being identified as Pseudomonas putida (54% and P. fluorescens (14%, by API 20NE System (bioMérieux, Analytab Products. The results obtained from the reactions of the API 20NE test kit showed a wide variation in the utilization of carbon compounds and enzymatic inter-and intraspecific. Some groups of isolates colonized preferentially the cabbage rhizosphere of plants fertilized with biosolids and different doses of fertilizers used. There were a smaller number of groups present in treatments with urea.

  15. Differential uptake, partitioning and transfer of Cd and Zn in the soil-pea plant-aphid system. (United States)

    Green, Iain D; Tibbett, Mark


    The biomagnification of trace metals during transfer from contaminated soil to higher trophic levels may potentially result in the exposure of predatory arthropods to toxic concentrations of these elements. This study examined the transfer of Cd and Zn in a soil-plant-arthropod system grown in series of field plots that had received two annual applications of municipal biosolids with elevated levels of Cd and Zn. Results showed that biosolids amendmentsignificantly increased the concentration of Cd in the soil and the shoots of pea plants and the concentration of Zn in the soil, pea roots, shoots, and pods. In addition, the ratio of Cd to Zn concentration showed that Zn was preferentially transferred compared to Cd through all parts of the system. As a consequence, Zn was biomagnified by the system whereas Cd was biominimized. Cd and Zn are considered to exhibit similar behaviors in biological systems. However, the Cd/Zn ratios demonstrated that in this system, Cd is much less labile in the root-shoot-pod and shoot-aphid pathways than Zn.

  16. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes (United States)

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effect of Lignite Fly Ash on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarojini


    Full Text Available Fly ash is an amorphous ferroalumino silicate, an important solid waste around thermal power plants. It creates problems leading to environmental degradation due to improper utilization or disposal. However, fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients when it is used with biosolids. Supply of nutrients from fly ash with biosolids may enhance their agricultural use. The growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida was studied during vermicomposting of fly ash with cowdung and pressmud in four different proportions (T1,T2,T3 & T4 and one control i.e., cow dung and pressmud alone. The growth, cocoon and hatchlings production were observed at the interval of 15 days over a period of 60 days. The maximum worm growth and reproduction was observed in bedding material alone. Next to that the T1 was observed as the best mixture for vermiculture.

  18. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus). (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  19. Effect of Sludge Amendment on Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro


    Full Text Available Column-leaching and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of biosolids (sewage sludges to control the mobilization of metals from contaminated soils with smelting slags. The pilot-scale experiments using amended soils showed that Cu, Pb and Sb were retained, decreasing their concentrations from 250 mg/L, 80 mg/L and 6 mg/L, respectively in the leachates of contaminated soils, to <20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, in the amended material. Hydrogeochemical modeling of the leachates using Minteq revealed that the degree of complexation of Cu rose 56.3% and 57.6% in leachates of amended soils. Moreover, Cu may be immobilized by biosolids, possibly via adsorption by oxyhydroxides of Fe or sorption by organic matter. The partial retention of Pb coincides with the possible precipitation of chloropyromorphite, which is the most stable mineral phase in the pH-Eh conditions of the leachates from the amended material. The retention of Sb may be associated with the precipitation of Sb2O3, which is the most stable mineral phase in the experimental conditions. The organic amendments used in this study increased some metal and metalloid concentrations in the leachates (Fe, Mn, Ni, As and Se, which suggests that the organic amendments could be used with caution to remediate metal contaminated areas.

  20. Effect of Alkaline-Stabilised Sewage Sludge on Extractable Organic Carbon and Copper in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for water contamination with sludgederived organic substances and copper following land application of alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge. Two contrasting sludge-amended soils were studied. Both soils were previously treated with urban and rural alkaline biosolids separately at sludge application rates of 0, 30 and 120 t ha-1 fresh product. The air-dried soil/sludge mixtures were wetted with distilled water, maintained at 40 % of water-holding capacity and equilibrated for three weeks at 4 ℃ before extraction. Subsamples were extracted with either distilled water or 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 solution. The concentrations of organic C in the aqueous and chemical extracts were determined directly with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyser. The concentrations of Cu in the two extracts were also determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The relationship between the two extractable organic C fractions was examined, together with that between extractable organic C concentration and extractable Cu concentration. Application of alkaline biosolids increased the concentrations of soil mobile organic substances and Cu. The results are discussed in terms of a possible increase in the potential for leaching of sludge-derived organics and Cu in the sludge-amended soils

  1. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes. (United States)

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J


    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic municipal wastewater treatment process residuals as feedstocks for the recovery of simple sugars. (United States)

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian


    This study examined the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from municipal wastewater treatment process residuals for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production, while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy. Primary and thickened waste activated sludges and anaerobically digested biosolids underwent various pre-treatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Half of the pre-treated samples were dried and grinded, while the other half were used as is (wet). The wet primary sludge yielded the highest reducing sugar conversions. When wet primary sludge without pre-treatment was hydrolyzed at 40 degrees C and an enzyme loading of 800 U/g substrate, 31.1+/-2.7% was converted to reducing sugars in 24 h. This increased to 54.2+/-4.0% when HCl and KOH pre-treatments were applied. FTIR analyses were used to examine differences in the sludge compositions. These indicated that the cellulose content in the primary sludge was higher than that of the thickened waste activated sludge and biosolids, which was consistent with the higher reducing sugar yields observed in the primary sludge.

  3. Survival of indicator organisms during enrichment on tetrachloroethene. (United States)

    Skramstad, J D; Hurst, C J; Novak, P J


    A laboratory study was performed as the basis for a full-scale bioaugmentation project at a site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. The objectives of this study were to 1) develop a protocol to enrich for a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids and 2) monitor the survival of fecal coliform bacteria and bacteriophage, which model enteric viruses, during the enrichment process. A culture was enriched in 8 days with the ability to degrade 6-microM PCE to cis-dichloroethene. Using the enrichment protocol in two identical experiments, significant inactivation of fecal coliform bacteria (2 log) and somatic coliphage (0.33 log) was observed in one of the experiments; no inactivation occurred in the second experiment. The number of F-specific coliphage decreased in both experiments (0.87 and 1.26 log inactivation). Despite the decrease in some of the coliform and bacteriophage numbers, the quantity of organisms and phage particles present after enrichment was still high (approximately 7.5 x 10(5) most probable number/L, 6.9 x 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU)/L, and 3.3 x 10(5) PFU/L, for fecal coliform bacteria, somatic coliphage, and F-specific coliphage, respectively). This may be cause for concern, depending on the current and future groundwater use at or near a site undergoing bioaugmentation with cultures derived from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids.

  4. Phytotoxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals on the germination of Lactuca sativa and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (United States)

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique


    Pharmaceuticals reach terrestrial environments through the application of treated wastewaters and biosolids to agricultural soils. We have investigated the toxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals, classified as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood lipid-lowering agents, β-blockers and antibiotics, in two photosynthetic organisms. Twelve pharmaceuticals caused inhibitory effects on the radicle and hypocotyl elongation of Lactuca sativa seeds. The EC50 values obtained were in the range of 170-5656 mg L(-1) in the case of the radicle and 188-4558 mg L(-1) for the hypocotyl. Propranolol was the most toxic drug for both root and hypocotyl elongation, followed by the NSAIDs, then gemfibrozil and tetracycline. Other effects, such as root necrosis, inhibition of root growth and curly hairs, were detected. However, even at the highest concentrations tested (3000 mg L(-1)), seed germination was not affected. NSAIDs decreased the photosynthetic yield of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but only salicylic acid showed EC50 values below 1000 mg L(-1). The first effects detected at low concentrations, together with the concentrations found in environmental samples, indicate that the use of biosolids and wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals should be regulated and their compositions assessed in order to prevent medium- and long-term impacts on agricultural soils and crops.

  5. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil. (United States)

    Siebielec, Grzegorz; Chaney, Rufus L


    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on the effectiveness of remediation of these soils is scarce. We tested the effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation and revegetation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to zinc (Zn) phytotoxicity while lead (Pb) posed a substantial risk to soil biota, wildlife and humans through various pathways. Seven treatments were tested: untreated control, agricultural NPK fertilization, high phosphate fertilization plus agricultural rates of NK, CaCO(3), "Orgro" biosolid compost, "Orgro" + CaCO(3), "Orgro" + CaCO(3) + Mn sulfate. All compost treatments alleviated Zn phytotoxicity to tall fescue; however compost combined with liming reduced plant Zn content up to 158-162 mg kg(-1). Compost added with lime reduced Pb in-vitro bioaccessibility from 32.5 to 20.4% of total Pb and was the most effective among the tested treatments. The study revealed the effectiveness of biosolids compost and lime mixture in the rapid stabilization of metals and revegetation of military range contaminated soils. The persistence of the remediation needs to be, however, confirmed in the long-term field study.

  6. Reduction of sludge production from WWTP using thermal pretreatment and enhanced anaerobic methanisation. (United States)

    Graja, S; Chauzy, J; Fernandes, P; Patria, L; Cretenot, D


    The objective of the study presented here was to investigate the performance of an enhanced two-step anaerobic process for the treatment of WWTP sludge. This process was developed to answer the urgent need currently faced by WWTP operators to reduce the production of biosolids, for which disposal pathways are facing increasing difficulties. A pilot plant was operated on a full-scale WWTP (2,500 p.e.) over a period of 4 months. It consisted of a thermal pre-treatment of excess sludge at 175 degrees C and 40 min, followed by dewatering and methanisation of the centrate in a fixed-film reactor. The thermal lysis had a two-fold enhancing effect on sludge reduction efficiency: firstly, it allowed a decrease of the HRT in the methaniser to 2.9 days and secondly, it yielded biosolids with a high dewaterability. This contributed to further reductions in the final volume of sludge to be disposed of. The two-step process achieved a sludge reduction efficiency of 65% as TSS, thus giving an interesting treatment option for WWTP facing sludge disposal problems.

  7. Transformation of pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles in a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor. (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Santaella, Catherine; Masion, Armand; Borschneck, Daniel; Olivi, Luca; Roche, Nicolas; Wiesner, Mark R; Bottero, Jean-Yves


    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used to enhance the properties of many manufactured products and technologies. Increased use of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. An important route of exposure is through the waste stream, where ENMs will enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), undergo transformations, and be discharged with treated effluent or biosolids. To better understand the fate of a common ENM in WWTPs, experiments with laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors and pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were conducted. Greater than 90% of the CeO2 introduced was observed to associate with biosolids. This association was accompanied by reduction of the Ce(IV) NPs to Ce(III). After 5 weeks in the reactor, 44 ± 4% reduction was observed for the pristine NPs and 31 ± 3% for the citrate-functionalized NPs, illustrating surface functionality dependence. Thermodynamic arguments suggest that the likely Ce(III) phase generated would be Ce2S3. This study indicates that the majority of CeO2 NPs (>90% by mass) entering WWTPs will be associated with the solid phase, and a significant portion will be present as Ce(III). At maximum, 10% of the CeO2 will remain in the effluent and be discharged as a Ce(IV) phase, governed by cerianite (CeO2).

  8. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia


    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  9. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge. (United States)

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L


    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds.

  10. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest. (United States)

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward


    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice.

  11. Organic Amendments and Earthworm Addition Improve Properties of Nonacidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Rutherford


    Full Text Available In many mined areas, lack of topsoil limits conversion of disturbed landscapes to former or other productive uses. We examined the use of biosolids (10 or 20% by dry mass, with or without sawdust, pulp sludge, and the contribution of an earthworm species (Dendrobaena veneta to improve the properties of nonacidic mine tailings. Pulp sludge more rapidly immobilized excessive NH4 + concentrations from biosolids early in the study; however, total mineral N concentrations were similar in pulp sludge and sawdust treatments by week 29. Although NO3 −-N concentrations were generally greater in treatments with earthworms, these trends were not statistically significant (P>0.05. In general, Bray P concentrations were greater in the presence of earthworms. Soil thin sections showed that earthworms mixed organic residues into elongated spherical units within mine tailings. Organic residues in combination with earthworm addition may improve the chemical and microstructural properties of non-acidic mine tailings, producing a substrate conducive for plant establishment.

  12. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian


    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  14. Characterization of Nano-scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media (United States)

    Norwood, Sasha Norien

    Land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers. Although nutrient rich, biosolids have been found to contain high concentrations of unregulated and/or unrecognized emerging contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products) while containing a significant fraction of inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum. Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of these nano-sized colloidal materials through the soil column and into our surface and groundwater bodies. Transport of emerging pollutants of concern through the soil column, at minimum, is impacted by colloidal properties (e.g., chemical composition, shape, aggregation kinetics), solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter), and water flow velocity. The purpose of this current research was to characterize the long-term transport behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al 2O3) through a natural porous media with changes in pH, aqueous-phase concentration, pore-water velocity and electrolyte valence. Additionally, deposition rates during the initial stages of deposition were compared to several models developed based on colloid filtration theory and DLVO stability theory. Benchtop column laboratory experiments showed that, under environmentally relevant groundwater conditions, Al2O3 nanoparticles are mobile through saturated porous media. Mobility increased under conditions in which the nanoparticles and porous media were of like charge (pH 9). Changes in linear pore water velocity, under these same high pH conditions, showed similar transport behavior with little mass retained in the system. Deposition is believed to be kinetically controlled at pH 9, as evidenced by the slightly earlier breakthrough as flow rate increased and was further supported by observed concentration effects on the arrival wave

  15. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva


    over after wastewater treatment and its disposal needs to be well planned, considering sanitary, environmental, economic and social implications. Sewage sludge (biosolids is high in organic content and plant nutrient and could be applied as fertilizer in forest plantations. The aim of this research, conducted at the Experimental Station of Itatinga (University of São Paulo was to evaluate the effects of increasing doses (10, 20 and 30 tons ha-1 of wet and dry biosolids(pellets, complemented with K and B, and applied to planting rows in experimental Eucalyptus grandis plots 1.5 years after seedling plantation. Trunk volume increased significantly regarding the eucalypt trees that received wet and dry sewage sludge, compared to the control treatment (no fertilization, and a similar growth of eucalypt trees that received full mineral fertilization. Regarding mineral nutrition, a positive correlation was observed between doses of biosolids and P, Ca, and Zn concentrations in the leaves, but a negative effect for Mn and biosolid dose. The foliar concentration of all the nutrients in the biosolid-treated eucalypt trees remained within the limits observed in commercial plantations, with no signs of nutritional imbalance.

  16. Fertilizers for Daphnia sp. (Crustacea, Cladocera production in experimental tanks Fertilizantes para produção de Daphnia sp. (Crustacea, Cladocera em tanques experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Souza Lima Cunha


    Full Text Available The current study was aimed at investigating the use of different fertilizers - dicalcium phosphate, biosolid and quail feces - as a strategy for water fertilization in Daphnia sp production. It was used twenty-four 100-L tanks of asbestos cement distributed in a completely randomized split-plot design with six replicates, with plots in the three kinds of fertilizers (biosolid, dicalcium phosphate, and quail feces and a control without fertilization (WF and subplots at the times of assessment (days 8 and 13. It was assessed the biomass production of Daphnia sp. and the following water quality parameters: chlorophyll a, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia and organic nitrogen, total phosphorus and total hardness. There was a significant correlation between the values of chlorophyll a and biomass weight of Daphnia sp, which indicates interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. The maximum weight of Daphnia sp. biomass is found in tanks fertilized with quail feces (35.98 g, followed by the biosolid (16.80 g, control without fertilization (6.75 g and dicalcium phosphate (5.24 g.Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de fertilizantes - fosfato bicálcico, biossólido e fezes de codorna - na água de produção de Daphnia sp. Foram utilizados 24 tanques de cimento-amianto, cada um com volume útil de 100 L, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas com seis repetições, tendo nas parcelas os tipos de fertilizantes e um controle, sem adubação, e nas subparcelas as épocas de avaliação (dias 8 e 13. Foram avaliados a produção da biomassa de Daphnia sp. e os seguintes parâmetros de qualidade da água: clorofila a, condutividade elétrica, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, nitrogênio amoniacal e orgânico, fósforo total e dureza total. Observou-se correlação significativa entre os valores de clorofila a e o peso da biomassa de Daphnia

  17. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangarajan, Ramya, E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Bolan, Nanthi S. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Tian, Guanglong [Environmental Monitoring and Research Division, Monitoring and Research Dep., Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, 6001, Pershing Road, Cicero, IL 60804 (United States); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, Anitha [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science,10 Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)


    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr), biosolids (10 × 10{sup 7} Mg/yr), and animal manures (7 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide— CO{sub 2}, methane— CH{sub 4}, and nitrous oxide— N{sub 2}O). Though CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are emitted in less quantity than CO{sub 2}, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10 × 10{sup 7} Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH{sub 4} and 60 Gg of N{sub 2}O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive overview for the first time on GHG emission from

  18. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer (United States)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.


    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at

  19. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail:; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.


    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  1. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research


    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  2. State of the art and future perspectives of thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Iranpour, R.;


    The slate of the art of thermophilic digestion is discussed. Thermophilic digestion is a well established technology in Europe for treatment of mixtures of waste in common large scale biogas plants or for treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Due to a large number of failures...... over time with thermophilic digestion of sewage sludge this process has lost its appeal in the USA. New demands on sanitation of biosolids before land use will, however, bring the attention back to the use of elevated temperatures during sludge stabilization. In the paper we show how the use of a start......-up strategy based on the actual activity of key microbes can be used to ensure proper and fast transfer of mesophilic digesters into thermophilic operation. Extreme thermophilic temperatures of 65degreesC or more may be necessary in the future to meet the demands for full sanitation of the waste material...

  3. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal


    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  4. The Effect of Applied Organic Fertilizers on the Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Lolium Perenne, Cultivated on Fly Ash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâşu


    Full Text Available The study aims to monitor the capacity of certain organic fertilizers (volcanic tuff and municipal sludge, applied as such and mixed with volcanic rocks with a high content in clinoptilolite, to determine the covering with vegetation of fly ash deposits resulted from the combustion of lignite in thermal plants. Both biosolids (20 t/ha and volcanic rock with high clinoptilolite content (5 t/ha determined the installation of a vegetative layer and diminished the soil metal bioavailability to the Lolium prerenne plant biomass. When using the organic-zeolite mixture, a synergistic effect is recorded of the two components of the treatment agent and an increase of the biomass with 448%. Moreover, the resulted biomass shows the highest reductions of metal bioaccumulations, of 38-46% for Zn and Fe, of 62% for Cu and between 82-89% for Cr, Ni and Pb.

  5. Struvite crystallization (United States)

    Barak, Phillip W. (Inventor); Tabanpour, Menachem E. (Inventor); Avila-Segura, Mauricio (Inventor); Meyer, Juliane M. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for removing phosphorus from phosphorus containing waste. In one embodiment, the method is preferably carried out by contacting the phosphorus containing waste with a non-cellular membrane and precipitating phosphorus from the waste as struvite. Another aspect of the invention includes a method of removing phosphorus from phosphorus containing sewage comprising filtrates and biosolids. The removal of phosphorus as struvite occurs in two stages as primary and secondary removal. In the primary removal process, the sewage from a dewatering unit is contacted with a first polymeric membrane reactor and the phosphorus is removed as primary struvite. Subsequently Mg is added so as promote struvite formation and the secondary removal process of struvite. In the secondary removal process, the sewage from GBT Filtrate well or Centrifuge Liquor well is contacted with a second monomolecular membrane and the phosphorus is removed as secondary struvite.

  6. The cost and effectiveness of solids thickening technologies for treating backwash and recovering nutrients from intensive aquaculture systems. (United States)

    Sharrer, Mark; Rishel, Kata; Taylor, Amanda; Vinci, Brian J; Summerfelt, Steven T


    The cost and effectiveness of three solids thickening processes, i.e., gravity thickening settlers (GTS), inclined belt filters (IBF), geotextile bag filters (GBF), were individually evaluated with the biosolids backwash produced in intensive aquaculture systems equipped with microscreen drum filters and radial-flow settlers. The IBF produced the cleanest discharge and highest treatment efficiencies, likely reflecting the rapid efficiency with which solids are separated from wastewater. The GBF was the least effective process, i.e., GBF leachate contained the highest concentrations of TP, TN, and cBOD. However, GBF was most effective for sludge volume reduction. Capital cost estimates for an IBF were more than twice that of GTS and GBF of similar treatment capacity. The GTS had the lowest capital and annual operating cost estimates. The estimated annual operating cost of the GBF was orders of magnitude higher than the IBF and GTS, due to the high cost to replace bags.

  7. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production. (United States)

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger


    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs.

  8. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.


    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  9. The investigation of effect of organic carbon sources addition in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) sequencing batch reactor for nutrients removal from wastewaters. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Tong, Juan; Li, Hongjing; Chen, Yinguang


    The effect of addition of organic carbon sources (acetic acid and waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid) on anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen, 0.15-0.45 mg/L) biological municipal wastewater treatment was investigated. The results showed that carbon source addition affected not only the transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), glycogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, but the net removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were, respectively, 61% and 61% without organic carbon source addition, 81% and 95% with acetic acid addition, and 83% and 97% with waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid addition. It seems that the alkaline fermentation liquid of waste biosolids generated in biological wastewater treatment plant can be used to replace acetic acid as an additional carbon source to improve the anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) municipal wastewater nutrients removal although its use was observed to cause a slight increase of effluent BOD and COD concentrations.

  10. Conventional pollution, emerging pollutants and priority substances in Spanish's public sewage network; Contaminacion convencional, sustancias prioritarias y contaminantes emergentes en saneamientos publico espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Ripolles Pascual, F.; Santateresa Forcada, E.; Lahora Cano, A.; Mantecon Pascual, R.; Rodriguez Amaro, R.


    Spanish's waste water shoes a conventional pollution, and increased DQO values. Contains several organic and inorganic compounds. For domestic wastewater this situation imply to apply measures of control from the origin and another of environmental education. While WWTP investigated obtain high yielding in treatment of metals, HPA, VOC and alquilphenols, the behaviour versus plaguicides, thin-organic compounds and other organic is more un-favourable. Several substances overpasses the values established in the E-PRTR normative, so in the next future could be experience problems to fulfil the normative about this subject, as well as those related to reuse of treated wastewater and bio-solids generated in the WWP. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Out-and-back {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C scalar transfers in protein resonance assignment by proton-detected solid-state NMR under ultra-fast MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbet-Massin, Emeline; Pell, Andrew J. [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France); Jaudzems, Kristaps [Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (Latvia); Franks, W. Trent; Retel, Joren S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany); Kotelovica, Svetlana; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars [Biomedical Research and Study Center (Latvia); Emsley, Lyndon [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France); Oschkinat, Hartmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (Germany); Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido, E-mail: [University of Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Centre de RMN a Tres Hauts Champs (France)


    We present here {sup 1}H-detected triple-resonance H/N/C experiments that incorporate CO-CA and CA-CB out-and-back scalar-transfer blocks optimized for robust resonance assignment in biosolids under ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS). The first experiment, (H)(CO)CA(CO)NH, yields {sup 1}H-detected inter-residue correlations, in which we record the chemical shifts of the CA spins in the first indirect dimension while during the scalar-transfer delays the coherences are present only on the longer-lived CO spins. The second experiment, (H)(CA)CB(CA)NH, correlates the side-chain CB chemical shifts with the NH of the same residue. These high sensitivity experiments are demonstrated on both fully-protonated and 100 %-H{sup N} back-protonated perdeuterated microcrystalline samples of Acinetobacter phage 205 (AP205) capsids at 60 kHz MAS.

  12. Integrating nano- and microparticles in practical decontamination processes for water and sediments in a green technology approach (United States)

    Eggen, Trine; Soran, Maria-Loredana


    Historically, pollution has been associated with heavy metals and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This has changed. Today, legacy or emerging contaminants cover a vast number of compounds including industrial man-made chemicals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals in addition to inorganic elements and nanomaterials. These compounds are transferred to the environment via wastewater effluents and leachates and via sludge/biosolids such as fertilizers or soil amendments. Compared to previous POPs, today's legacy and emerging contaminants cover a broader spectrum of structures and properties, including a high number of persistent medium to highly water. For most emerging contaminants, neither the environmental transfer and residue nor the short- and long ecotoxicological and human adverse effects are known. Thus, it's time for precautionary acting and to replace conventional treatment processes originally designed for removal of organic matter and nutrients with processes suitable for removal of hazardous chemicals with a wide range of properties before entering water and terrestrial recipients.

  13. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily


    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  14. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir


    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  15. Role of vermicompost chemical composition, microbial functional diversity, and fungal community structure in their microbial respiratory response to three pesticides. (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta


    The relationships between vermicompost chemical features, enzyme activities, community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), fungal community structures, and its microbial respiratory response to pesticides were investigated. Fungal community structure of vermicomposts produced from damaged tomato fruits (DT), winery wastes (WW), olive-mill waste and biosolids (OB), and cattle manure (CM) were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rDNA. MicroResp™ was used for assessing vermicompost CLPPs and testing the microbial response to metalaxyl, imidacloprid, and diuron. Vermicompost enzyme activities and CLPPs indicated that WW, OB, and DT had higher microbial functional diversity than CM. The microbiota of the former tolerated all three pesticides whereas microbial respiration in CM was negatively affected by metalaxyl and imidacloprid. The response of vermicompost microbiota to the fungicide metalaxyl was correlated to its fungal community structure. The results suggest that vermicomposts with higher microbial functional diversity can be useful for the management of pesticide pollution in agriculture.

  16. Composting of bio solids by composting tunnels; Compostaje de biosolidos mediante tunes de compostado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Prats, D.; Soto, R.; Pastor, B.; Monges, M.


    The objective of this work is to study the bio-solid composting process carried out in the composting plant of Aspe (Alicante) by means of open composting tunnels, and to determine the quality of the resulting compost. The parameters under control are temperature. humidity, density, pH, conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, ammonium nitride and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and copper were monitored during the composting process. Observing the parameters analyzed we can conclude that the composting process of the sewage sludge from Aspe procedures a product suitable for agricultural use. The values obtained allow the product resulting from the process to be designated as compost. (Author)

  17. A review of plant-pharmaceutical interactions: from uptake and effects in crop plants to phytoremediation in constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R;


    the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results...... and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding....... This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation...

  18. Triclocarban Influences Antibiotic Resistance and Alters Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community Structure. (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Zitomer, Daniel H; Hristova, Krassimira R; Kappell, Anthony D; McNamara, Patrick J


    Triclocarban (TCC) is one of the most abundant organic micropollutants detected in biosolids. Lab-scale anaerobic digesters were amended with TCC at concentrations ranging from the background concentration of seed biosolids (30 mg/kg) to toxic concentrations of 850 mg/kg to determine the effect on methane production, relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community structure. Additionally, the TCC addition rate was varied to determine the impacts of acclimation time. At environmentally relevant TCC concentrations (max detect = 440 mg/kg), digesters maintained function. Digesters receiving 450 mg/kg of TCC maintained function under gradual TCC addition, but volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, pH decreased, and methane production ceased when immediately fed this concentration. The concentrations of the mexB gene (encoding for a multidrug efflux pump) were higher with all concentrations of TCC compared to a control, but higher TCC concentrations did not correlate with increased mexB abundance. The relative abundance of the gene tet(L) was greater in the digesters that no longer produced methane, and no effect on the relative abundance of the class 1 integron integrase encoding gene (intI1) was observed. Illumina sequencing revealed substantial community shifts in digesters that functionally failed from increased levels of TCC. More subtle, yet significant, community shifts were observed in digesters amended with TCC levels that did not inhibit function. This research demonstrates that TCC can select for a multidrug resistance encoding gene in mixed community anaerobic environments, and this selection occurs at concentrations (30 mg/kg) that can be found in full-scale anaerobic digesters (U.S. median concentration = 22 mg/kg, mean = 39 mg/kg).

  19. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture. (United States)

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R


    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  20. Veterinary antibiotics in animal waste, its distribution in soil and uptake by plants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasho, Reep Pandi, E-mail:; Cho, Jae Yong, E-mail:


    Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in livestock farming is and has been, a common practice worldwide. These bioactive organic compounds have short retention period and partial uptake into the animal system. The uptake effects of this pharmaceutics, with plants as the primary focus, has not been reviewed so far. This review addresses three main concerns 1) the extensive use of veterinary antibiotics in livestock farming, 2) disposal of animal waste containing active biosolids and 3) effects of veterinary antibiotics in plants. Depending upon the plant species and the antibiotic used, the response can be phytotoxic, hormetic as well as mutational. Additionally, the physiological interactions that make the uptake of these compounds relatively easy have also been discussed. High water solubility, longer half-lives, and continued introduction make them relatively persistent in the environment. Lastly, some prevention measures that can help limit their impact on the environment have been reviewed. There are three methods of control: treatment of animal manure before field application, an alternative bio-agent for disease treatment and a well targeted legalized use of antibiotics. Limiting the movement of these biosolids in the environment can be a challenge because of their varying physiological interactions. Electron irradiation and supervised inoculation of beneficial microorganisms can be effective remediation strategies. Thus, extensive future research should be focused in this area. - Highlights: • Use of veterinary antibiotics (VA's) in livestock farming. • The fate of VA's in soil. • Properties that make the uptake of VA's by plants relatively easy. • Effect of VA's on plants based on earlier findings. • Possible measures that are helpful in limiting the impact of VA's.

  1. Extratores para Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn em LATOSSOLOS tratados com biossólido e cultivados com milho Extractants for Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in biossolid-amanded Oxisols cultivated with corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Martins dos Anjos


    in agriculture needs more information on plant availability of heavy metals added to soil by this waste. The efficiency of the chemical extractants HCl 0.1 mol L-1, DTPA-TEA pH 7.3, Mehlich 3 and aqua regia for the evaluation of Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn availability in biosolid-amended soils, was studied in a pot (0.5 m³ experiment using corn as test plant. The soils used were a dystrophic Typic Hapludox (LAd and a dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox (LVd. The statistic design consisted of: random blocks in a 4x4 factorial outline, 4 treatments (LVd+sludge, LVd, LAd+sludge, LAd, 4 extraction methods (HCl 0.1 mol L-1, Mehlich 3, DTPA-TEA 0.005 mol L-1 pH 7,3 and aqua regia and 4 replications. Seventy-eight Mg ha-1 of biosolids on dry base were applied every two months to the soils, one year before planting corn. In five applications 388 Mg ha-1 of biosolids were applied. The metal contents of the various parts of the plants were correlated with the contents removed by the extraction methods. The results show that the total contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn did not exceed the critical limits established by USEPA and the European Community regulations even at the biosolid application rate of 388 Mg ha-1. Mehlich 3 was an effective extractor only in the evaluation of the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in corn grown on soils treated with biosolids. Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb presented no availability to corn plants.

  2. pH值调控对秸秆两阶段厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of pH Values Control on Biogas Production of Agricultural Straw with Two-phase Anaerobic Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 曹杰; 叶小梅; 杜静; 常志州


    , and methanogenesis. Large literature search showed that hydrolysis and acidification is the limiting step of biogas production of biosolid wastes. How to improve the hydrolysis and acidification rate of biosolid wastes? Much work has been done, including pretreatment, co-digestion, high efficient microbial inoculants, fermentation process control, et al. PH value is an important factor to hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes. Much work has been done on characteristics of hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes in acidic environment, but there was little information on characteristics of hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes in alkaline environment. In order to evaluate the effect of alkaline environment control on hydrolysis and acidification and subsequent biogas production of agricultural straw, changes of daily biogas yield, methane content, pH value, COD content of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase and characteristics of biogas production of methanogenic phase were studied. The results showed that two-phase anaerobic fermentation of agricultural straw could be operated normally and TS biogas yield and average methane content were 281.28mL/g TSadded and 47.36%, respectively. Cumulative biogas yield of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase, average methane content and cumulative methane yield of treatment of adjusting pH value of hydrolysate to 8.0 daily was improved by 24.51%. 2.5 percent and 29.39%. Adjusting pH value of hydrolysate to 9.5 and 11.0 daily could inhibit biogas production of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase and increase COD content of hydrolysate, but it was bad for biogas production of hydrolysate and cumulative biogas yield of methanogenic phase were only 89.97% and 17.48% to that of CK. Maintaining hydrolysis and acidogenic phase in alkaline environment was beneficial for dissolving out of hemicellulose and lignin but bad to cellulose.

  3. Evaluation of Microbial Communities in Soil Using a Mixed Functional and Phylogenetic Array (United States)

    Palumbo, A. V.; Yang, Z. K.; Tiquia, S. M.; Hurt, R. A.; Wu, L.; Tarver, J. R.; Fisher, L. S.; Brandt, C. C.; Zhou, J.


    As part of a study of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands we examined the effects of different soil amendments (e.g., fly ash and biosolids) on soil carbon. In addition we examined the relationships among some aspects of the nitrogen cycling, carbon content, and microbial community structure in the reclaimed mine soils. Nitrogen is a concern due to the potential release of nitrous oxide from microbial activity following the addition of biosolids. We extracted total community DNA from 22 soil samples obtained from reclaimed mine lands amended with fly ash and biosolids. Samples from unamended locations were included as controls. We ran a Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRLFP) analysis on 18s rDNA from a PCR amplification using primers specific for fungi. Diversity was much lower and dominance was higher than often seen for bacteria in soil. Using the DNA extracted from 8 soil, we also cloned and sequenced the fungal 18s rDNA. In this more thorough examination of fungal diversity, we examined between 50 and 100 fungal 18s clones per site. The cloning and sequencing indicated that along with the few dominant clones there was a surprising diversity of fungal clones. The diversity based on sequence analysis of the18s clones was much higher than that indicated by the TRLFP-based analysis. Rarefaction analysis of the cloning data indicated that the total diversity was even higher than we were able to measure with this level of effort (up to 100 clones per site). However, it was clear that we were able to effectively sample the dominant populations. We also used population statistics and ordination techniques to assess the relationships among the sites and the fungal community structure. Based on the dominant fungal clones, there were two major groups of sites and one intermediate group. We are examining these groups in relation to soil carbon and nitrogen characteristics. We have started to apply microarray methods to

  4. Efecto del aporte de enmiendas orgánicas sobre propiedades físicas e hidrológicas de un suelo urbano degradado Organic matter addition effect on some hidrological properties in a degraded urban soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Civeira


    on biosolids on the so called "Preferential flow paths" (PFP and other hydraulical and physical properties of underlying soil was studied. An experiment was performed in columns, filled with the Bt horizon of a Typic Argiudoll. Biosolid mixed with sawdust or sand or composted were applied on surface or mixed within topsoil. PFP, bulk density, water content, and water infiltration rate were measured and total porosity and the Shrink-Swelling Index were calculated. The lower PFP percentage was found in the control (Bt horizon. Treatments receiving compost and biosolid mixes showed significant higher PFP percentage. Bulk density decreased and water infiltration increased after organic materials were applied. The hydraulical and physical properties of underlying soil improved both when organic materials were applied on surface or mixed within the control topsoils.

  5. Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning. (United States)

    Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C


    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder


    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed

  7. Stormwater Bioretention Systems: Testing the Phosphorus Saturation Index and Compost Feedstocks as Predictive Tools for System Performance. (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Corfman, Amber; Mendrey, Katrina; Kurtz, Kate; Grothkopp, Fritz


    A replicated column trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for the phosphorus saturation index (PSI) to predict P movement in bioretention soil mixtures (BSMs). The impact of compost feedstock on BSM performance was also evaluated. Three composts (biosolids/yard, yard/food waste, and manure/sawdust) were each brought to PSI values of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 through the addition of Fe-based water treatment residuals (WTRs) to lower the PSI and P salts to increase the PSI. A synthetic stormwater solution was used for 12 leaching events. The PSI predicted total and dissolved P concentrations in column leachate. All composts removed P at PSI 0.1. All composts were a source of P for the higher PSI values tested, with P concentrations in the leachate decreasing over time. Ammonia and nitrate from all treatments decreased over time, with all treatments showing effective N removal. Copper removal (total and dissolved) was >90% for all treatments, with the highest removal observed at PSI 0.1 for all composts. Zinc removal (total) was also greatest in the 0.1 PSI for all composts. At PSI 0.5 and 1.0, the biosolids/yard compost was less effective than the other materials at removing Zn, with a removal efficiency of approximately 50%. Infiltration rates were similar across all treatments and ranged from 0.44 ± 0.1 cm min in the manure/sawdust at PSI 0.1 to 3.8 ± 2.8 cm min in the food/yard at PSI 1.0. Plant growth in the manure/sawdust compost was reduced in comparison to the other composts tested across all PSI levels. The results of this study indicate that the PSI may be an effective tool for predicting P movement in bioretention systems. Compost feedstock does not indicate the ability of composts to filter contaminants filtration, with all composts tested showing high contaminant removal.

  8. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.


    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  9. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils. (United States)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia


    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  10. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, G.; Abate, V. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Veterinary Public Health Dept, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Battacone, G. [Università degli Studi di Sassari, Agricultural Science, Viale Italia, 39 07100 Sassari (Italy); De Filippis, S.P. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Esposito, M. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via Salute 2, 08055 Portici, (Neaples) (Italy); Esposito, V. [Agenzia Regionale Per la Protezione dell' Ambiente Regione Puglia, Via Anfiteatro 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Miniero, R. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)


    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20–113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40–616 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06–17.2 and 0.12–22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872–89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. - Highlights: • Top soil improvers were characterized for selected POPs content, in Italy. • Grazing behaviour makes sheep sensitive to top soil contamination. • Environmental quality standards for grazing areas were modelled • The impact on Mediterranean sheep milk safety/security was evaluated. • Low contaminated TSIs support safe intake and compliance of dairy products.

  11. Hyperendemic Cryptosporidium and Giardia in households lacking municipal sewer and water on the United States-Mexico border. (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Graham, Jay; Galindo, Adriana; Avitia, Raquel; Cardenas, Victor


    This study identified differences in the epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection for low-income populations residing on the United States-Mexico border. Participation included 77 households in three communities lacking adequate municipal water and sewage services. The household was the unit of analysis and sampling was from household biosolid waste from newly installed composting toilets. The proportion of households positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium was high, 82% and 70%, respectively, and this was in contrast to the few households (14%) reporting at least one individual with diarrhea symptoms. This finding indicated that most of the participant families were chronically infected but asymptomatic. In the multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant protective effect for Cryptosporidium in those households that purified drinking water but not for Giardia. Those households with children less than five years of age were 1.3 times at risk for Giardia infection. Our findings highlighted differences in the transmission mode of these two pathogens and underscore the need for interventions addressing hygiene, water supply, and sanitation.

  12. Nitrate-N movement in groundwater from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources in the Wakulla Springs springshed, Leon and Wakulla Counties, Florida, 1966-2018 (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.


    The City of Tallahassee began a pilot study in 1966 at the Southwest Farm sprayfield to determine whether disposal of treated municipal wastewater using center pivot irrigation techniques to uptake nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) is feasible. Based on the early success of this project, a new, larger Southeast Farm sprayfield was opened in November 1980. However, a recent 2002 study indicated that nitrate-N from these operations may be moving through the Upper Floridan aquifer to Wakulla Springs, thus causing nitrate-N concentrations to increase in the spring water. The increase in nitrate-N combined with the generally clear spring water and abundant sunshine may be encouraging invasive plant species growth. Determining the link between the nitrate-N application at the sprayfields and increased nitrate-N levels is complicated because there are other sources of nitrate-N in the Wakulla Springs springshed, including atmospheric deposition, onsite sewage disposal systems, disposal of biosolids by land spreading, creeks discharging into sinks, domestic fertilizer application, and livestock wastes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The mine tailings have a high content in heavy metals, especially Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr and others. In phytoremediation activities of mine tailings dumps were used plant species with high capacity to adapt to the physical-chemical properties of this inorganic waste. During the vegetation period, on any soil type, the cultivated plant species extract and accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in roots and terrestrial parts. Metal translocation rate from soil and accumulation in tissues is dependent to metal species biodisponibility capacity from soil organic-mineral structures in correlation with a series of factors like: pH, ionic change capacity, temperature, water retention a.o. Through this experiment was studied the metals amount of accumulation in plants, in roots and also in terrestrial parts. So, in case of Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinaceea, using the Zn, Cu and Mn uptake coefficient was analyzed the rate of translocation in order to monitor the accumulations dynamic. It turned out that Medicago sativa plants registered a higher uptake coefficient value on Cu and Mn. Festuca arundinaceea plants have a higher rate of accumulation in case of Zn. Also, in case of mine tailings polluted soils, the Zn, Cu and Mn translocation degree is higher and in case of soils polluted with mine tailings and with biosolids addition is lower.

  14. Modeling indoor odor-odorant concentrations and the relative humidity effect on odor perception at a water reclamation plant (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E.; Pagilla, Krishna R.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.


    Models formulated to associate odors and odorants in many industrial and agricultural fields ignore the potential effect of relative humidity on odor perception, and are not validated. This study addresses literature limitations by formulating a model that includes relative humidity and by validating the model. The model employs measured paired values, n = 102, of indoor odors and odorants from freshly dewatered biosolids in a post-digestion dewatering building of a Water Reclamation Plant (WRP). A random sub-sample of n = 32 is used to validate the model by associating predicted vs. measured values ( R2 = 0.90). The model is validated again with a smaller independent database from a second WRP ( R2 = 0.85). Moreover this study asserts that reduction of hydrogen sulfide concentrations, conventionally used as a surrogate of sewage odors, to acceptable levels does not assure acceptable odor levels. It is concluded that: (1) The addition of relative humidity results in a stronger association between odors and odorants than the use of H 2S alone; (2) the two step model validation indicates that the model is not simply site-specific but can be applied to similar facilities; and (3) the model is a promising tool for designing odor and odorant control strategies, the ultimate goal of engineering studies.

  15. Chemical characterization and evaluation of composts as organic amendments for immobilizing cadmium. (United States)

    Tapia, Y; Cala, V; Eymar, E; Frutos, I; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A


    The ability of three composted materials to immobilize cadmium (Cd) was examined in order to assess their potential for recovering soils contaminated with this metal. Composted pine bark (PB) pH 5.6, spent mushroom compost (SM) pH 8.0, and composted pruning waste+biosolids (BS) pH 6.9 (containing 81%, 75% and 47% total organic matter, respectively) were characterized. FT-IR and CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated the BS and SM to have a higher percentage of aliphatic and carboxyl groups than PB. The composts were artificially contaminated with Cd (80 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and, after 4 weeks incubation, subjected to sequential extraction. In column leaching experiments, the total Cd leached from the composts exposed to both Cd treatments was similar, but much less leached from the BS (0.2%) than the PB (4.0%) or SM (0.7%). The greater capacity of BS to immobilize Cd was attributed to the greater humification of its organic matter and higher content of inorganic components, particularly Fe.

  16. Comparative Use of Soil Organic and Inorganic Amendments in Heavy Metals Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Branzini


    Full Text Available Remediation strategies are capable to mitigate negative effects of heavy metals (HMs on soils. The distribution of cooper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and chromium (Cr was evaluated in a contaminated soil after adding biosolid compost (BC and phosphate fertilizer (PF. A greenhouse assay and sequential extraction procedure were performed to determine the fractionation of HM in contaminated and remediated soil. In BC treatment, among 4 to 6% of Cu was associated with soil humic substances. Without amendments and with fertilizer application, Zn solubility increased by 15.4 and 8.4%, respectively, with experiment time. Although Cr was significantly adsorbed to the inorganic fraction, with compost application there was a transfer to organic fraction. A single amendment application is not suitable for immobilizing all metals of concern, because there are diverse union’s behaviors between HM and soil matrix. As the organic matter and phosphate fertilizer were effective in reducing mobility of Cu, the organic matter was more effective in the immobilization of Cr, and inorganic amendment induced the Zn precipitation, results from this pilot study suggest a combined use of these two amendments for soil remediation strategies. However, liming may be further needed to prevent soil acidification on longer time scales. Also, we propose the use of chemical and biological remediation strategies for potential improvement of effectiveness.

  17. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Zenker, Armin; Cicero, Maria Rita; Prestinaci, Francesca; Bottoni, Paola; Carere, Mario


    Pharmaceuticals, among the emerging contaminants, are one of the most relevant groups of substances in aquatic ecosystems due to universal use, their chemico-physical properties and known mode of action in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. After administration many drugs and their transformation products are only retained to some extent in wastewater treatment plants therefore entering the aquatic environment in considerable high amounts. The yearly consumption to treat human and animal diseases, also in livestock and aquaculture was estimated to be hundred thousands tons per year leading to high concentrations in surface water of developed countries. Mostly, pharmaceutical residues in effluents of wastewater treatment plants or in the water column of surface waters have been reported, but data about concentrations in the aquatic biota, partitioning of pharmaceuticals to biosolids, soils, and sediments and the bioaccumulation properties are often lacking. Chronic and subtle effects can be expected when aquatic organisms are long term exposed by pseudo-persistent, persistent and accumulative compounds. This review aims to summarize the current state of research about the fate of pharmaceuticals regarding bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems. More comprehensive approaches for the evaluation of environmental (ERA) and human health risk assessment (HRA) are included and analytical methods required to detect bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  18. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system. (United States)

    Nielsen, Steen


    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter.

  19. Rapid plant-cover establishment on gold mine tailings in southern New Zealand: glasshouse screening trials. (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C; Mains, D; Craw, D


    The use of a short-term vegetation cover to temporarily control the negative environmental effects of inactive tailings ponds is notfrequently practiced during operational mining, but could have some merit This article reports on a glasshouse trial designed to examine some of the issues associated with short-term vegetation: fast germination of a high proportion of seed, the ability of seedlings to survive in unamended substrates, and potentially toxic substrate. Five nonindigenous plant species were tested--barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye corn (Secale cereale), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multifiorum), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)--in five different types of substrate: unamended tailings, tailings and fertilizer, tailings and greenwaste, biosolid-blend compost, and local topsoil. The nutrient and heavy metal status (As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) of each substrate type was determined Plant species performance was monitored over 14 wk Substrate metal concentrations were low except for As, which was elevated in all substrate types. Plants in unamended tailings grew less vigorously than plants in tailings and compost or in topsoil. Plant performance in tailings and fertiliser was greatly suppressed following a high fertilization rate. Metal uptake in plants was highest for As (0.4-77 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cu (5.3-50.3 mg kg(-1) DW). Future field trials are necessary to authenticate findings, but barley and rye corn are promising species for a short-term tailings cover.

  20. Soil carbon dynamics in cropland and rangeland. (United States)

    Lal, R


    Most soils in the Midwestern USA have lost 30 to 50% of their original pool, or 25 to 40 Mg C/ha, upon conversion from natural to agricultural ecosystems. About 60 to 70% of the C thus depleted can be resequestered through adoption of recommended soil and crop management practices. These practices include conversion from plow till to no till, frequent use of winter cover crops in the rotation cycle, elimination of summer fallow, integrated nutrient management along with liberal use of biosolids and biological nitrogen fixation, precision farming to minimize losses and enhance fertilizer use efficiency, and use of improved varieties with ability to produce large root biomass with high content of lignin and suberin. The gross rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration ranges from 500 to 800 kg/ha/year in cold and humid regions and 100 to 300 kg/ha/year in dry and warm regions. The rate of SOC sequestration can be measured with procedures that are cost effective and credible at soil pedon level, landscape level, regional or national scale. In addition to SOC, there is also a large potential to sequester soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil C sequestration has numerous ancillary benefits. It is truly a win-win situation: extremely cost-effective, and a bridge to the future until alternative energy options take effect.

  1. Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir P. Deo


    Full Text Available The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals have been observed to reenter the built water environment contained in raw drinking water, and they remain detectable in finished drinking water at concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. The greatest promises for minimizing pharmaceutical contamination include source control (for example, inputs from intentional flushing of medications for safe disposal, and sewer overflows, and improving efficiency of treatment facilities.

  2. Produção do Gergelim Cultivado sob Condições de Estresse Hídrico e Diferentes Doses de Adubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Alves Bezerra


    Full Text Available This research was conducted at Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Technology and Natural Resources’ Center, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, under a protected environment, with the following geographic coordinates: latitude 07 º 13 'S, longitude 35 º 53' W and an average altitude 550 m. The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sesame when subjected to different levels of water stress on soil and fertilizer levels, to define the best management of water and organic fertilizer in order to increase sesame’s production. The largest flower’s production of sesame’s plants occurred with increasing levels of water stress in relation to the production of plants grown without water limitation. In the variable fruit’s number the production decreased with increasing water stress. In relation to the treatment with 40% of water stress the production per plant was 13.63 g of fruits and 5.55 g of seeds, reducing the higher levels of water stress. The organic fertilization with biosolids resulted in higher altitudes of the plants.

  3. Comparison of the incidence of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains in adult cattle and veal calf slaughterhouse effluents highlighted different risks for public health. (United States)

    Um, Maryse Michèle; Barraud, Olivier; Kérourédan, Monique; Gaschet, Margaux; Stalder, Thibault; Oswald, Eric; Dagot, Christophe; Ploy, Marie-Cecile; Brugère, Hubert; Bibbal, Delphine


    The goal of this study was to investigate the involvement of bovine slaughterhouse effluents and biosolids in the risk of environmental dissemination of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. Several samples were collected from one adult cattle and one veal calf slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The treatment process had no impact on the percentage of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and on the percentage of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). A STEC O157:H7 was isolated from the thickened sludge of the adult cattle slaughterhouse. As thickened sludge is intended to be spread on agricultural lands, the detection of this pathogenic strain is a public health issue. The percentage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was 5.0% and 87.5% in wastewater from the adult cattle and the veal calf slaughterhouse, respectively. These percentages were not significantly different after treatment. Integron-bearing E. coli isolates were only detected in the veal calf slaughterhouse WWTP with percentages above 50.0% for all sampling points whatever the step of the treatment process. Taken together, these findings highlighted the fact that different public health risks might be associated with adult cattle or veal calf slaughterhouses regarding the dissemination of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates into the environment.

  4. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai


    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  5. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan


    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  6. Soybean susceptibility to manufactured nanomaterials with evidence for food quality and soil fertility interruption. (United States)

    Priester, John H; Ge, Yuan; Mielke, Randall E; Horst, Allison M; Moritz, Shelly Cole; Espinosa, Katherine; Gelb, Jeff; Walker, Sharon L; Nisbet, Roger M; An, Youn-Joo; Schimel, Joshua P; Palmer, Reid G; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Holden, Patricia A


    Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full maturity in MNM-contaminated field soil. We have done so for soybean, a major global commodity crop, using farm soil amended with two high-production metal oxide MNMs (nano-CeO(2) and -ZnO). The results provide a clear, but unfortunate, view of what could arise over the long term: (i) for nano-ZnO, component metal was taken up and distributed throughout edible plant tissues; (ii) for nano-CeO(2), plant growth and yield diminished, but also (iii) nitrogen fixation--a major ecosystem service of leguminous crops--was shut down at high nano-CeO(2) concentration. Juxtaposed against widespread land application of wastewater treatment biosolids to food crops, these findings forewarn of agriculturally associated human and environmental risks from the accelerating use of MNMs.

  7. Investigation on effects of aggregate structure in water and wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Chau, K W


    The fractal structure and particle size of flocs are generally recognized as the two most crucial physical properties having impact on the efficiency of operation of several unit processes in water and wastewater treatment. In this study, an experimental investigation is undertaken on the effect of aggregate structure in water and wastewater treatment in Hong Kong. The fractal dimension of the resulting aggregate is employed as a measure of the aggregate structure. Small angle light scattering technique is used here. Different amounts of polymers are mixed to bacterial suspensions and the resulting structures are examined. The addition of polymer may foster aggregate formation by neutralization of the bacterial surface charge and enhance inter-particle bridging. The aggregation behavior may affect the efficiency of certain water and wastewater treatment processes such as dewatering and coagulation. The impacts of aggregate structure on two representative processes, namely, ultra-filtration membrane fouling and pressure filter dewatering efficiency, are studied. It is found that the looser flocs yield a more porous cake and less tendency to foul whilst more porous filter cakes yield more ready biosolids dewatering.

  8. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal. (United States)

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z


    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  9. Effect of temperature on the treatment of domestic wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Yoo, R H; Kim, J H; McCarty, P L; Bae, J H


    A laboratory staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system was applied to the treatment of primary clarifier effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant with temperature decreasing from 25 to 10 °C. At all temperatures and with a total hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h, overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removals were 89% and 94% or higher, with permeate COD and BOD5 of 30 and 7 mg/L or lower, respectively. No noticeable negative effects of low temperature on organic removal were found, although a slight increase to 3 mg/L in volatile fatty acids concentrations in the effluent was observed. Biosolids production was 0.01-0.03 kg volatile suspended solids/kg COD, which is far less than that with aerobic processes. Although the rate of trans-membrane pressure at the membrane flux of 9 L/m(2)/h increased as temperature decreased, the SAF-MBR was operated for longer than 200 d before chemical cleaning was needed. Electrical energy potential from combustion of the total methane production (gaseous and dissolved) was more than that required for system operation.

  10. 温度对污泥厌氧发酵产酸过程的影响%Effects of Temperature on Acidogenic Process in Anaerobic Fermentation for Sewage Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡伟娜; 陆小青


    污泥厌氧发酵不仅可以产生短链脂肪酸补充污水脱氮除磷[1]工艺中碳源的不足,还可以实现污泥的减量化和资源化.该文综述了温度对污泥厌氧发酵产酸影响的研究进展,着重讨论了温度对污泥厌氧发酵过程中水解、短链脂肪酸(SCFAs)累积、甲烷的产生和污泥减量化等方面的影响,并对今后的研究方向进行了展望.%The use of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-richened fermentation liquid as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has been considered as a practical and sustainable solution for increasing BNR performance, by which both waste bio-solids utilization and internal carbon source production can be accomplished in the biological wastewater treatment plants. According to the latest research, the sludge anaerobic fermentations under different temperatures were reviewed in this paper. The effect of temperature on hydrolysis, acidification, methane production and sludge reduce was discussed in details in this paper. The research direction in the future was put forward.

  11. Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation in Slaking Experiments with Amendment Materials and Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Karathanasis


    Full Text Available Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB, fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC, D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5–18.8 mm compared to the 44.2–47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR. A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress.

  12. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´


    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  13. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Corrales


    Full Text Available Because bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

  14. Phosphorus Speciation of Sequential Extracts of Organic Amendments using NMR Spectroscopy (United States)

    Akinremi, O.


    O.O. 1Akinremi Babasola Ajiboye and Donald N. Flaten 1Department of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2NT, Canada We carried out this study in order to determine the forms of phosphorus in various organic amendments using state-of-the art spectroscopic technique. Anaerobically digested biosolids (BIO), hog (HOG), dairy (DAIRY), beef (BEEF) and poultry (POULTRY) manures were subjected to sequential extraction. The extracts were analyzed by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of the total P analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in the sequential extracts of organic amendments were orthophosphate, except POULTRY, which was dominated by organic P. The labile P fraction in all the organic amendments, excluding POULTRY, was mainly orthophosphate P from readily soluble calcium and some aluminum phosphates. In the poultry litter, however, Ca phytate was the main P species controlling P solubility. Such knowledge of the differences in the chemical forms of phosphorus in organic amendments are essential for proper management of these amendments for agro-environmental purposes Key words: organic amendments, solution NMR, sequential fractionation, labile phosphorus

  15. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)


    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  16. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: review of modeling and analytical studies. (United States)

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd


    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO2) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target.

  17. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri


    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  18. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Panday


    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%, Cd (48-61%, Cu (4.9- 29.01% and Cr (18.90-33.60% at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

  19. Thermal hydrolysis (TDH) as a pretreatment method for the digestion of organic waste. (United States)

    Schieder, D; Schneider, R; Bischof, F


    The recycling concept under consideration is based on the process of Thermal Hydrolysis (TDH) followed by an anaerobic digestion. By increasing pressure and temperature the organic part of the waste is split up in a first step into short-chain fragments that are biologically well suited for microorganisms. The following fermentation runs much faster and more complete than in conventional digestion processes and the biogas yield is increased. Left is just a small amount of a solid residue that can be easily dewatered and utilized as surrogate fuel for incineration or as compost additive. The thermal hydrolysis process allows a complete energy recovery from organic waste. During the total procedure more energy sources are produced than are needed for running the plant. The procedure is especially suited for wet organic waste and biosolids that are difficult to compost, such as food scraps, biological waste from compact residential areas and sewage sludge. As a complete disinfection is granted due to the process temperatures the procedure is also suited for carcasses.

  20. Case study of a full-scale evapotranspiration cover (United States)

    McGuire, P.E.; Andraski, B.J.; Archibald, R.E.


    The design, construction, and performance analyses of a 6.1 ha evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover at the semiarid U.S. Army Fort Carson site, near Colorado Springs, Colo. are presented. Initial water-balance model simulations, using literature reported soil hydraulic data, aided selection of borrow-source soil type(s) that resulted in predictions of negligible annual drainage (???1 mm/year). Final construction design was based on refined water-balance simulations using laboratory determined soil hydraulic values from borrow area natural soil horizons that were described with USDA soil classification methods. Cover design components included a 122 cm thick clay loam (USDA), compaction ???80% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density (dry bulk density ???1.3 Mg/m3), erosion control measures, top soil amended with biosolids, and seeding with native grasses. Favorable hydrologic performance for a 5 year period was documented by lysimeter-measured and Richards'-based calculations of annual drainage that were all <0.4 mm/year. Water potential data suggest that ET removed water that infiltrated the cover and contributed to a persistent driving force for upward flow and removal of water from below the base of the cover. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  1. Postplanting Nutritional Augmentation of Jeffrey Pine Seedlings on an Infertile Sierran Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger F. Walker


    Full Text Available Broadcast fertilization with an array of amendments was investigated for its capacity to stimulate growth and enhance nutrition of a three-year-old Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. plantation growing on an acidic Sierra Nevada surface mine. Four formulations that differed in N source, duration of release, and the suite of nutrients provided were evaluated, with each applied using four rates. Free Flow 29-3-4, a conventional amendment featuring urea as its near exclusive N source, and High N 22-4-6, a controlled release formulation containing ammoniacal, nitrate, and urea N, were the most stimulatory while an organic formulation relying exclusively on a municipal biosolid N source, Milorganite 6-2-0, was the least so. The lowest application rates employed were inadequate while the most advantageous was not the highest rate for any formulation. Foliar analysis revealed that improved N nutrition was probably critical in the favorable growth responses to fertilization, that of P was a likely contributor, and amelioration of potential Mn toxicity may have assumed an accessory role.

  2. Nanomaterial transformation and association with fresh and freeze-dried wastewater activated sludge: implications for testing protocol and environmental fate. (United States)

    Kiser, Mehlika A; Ladner, David A; Hristovski, Kiril D; Westerhoff, Paul K


    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are an emerging class of contaminants entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and standardized testing protocols are needed by industry and regulators to assess the potential removal of ENMs during wastewater treatment. A United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard method (OPPTS 835.1110) for estimating soluble pollutant removal during wastewater treatment using freeze-dried, heat-treated (FDH) activated sludge (AS) has been recently proposed for predicting ENM fate in WWTPs. This study is the first to evaluate the use of FDH AS in batch experiments for quantifying ENM removal from wastewater. While soluble pollutants sorbed equally to fresh and FDH AS, fullerene, silver, gold, and polystyrene nanoparticles' removals with FDH AS were approximately 60-100% less than their removals with fresh AS. Unlike fresh AS, FDH AS had a high concentration of proteins and other soluble organics in the liquid phase, an indication of bacterial membrane disintegration due to freeze-drying and heat exposure. This cellular matter stabilized ENMs such that they were poorly removed by FDH AS. Therefore, FDH AS is not a suitable sorbent for estimating nanoparticle removal in WWTPs, whereas fresh AS has been shown to reasonably predict full-scale performance for titanium removal. This study indicates that natural or engineered processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion, biosolids decomposition in soils) that result in cellular degradation and matrices rich in surfactant-like materials (natural organic matter, proteins, phospholipids, etc.) may transform nanoparticle surfaces and significantly alter their fate in the environment.

  3. Evaluation of the removal of indicator bacteria from domestic sludge processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD). (United States)

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J


    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing.

  4. Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J. Pembroke


    Full Text Available The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen and fecal-coliform (indicator densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing.

  5. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch


    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  6. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study (United States)

    Rajendram, William


    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW) with sewage sludge (SS), that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP) increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284 ± 9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS. PMID:27689091

  7. Characterization of sludges of La Golondrina WWTP: sludges as final containers of the domestic wastewater pollution; Caracterizacion de fangos de la EDAR La Golondrina (EMACSA-Cordoba): su funcion como receptores finales de la contaminacion del agua residual urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Alonso Perez de siles, L.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.


    Treatment of wastewater is to concentrate the original pollution in a by-product: the wastewater sludge or bio-solid. As example, La Golondrina WWTP (Cordoba-spain) promotes the production of 1,3 kg of sludge per m''3 of wastewater, yielding logically a treated water according to laws. Furthermore, the treatment process there applied reduces the levels of nine majority metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg) from 2,72 mg/l to 1.42 mg/l in the treated water, generating almost, a sludge agrees with the spanish normative to sludge intended to agricultural use (its main fate). Summarizing, the treatment of wastewater supposes the concentration of the original biodegradable load into the sludge around 340 times, while metals exhibited a different concentration degree for each one (from 10.000 times for Fe, u pto 1-2 times for Cd and Hg). Finally, the concentration degree of a metal in the sludge is mainly led by the removed concentration of metal in the treatment process, and after, by the original concentration of metal in the influent wastewater. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. Influence of soil properties and soil leaching on the toxicity of ionic silver to plants. (United States)

    Langdon, Kate A; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Merrington, Graham


    Silver (Ag) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties; as a result, it is being used increasingly in a wide range of consumer products. With these uses, the likelihood that Ag may enter the environment has increased, predominately via land application of biosolids or irrigation with treated wastewater effluent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of Ag to 2 plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare L. CV Triumph) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in a range of soils under both leached and unleached conditions. The concentrations that resulted in a 50% reduction of plant growth (EC50) were found to vary up to 20-fold across the soils, indicating a large influence of soil type on Ag toxicity. Overall, barley root elongation was found to be the least sensitive to added Ag, with EC50 values ranging from 51 mg/kg to 1030 mg/kg, whereas the tomato plant height showed higher sensitivity with EC50 values ranging from 46 mg/kg to 486 mg/kg. The effect of leaching was more evident in the barley toxicity results, where higher concentrations of Ag were required to induce toxicity. Variations in soil organic carbon and pH were found to be primarily responsible for mitigating Ag toxicity; therefore, these properties may be used in future risk assessments for Ag to predict toxicity in a wide range of soil types.

  9. Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics. (United States)

    Benn, Troy M; Westerhoff, Paul


    Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.

  10. Quality of trace element contaminated soils amended with compost under fast growing tree Paulownia fortunei plantation. (United States)

    Madejón, P; Xiong, J; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E


    The use of fast growing trees could be an alternative in trace element contaminated soils to stabilize these elements and improve soil quality. In this study we investigate the effect of Paulownia fortunei growth on trace element contaminated soils amended with two organic composts under semi-field conditions for a period of 18 months. The experiment was carried out in containers filled with tree different soils, two contaminated soils (neutral AZ and acid V) and a non contaminated soil, NC. Three treatments per soil were established: two organic amendments (alperujo compost, AC, and biosolid compost, BC) and a control without amendment addition. We study parameters related with fertility and contamination in soils and plants. Paulownia growth and amendments increased pH in acid soils whereas no effect of these factors was observed in neutral soils. The plant and the amendments also increased organic matter and consequently, soil fertility. Positive results were also found in soils that were only affected by plant growth (without amendment). A general improvement of "soil biochemical quality" was detected over time and treatments, confirming the positive effect of amendments plus paulownia. Even in contaminated soils, except for Cu and Zn, trace element concentrations in leaves were in the normal range for plants. Results of this mid-term study showed that Paulownia fortunei is a promising species for phytoremediation of trace element polluted soils.

  11. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)


    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  12. Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Soil Polluted with Waste Mining by Using Forage Plants in Successive Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop


    Full Text Available During two years, was studied the phytoextraction potential of some perennial species (Medicago sativa and Trifolium pretense, Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne, for Zn, Cd, and Pb from soils polluted with waste mining. The experiment was done on kernozem soil with adding of 20 kg waste mining/m2 and 8 kg biosolid/m2. The results showed that in all experiments, rye-grass is a good extractor for Zn and Cd, and leguminous species for Pb. Both leguminous species, especially M. sativa, presented a high tolerance for lead toxicity, even with 3-4 times greater values than maximum allowable level from actual legislation. In all cases, regardless of the experimental variant, raygrass (Lolium perenne is a good accumulator of Zn and Cd, and red clover (Trifolium pratense of Pb. The values of metal bioaccumulation increase gradually with their concentration in soil. Quality of very good extractor of Pb displayed by Trifolium pratense species are kept even in case of excessive pollution with Pb, when it exceed 3.4 times the maximum permissible norms. This proves, as Medicago sativa species, a good tolerance and resistance to toxicity of this metal. In case of addition of natural zeolite-volcanic tuff there was no increase in the rate of Zn bioaccumulation. Only in case of Cd at Lolium perenne and Pb at Trifolium pratense appear the favourable effect of metallic ions bioavailability in soil for plants.

  13. Occurrence, temporal variation, and estrogenic burden of five parabens in sewage sludge collected across the United States. (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Pycke, Benny F G; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U


    Five parabens used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were measured in sewage sludges collected at 14 U.S. wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in nine states. Detected concentration ranges (ng/g, dry weight) and frequencies were as follows: methyl paraben (15.9 to 203.0; 100%), propyl paraben (0.5 to 7.7; 100%), ethyl paraben (paraben (paraben (parabens detected in sewage sludge (ranging from 10.1 to 500.1pg/kg 17β-estradiol equivalents) was insignificant when compared to the 10(6)-times higher value calculated for natural estrogens reported in the literature to occur in sewage sludge. Temporal monitoring at one WWTP provided insights into temporal and seasonal variations in paraben concentrations. This is the first report on the occurrence of five parabens in sewage sludges from across the U.S., and internationally, the first on temporal variations of paraben levels in sewage sludge. Study results will help to inform the risk assessment of sewage sludge destined for land application (biosolids).

  14. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products. (United States)

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong


    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were safety utilization.

  15. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration. (United States)

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernández, C; Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X


    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18 L H2 L(-1) d(-1).

  16. PBDEs versus NBFR in wastewater treatment plants: occurrence and partitioning in water and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Cristale


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the occurrence of flame retardants (FR in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located close to Barcelona (NE Spain, an area with high urban and industrial pressures. Compounds studied include eight polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs and eight New Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs, for which little information regarding their presence, partitioning and fate within the WWTPs is available. In unfiltered influent samples, PBDEs were not detected and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyltetrabromophthalate was the only NBFR detected, and all WWTPs were efficient in eliminating this compound as no residues were found in the effluents. However, primary sludge contained from 279 to 2299 ng/g dry weight of ΣFR and the concentration increased in secondary (biological sludge. NBFRs accounted for the main FR detected in sludge, representing a 63-97% of the total load, and among PBDEs, BDE-209 was the most ubiquitous congener. Considering the amount of sludge generated in each WWTP, it was estimated that 0.34-17.2 kg of FR are released annually through the sludge, which can have negative environmental and health implications if sludge is used as biosolid in agriculture. Overall, this study provides a sampling design and analytical protocol to be used to determine the evolution of FR in WWTPs and compares the levels detected, considering that PBDEs are being phased out to be substituted by other compounds which also have high accumulative and recalcitrant properties.

  17. Colloid-Mediated Transport of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products through Porous Media (United States)

    Xing, Yingna; Chen, Xijuan; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Jie


    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength. The presence of colloids promotes the breakthrough of ciprofloxacin (over 90% sorbed on colloids) from ~4% to 30–40%, and the colloid-facilitated effect was larger at lower ionic strength (e.g., 2 mM). In comparison, the net effect of colloids on the transport of tetracycline (~50% sorbed on colloids) could be facilitation or inhibition, depending on solution chemistry. This dual effect of colloids is primarily due to the opposite response of migration of dissolved and colloid-bound tetracycline to the change in solution ionic strength. Colloids could also facilitate the transport of ibuprofen (~10% sorbed on colloids) by ~50% due likely to exclusion of dispersion pathways by colloid straining. This study suggests that colloids are significant carriers or transport promoters of some PPCPs in the subsurface environment and could affect their off-site environmental risks.

  18. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal. (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins


    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed.

  19. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part I: A review of the UK legislative framework. (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N


    Increasing political effort to improve water quality across the UK and Europe has led to water and sewerage companies investing heavily in high-tech wastewater treatment plants capable of producing high quality effluents. Consequently, amounts of bought-in electricity used for wastewater treatment has and will continue to increase significantly over coming years, while greater provision of enhanced sewage treatment also produces greater volumes of sewage sludge requiring treatment and disposal. Over the same period, tougher controls on the quality of biosolids applied to agricultural land have also been introduced, while there has been an international attempt to reduce the use of fossil-fuel derived power sources because of concerns over global warming. The latter has brought about the introduction of financial instruments, such as the Climate Change Levy, to curb energy use, promote energy efficiency and encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. These factors are set to drive-up the costs of providing adequate sewage treatment services, while at the same time, a tough regulatory line taken to control profits on regional monopolies held by the UK water companies will significantly reduce their revenues over the period 2000-05. The result is that, financially, UK water and sewerage companies face their most challenging period since privatisation in 1989. This paper briefly outlines the current regulations relating to water quality and energy use that will affect water company operations over coming years.

  20. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters. (United States)

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C


    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues.

  1. Enhanced Versus Conventional Sludge Anaerobic Processes: Performances and Techno-Economic Assessment. (United States)

    Gianico, Andrea; Bertanza, Giorgio; Braguglia, Camilla M; Canato, Matteo; Gallipoli, Agata; Laera, Giuseppe; Levantesi, Caterina; Mininni, Giuseppe


    Sewage sludge processing is a key issue in water resource recovery facilities due to the inefficacy of conventional treatments to produce high quality biosolids to be safely used in agriculture. Under this framework, the performances of several enhanced stabilization processes, namely ultrasound-pretreated Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (US+MAD), thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), thermal-pretreated TAD (TH+TAD) and ultrasound-pretreated inverse Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (US+iTPAD) have been investigated. Such enhanced processes resulted in higher biogas yields and higher destruction of pathogens with respect to conventional MAD process, thus suggesting their feasibility in full-scale implementation perspectives. A procedure for technical-economic comparison of new sludge processing lines against conventional ones (benchmarking) was developed, based on the definition of technical issues (e.g. reliability, complexity, etc.) which are rated for each situation. Moreover, capital and operating costs were estimated. The enhanced processes analyzed in this work showed some potentially critical items, mainly related to energy balance and reagent consumption.

  2. Ultrasound in environmental engineering. Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, A.; Neis, U. [eds.


    This book presents recent research and state-of-the-art information on the scientific basis, modes of use, and engineering developments of ultrasound application in the field of environmental protection. The information is loosely grouped into the following themes: ultrasound and sonochemistry, design of sonoreactors, applications in water, waste water and sludge treatment: aggregation of suspended particles, degradation of hazardous pollutants, disinfection, disintegration of biosolids. Ultrasound is generated and applied at frequencies from 20 kHz to several MHz. Reactor design, applied intensity, duration of sonication, and physico-chemical parameters of the sonicated media influence ultrasound effects. Thus, ultrasound, at a first glance, is a complex and probably confusing matter. This book has been compiled from presentations held at the first workshop 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' on March 22nd and 23rd, 1999, at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg in cooperation with the German Association for the Water Environment (ATV) and the DECHEMA e.V. (orig.)

  3. Influence of UV Treatment on the Food Safety Status of a Model Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Deepikaa Elumalai


    Full Text Available Few microbial studies in aquaponics, a growing trend in food production, have been conducted to determine food safety status. The aim of this study was to determine the food safety status and the effectiveness of ultraviolet treatment (15 W, luminous flux of 900 lm as a food safety intervention in reducing the microbial loads of the water system in a model aquaponic unit growing lettuce, basil, and barramundi (Australian Sea Bass. Sweet basil, bibb lettuce, water samples, and fish swabs were collected throughout the 118-day production period, and microbial analysis was conducted in triplicate for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and the prevalence of aerobic plate counts (APC, coliforms, and fecal coliforms in these systems. Absence of foodborne pathogens was confirmed using ELISA technology and enumeration through petrifilms (coliform/E. coli. A significant increase was observed in aerobic plate counts over the trial period (1 to 3 log10 CFU·mL−1 in the presence and absence of UV (p > 0.05. Ultraviolet treatment did not significantly reduce the APC or coliform counts when compared to the control system samples. Future work should focus on improving the unit design, the evaluation of bio-solid filtration, and other food safety interventions.

  4. Natural Oxidant Demand Variability, Potential Controls, and Implications for in Situ, Oxidation-Based Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater (United States)

    Dettmer, A.; Cruz, S.; Dungan, B.; Holguin, F. O.; Ulery, A. L.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.


    Naturally occurring reduced species associated with subsurface materials can impose a significant natural oxidant demand (NOD), which is the bulk consumption of oxidants by soil water, minerals, and organic matter. Although injection of oxidants has been used for chemical transformation of organic contaminants, NOD represents a challenge for the in-situ delivery of oxidants as a remediation alternative. Co-injection of complexation agents with oxidants has been proposed to facilitate the delivery of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation remediation of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates variability of NOD for different oxidants and sediments. The effect of the addition of various complexation agents, including EDTA, tween 80, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), humic acid, and four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, on the NOD was also examined. NOD was measured for a clay loam (collected from Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, AZ). Varying amounts of biosolids were mixed with subsamples of the clay loam to create three additional reference soils in order to study the effect of organic matter and other soil characteristics on the NOD. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the NOD for various oxidants, using the four soils, and replicated with and without various delivery agents. Measured NOD showed variability for each soil and oxidant composition. Additionally, significant differences were observed in NOD with the addition of delivery agents. The results support the elucidation of potential controls over NOD and have implications for in situ, oxidation-based remediation of contaminated groundwater.

  5. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari


    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  6. Uptake route and resulting toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Eisenia fetida earthworm exposed through Standard OECD Tests. (United States)

    Garcia-Velasco, Nerea; Gandariasbeitia, Maite; Irizar, Amaia; Soto, Manuel


    Despite the increasing interest in silver nanoparticles toxicity still few works dealt with the hazards of nanosized Ag in soils (either dissolved in pore water or coupled to colloids) although disposal of biosolids in landfills has been reported as the major source of silver nanoparticles in terrestrial environments. Presently, Eisenia fetida was used to assess the toxicity of 5 nm sized PVP-PEI coated silver nanoparticles in soil through the implementation of different exposure media Standard Toxicity Tests (Paper Contact and Artificial Soil -OECD-207- and Reproduction -OECD-222- Tests) together with cellular biomarkers measured in extruded coelomocytes. In order to decipher the mode of action of silver nanoparticles in soil and the uptake routes in earthworms, special attention was given to the Ag accumulation and distribution in tissues. High Ag accumulation rates, weight loss, and mortality due to the disruption of the tegument could be the result of a dermal absorption of Ag ions released from silver nanoparticles (Paper Contact Test). However, autometallography showed metals mainly localized in the digestive tract after Artificial Soil Test, suggesting that Ag uptake occurred mostly through soil ingestion. That is, silver nanoparticles attached to soil colloids seemed to be internalized in earthworms after ingestion of soil and transferred to the digestive gut epithelium where at high doses they have triggered severe effects at different levels of biological complexity.

  7. in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sablayrolles


    Full Text Available Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13 uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg-1 dry matter in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg-1 dry matter for carrot sample (2 g dry matter with good recoveries rate (>90%. Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%.

  8. Municipal composts reduce the transfer of Cd from soil to vegetables. (United States)

    Al Mamun, Shamim; Chanson, Guilhem; Muliadi; Benyas, Ebrahim; Aktar, Munmun; Lehto, Niklas; McDowell, Richard; Cavanagh, Jo; Kellermann, Liv; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett


    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential trace element that accumulates in agricultural soils through the application of Cd-rich phosphate fertiliser. Vegetables can accumulate Cd to concentrations that sometimes exceed food safety standards. We investigated the potential of low-cost soil amendments to reduce Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). Batch sorption experiments revealed the relative sorption of Cd by biosolids, charcoal, lignite, sawdust, two types of compost, bentonite and zeolite. Lignite and compost had the greatest ability to sorb Cd and were subsequently selected for pot trials, which elucidated their effect on Cd uptake by onions, spinach and lettuce in two market garden soils with native Cd concentrations of 1.45 mg/kg and 0.47 mg/kg. The addition of 2.5% (dry w/w) municipal compost reduced the Cd concentration in onions, spinach and lettuce by up to 60% in both soils. The addition of lignite gave variable results, which depended on the soil type and rate of addition. This Cd immobilisation was offset by soil acidification caused by the lignite. The results indicate that municipal compost is a low-cost soil conditioner that is effective in reducing plant Cd uptake.

  9. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements. (United States)

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren


    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system.

  10. Nanoenhanced Materials for Reclamation of Mine Lands and Other Degraded Soils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqiang Liu


    Full Text Available Successful mine soil reclamation facilitates ecosystem recovery, minimizes adverse environmental impacts, creates additional lands for agricultural or forestry uses, and enhances the carbon (C sequestration. Nanoparticles with extremely high reactivity and deliverability can be applied as amendments to improve soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, ensure safe land–application of the conventional amendment materials (e.g., manures and biosolids, and enhance soil erosion control. However, there is no report on using nanoenhanced materials for mine soil reclamation. Through reviewing the up-to-date research results on using environment-friendly nanoparticles for agricultural soil quality improvement and for contaminated soil remediation, this paper synthesizes that these nanomaterials with high potentials for mine soil reclamation include zeolites, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, phosphate-based nanoparticles, iron sulfide nanoparticles and C nanotubes. Transport of these particles in the environment and their possible ecotoxicological effects are also discussed. Additionally, this article proposes a practical and economical approach to applying nanotechnology for mine soil reclamation: adding small amounts of nanoparticles to the conventional soil amendment materials and then applying the mixtures for soil quality improvements. Hence the cost of using nanoparticles is reduced and the benefits of both nanoparticles and the conventional amendment materials are harnessed.

  11. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos


    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  12. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayeda Zahan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW with sewage sludge (SS, that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284±9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS.

  13. High pressure homogenization and two-phased anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas conversion from municipal waste sludge. (United States)

    Wahidunnabi, Abdullahil K; Eskicioglu, Cigdem


    This study compared advanced anaerobic digestion combining two-phased anaerobic digestion (2PAD) with high pressure homogenization (HPH) pretreatment to conventional anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge at laboratory scale. The study began with examination of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) solubilization due to HPH pretreatment at different pressure (0-12,000 psi) and chemical dose (0.009-0.036 g NaOH/g total solids). Homogenizing pressure was found as the most significant factor (p-value production (0.61-1.32 L CH4/Ldigester-d) and VS removals (43-64%). Thermophilic control, 2PAD and HPH + 2PAD systems resulted in significant pathogen removals meeting Class A biosolids requirements according to Organic Matter Recycling Regulations (OMRR) of British Columbia (BC) at 20 d SRT. Energy analysis indicated that all the digestion scenarios attained positive energy balance with 2PAD system operated at 20 d SRT producing the maximum net energy of 4.76 GJ/tonne CODadded.

  14. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo. (United States)

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn


    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  15. Trace Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates: Application in Artificially Polluted Soil—Carrots System (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Treilhou, Michel


    Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products. The risk of incorporation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from biosolids, wastewater, and fertilizers land application to the food chain is being assessed at present by the European Union. In the present work, a complete analytical method for LAS trace determination has been developed and successfully applied to LAS (C10–C13) uptake in carrot plants used as model. These carrots were grown in soil with the trace organics compounds added directly into the plant containers in pure substances form. LAS trace determination (μg kg−1 dry matter) in carrots samples was achieved by Soxtec apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The methodology developed provides LAS determination at low detection limits (5 μg kg−1 dry matter) for carrot sample (2 g dry matter) with good recoveries rate (>90%). Transfer of LAS has been followed into the various parts of the carrot plant. LAS are generally found in the carrot leaves and percentage transfer remains very low (0.02%). PMID:20107562

  16. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E. [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Baron, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jelic, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella; Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Petrovic, Mira [Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University (KSU), P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  17. In situ characterisation of a microorganism surface by Raman microspectroscopy: the shell of Ascaris eggs. (United States)

    Quilès, Fabienne; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Capizzi-Banas, Sandrine


    Intestinal nematodes are very common human parasites and a single species, Ascaris lumbricoïdes, is estimated to infect a quarter of the world's population. A sticky external layer covers their eggs. This work shows that Raman vibrational confocal spectroscopy is able to give information on the biochemical composition of the shell of Ascaris eggs. The biochemical localised characterisation of Ascaris eggs was performed directly on the eggs in their aqueous environment. The studied parasites came from two origins: dissections of adult females and extractions from biosolid sludges. The presence of mucopolysaccharides, proteins and chitin in the shell was demonstrated. The presence of ascaroside compounds was shown particularly via the narrow and intense bands from the organised long CH2 chains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the latter have been observed in Raman vibrational spectra of microorganisms. Hydration of the shell was different depending on the intensity of the colour of the sludge eggs. Knowledge of the biochemical structural properties of egg surfaces would be useful to understand the egg adhesion phenomena on vegetables contaminated by reused wastewater.

  18. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C. Kennedy


    Full Text Available Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals.

  19. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using sewage sludge as an alternative source of nutrients; Biorremediacion de suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos empleando lodos residuales como fuente alterna de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Prado, Adriana [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Perez Lopez, Ma. Elena [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (IPN-CIIDIR) Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico); Pinto Espinoza, Joaquin; Gurrola Nevarez, Blanca Amelia; Osorio Rodriguez, Ana Lilia [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)


    In this research an aerobic bioremediation process, of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated using residual sludge (biosolids) from a local domestic wastewater treatment plant, as an alternative micro and macro nutrient source. Contamination of the soil resulted from accidental spills with hydrocarbons, mainly diesel, gasoline, and residual oils, from the San Antonio mining unit which belongs to Goldcorp Mexico Company, located in Tayoltita, from the municipality of San Dimas, Durango. Laboratory and pilot experiments were conducted, adjusting soil water content to field capacity and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio to 10:1, evaluating the effect of addition of nutrients, density of the material being remediated, and the influence of soil particle size in the remediation process. It was demonstrated that the biosolids stimulated the native microorganisms of the polluted soil; consequently the hydrocarbon degradation process was accelerated. The hydrocarbons were used as carbon and electron donor source, coupling the oxidation-reduction reaction with oxygen which served as the electron acceptor. Treated soil was remediated and reached the maximum permissible limit (MPL), established in the Mexican current regulations (NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SS-2003), at both stages, and it is recommended as an optional process to the mining company to fulfill with the Clean Industry Program. [Spanish] En la presente investigacion se evaluo el proceso de biorremediacion aerobica de un suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos de petroleo empleando lodos residuales (biosolidos), provenientes de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) domesticas de la localidad, como fuente alterna de macro y micronutrientes. La contaminacion del suelo fue resultado de derrames accidentales de diesel, aceite y grasas en la unidad minera San Antonio perteneciente al grupo Goldcorp Mexico, ubicada en el municipio de San Dimas, en Tayoltita, Durango. Se realizaron experimentos a escala

  20. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.


    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  1. The Buoyant Filter Bioreactor: a high-rate anaerobic reactor for complex wastewater--process dynamics with dairy effluent. (United States)

    Haridas, Ajit; Suresh, S; Chitra, K R; Manilal, V B


    A novel high-rate anaerobic reactor, called "Buoyant Filter Bioreactor" (BFBR), has been developed for treating lipid-rich complex wastewater. The BFBR is able to decouple the biomass and insoluble COD retention time from the hydraulic retention time by means of a granular filter bed made of buoyant polystyrene beads. Filter clogging is prevented by an automatic backwash driven by biogas release, which fluidizes the granular filter bed in a downward direction. During filter backwash, the solids captured in the filter are reintroduced into the reaction zone of the reactor. The reaction zone is provided with a mixing system, which is independent of the hydraulic retention time. The performance of a laboratory-scale BFBR was studied for the treatment of dairy effluent, chosen as a model complex wastewater. The dairy effluent was not pre-treated for fat removal. The BFBR was operated over 400 d and showed greater than 85% COD removal at 10 kg COD/(m3/d). The COD conversion to methane in the BFBR was essentially complete. The BFBR performance improved with age, and with feed containing 3200 mg COD/l, the treated effluent had 120 mg COD/l and no turbidity. The hold-up of degradable biosolids, including scum, inside the BFBR was estimated using starvation tests. When load is increased, scum accumulates inside the BFBR and then decays after undergoing change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is explained as the accumulation of fat solids, its conversion to insoluble long chain fatty acids and its further solubilization and degradation.

  2. Environmental risks of applying sewage sludge compost to vineyards: carbon, heavy metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation. (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Dupouyet, Sylvie; Bonin, Gilles


    Biosolids are applied to vineyards to supply organic matter. However, there is concern that this practice can increase the concentration of macronutrients and heavy metals in the soil, some of which can leach. We evaluated the environmental hazard of sewage sludge compost applied in March 1999 at 10, 30, and 90 Mg ha-1 fresh weight in a vineyard in southeastern France. Soil organic matter increased in all plots by 3 g kg-1 18 mo after the amendment. Neither total nor available heavy metal concentrations increased in the soil. Mineral nitrogen (N) in the topsoil of amended plots of 10, 30, and 90 Mg ha-1 increased by 5, 14, and 26 kg (NO3(-)-N + NH4(+)-N) ha-1, respectively, the first summer and by 2, 5, and 10 kg (NO3(-)-N + NH4(+)-N) ha-1, respectively, the second summer compared with controls. At the recommended rate, risks of N leaching is very low, but phosphorus (P) appeared to be the limiting factor. Phosphorus significantly increased only in plots amended with the highest rate in the topsoil and subsoil. At lower rates, although no significant differences were observed, P added was greater than the quantities absorbed by vines. In the long run, P will accumulate in the soil and may reach concentrations that will pose a risk to surface waters and ground water. Therefore, although the current recommended rate (10 Mg ha-1) increased soil organic matter without the risk of N leaching, total sewage sludge loading rates on vineyards should be based on P concentrations.

  3. Application of agro-based biomasses for zinc removal from wastewater - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Mondal, Prejit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)


    Zinc remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to its highly toxic and persistent nature. Conventional treatment technologies for the removal of zinc are not economical and further generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing conventional technologies for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mechanisms involved in the biosorption process include chemisorption, complexation, adsorption-complexation on surface and pores, ion exchange, microprecipitation, heavy metal hydroxide condensation onto the bio surface, and surface adsorption. Biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, the initial metal ion concentration, biomass concentration, presence of various competitive metal ions in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. Biosorption using biomass such as agricultural wastes, industrial residues, municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing waste, aquatic plants, animal wastes, etc., is regarded as a cost-effective technique for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters containing zinc metal. Very few reviews are available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of agro based biomasses used for zinc remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. The purpose of this review article is to provide the scattered available information on various aspects of utilization of the agro based biomasses for zinc metal ions removal. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. These biosorbents can be modified using various methods for better efficiency and multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at industrial scale. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on zinc removal from waste water using agro based biomasses in this review. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Dynamics of elements in soil treated with increasing doses sewage sludge for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Mortatti, Jefferson; Vendramini, Diego; Lopes, Renato A.; Nolasco, Murilo M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis]. E-mail:; Sarries, Gabriel A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail:; Furlan, Adriana [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail:


    In this work the dynamics of the elements was analyzed The, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, In the, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn in a profile of a red-yellow latossolo, in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm, and dose of the biosolid of 0, 25, 124 and 375 t ha{sup -1}, of the station of treatment of sewer of Barueri, Sao Paulo. The experiment was carried out in areas of 3,05 m{sup 2} in the times of 2,2; 4,0; 6,6; 14,3 and 21 months. For analysis of the elementary composition, it was used of the analysis technique by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experiment was submitted under normal tropical conditions in a forest station in Itatinga, Sao Paulo, of the University of Sao Paulo. For better details, the factors depth, doses and times statistical analyses of the results of the elementary composition of the soil samples were made. For all the biossolid doses conditioned with polymeric and applied in the soil, the composition of 17 of the 18 elements in the soil were not altered, with exception for Cr in the studied times. The elements As, Br, Ce, Co, Fe, Hf, La, Sm, Ta, Th, U and Yb presented higher levels in the deepest layers of soil; already the elements Cr, In the, Sb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the superficial layers. (author)

  5. Effect of heavy metals and organic matter on root exudates (low molecular weight organic acids) of herbaceous species: An assessment in sand and soil conditions under different levels of contamination. (United States)

    Montiel-Rozas, M M; Madejón, E; Madejón, P


    Bioavailability of heavy metals can be modified by different root exudates. Among them, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) play an important role in this process. Three plant species (Poa annua, Medicago polymorpha and Malva sylvestris), potentially used for phytoremediation, have been assessed for both metal uptake and LMWOAs excretion in contaminated environments with different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn. The experiments have been carried out in washed sand and in three contaminated soils where two organic amendments were added (biosolid compost and alperujo compost). The most abundant LMWOAs excreted by all studied plants were oxalic and malic acids, although citric and fumaric acids were also detected. The general tendency was that plants responded to an increase of heavy metal stress releasing higher amounts of LMWOAs. This is an efficient exclusion mechanism reducing the metal uptake and allowing the plant growth at high levels of contamination. In the experiment using wash sand as substrate, the organic acids composition and quantity depended mainly on plant species and metal contamination. M. polymorpha was the species that released the highest concentrations of LMWOAs, both in sand and in soils with no amendment addition, whereas a decrease of these acids was observed with the addition of amendments. Our results established a clear effect of organic matter on the composition and total amount of LMWOAs released. The increase of organic matter and nutrients, through amendments, improved the soil quality reducing phytotoxicity. As a result, organic acids exudates decreased and were solely composed of oxalic acid (except for M. polymorpha). The release of LMWOAs has proved to be an important mechanism against heavy metal stress, unique to each species and modifiable by means of organic amendment addition.

  6. Mass Balance Model for Sustainable Phosphorus Recovery in a US Wastewater Treatment Plant. (United States)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Hamdan, Abdul-Hakeem M; Chavez, Vanessa M; Brown, Jasmine D; Halden, Rolf U


    In response to limited phosphorus (P) reserves worldwide, several countries have demonstrated the prospect of recovering significant amounts of P from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This technique uses enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) to concentrate P in sludge followed by chemical precipitation of P as struvite, a usable phosphate mineral. The present study models the feasibility of this enhanced removal and recovery technique in a WWTP in Arizona with design parameters typical of infrastructure in the United States. A mass balance was performed for existing treatment processes and modifications proposed to estimate the quantity of P that could be recovered under current and future flow conditions. Modeling results show that about 71 to 96% of the P being lost potentially could be recovered as struvite. About 491 ± 64 t yr of struvite may be recovered after process modification, which corresponds to $150,000 ± $20,000 yr in P sales to fertilizer industries. The process was projected to be economically feasible, with a payback period of 45 ± 30 yr in the studied WWTP and a much shorter duration of 3 ± 1 yr for WWTPs already using an EBPR process. Furthermore, modeling results suggest that P recovery can improve the quality of biosolids by favorably reducing the P:N ratio. Implementation of this strategy at US WWTPs may increase national security by reducing dependence of limited P resources. Considering all aspects of the recovery process with respect to environmental, economic, and social implications, the examined technique is concluded to represent a cost-attractive and sustainable method for P management in US WWTPs.

  7. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V


    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (<1%) amounts of translocation of silver into the shoot system. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast.

  8. Research Progress in the Phthalate Acid Esters (PAEs) Pollution and Remediation in the Soil of Vegetable Greenhouses in China%我国设施菜地邻苯二甲酸酯污染现状及防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽芝; 陆扣萍; 秦华; 王海龙


    综述了我国设施菜地土壤邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的污染现状及其防治方法,并对未来的研究方向进行了展望.分析表明,我国设施菜地土壤已受到不同程度的污染,对其治理迫在眉睫;不同种类的PAEs在土壤中的分布具有空间和时间规律;设施菜地土壤PAEs主要污染来源为大棚和地膜、污灌、肥料等途径:目前PAEs污染土壤主要通过在土壤中添加堆肥、污泥以及接种降解菌株等方法治理.%The paper reviewed the phthalate acid esters ( PAEs) pollution and remediation methods, and then forecasted its future research direction. As indicated by the analytic results, the vegetation greenhouse soils in China are contaminated to different degrees, and in urgent need for treatment; the different types of PAEs in soils presented spatial and temporal distribution rules; plastic roofing materials, mulching film, and fertilizers are the potential sources of PAEs in greenhouse soils; the PAEs contaminated soils are mainly remediated through the application of compost and bio-solids, and the inoculation with selected PAEs degrading microorganisms.

  9. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.


    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  10. Adsorption and degradation of five selected antibiotics in agricultural soil. (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M


    Large quantities of antibiotics are being added to agricultural fields worldwide through the application of wastewater, manures and biosolids, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks in terrestrial environments. Most studies on the environmental fate of antibiotics focus on aquatic environments or wastewater treatment plants. Little is known about the behavior of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations in agricultural soil. In this study we evaluated the adsorption and degradation of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) in sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Adsorption was highest for tetracycline (Kd, 1093 L/kg), while that for sulfamethazine was negligible (Kd, 1.365 L/kg). All five antibiotics were susceptible to microbial degradation under aerobic conditions, with half-lives ranging from 2.9 to 43.3 d in non-sterilized soil and 40.8 to 86.6 d in sterilized soil. Degradation occurred at a higher rate under aerobic conditions but was relatively persistent under anaerobic conditions. For all the antibiotics, a higher initial concentration was found to slow down degradation and prolong persistence in soil. The degradation behavior of the antibiotics varied in relation to their physicochemical properties as well as the microbial activities and aeration of the recipient soil. The poor adsorption and relative persistence of sulfamethazine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions suggest that it may pose a higher risk to groundwater quality. An equation was proposed to predict the fate of antibiotics in soil under different field conditions, and assess their risks to the environment.

  11. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using biological processes : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, M.; Soreanu, G.; Falletta, P.; Beland, M. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre


    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials, and can be corrosive to internal combustion engines. This study investigated biological H{sub 2}S removal processes with the aim of overcoming the chemical and disposal costs associated with existing chemically-based removal processes. Current biological H{sub 2}S removal processes were reviewed, and research needs for potential process improvements were identified. Processes included photoautotrophs; chemotrophs; bioreactors for H{sub 2}S removal involving phototrophic bacteria; continuous-flow reactors; phototube reactors;