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Sample records for bioremediation research nabir

  1. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  2. Quality Assurance Plan for Field Activities at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.C.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established a Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program Field Research Center (FRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The FRC is located in Bear Creek Valley within the Y-12 Plant area of responsibility on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The NABIR program is a long-term effort designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. The FRC provides a site for investigators in the NABIR program to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. The FRC is integrated with existing and future laboratory and field research and provides a means of examining the biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) documents the quality assurance protocols for field and laboratory activities performed by the FRC staff. It supplements the requirements in the ORNL Nuclear Quality Assurance Program and the ESD Quality Assurance Program. The QAP addresses the requirements in Title 10 CFR, Part 830 Subpart A, ''Quality Assurance Requirements'', using a graded approach appropriate for Research and Development projects based on guidance from ''Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research'' (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). It also supports the NABIR FRC Management Plan (Watson and Quarles 2000a) which outlines the overall procedures, roles and responsibilities for conducting research at the FRC. The QAP summarizes the organization, work activities, and qualify assurance and quality control protocols that will be used to generate scientifically defensible data at the FRC. The QAP pertains to field

  3. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  4. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  5. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book

  6. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes (Editor), Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  7. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  8. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  9. Guidelines A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to help scientists communicate with stakeholders and the public (primarily nonscientists) about fundamental science research. The primary audience for this report is scientists involved in the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the information and insights in the report that are not program-specific should be helpful to scientists in other fundamental science research programs. The report first discusses why scientists should talk to stakeholders and the public, and the challenges associated with discussing the NABIR program. It is observed that communication initiatives can be characterized by three factors: relationships in the social environment, views of what constitutes communication, and accepted forms of communication practices and products. With a focus on informal science communication, recent efforts to gauge public understanding of science and the factors that affect public trust of science institutions are discussed. The social bases for scientist-nonscientist interactions are then examined, including possible sources of distrust and difficulties in transferring discussions of fundamental science from classrooms (where most of the public first learns about science) to public forums. Finally, the report contains specific suggestions for preparing, meeting, and following up on public interactions with stakeholders and the public, including themes common to public discussions of NABIR science and features of scientist-nonscientist interactions observed in interpersonal, small group, and large group interactions between NABIR scientists and stakeholders. A Quick Preparation Guide for Meeting NABIR Stakeholders is provided immediately following the Summary. It condenses some of the information and advice found in the text of the report.

  10. ORD RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORD is conducting research on bioremediation impacting Superfund sites, RCRA facilities, underground storage tanks and oil spills. Work supporting Superfund is focused on understanding monitored natural recovery in sediments for contaminants including PCBs and PAHs. Under RCRA,...

  11. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts January 31-February 2, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Mary (ed.)

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the scientific understanding needed to use natural processes and to develop new methods to accelerate those processes for the bioremediation of contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The program is implemented through seven interrelated scientific research elements (Assessment, Bacterial Transport, Biogeochemical Dynamics, Bimolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation and Biodegradation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology and System Engineering, Integration, Prediction and Optimization); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and concerns of stakeholders through communication and collaboration among all relevant groups, including community leaders and representatives, engineers, scientists, lawyers, etc. The initial emphasis of NABIR program research is on the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides in the subsurface below the root zone, including both thick vadose and saturated zones. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on research funded in FY 1998-2000 by DOE's Office of Science through its Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Sixty-eight projects have been funded in the scientific program elements, and two have been funded in the BASIC program. Abstracts of these programs are summarized in this booklet, along with abstracts of other DOE programs related to research in the NABIR program.

  12. ARSITEKTUR VERNAKULAR NABIRE DAN KONDISI NABIRE PASCA GEMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sri Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural disaster in Nabire in February 2004 and November 2004 has left a noumerous effects on buildings. Many buildings have destroyed because of the terrifying effect of natural disaster which caused a big loss both for material and for the human safety. However, the misapplication of construction and inappropriate choice of material almost cause the terrible damage. After the natural disaster passed, the only left is mostly on the long time needed to build the buildings for people who suffer from the disaster. Because of this problem above, many people usually stay in uncomfortable places such a tend, and this condition creates social and health problems. Concerning the problem above, it is needed to create the "quick built house" which is hopefully can be accepted by the community to cope with the terrifying effect of the natural disaster.In the first year of this research, the data concerning traditional architecture and vernacular architecture in Nabire will be collected. This step will be done in order to understand more detail about all the problem faced and identified all the potential aspects which can be developed to build house for people. The deepest study of vernacular architecture is expected not only to make the house close to the uniqueness of the local activities and culture, but also to make it understandable and built easily by the people/community, because its construction and architecture have become part of their life. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada saat bencana alam di Nabire yang terjadi Februari 2004 dan November 2004, banyak bangunan roboh dan rusak. Kerugian sangat besar dan mengakibatkan kerugian baik material maupun keselamatan manusia. Kerusakan yang parah sering diakibatkan oleh salahnya penerapan konstruksi dan salah dalam pemilihan bahan bangunan. Sementara itu pasca bencana, menyisakan kesulitan berupa lamanya membangun bangunan penampungan korban bencana, sehingga seringkali korban bencana hanya

  13. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  14. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  15. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element

  16. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drell, D.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research, Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Division; Metting, F.B. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wuy, L.D. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

  17. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  18. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  19. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  20. Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Akpor, OB

    2010-01-01

    Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230......Akpor OB and Muchie M. (2010). Bioremediation of polluted wasewaterwater influent: phiosphorus and nitrogen removal. Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5(21), pp. 3222–3230...

  1. Final Technical Report. Factors Controlling In Situ Uranium and Technetium Bio-Reduction and Reoxidation at the NABIR Field Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project was to better understand factors and processes controlling microbially-mediated reduction and reoxidation of U and Tc in the unconsolidated residuum overlying the Nolichucky shale at the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project activities were designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) The small rates of denitrification and U bio-reduction observed in laboratory incubations of sediments from FRC Area 1 at low pH (< 5) are due to the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals (especially Al and Ni). Rates of Tc reduction will also be small at low pH in the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals. (2) In situ rates of U and perhaps Tc bio-reduction can be increased by increasing system pH and thus precipitating toxic metals from solution. (3) In situ rates of U and Tc bio-reduction can be increased by the addition of humic substances, which complex toxic metals such as Al and Ni, buffer pH, and serve as electron shuttles to facilitate U and Tc reduction. (4) Microbially-reduced U and Tc are rapidly oxidized in the presence of high concentrations of NO3- and the denitrification intermediates NO2-, N2O, and NO. (5) An electron-donor-addition strategy (type and form of donor, with or without pH adjustment and with or without the co-addition of humic substances) can be devised to reduce U and Tc concentrations for an extended period of time in low pH groundwater in the presence of high concentrations of NO3-, Al, and Ni. This strategy operates by removing or complexing these components of FRC groundwater to allow the subsequent reduction of U(VI) and Tc(VII)

  2. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into

  3. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  4. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  5. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  6. Bioremediation of oil spills: A review of challenges for research advancement

    OpenAIRE

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Rees, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for liquid petroleum increases, the need for reliable and efficient oil spill clean-up techniques is inevitable. Bioremediation is considered one of the most sustainable clean-up techniques but the potential has not been fully exploited in the field because it is too slow to meet the immediate demands of the environment. This study reviews the challenges to managing oil spills in terrestrial and marine environments to identify areas that require further research. Current challen...

  7. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into

  8. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report - DE-FG02-06ER64172 - Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field

  10. Fungi in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Bioremediation research has concentrated on organic pollutants, although the range of substances that can be transformed or detoxified by microorganisms includes both natural and synthetic organic materials and inorganic pollutants. The majority of applications developed to date involve bacteria, with a distinct lack of appreciation of the potential roles and involvement of fungi in bioremediation, despite clear evidence of their metabolic and morphological versatility. This book highlights the potential of filamentous fungi, including mycorrhizas, in bioremediation and discusses the physiology and chemistry of pollutant transformations.

  11. BIOREMEDIATION TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation encompasses a collection of technologies which use microbes to degrade or transform contaminants. Three technologies have an established track record of acceptable performance: aerobic bioventing for fuels; enhanced reductive dechlorination for chlorinated solvent...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  13. Research and transference of the ICES over Malargue, Mendoza, uranium bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the International Center for Earth Sciences (ICES) dates back to 2002 when the Acoustic Emission Station on Volcano Peteroa was installed. Up to now, it represents the first of its kind in the entire Andean Cordillera. This scientific activity is jointly coordinated by scientists from Italy and Argentina. At the First Conference on Acoustic Emission held on 2004, a letter of intent for the establishment of ICES was signed. Presently, ICES is composed by 4 departments: Environment and Climate; Anthropology; Environmental and Territorial Environmental Risk; Resources and Exploration Geophysics. One of the primary objectives of ICES is to promoting applied research and development in the broad field of Earth Sciences. The experimental work consists of main 4 steps listed below: The 'Helianthus annus' (sunflower) has proven its ability to raise Uranium (U) in hydroponic systems and was widely used in the model U rizophyiltration extraction of groundwater in Ashtabula, Ohio, USA. Hydroponic trial design consists of 6 treatments and 4 repetitions plants witnesses without minimum level of U, U witnesses plants without and 4 with various levels of U (Stage 1). The Glomus intraradices is a mycorrhizal fungus used in strategies of U phyto-stabilization. Test consists in the cultivation of sunflower with roots inoculated with Glomus intraradices to determine their uptake and translocation of U (Stage 2). The inoculation of 'Glomus intraradices' in 'Helianthus annus' produces an effective symbiosis with the type of strain and its genetic diversity, some genotypes are highly suitable for this. There have been experiences of this kind in the basic research in several countries. In this work, we use the system in 'Helianthus-Glomus' phyto-stabilization or rizophyiltration soil as a strategy for bioremediation of U at the Malargue area, Province of Mendoza (Stage 3). It will launch a pilot test of the transfer plan, which involves creating a garden for the growth of

  14. 重金属镉污染生物修复的研究进展%Research Progress of Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Cadmium Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春文; 罗秀云; 田云; 卢向阳

    2013-01-01

    The present situation and main harm of cadmium pollution are overviewed,and then the research progress of bioremediation of cadmium pollution is summarized.The latest research progress of cadmium hyperaccumulation plants and microorganisms for adsorbing cadmium are especially reviewed.The bioremediation application prospect and the future research direction for bioremediation of cadmium pollution are systemtically elaborated.%概述了镉污染的现状及其主要危害,综述了镉污染生物修复的研究进展,特别是镉超富集植物和吸附镉微生物筛选的最新研究进展,系统阐述了镉污染生物修复的应用前景和今后的研究方向.

  15. Cometabolic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-15

    Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.

  16. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  17. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  18. Phytoremediation and bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): state of knowledge and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Laura; Rossetti, Simona; Juwarkar, Asha A; Massacci, Angelo

    2014-08-15

    This review summarizes the bioremediation and phytoremediation technologies proposed so far to detoxify PCB-contaminated sites. A critical analysis about the potential and limits of the PCB pollution treatment strategies by means of plants, fungi and bacteria are elucidated, including the new insights emerged from recent studies on the rhizosphere potential and on the implementation of simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes. The review describes the biodegradation and phytoremediation processes and elaborates on the environmental variables affecting contaminant degradation rates, summarizing the amendments recommended to enhance PCB degradation. Additionally, issues connected with PCB toxicology, actual field remediation strategies and economical evaluation are discussed.

  19. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution. A number of allied technologies are also considered. The basic technology in bioremediation involves adding fertilizers to an oil spill to enhance the natural process of oil biodegradation. Bioremediation can be applied to open systems such as beach or land spills, or in closed and controlled environments such as storage containers, specially constructed or modified bioreactors, and cargo tanks. The major advantage of using closed environments is the opportunity to control the physical and nutritional parameters to optimize the rate of biodegradation. An evaluation of the state of the art of bioremediation in Canada is also included. Recommendations are made to involve the Canadian Transportation Development Centre in short-term research projects on bioremediation. These projects would include the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor for the treatment of off-loaded oily waste products, the use of in-situ bioremediation to carry out extensive cleaning, degassing, and sludge remediation on board an oil tanker, and the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor and facility for the bioremediation of bilges. 51 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Performance Indicators for Uranium Bioremediation in the Subsurface: Basis and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-12-29

    The purpose of this letter report is to identify performance indicators for in situ engineered bioremediation of subsurface uranium (U) contamination. This report focuses on in situ treatment of groundwater by biostimulation of extant in situ microbial populations (see http://128.3.7.51/NABIR/generalinfo/primers_guides/03_NABIR_primer.pdf for background information on bioremediation of metals and radionuclides). The treatment process involves amendment of the subsurface with an electron donor such as acetate, lactate, ethanol or other organic compound such that in situ microorganisms mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). U(VI) precipitates as uraninite or other insoluble U phase. Uranium is thus immobilized in place by such processes and is subject to reoxidation that may remobilize the reduced uranium. Related processes include augmenting the extant subsurface microbial populations, addition of electron acceptors, and introduction of chemically reducing materials such as zero-valent Fe. While metrics for such processes may be similar to those for in situ biostimulation, these related processes are not directly in the scope of this letter report.

  1. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  2. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. PMID:26008965

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  4. Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-09-01

    Bioremediation refers to cost-effective and environment-friendly method for converting the toxic, recalcitrant pollutants into environmentally benign products through the action of various biological treatments. Fungi play a major role in bioremediation owing to their robust morphology and diverse metabolic capacity. The review focuses on different fungal groups from a variety of habitats with their role in bioremediation of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds; persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, effluents from textile, bleached kraft pulp, leather tanning industries, petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and pesticides. Bioremediation of toxic organics by fungi is the most sustainable and green route for cleanup of contaminated sites and we discuss the multiple modes employed by fungi for detoxification of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds including prominent fungal enzymes viz., catalases, laccases, peroxidases and cyrochrome P450 monooxygeneses. We have also discussed the recent advances in enzyme engineering and genomics and research being carried out to trace the less understood bioremediation pathways.

  5. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  6. 生物修复高氯酸盐污染的研究进展%Research advance in bioremediation technology of perchlorate contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海硕; 陈桂葵; 黎华寿

    2012-01-01

    生物修复技术是目前高氯酸盐污染环境整治的最具潜力的修复技术之一,具有成本低、无二次污染的特点,是国内外一个新的研究热点,亦是仅见的污染控制及修复的环境友好技术.介绍了环境中高氯酸盐污染的来源与分布,阐述了生物修复(主要包括植物修复和微生物修复)的特点及作用机制,认识到2种类型修复技术各有其优劣势;重点综述了生物修复高氯酸盐污染的国内外研究现状,得出植物根际降解对植物修复高氯酸盐起着十分重要作用,而微生物修复是目前最有希望获得大规模应用的高氯酸盐污染修复技术;最后提出了植物微生物联合强化修复高氯酸盐污染的技术将更具应用前景.%Bioremediation is the most potential technologies in perchlorate contamination remediation. As the only environmentally friendly remediation technologies so far, bioremediation technology had the advantage of low cost and no secondary pollution,it become a new research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper introduced the source and distribution of perchlorate contamination,described the characteristics and mechanism of bioremediation technology (mainly included phytoremediation and microbial remediation) in perchlorate contamination remediation; the advantages and disadvantages of these two bioremediation techniques was summarized and compared. The research status of perchlorate contamination bioremediation was reviewed. It was found that plant rhizosphere degradation played an important role in phytoremediation;microbial remediation was the most hopeful technology for large-scale application in perchlorate pollution remediation. The phyto-microbial strengthen remediation technology was put forward; it would had more application prospects in perchlorate contamination remeditation.

  7. Bioremediation:A review of applications and problems to be resolved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qixing; HUA Tao

    2004-01-01

    This review article describes the factors affecting bioremediation processes including: goals of bioremediation and the optimal ecological conditions required; inoculation of microorganisms; cometabolism; bioavailability and its improvement; biological evolution and its utilization;monitoring and control of bioremediation processes; identification of bioremediation effectiveness and ecological remediation and its key elements. The current progress in bioremediation techniques is summarized. The direction of future development, research and applications is also examined.

  8. Pilot-Scale In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium in a Highly Contaminated Aquifer. 1. Conditioning of a Treatment Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potential for in situ bioremediation of U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV), we constructed a pilot test facility at Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. The facility is adjacent to the former S-3 Ponds which received trillions of liters of acidic plating wastes. High levels of uranium are present, with up to 800 mg kg-1 in the soil and 84-210 (micro)M in the groundwater. Ambient groundwater has a highly buffered pH of ∼3.4 and high levels of aluminum (12-13 mM), calcium (22-25 mM), and nitrate (80-160 mM). Adjusting the pH of groundwater to ∼5 within the aquifer would deposit extensive aluminum hydroxide precipitate. Calcium is present in the groundwater at levels that inhibit U(VI) reduction, but its removal by injection of a high pH solution would generate clogging precipitate. Nitrate also inhibits U(VI) reduction and is present at such high concentrations that its removal by in situ denitrification would generate large amounts of N2 gas and biomass. To establish and maintain hydraulic control, we installed a four well recirculation system parallel to geologic strike, with an inner loop nested within an outer loop. For monitoring, we drilled three boreholes perpendicular to strike across the inner loop and installed multilevel sampling tubes within them. A tracer pulse with clean water established travel times and connectivity between wells and enabled the assessment of contaminant release from the soil matrix. Subsequently, a highly conductive region of the subsurface was prepared for biostimulation by removing clogging agents and inhibitors and increasing pH. For 2 months, groundwater was pumped from the hydraulically conductive zone; treated to remove aluminum, calcium, and nitrate, and supplemented with tap water; adjusted to pH 4.3-4.5; then returned to the hydraulically conductive zone. This protocol removed most of the aqueous

  9. 水环境生物修复技术作用机理及研究进展%Advances in researches on the bioremediation technoIogy for contaminated water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韦丽; 罗欢; 蒋然

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of bioremediation technology was sys-tematically presented via microbial remediation, phytoremediation and animal remediation. Researches status of bioremediation technology for different pollutants treatment was expatiated on. The difficulties in-volved in application of bioremediation and the suggestions for future development were put forward.%从微生物修复、植物修复和动物修复三个方面系统介绍了生物修复技术的作用原理,阐述了生物修复技术治理水中不同污染物的研究现状,并提出目前存在的问题和今后发展的建议。

  10. Research Progress in Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil%土壤污染的生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程芳; 亓恒振; 孙俊玲

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination has become a serious problem in our country. This paper reviews the research developments and new methods applications in bioremediation. Trends and perspectives of soil remediation are also introduced. We hope this review could be beneficial to further research in this area.%土壤污染已经成为我国当前面临的一个严重的环境问题。本文综述了国内外土壤污染生物修复技术的研究现状,总结了该领域内新技术的应用,并展望了土壤污染修复技术的发展趋势,以期为今后这方面的研究提供参考。

  11. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2000-07-01

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs.

  12. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  13. 环境生物修复技术的研究进展综述%Research Progress in Environmental Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡毕斯哈拉图

    2015-01-01

    Focused on environmental bioremediation technology , this paper introduces the present situation of ecological envi-ronment in China, discusses the advantages in the control environmental pollution aspect as well as the progress of environmental biological technology, including contaminated soil bioremediation technology, water environment pollution of bioremediation, the biological treatment and elimination of white pollution and biological flue gas desulfurization method .Biological technology has at-tracted great attention from scholars in related fields thanks to its advantages in environmental pollution control.In the joint efforts of governments and related research institutions around the world, the research on the theory and technology has made great a-chievements in recent years.This paper introduced biological technology in the field of pollution control and environmental restora-tion technology progress.%针对环境生物修复技术的研究,介绍了中国生态环境现状,论述了在治理环境污染方面的优点,探讨了环境生物技术的进展,包括污染土壤的生物修复技术、水环境污染的生物修复、白色污染的生物处理和消除和生物烟气脱硫法,由于生物技术对于环境污染治理具有优势,引起相关领域学者的极大关注。在世界各国政府和相关研究机构的共同努力下,近年来理论和技术研究取得了巨大的成绩。本文就生物技术在污染治理与环境恢复方面的技术进步进行了介绍。

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is being increasingly seen as an effective environmentally benign treatment for shorelines contaminated as a result of marine oil spills. Despite a relatively long history of research on oil-spill bioremediation, it remains an essentially empirical technology and m...

  15. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  16. Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-09-01

    Bioremediation refers to cost-effective and environment-friendly method for converting the toxic, recalcitrant pollutants into environmentally benign products through the action of various biological treatments. Fungi play a major role in bioremediation owing to their robust morphology and diverse metabolic capacity. The review focuses on different fungal groups from a variety of habitats with their role in bioremediation of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds; persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, effluents from textile, bleached kraft pulp, leather tanning industries, petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and pesticides. Bioremediation of toxic organics by fungi is the most sustainable and green route for cleanup of contaminated sites and we discuss the multiple modes employed by fungi for detoxification of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds including prominent fungal enzymes viz., catalases, laccases, peroxidases and cyrochrome P450 monooxygeneses. We have also discussed the recent advances in enzyme engineering and genomics and research being carried out to trace the less understood bioremediation pathways. PMID:27407289

  17. IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA G4 PR1: ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY PARAMETERS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of bacteria into aquifers for bioremediation purposes requires monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial populations for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expresses a toluene ortho-monooxygenase (tom) ...

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF LOW GRADE ORES

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra*

    2016-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is on a Bioremediation for the recovery of zinc from mining waste i.e. Low grade ore of Hindustan Zinc Limited. They are waste product for the mines, as the recovery process is expensive compared to the recovery product moreover it causes lots of pollution   Bioleaching Studies were carried out at different pH using mixed culture grown from mine water. Recovery of zinc in control set (without culture) was 8% in 37 days and at the same pH ...

  20. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  1. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  2. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  3. Influence of Reactive Transport on the Reduction of U(VI) in the Presence of Fe(III) and Nitrate: Implications for U(VI) Immobilization by Bioremediation/Biobarriers - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsurface contamination by metals and radionuclides represent some of the most challenging remediation problems confronting the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. In situ remediation of these contaminants by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) has been proposed as a potential cost effective remediation strategy. The primary focus of this research is to determine the mechanisms by which the fluxes of electron acceptors, electron donors, and other species can be controlled to maximize the transfer of reductive equivalents to the aqueous and solid phases. The proposed research is unique in the NABIR portfolio in that it focuses on (i) the role of flow and transport in the initiation of biostimulation and the successful sequestration of metals and radionuclides [specifically U(VI)], (ii) the subsequent reductive capacity and stability of the reduced sediments produced by the biostimulation process, and (iii) the potential for altering the growth of biomass in the subsurface by the addition of specific metabolic uncoupling compounds. A scientifically-based understanding of these phenomena are critical to the ability to design successful bioremediation schemes. The laboratory research will employ Shewanella putrefaciens (CN32), a facultative DMRB that can use Fe(III) oxides as a terminal electron acceptor. Sediment-packed columns will be inoculated with this organism, and the reduction of U(VI) by the DMRB will be stimulated by the addition of a carbon and energy source in the presence of Fe(III). Separate column experiments will be conducted to independently examine: (1) the importance of the abiotic reduction of U(VI) by biogenic Fe(II); (2) the influence of the transport process on Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization, with emphasis on methods for controlling the fluxes of aqueous species to maximize uranium reduction; (3) the reductive capacity of biologically-reduced sediments (with respect to re-oxidation by convective fluxes of O2 and NO3-) and

  4. Influence of Reactive Transport on the Reduction of U(VI) in the Presence of Fe(III) and Nitrate: Implications for U(VI) Immobilization by Bioremediation / Biobarriers- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.D. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by metals and radionuclides represent some of the most challenging remediation problems confronting the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. In situ remediation of these contaminants by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) has been proposed as a potential cost effective remediation strategy. The primary focus of this research is to determine the mechanisms by which the fluxes of electron acceptors, electron donors, and other species can be controlled to maximize the transfer of reductive equivalents to the aqueous and solid phases. The proposed research is unique in the NABIR portfolio in that it focuses on (i) the role of flow and transport in the initiation of biostimulation and the successful sequestration of metals and radionuclides [specifically U(VI)], (ii) the subsequent reductive capacity and stability of the reduced sediments produced by the biostimulation process, and (iii) the potential for altering the growth of biomass in the subsurface by the addition of specific metabolic uncoupling compounds. A scientifically-based understanding of these phenomena are critical to the ability to design successful bioremediation schemes. The laboratory research will employ Shewanella putrefaciens (CN32), a facultative DMRB that can use Fe(III) oxides as a terminal electron acceptor. Sediment-packed columns will be inoculated with this organism, and the reduction of U(VI) by the DMRB will be stimulated by the addition of a carbon and energy source in the presence of Fe(III). Separate column experiments will be conducted to independently examine: (1) the importance of the abiotic reduction of U(VI) by biogenic Fe(II); (2) the influence of the transport process on Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization, with emphasis on methods for controlling the fluxes of aqueous species to maximize uranium reduction; (3) the reductive capacity of biologically-reduced sediments (with respect to re-oxidation by convective fluxes of O2 and NO3-) and

  5. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  6. 放射性污染土壤生物修复的研究进展%Research advances review over the bioremediation of soil contaminated by radionuclide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷; 张晓文; 吕俊文; 唐东山; 陈亮

    2011-01-01

    土壤中放射性核素主要为天然来源和人为来源.而人为来源主要包括核试验、核武器制造、核能生产、核事故、放射性同位素的生产应用和矿物的开采冶炼等.综述了放射性核素污染土壤的植物修复、菌根修复、微生物修复等生物修复技术的研究进展,侧重探讨了这3种修复技术的协同作用,并对其研究的发展方向及今后的应用前景进行了讨论.%The present paper would like to give a general revision of research advances on the bioremediation of soil contaminated by ra-dionuclide. As the nuclear industry has been developing fast, the ra-dionuclide in the soil has become one of the major factors threatening human health and eco-toxicology. And, in turn, it has been found from the research channels that the rqain sources of the radionuclide pollution in the soil are coming from the nuclear tests, nuclear weapons production, the energy production of the nuclear power stations, nuclear accidents, as well as the production and application of radioisotopes and refining and application of minerals. It is just for the above reasons that we believe it necessary to point out the ever more great significance of such research advances in helping to reclaim the contaminated land soil and then illustrate some more effective and efficient new pollution-reducing and -removing techniques. Among them, the bioremediation technology is universally considered to be safest and most reliable. What is more, it also enjoys the obvious technological advantages of low cost, subtle disturbance on the environment with its capability of removing pollutants from the surrounding conditions of soil or water along with the radioactive contaminations. In addition, we also think it worthwhile to make a review of their new research advances, such as, phytoremediation, microbial remediation and mycorhiza remediation technologies. In spite of this, we would also like to put our emphasis on the limitations

  7. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  8. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  9. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  10. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  11. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils: A recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbach, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation of land crude oil and lube oil spills is an effective and economical option. Other options include road spreading (where permitted), thermal desorption, and off-site disposal. The challenge for environment and operations managers is to select the best approach for each remediation site. Costs and liability for off-site disposal are ever increasing. Kerr-McGee`s extensive field research in eastern and western Texas provides the data to support bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical, bioremediation also offers a lower risk of, for example, Superfund clean-up exposure than off-site disposal.

  12. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs

  13. PAHs污染土壤生物修复强化技术研究进展%Research progress in enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 李海波; 孙铁珩; 胡筱敏

    2011-01-01

    为提高生物修复多环芳烃(PAHs)污染土壤的效率,从PAHs生物修复的原理和强化措施出发,综述了PAHs污染土壤生物修复的物理化学强化技术和生物强化技术,分析了各种技术的原理与适用条件,提出了植物强化微生物修复是PAHs污染土壤生物修复的重要发展方向.在进行强化修复的过程中,要注重现场应用和安全性评价.%This paper is aimed to present a general review on the enhanced measures to the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known as a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and more than 90% of PAHs present in the soil, which are toxic to the environment and pose as a hazard in food chain to human health.Bioremediation technology is the primary method to treat the PAHs contaminated soil and the enhanced measures of bioremediation treatment are essential to improve the degradation rate and adapt to the needs of field application. Referring to the reported literature at home and abroad in recent years, this paper comes out with a detail introduction and discussion on the principles and application of physicalchemical and biological based enhancement. The enhanced measures of physical-chemical included the application of surfactants, nutrient addition and co-metabolic substrate addition as well as the electron acceptors addition and utilization of chemical oxidants. The enhanced measures of bioremediation included the addition of highly efficient PAH-degrading bacteria and immobilization of bacteria, utilization of mycorrhizal fungi and application of bio-surfactants. The combined remediation of phytoremediation and microorganism on the PAHs conlaminated soil is an important direction of development and field application technology. At the same time, safety evaluation in the process of enhanced bioremediation is necessary in order to avoid new pollution and other security risks to

  14. GRACE BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES - DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil’s ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to micro...

  15. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: laboratory to field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplock, E E; Mardlin, D P; Killham, K S; Paton, G I

    2009-06-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. PMID:19232804

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  17. Mechanisms of mercury bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, A M M; Macaskie, L E; Brown, N L

    2002-08-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals, and has significant industrial and agricultural uses. These uses have led to severe localized mercury pollution. Mercury volatilization after its reduction to the metallic form by mercury-resistant bacteria has been reported as a mechanism for mercury bioremediation [Brunke, Deckwer, Frischmuth, Horn, Lunsdorf, Rhode, Rohricht, Timmis and Weppen (1993) FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 11, 145-152; von Canstein, Timmis, Deckwer and Wagner-Dobler (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 5279-5284]. The reduction/volatilization system requires to be studied further, in order to eliminate the escape of the metallic mercury into the environment. Recently we have demonstrated three different mechanisms for mercury detoxification in one organism, Klebsiella pneumoniae M426, which may increase the capture efficiency of mercury.

  18. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  19. Bioremediation of PAHs and VOCs: Advances in clay mineral-microbial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Bioremediation is an effective strategy for cleaning up organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Advanced bioremediation implies that biotic agents are more efficient in degrading the contaminants completely. Bioremediation by microbial degradation is often employed and to make this process efficient, natural and cost-effective materials can serve as supportive matrices. Clay/modified clay minerals are effective adsorbents of PAHs/VOCs, and readily available substrate and habitat for microorganisms in the natural soil and sediment. However, the mechanism underpinning clay-mediated biodegradation of organic compounds is often unclear, and this requires critical investigation. This review describes the role of clay/modified clay minerals in hydrocarbon bioremediation through interaction with microbial agents in specific scenarios. The vision is on a faster, more efficient and cost-effective bioremediation technique using clay-based products. This review also proposes future research directions in the field of clay modulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbons.

  20. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-02-14

    sites, overall bioremediation of trace metals was highly sensitive to the formulation of the denitrification process. Simulations were performed to illustrate the effect of biostimulation on the transport and precipitation of uranium in the subsurface, at conditions equivalent to UMTRA sites. These simulations predicted that uranium would precipitate in bands that are located relatively close to the acetate injection well. The simulations also showed the importance of properly determining U(IV) oxidative dissolution rates, in order to assess the stability of precipitates once oxygenated water reenters the aquifer after bioremediation is discontinued. The objective of this project was to provide guidance to NABIR's Systems Integration Element, on the development of models to simulate the bioremediation of trace metals and radionuclides. Such models necessarily need to integrate hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological processes. In order to gain a better understanding of the key processes that such a model should contain, it was deemed desirable to convene a workshop with experts from these different fields. The goal was to obtain a preliminary consensus on the required level of detail for the formulations of these different chemical, physical, and microbiological processes. The workshop was held on December 18, 1998.

  1. Genomic and physiological perspectives on bioremediation processes at the FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Erick; Leigh, Mary Beth; Hemme, Christopher; Gentry, Terry; Harzman, Christina; Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.; Zhou, Jizhong; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-04-05

    A suite of molecular and physiological studies, including metal reduction assays, metagenomics, functional gene microarrays and community sequence analyses were applied to investigate organisms involved in bioremediation processes at the ERSP Field Research Center and to understand the effects of stress on the makeup and evolution of microbial communities to inform effective remediation strategies.

  2. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  3. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, G.R.; McCabe, G.H.; White, K.A.; Gajewski, S.W.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Jaksch, J.A.; Kirwan-Taylor, H.A.; McKinney, M.D.

    1996-09-01

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment.

  4. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment

  5. Bioremediation of oil on shoreline environments: development of techniques and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 20 years, the development of operational procedures to accelerate the natural biodegradation rates of oil spilled on shoreline environments has been the focus of numerous research programs. As a result, bioremediation has been demonstrated to be an effective oil spill countermeasure for use in cobble, sand beach, salt marsh, and mudflat environments. Today, studies are directed towards improving the efficacy and evaluating the ecological impacts of available bioremediation agents and/or procedures. This review describes the latest developments in bioremediation strategies and their key success factors. (author)

  6. 典型POPs的生物降解修复技术研究与发展%Research and development of bioremediation technology for persistent organic pollutants degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海珍; 韦朝海; 周盛

    2012-01-01

    engineered bacteria composed of multi-plasmids that are capable of degrading different pollutants due to the change of metabolic pathway; (iii) the technique of enzyme immobilization using carriers for improving enzyme stability, recycling and reuse; and (iv) the construction of biodegradation enzymes by subunit molecular replacement, enzyme-directed mutagenesis, and in vitro evolution of enzymes. In addition, the principles for improving POPs bioremediation by molecular biology are analyzed. The obstacles for the practical application of the genetically engineered microorganisms and immobilized enzymes are presented. Based on the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) degradation as a typical case of bioremediation of POPs, it is stressed that it is necessary to establish multi-scale functions for the strengthen of biodegradation process. The fundamental scientific issues to resolve POPs pollution problems by the combination of molecular biology and genetic engineering are also proposed. This means that the typical POPs bioremediation techniques emphasize the need to build a synergic degradation theory for degradation of both POPs and macro-pollutants, and the pursuit of more functions with respect to the gene level, molecular level, reactor level and project level.

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms:Research advance%低温微生物修复石油烃类污染土壤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世杰; 王翔; 卢桂兰; 汪群慧; 李发生; 郭观林

    2011-01-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms. bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g. , inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants. and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field,aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.%耐冷菌、嗜冷菌等低温微生物广泛存在于极地、高山以及高纬度等土壤环境中,是石油烃类污染物在低温条件下降解与转化的重要微生物资源.利用低温微生物的独特优势,石油污染土壤的低温生物修复技术的研究成为当前热点领域.本文系统综述了低温石油烃降解菌的分类及冷适机制,低温微生物对不同类型石油烃组分的降解特征和降解机理,低温环境中接种降解菌、添加营养物质和表面活性剂等强化技术在石油污染土壤中生物修复的应用.以及微生物分子生物学技术在低温微生物降解石油烃的研究现状,为拓展我国石油污染土壤生物修复技术提供参考.

  8. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  9. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  10. Role of Microbial Enzymes in the Bioremediation of Pollutants: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Karigar, Chandrakant S.; Rao, Shwetha S.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants have been reported to be involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. Bioremediation is a cost effective and nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes. The research activity in this area would contribute towards developing advanced bioprocess technology to reduce the toxicity of the pollutants and also to obtain novel useful substances. The information on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related...

  11. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  12. 石油污染湿地土壤生物修复研究进展%Research Progress on Bioremediation of Petroleum-contaminated Soils in Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚兴艳; 于君宝; 王雪宏; 谢文军; 韩广轩; 马向明; 陈景春; 林乾欣

    2012-01-01

    plant and microbial. Therefore, It would be become the future focus of the bioremediation study for petroleum-contaminated soils in wetlands that lowering petroleum pollution concentrations within the biodegradable scope of plants and microbial and improving the efficiency of the degradation of combined plants and microbial.

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  14. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  15. Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    R.S Peixoto; A.B. Vermelho; A.S. Rosado

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specific...

  16. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs

  17. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  18. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  19. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  20. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  1. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  2. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  3. 砷污染土壤的生物修复研究进展%Research Advance in Bioremediation of Soil Polluted by Arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金红

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the research advance in the microbial remediation, phytoremediation and plant - microbial remediation of soil polluted by arsenic at home and abroad was summarized, and the existing problems and the developmental prospects in this field in the future were analyzed.%综述了国内外对砷污染土壤微生物修复、植物修复及微生物-植物修复技术的应用等方面的研究进展,并对该领域存在的问题和今后的发展趋势作了具体的分析.

  4. Solvent enhanced bioremediation of weathered oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a novel bioremediation process for the treatment of oil spills on land. The method was developed specifically to deal with long term oil contamination where the volatile fractions have evaporated leaving the more recalcitrant fractions. A model system of sand and Kuwaiti crude oil was used to test the system. A combined treatment which introduced an additional solvent component was found to enhance mobility and availability of oil, enhancing bioremediation. (author)

  5. Research Progress of Environmental Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution%重金属污染的环境生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐枫; 李建洲; 雷继雨

    2012-01-01

    The research progress on the phytoremediation, microbial remediation, and phyto-microbial remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils and waters was discussed in this paper, with the advantages and limitations compared. Moreover, some applications of remediation were enumerated as the references for the demonstration projects and industrialization of heavy metal pollution treatment.%介绍了植物修复、微生物修复、植物-微生物联合修复重金属污染土壤与水体的研究进展,并对这些修复方法的优势和局限进行了比较,同时例举了多个修复案例,可为重金属污染治理示范工程和产业化提供参考.

  6. 城市河流生物修复技术的研究进展%Research Progress of Bioremediation Technology of Pollution in Urban River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许列峰; 陈婕; 邵之剑

    2013-01-01

    城市河流的污染严重影响市容和居住环境,已成为人们重点关注的环境问题之一.结合国内外河道治理现状,重点评述了微生物修复技术、植物修复技术、人工浮岛、人工湿地等生物修复技术的研究进展,并展望今后河道治理技术的重点发展方向.%Urban rivers pollution seriously affect city appearance and residential environment, which has become one of people focusing environmental issues. Combined with control status of rivers at home and abroad, the research pogress of microbial remediation technology, phy-toremediation technology, artificial floating island, artificial wetlands were reviewed, and the development direction of remediation technology was forecasted.

  7. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

  8. Research Advances of the Effects of Environmental Copper Pollution and Bioremediation of Cu--Contaminated Soil%环境铜污染影响及修复的研究现状综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵英; 李维; 陈顺德; 葛方兰; 曾礼华; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    Copper has become one of the main elements of heavy metal contamination of environment. This paper summaries the research advances of the impacts of Cu pollution on biology(including plant, animal and microbe). The current study of the impacts of Cu pollution on high--grade plants focuses on growth index, photosynthesis, cytoarchitecture, cell division, enzyme system and absorption of other nutrient element; there are many studies about the impacts of high concentration Cu on high--grade animals, mentally on performance index, important copper enzyme, metabolic enzyme and the change of the structure and function of important histoorgan; the study of the impacts of Cu pollution on microbes focuses on microbial biomass and microbial community structure. And some measures of reducing Cu pollution and bioremedi- ation o{ Cu--contaminated soil are also discussed.%综述了铜污染对不同生物(包括植物、动物、土壤微生物)影响的研究现状,指出了Cu污染对高等植物毒害作用的研究目前主要集中在对植物生长指标、光合作用、细胞结构、细胞分裂、酶系统和其他营养元素的吸收上;高Cu对高等动物毒害作用的研究非常多,目前主要集中在对动物生产性能、体内重要的铜酶、代谢酶及重要组织器官结构功能的影响;Cu污染对土壤微生物影响的研究主要集中在微生物量及微生物群落结构的变化。探讨了尽量减少铜污染和进行修复的措施。

  9. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  10. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  11. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  12. A geometric construction of traveling waves in a bioremediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, M.; Doelman, A.; Kaper, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for cleaning contaminated soil. We study an idealized bioremediation model involving a substrate (contaminant to be removed), electron acceptor (added nutrient), and microorganisms in a one-dimensional soil column. Using geometric singular perturbation theory,

  13. A geometric construction of traveling waves in a bioremediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beck; A. Doelman; T.J. Kaper

    2006-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for cleaning contaminated soil. We study an idealized bioremediation model involving a substrate (contaminant to be removed), electron acceptor (added nutrient), and microorganisms in a one-dimensional soil column. Using geometric singular perturbation theory,

  14. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  16. Throw it overboard: a commentary on coastal pollution and bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, R.H.; Finkl, C.W.; Krystosyk-Gromadzinska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Charlier, R.H.; Finkl, C.W., and Krystosyk-Gromadzinska, A. 2012. Throw it Overboard: A Commentary on Coastal Pollution and Bioremediation. Journal of Coastal Research, 28(4), 881-890. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.The belief that rivers and oceans cleaned themselves faded as humanity expanded and wastes took on an ever more diversified character. The pollution of waterways, bays, inlets, and gulfs made many of them unusable for water transport. The solution commonly applied is to...

  17. Soil mesocosm studies on atrazine bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Nousiainen, Aura; Shaligram, Shraddha; Björklöf, Katarina; Lindström, Kristina; Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Kapley, Atya

    2014-06-15

    Accumulation of pesticides in the environment causes serious issues of contamination and toxicity. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound method to manage soil pollution, but the bottleneck here, is the successful scale-up of lab-scale experiments to field applications. This study demonstrates pilot-scale bioremediation in tropical soil using atrazine as model pollutant. Mimicking field conditions, three different bioremediation strategies for atrazine degradation were explored. 100 kg soil mesocosms were set-up, with or without atrazine application history. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation were tested, where augmentation with an atrazine degrading consortium demonstrated best pollutant removal. 90% atrazine degradation was observed in six days in soil previously exposed to atrazine, while soil without history of atrazine use, needed 15 days to remove the same amount of amended atrazine. The bacterial consortium comprised of 3 novel bacterial strains with different genetic atrazine degrading potential. The progress of bioremediation was monitored by measuring the levels of atrazine and its intermediate, cyanuric acid. Genes from the atrazine degradation pathway, namely, atzA, atzB, atzD, trzN and trzD were quantified in all mesocosms for 60 days. The highest abundance of all target genes was observed on the 6th day of treatment. trzD was observed in the bioaugmented mesocosms only. The bacterial community profile in all mesocosms was monitored by LH-PCR over a period of two months. Results indicate that the communities changed rapidly after inoculation, but there was no drastic change in microbial community profile after 1 month. Results indicated that efficient bioremediation of atrazine using a microbial consortium could be successfully up-scaled to pilot scale.

  18. Stable isotope probing in the metagenomics era: a bridge towards improved bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Strejcek, Michal; Musilova, Lucie; Mackova, Martina; Leigh, Mary Beth; Macek, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biodegradation and biotransformation reactions are essential to most bioremediation processes, yet the specific organisms, genes, and mechanisms involved are often not well understood. Stable isotope probing (SIP) enables researchers to directly link microbial metabolic capability to phylogenetic and metagenomic information within a community context by tracking isotopically labeled substances into phylogenetically and functionally informative biomarkers. SIP is thus applicable as a...

  19. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  20. BIOSTIMULATION CAN SOMETIMES ENHANCE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP - An Editorial Viewpoint on Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exxon Valdex oil spill, which led to the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, gave rise to the largest bioremediation field trial ever attempted. A research sutdy was conducted by EPA in 1989 and 1990 to develop data to support the recommendation to go forward w...

  1. Bioremediation of oil spills in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of EPA in the cleanup of oil-contaminated beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, has generated a significant research effort in oil spill cleanup technology within EPA's Office of Research and Development. Because of the successful use of bioremediation in the Alaskan spill, a considerable portion of the research has been directed toward its further development, particularly as it might apply to other types of beaches and open water. In hindsight the problems faced in the application of bioremediation on the beaches of Prince William Sound appear relatively straightforward. First, the major obstacle of logistics on remote beaches was effectively overcome by using the operational capabilities created by the massive physical washing operation conducted from barges. Second, oil-degrading microbial communities were rapidly enriched in the oil-contaminated beach material, including subsurface, thereby precluding the need for any inoculation procedures. This situation, however, created a significant increased demand for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients that was met through the application of commercially available fertilizers. Natural biodegradation of the oil was enhanced by the addition of fertilizer, substantially aiding in the overall cleanup operation. Third, the extremely high porosity of the cobblestone and mixed sand and gravel beach material allowed oil to be spread over a large surface area, thereby improving availability to the oil-degrading microbial communities and allowing, through tidal and wave action, the constant replenishment of oxygen. In addition, it created a high dilution capability that effectively prevented the accumulation of ammonia

  2. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYLACTIC ACID COLLOIDS FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley N. Westbrook

    2003-07-01

    instead. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a polymer of lactic acid, C3H6O3 [3]. PLA is used in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, PLA is used in sutures because it degrades within the body after the incision has healed. In agriculture, PLA is used in combination with polyglycolic acid for the release of chemicals [4]. We expect PLA to degrade in the ground at a rate that allows bioremediation to occur as intended. Currently, bioremediation of chlorinated solvents involves injecting nutrient containing solvents into the ground to induce the expected activity of the microbes. The solution must have a proper amount of nutrients for the microbes to metabolize so that they can continue to degrade the contaminants. If too much nutrient is available, and the microbes multiply too fast and clog the injection point, the solution may not reach the area where the contaminants are. One way to slowly release the nutrients for bioremediation is to package them as colloids. Colloids are particles that are less than one micrometer in size, with surface chemical properties that allow them to remain suspended in water and, therefore, to travel with water. Our research addresses the problem of packaging nutrients as colloids to support bioremediation.

  4. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  5. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  6. Bioremediation: A countermeasure for marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main types of bioremediation techniques are currently being developed or used for treatment of oil spills: adding nutrients to oiled shorelines; adding microbes to oiled shorelines; and addition of nutrients and/or microbes to open water oil slicks. Since all these technologies attempt to accelerate biodegradation, the processes of biodegradation of oil are summarized. Some of the potential uses of this technology are discussed, including specific instances where bioremediation has been applied at oil spills. Guidelines for evaluating and monitoring bioremediation applications are presented. Of the three types of bioremediation discussed, nutrient addition seems to hold the most immediate promise, especially for use in areas that would be adversely affected by physical or other removal methods. Environments where nutrient addition may play an important role in shoreline treatment include sheltered shorelines that are heavily oiled, shorelines with subsurface oil, and sensitive environments, especially wetlands. Nutrient additions are less likely to be effective in environments that are already nutrient-rich and for short-term, immediate response actions. 41 refs., 1 tab

  7. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  8. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  9. Research Advances in Application of Microorganism in Biological Control and Soil Bioremediation%微生物在生物防治和土壤修复中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安霞

    2011-01-01

    Extensive application of chemical insecticides results in insects and pathogens resistance to these insecticides, pollution of soil and crops, potential hazards to environment and human health. It will be of great significance to make use of microorganism in biological control and soil bioremediation for eontinuable development of agriculture.%长期以来,大量化学农药的使用不仅造成的了病原菌和害虫的抗药性,还导致了土壤和作物中的农药残留,而利用微生物进行生物防治和土壤修复可以同时解决上述问题,对农业的可持续发展具有重要意义。

  10. Research Progress on the Bioremediation Technology of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soil%多环芳烃污染土壤生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 王海霞; 李晓军; 毛华军; 吴海燕; 于秀娜; 罗宏宇

    2011-01-01

    With the biomass fuels widely used, the area and extent of the PAH-Contaminated soil increased quickly. Thus, the study on the remediation technology of PAH-Contaminated soil is becoming extremely urgent. Compared with physical and chemical remediation, bioremediation is cheap, effective and secondary pollution-free. Plant-microbial remediation system is the most effective technology with the largest market potential. The paper introduces in details the mechanism and application of microbial and plant-microbial remediation, and forecasts the development tendency of the bioremediation of polyeyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil.%多环芳烃污染土壤的面积伴随着生物质燃料的广泛应用不断增加,污染程度亦随之增强,研究污染土壤高效修复方法已刻不容缓.生物修复相对于物理和化学修复具有费用低、效果好、不产生二次污染等优点.植物-微生物联合修复体系则是其中最为高效、最具市场潜力的修复技术.详细介绍了微生物修复与植物-微生物联合修复技术的机理及应用, 并展望了多环芳烃污染土壤生物修复的发展趋势.

  11. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  12. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  13. Improving Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soils by Thermal Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonten, L.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Since PAH tend to sorb very strongly to the soil matrix, bioremediation is a slow process with often high residual concentrations after remediation. In this study it was tried to develop methods to improve bioremediation, this means to decrease residual concentrations after bioremediation. In ...

  14. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities. PMID:27558781

  15. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  16. Molecular Tools for Monitoring and Validating Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, Ben; Eyers, Laurent; Schuler, Luc; George, Isabelle; Agathos, Spiros N.

    Bioremediation is now in a position to take advantage of genomic-driven strategies to analyze, monitor and assess its course by considering multiple micro-organisms with various genomes, expressed transcripts and proteins. High-throughput methodologies, including microarrays, fingerprinting, real-time PCR, metagenomics and metaproteomics, show great promise in our environmental interventions against recalcitrant contaminants such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) that we have been studying for many years. The emerging genomic and metagenomic methodologies will allow us to promote or restore environmental health in impacted sites, monitor remediation activities, identify key microbial players and processes, and finally compile an intelligent database of genes for targeted use in bioremediation.

  17. Fungal Bioremediation of Creosote-contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    The influence of two ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus) on bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied. The thesis describes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration decrease during the laboratory-scale experiments and reveals the changes in the present soil microbial community under the influence of either fungus. The thesis compares different impact on PAH concentrations and soil microbial community depending on the fungus applied.

  18. Use of molecular techniques in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Ulfig, K; Hazen, T C; Brigmon, R L

    2001-01-01

    In a practical sense, biotechnology is concerned with the production of commercial products generated by biological processes. More formally, biotechnology may be defined as "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services" (Cantor, 2000). From a historical perspective, biotechnology dates back to the time when yeast was first used for beer or wine fermentation, and bacteria were used to make yogurt. In 1972, the birth of recombinant DNA technology moved biotechnology to new heights and led to the establishment of a new industry. Progress in biotechnology has been truly remarkable. Within four years of the discovery of recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were making human insulin, interferon, and human growth hormone. Now, recombinant DNA technology and its products--GMOs are widely used in environmental biotechnology (Glick and Pasternak, 1988; Cowan, 2000). Bioremediation is one of the most rapidly growing areas of environmental biotechnology. Use of bioremediation for environmental clean up is popular due to low costs and its public acceptability. Indeed, bioremediation stands to benefit greatly and advance even more rapidly with the adoption of molecular techniques developed originally for other areas of biotechnology. The 1990s was the decade of molecular microbial ecology (time of using molecular techniques in environmental biotechnology). Adoption of these molecular techniques made scientists realize that microbial populations in the natural environments are much more diverse than previously thought using traditional culture methods. Using molecular ecological methods, such as direct DNA isolation from environmental samples, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), PCR methods, nucleic acid hybridization etc., we can now study microbial consortia relevant to pollutant degradation in the environment. These techniques promise to

  19. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, M.; Vuković Domanovac, M.; Findrik Blažević, Z.; Meštrović, E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  20. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environ...

  1. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poggi-Varaldo Héctor M

    2008-02-01

    hydrocarbons and some organochlorinated compounds. Characterization studies of microbial communities of SB are still in the early stages, in spite of their significance for improving reactor operation and design optimization. We have identified the following niches of research needs for SB in the near and mid term future, inter alia: (i application of SB with sequential and simultaneous electron acceptors to soils polluted with contaminants other than hydrocarbons (i.e., pesticides, explosives, etc., (ii evaluation of the technical feasibility of triphasic SB that use innocuous solvents to help desorbing pollutants strongly attached to soils, and in turn, to enhance their biodegradation, (iii gaining deeper insight of microbial communities present in SB with the intensified application of molecular biology tools such as PCR-DGGE, PCR-TGGE, ARDRA, etc., (iv development of more representative ecotoxicological assays to better assess the effectiveness of a given bioremediation process.

  2. Removing environmental organic pollutants with bioremediation and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants represent a threat to human, animal, and environmental health. If left unmanaged, these pollutants could cause concern. Many researchers have stepped up efforts to find more sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to using hazardous chemicals and treatments to remove existing harmful pollutants. Environmental biotechnology, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation, is a promising field that utilizes natural resources including microbes and plants to eliminate toxic organic contaminants. This technology offers an attractive alternative to other conventional remediation processes because of its relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method. This review discusses current biological technologies for the removal of organic contaminants, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, focusing on their limitation and recent efforts to correct the drawbacks.

  3. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology

  4. Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Dietrich Brune

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing more varied and complicated tasks than clonal populations. Synthetic biologists have engineered clonal populations with characteristics such as differentiation, memory and pattern formation, which are usually associated with more complex multicellular organisms. The prospect of designing microbial communities has alluring possibilities for environmental, biomedical and energy applications and is likely to reveal insight into how natural microbial consortia function. Cell signaling and communication pathways between different species are likely to be key processes for designing novel functions in synthetic and natural consortia. Recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial interactions will be reviewed here, with particular emphasis given to research with significance for industrial applications in the field of biomining and bioremediation of acid mine drainage.

  5. Soil Bioremediation Strategies Based on the Use of Fungal Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christian; Boukcim, Hassan; Jolivalt, Claude

    The pollution of soil due to chemical compounds is an important problem worldwide. For that reason, the development of bioremediation processes remains an important challenge. In that context, filamentous fungi and their enzymatic systems appear to be potent tools to decrease the levels of contaminants in soils, by contaminant degradation or stabilisation. The structures and modes of action of selected fungal enzymes, namely peroxidases and laccases, have been extensively studied and are now well-known. Nevertheless, some improvement of their catalytic characteristics can be attempted through genetic engineering, in order to develop specific properties. In addition, some research is still needed to overcome several of their limitations for their efficient use in soils.

  6. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L.L. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology.

  7. Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specificity, thus increasing cost-benefit ratios. Enzymatic remediation is a valuable alternative as it can be easier to work with than whole organisms, especially in extreme environments. Furthermore, the use of free enzymes avoids the release of exotic or genetically modified organisms (GMO in the environment.

  8. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  9. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  10. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Maphosa, Farai; Lieten, Shakti H.; Dinkla, Inez; Stams, Alfons J.; Smidt, Hauke; Fennell, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respirin...

  11. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    FaraiMaphosa; ShaktiHLieten; DonnaE.Fennell

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring ...

  12. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Warr, Laurence N.; André Friese; Florian Schwarz; Frieder Schauer; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Gregory M. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contai...

  13. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  14. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO2, water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  15. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  16. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  17. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils

  18. Role of Microbial Enzymes in the Bioremediation of Pollutants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S. Karigar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants have been reported to be involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. Bioremediation is a cost effective and nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes. The research activity in this area would contribute towards developing advanced bioprocess technology to reduce the toxicity of the pollutants and also to obtain novel useful substances. The information on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes such as oxido-reductases and hydrolases have been extensively studied. This review attempts to provide descriptive information on the enzymes from various microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of wide range of pollutants, applications, and suggestions required to overcome the limitations of their efficient use.

  19. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas.

  20. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas. PMID:24054785

  1. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  3. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Influence of a precepitator on bioremedial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural environment represents a dynamic bioreactor with numerous chemical, biochemical and microbiological processes through which harmful materials are destroyed, so that living organisms and human beings are not endanger. Controlled anthropogenic actions can assist the natural ecosystem to become an efficient bioremedial unit and to reduce the level of effluents produced in the biotechnological transformations during massive food production. In this study, a monitoring system for the chemical oxygen demand (COD and the heavy metal levels in water was established, followed by construction and building of a precipitator in order to prevent discharging of sludge. The results contribute to the hypothesis of existence of in situ bioremedial processes in the observed ecosystem. The significant influence of the precipitator on the decrease of pollution was demonstrated: a decrease of both the COD value and the heavy metal levels downstream from the precipitator for about 15%. Therefore it can be concluded that the precipitator significantly contributes to the ecosystem by the reduction of pollutant level.

  6. Bioremediation of Carbendazim by Streptomyces albogriseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Arya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbendazim (methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate, or MBC is a benzimidazole fungicide which is used to protect crops against the attack of fungi. MBC has a half-life of about 3-12 months and remain persistent in the environment which may lead to many harmful consequences. Besides chemical and photo-catalytic degradation of pesticides, microbial degradation has now been evolved as a much effective and safer way to eliminate these harmful compounds from the environment. However, in the literature very few reports are available where microbial community is involved in degrading MBC. Hence, the present study was planned to investigate the role of microbes isolated from the field soils for the bioremediation of MBC. Soil samples were collected from wheat fields of northern regions of India. Enrichment culture technique was employed to isolate the bacterium which was found to be growing at higher concentrations of MBC up to 500µg/ml. After biochemical and morphological analysis, the bacterium was identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus. Streptomyces albogriseolus was found to degrade MBC in a time-dependent manner from the initial concentration of 29 ppm to 285.67ppb and 62.73ppb in 24hrs and 48hrs respectively. LCMS-MS analysis was carried out to detect 2-aminobenzimidazole, a metabolite formed after degradation in 10 hrs of growth which eventually disappeared after 24hrs of growth. The strain Streptomyces albogriseolus holds a promising potential to be an efficient MBC bioremediation agent.

  7. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail

  8. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.R. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-12-01

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail.

  9. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  10. Proceedings of Japan-Germany Workshop of Bioremediation; Nichidoku bio remediation workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-04

    This is a proceedings of Japan-Germany Workshop on Bioremediation held on December 4 and 5, 1995. The keynote lectures include `Environmental preservation using biotechnology` by Prof. Karube of University of Tokyo, and `Environmental technology in Germany: status, achievements, and problems` by Prof. R.D.Schmid of University of Stuttgart. In the oral session, 7 papers are presented in the microbiological aspects of bioremediation, 10 papers in the environmental monitoring, and 6 papers in the engineering aspects of bioremediation. This workshop was sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Technology, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. According to the lecture by Prof. Karube, key technologies for the environmental preservation include biotechnologies, such as the culture of fine algae with high CO2 concentration resistant properties using a solar light condenser, production of effective substances from CO2, and production of organic fertilizer from the sediments of lakes and sea. 19 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Bioremediation of chromium (VI) contaminated site by reduction and microbial stabilization of chromium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Liu, Xi-Wen; Xu, Qian; Shi, Wei-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (VI) contaminated soil samples were collected from a chemical plant in Suzhou. Firstly, the reduced soil was prepared by adding reagent (Stone-sulfure reagent) into polluted soil to transfer most chromium (VI) into chromium (III), then a nutrient solution was introduced into the reduced soil, and the stabilized soil was obtained after 60 days culturing. The chromium (VI) content of the three kinds of soil was analyzed. The results showed that the chromium (VI) content in toxicity characteristic leaching liquid (TCLL) dropped by 96. 8% (from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 0.26 mg · L(-1)), and the total chromium content dropped by 95.7% (from 14.66 mg · L(-1) to 0.63 mg · L(-1)) after bioremediation in 5% nutrient solution. Additionally, the durability of chromium stabilization was tested by potassium permanganate oxidation and sterilization of microbe-treated soil. After oxidation, the chromium (VI) content in TCLL of the reduced soil was increased from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 14.68 mg · L(-1). However, the content after bioremediation was decreased to 2.68 mg · L(-1). The results of sterilization demonstrated that the death of microbe had no significant effect on the stabilization of chromium. Consequently, the research in this paper demonstrated the feasibility of bioremediation of chromium (VI) polluted soil through reduction followed by stabilization/soilidification, and provided a technique with low cost but high efficiency.

  12. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compounds. This technology degrades contaminants through natural biodegradation mechanisms or enhanced biodegradation mechanism and can be performed in-situ or ex-situ under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight potential of using isolated strains from municipal sludge on soil remediation. Several indigenous bacteria from municipal sludge namely genus Micrococus, Sphingomonas, and Corynebacterium demonstrated a high removal rate of PAHs with more than 80% of lower molecular weight of PAHs degraded after one week incubation. Laboratory studies had established that these genus able to degrade PAHs on contaminated soil. The successful application of bacteria to the bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites requires a deeper understanding of how microbial PAH degradation proceeds. An overview of research focusing on biodegradation of PAHs will be presented.

  13. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of bioremediating a diesel-contaminated soil using ecotoxicological and bacterial community indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudur, Leadin Salah; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Miranda, Ana F; Morrison, Paul D; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    biostimulation represents a commercially viable bioremediation technology for use in diesel-contaminated soils, further research is required to determine the ecotoxicological impacts of the intervention.

  15. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  16. Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Z.

    2015-01-01

      Subjects: bioremediation; biodegradation; environmental biotechnology, subsurface and groundwater contamination; biological processes; geochemistry; microbiology The combination of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and aquife

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: GRACE DEARBORN INC. DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology may be applied to the remediation of soils and sediments contaminated by a wide variety of organic contaminants including chlorinated phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and petroleum hydrocarbons. The technology may be ap...

  18. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  19. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maphosa, F.; Lieten, S.; Dinkla, I.; Stams, A.J.M.; Fennel, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremedi

  20. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addi......Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal...

  1. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  2. Bacteria and bioremediation of marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtually all marine ecosystems harbor indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These hydrocarbon degraders comprise less than one percent of the bacterial community in unpolluted environments, but generally increase to one to ten percent following petroleum contamination. Various hydrocarbons are degraded by these microorganisms at different rates, so there is an evolution in the residual hydrocarbon mixture, and some hydrocarbons and asphaltic petroleum hydrocarbons remain undegraded. Fortunately, these persistent petroleum pollutants are, for the most part, insoluble or are bound to solids; hence they are not biologically available and therefore not toxic to marine organisms. Carbon dioxide, water, and cellular biomass produced by the microorganisms from the degradable hydrocarbons may be consumed by detrital feeders and comprise the end products of the natural biological degradation process. Bioremediation attempts to accelerate the natural hydrocarbon degradation rates by overcoming factors that limit bacterial hydrocarbon degrading activities

  3. Development of combinatorial bacteria for metal and radionuclide bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. C. Matin, Ph. D.

    2006-06-15

    The grant concerned chromate [Cr(VI)] bioremediation and it was our aim from the outset to construct individual bacterial strains capable of improved bioremediation of multiple pollutants and to identify the enzymes suited to this end. Bacteria with superior capacity to remediate multiple pollutants can be an asset for the cleanup of DOE sites as they contain mixed waste. I describe below the progress made during the period of the current grant, providing appropriate context.

  4. Development of combinatorial bacteria for metal and radionuclide bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grant concerned chromate [Cr(VI)] bioremediation and it was our aim from the outset to construct individual bacterial strains capable of improved bioremediation of multiple pollutants and to identify the enzymes suited to this end. Bacteria with superior capacity to remediate multiple pollutants can be an asset for the cleanup of DOE sites as they contain mixed waste. I describe below the progress made during the period of the current grant, providing appropriate context

  5. Healthy environments for healthy people: bioremediation today and tomorrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaventura, C; Johnson, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in environmental contamination lead to a progressive deterioration of environmental quality. This condition challenges our global society to find effective measures of remediation to reverse the negative conditions that severely threaten human and environmental health. We discuss the progress being made toward this goal through application of bioremediation techniques. Bioremediation generally utilizes microbes (bacteria, fungi, yeast, and algae), although higher plants are used in ...

  6. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  7. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future. (Author)

  8. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  9. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Soil and Aquatic Environment: An Overview of Principles and Criteria of Fundamental Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Dixit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in excess release of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc etc. into natural resources like the soil and aquatic environments. Prolonged exposure and higher accumulation of such heavy metals can have deleterious health effects on human life and aquatic biota. The role of microorganisms and plants in biotransformation of heavy metals into nontoxic forms is well-documented, and understanding the molecular mechanism of metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications for bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites. In view of this, the present review investigates the abilities of microorganisms and plants in terms of tolerance and degradation of heavy metals. Also, advances in bioremediation technologies and strategies to explore these immense and valuable biological resources for bioremediation are discussed. An assessment of the current status of technology deployment and suggestions for future bioremediation research has also been included. Finally, there is a discussion of the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in microbes, with special reference to the genomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes involved in tolerance and detoxification.

  10. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  11. Bioremediation Well Borehole Soil Sampling and Data Analysis Summary Report for the 100-N Area Bioremediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Gamon

    2009-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings acquired during the drilling and construction of seven bioremediation wells in the 100-N Area in conjunction with remediation of the UPR-100-N-17 petroleum waste site.

  12. Modeling Adsorption Kinetics (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    My talk will focus on modeling the kinetics of the adsorption and filtering process using differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. The models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group which is conducting research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration through biomass such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant.

  13. Enhancing Stakeholder Acceptance Of Bioremediation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  14. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  15. Bioremediation via in situ microbial degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of soil and natural waters by organic pollutants is a global problem. The major organic pollutants of point sources are mineral oil, fuel components, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Research from the last two decades discovered that most of these compounds are biodegradable under anoxic conditions. This has led to the rise of bioremediation strategies based on the in situ biodegradation of pollutants. Monitored natural attenuation is a concept by which a contaminated site is remediated by natural biodegradation; to evaluate such processes, a combination of chemical and microbiological methods are usually used. Compound specific stable isotope analysis emerged as a key method for detecting and quantifying in situ biodegradation. Natural attenuation processes can be initiated or accelerated by manipulating the environmental conditions to become favorable for indigenous pollutant degrading microbial communities or by adding externally breeded specific pollutant degrading microorganisms; these techniques are referred to as enhanced natural attenuation. Xenobiotic micropollutants, such as pesticides or pharmaceuticals, contaminate diffusively large areas in low concentrations; the biodegradation pattern of such contaminations are not yet understood. PMID:24337042

  16. USING PHYTOREMEDIATION AND BIOREMEDIATION FOR PROTECTION SOIL NEAR GRAVEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ignatowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to assess the usefulness of Basket willow (Salix viminalis to phytoremediation and bioremediation of sorption subsoil contaminated with pesticides. Studies upon purification of sorption material consisting of a soil and composting sewage sludge were conducted under pot experiment conditions. The study design included control pot along with 3 other ones polluted with pesticides. The vegetation season has lasted since spring till late autumn 2015. After acclimatization, the mixture of chloroorganic pesticides was added into 3 experimental pots. After harvest, it was found that pesticide contents in sorption subsoil (from 0.0017 to 0.0087 mg kg DM were much higher than in control soil (from 0.0005 to 0.0027 mg kg DM. Achieved results initially indicate that Basket willow (Salix viminalis can be used for reclamation of soils contaminated with pesticides, particularly for vitality prolongation of sorption barrier around the pesticide burial area. In future, it would allow for applying the sorption screen around pesticide burial area, which reduces pesticide migration into the environment, and grown energetic plants – through phytoremediation – would prolong the sorbent vitality and remove pesticides from above ground parts by means of combustion.

  17. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  18. Rehabilitation of oil polluted soils by bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Parvan, Lavinia; Cioroianu, Mihai; Carmen, Sirbu; Constantin, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    In Romania about 50,000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The main sources of pollution are the different activities using petroleum products: extraction, transport, treatment, refining and distribution. Taking into acoount the large areas and the cost per unit area, bioremediation was tested as a method of rehabilitation. To stimulate the performance of the bioremediation process for a polluted soil (luvisol) by 3% oil, different methods were tested: -application of a bacterial inoculum consisting of species of the Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter genera;- application of two types of absorbent materials, 16 t/ha peat and 16, respectively, 32 kg/ha Zeba (starch-based polymer, superabsorbent); -mineral fertilization with N200P200K200 and 5 different liquid fertilizer based on potassium humates extracted from lignite in a NPK matrix with micronutrients and added monosaccharides (4 and 8%). After 45 days from the treatment (60 days from pollution) the following observations have been noticed: • the application of only bacterial inoculum had no significant effect on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; • the use of 650 l/ha AH-SH fertilizer (potassium humate in a NPK matrix) led to a 47% decrease of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons); • the application of 16 t/ha peat, together with the bacterial inoculum and the AH-SG2 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides, in which the nitrogen is amide form) led to a 50% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 16 kg/ha Zeba absorbent together with bacterial inoculum and 650 l/ha AH-SG1 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 4% monosaccharide in which the nitrogen is in amide form) led to a 57% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 32 kg/ha Zeba absorbent, together with the AH-SG2 fertilizer, led to a 58% decrease of the TPH content.

  19. Response of Archaeal Communities in Beach Sediments to Spilled Oil and Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Couto de Brito, Ivana R.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Head, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory microcosms and in a bioremediation field trial. 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and denaturing gradient gel analysis revealed that the archaeal community in oil-free laboratory microcosms was stable for 26 day...

  20. Oil bioremediation using insoluble nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, E; Legman, R; Kushmaro, A; Adler, E; Abir, H; Ron, E Z

    1996-11-15

    Oil bioremediation is limited by the availability of nitrogen and phosphorous, which are needed by the bacteria and not present in sufficient amounts in hydrocarbons. The supply of these two essential elements as water-soluble salts presents several problems. These include the rapid dilution of the salts in the large volumes of polluted land or water and their utilization by other bacteria that do not degrade oil. In addition, increasing the concentration of mobile nitrogen creates further environmental problems. The use of hydrophobic sources of nitrogen and phosphorous that have a low water solubility can overcome these problems. We have studied one such compound. F-1, that is not used by most bacteria but serves as a good nitrogen and phosphorous source for those bacterial strains that are capable of utilizing it. We have shown that bacteria using F-1 do not cross-feed other bacterial strains. Moreover, when the concentration of the pollutant is sufficiently reduced, the multiplication of the bacteria slows down until they become a negligible fraction of the bacterial population. Chemical analysis indicated that following a 28-day treatment of Alaskan crude oil, most of the hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatics, are degraded to undetectable levels. The C34 and C35 components were also degraded, although their degradation was not completed within this time period. In treatment of a sandy beach that was accidentally polluted with crude heavy oil, about 90% degradation was obtained within about 4 months at an outside average temperature of 5 -10 degrees C. PMID:8988651

  1. Bioremediation a promising technology for nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbes play a primordial role in completing various elemental cycles namely carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, which are necessary for sustainability of planet Earth. This natural capability of microbes is employed to transform manmade compounds to their elemental forms. Redeployment of microbes for specific tasks needs a re-engineering of microbial metabolism to accelerate transformation. The most widely used approach is genetic modification but this approach has resulted into grievous failures due to inability of genetically modified organism to survive in natural environment. Consequently, development of new approach towards bioremediation was conceptualized, where desired metabolic capability were achieved using consortia of microorganisms having complementary metabolism. Of late, the potential of biofilm communities for bioremediation processes has been realized since it has many advantages over whole cells, used as biocatalysts. Naturally immobilized microbial biofilms exclude the necessity of cell-immobilization as biofilm cells are already embedded in self-produced exopolymers. Moreover, biofilm-mediated bioremediation offers a proficient and safer alternative to planktonic cells-mediated bioremediation because cells in a biofilm are more robust to toxic materials present in the waste as they are embedded in the matrix that provides a physical barrier. This presentation will highlight the importance of planktonic and sessile bacteria in bioremediation of a few nuclear waste compounds. (author)

  2. The development and application of engineered proteins for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. [ed.

    1995-09-26

    Clean up of the toxic legacy of the Cold War is projected to be the most expensive domestic project the nation has yet undertaken. Remediation of the Department of Energy and Department of Defense toxic waste sites alone are projected to cost {approximately}$1 trillion over a 20-30 year period. New, cost effective technologies are needed to attack this enormous problem. Los Alamos has put together a cross-divisional team of scientist to develop science based bioremediation technology to work toward this goal. In the team we have expertise in: (1) molecular, ecosystem and transport modeling; (2) genetic and protein engineering; (3) microbiology and microbial ecology; (4) structural biology; and (5) bioinorganic chemistry. This document summarizes talks at a workshop of different aspects of bioremediation technology including the following: Introducing novel function into a Heme enzyme: engineering by excavation; cytochrome P-450: ideal systems for bioremediation?; selection and development of bacterial strains for in situ remediation of cholorinated solvents; genetic analysis and preparation of toluene ortho-monooxygenase for field application in remediation of trichloroethylene; microbial ecology and diversity important to bioremediation; engineering haloalkane dehalogenase for bioremediation; enzymes for oxidative biodegradation; indigenous bacteria as hosts for engineered proteins; performance of indigenous bacterial, hosting engineered proteins in microbial communities.

  3. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  4. Oil bioremediation processes in Brazilian marine environments : laboratory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation methods have been used in Brazil to remediate contaminated soils from refinery residues. In particular, bioremediation is a process that can reduce the amount of oil that reaches shorelines, by enhancing natural biodegradation. This presentation presents the results of a laboratory study in which seawater contaminated with light crude oil was bioremediated in a period of 28 days using NPK fertilizer. Whole oil gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the hydrocarbon fractions were used to determine the extent of oil biodegradation. It was determined that natural degradation occurred in the first 4 days, and mostly through the evaporation of light end n-alkanes. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was found to be most effective after 7 days, and no changes were observed in the relative abundance of steranes and triterpanes. It appears that the addition of NPK nutrient reduces the biodegradation potential of polyaromatic compounds. Seawater samples were also measured to determine the efficiency of bioremediation. The use of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher toxicity after 14 days probably due to the creation of metabolites as polyaromatic compounds biodegrade. Non toxic levels were found to be reestablished after 28 days of bioremediation. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Bioremediation and detoxification of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cleanup alterative, the bioremediation potential of soil, contaminated by spills of three medium petroleum distillates, jet fuel heating oil (No. 2 fuel oil) and diesel fuel was evaluated in controlled-temperature laboratory soil columns and in outdoor lysimeters. Solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC) was used routinely for analysis of fuel residues. Occasionally, class separation and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also used in residue characterization. The decrease in toxic residues was evaluated by Microtox and Ames tests. Seed germination and plant growth bioassays were also performed. Persistence and toxicity of the fuels increased in the order of jet fuel < heating oil < diesel fuel. Bioremediation consisting of liming, fertilization and tilling decreased the half-lives of the pollutants in soil by a factor of 2-3. Biodegradation was faster at 27C than at 17 or 37C, but hydrocarbon concentration and soil quality had only modest influence on biodegradation rates and did not preclude successful bioremediation of these contaminated soils within one growing season. Microbial activity measurements by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay confirmed that microbial activity was the principal force in hydrocarbon elimination. Bioremediation was highly effective in eliminating also the polycyclic aromatic components of diesel fuel. The bioremediation and detoxification of fuel-contaminated soil was corroborated by Microtox, Ames and plant growth bioassays

  6. Application of Fingerprinting Molecular Methods in Bioremediation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    Bioremediation has been identified as a beneficial and effective strategy for the removal of recalcitrant environmental contaminants. Bioaugmentation of polluted environments with exogenous degrading microorganisms constitutes a major strategy of bioremediation. However, the ecological role of these strains and their impact on the endogenous microbial community of the micro-ecosystems where they are released should be known. Fingerprinting PCR-based methods, like denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), could be used in studies exploring the ecology of pollutant-degrading microorganisms and their effects on the structure of the soil microbial community. This chapter provides a brief outline of the technical details involved in the application of DGGE and TRFLP fingerprinting in soil microbial ecology, with particular reference to bioremediation studies.

  7. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE

  8. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  9. TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological methods for remediation of soils is based on the degradation of pollutants due to activity of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi. Effectiveness of biological decontamination of soils depends on the following factors: biodegradation of pollutants, type of microorganisms used, choice of oxidant and nutrient and subject to clean up environmental characteristics. Ex situ techniques for bioremediation of soils polluted are: composting (static / mechanical agitation, land farming and biopiles. Techniques in situ bioremediation of soils polluted are: bioventingul, biospargingul and biostimulation – bioaugumentarea.

  10. 土壤重金属镉污染的生物修复技术研究进展%Research Progress of Bioremediation Technology of Cadmium Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良将; 张明礼; 杨浩

    2011-01-01

    With the development of agriculture and industry, the heavy metal-cadmium pollution is becoming increasingly severe. In order to alleviate the effect of cadmium pollution, many researchers have engaged in phytoremediation research of soil polluted by cadmium and have proposed restoration measures, chemical treatment measures, agro-ecology restoration measures and phytoremediation technology etc. In this paper, comparing the merit and demerit of various ways of restoration, it is found that the phytoremediation technology is more preferred for it is more environment-friendly and economical. This paper focuses on the concept, types and research status of phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soil and the perspectives of phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soil is also discussed.%随着工农业的发展,重金属Cd污染也日益严重,为了减轻Cd污染带来的危害,众多研究人员进行了镉污染土壤的植物修复研究,并提出工程修复措施、化学治理措施、农业生态修复措施和生物修复措施等技术,本文比较了各种修复方法的优势和局限,发现生物修复中的植物修复技术因其环保、经济等特点备受推崇.并重点阐述了Cd污染土壤植物修复的概念、类型和研究现状,进而对Cd污染土壤的植物修复技术进行了展望.

  11. Evaluation of soil bioremediation techniques in an aged diesel spill at the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Hugo E; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; van Elsas, Jan D; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-12-01

    Many areas on the Antarctic continent already suffer from the direct and indirect influences of human activities. The main cause of contamination is petroleum hydrocarbons because this compound is used as a source of energy at the many research stations around the continent. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate treatments for bioremediation (biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and bioaugmentation + biostimulation) using soils from around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF), King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The experiment lasted for 45 days, and at the end of this period, chemical and molecular analyses were performed. Those analyses included the quantification of carbon and nitrogen, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis (with gradient denaturation), real-time PCR, and quantification of total hydrocarbons and polyaromatics. Molecular tests evaluated changes in the profile and quantity of the rrs genes of archaea and bacteria and also the alkB gene. The influence of the treatments tested was directly related to the type of soil used. The work confirmed that despite the extreme conditions found in Antarctic soils, the bacterial strains degraded hydrocarbons and bioremediation treatments directly influenced the microbial communities present in these soils even in short periods. Although the majority of the previous studies demonstrate that the addition of fertilizer seems to be most effective at promoting bioremediation, our results show that for some conditions, autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) treatment is indicated. This work highlights the importance of understanding the processes of recovery of contaminated environments in polar regions because time is crucial to the soil recovery and to choosing the appropriate treatment. PMID:26286513

  12. Evaluation of soil bioremediation techniques in an aged diesel spill at the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Hugo E; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; van Elsas, Jan D; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-12-01

    Many areas on the Antarctic continent already suffer from the direct and indirect influences of human activities. The main cause of contamination is petroleum hydrocarbons because this compound is used as a source of energy at the many research stations around the continent. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate treatments for bioremediation (biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and bioaugmentation + biostimulation) using soils from around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF), King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The experiment lasted for 45 days, and at the end of this period, chemical and molecular analyses were performed. Those analyses included the quantification of carbon and nitrogen, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis (with gradient denaturation), real-time PCR, and quantification of total hydrocarbons and polyaromatics. Molecular tests evaluated changes in the profile and quantity of the rrs genes of archaea and bacteria and also the alkB gene. The influence of the treatments tested was directly related to the type of soil used. The work confirmed that despite the extreme conditions found in Antarctic soils, the bacterial strains degraded hydrocarbons and bioremediation treatments directly influenced the microbial communities present in these soils even in short periods. Although the majority of the previous studies demonstrate that the addition of fertilizer seems to be most effective at promoting bioremediation, our results show that for some conditions, autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) treatment is indicated. This work highlights the importance of understanding the processes of recovery of contaminated environments in polar regions because time is crucial to the soil recovery and to choosing the appropriate treatment.

  13. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghollahi, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin

    2016-09-15

    In this research the bioremediation of four different types of contaminated soils was monitored as a function of time and moisture content. The soils were categorized as sandy soil containing 100% sand (type I), clay soil containing more than 95% clay (type II), coarse grained soil containing 68% gravel and 32% sand (type III), and coarse grained with high clay content containing 40% gravel, 20% sand, and 40% clay (type IV). The initially clean soils were contaminated with gasoil to the concentration of 100 g/kg, and left on the floor for the evaporation of light hydrocarbons. A full factorial experimental design with soil type (four levels), and moisture content (10 and 20%) as the factors was employed. The soils were inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms. Soil samples were taken on days 90, 180, and 270, and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The moisture content of the soils was kept almost constant during the process by intermittent addition of water. The results showed that the efficiency of bioremediation was affected significantly by the soil type (Pvalue soil with the initial TPH content of 69.62 g/kg, and the lowest for the clay soil (23.5%) with the initial TPH content of 69.70 g/kg. The effect of moisture content on bioremediation was not statistically significant for the investigated levels. The removal percentage in the clay soil was improved to 57% (within a month) in a separate experiment by more frequent mixing of the soil, indicating low availability of oxygen as a reason for low degradation of hydrocarbons in the clay soil.

  14. Potential bioremediation of mercury-contaminated substrate using filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, Evi; Arfarita, Novi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Kanno, Ariyo; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    The use of filamentous fungi in bioremediation of heavy metal contamination has been developed recently. This research aims to observe the capability of filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil for bioremediation of mercury contamination in a substrate. Six fungal strains were selected based on their capability to grow in 25 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose agar plates. Fungal strain KRP1 showed the highest ratio of growth diameter, 0.831, thus was chosen for further observation. Identification based on colony and cell morphology carried out by 18S rRNA analysis gave a 98% match to Aspergillus flavus strain KRP1. The fungal characteristics in mercury(II) contamination such as range of optimum pH, optimum temperature and tolerance level were 5.5-7 and 25-35°C and 100 mg/L respectively. The concentration of mercury in the media affected fungal growth during lag phases. The capability of the fungal strain to remove the mercury(II) contaminant was evaluated in 100 mL sterile 10 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose broth media in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks inoculated with 10(8) spore/mL fungal spore suspension and incubation at 30°C for 7 days. The mercury(II) utilization was observed for flasks shaken in a 130 r/min orbital shaker (shaken) and non-shaken flasks (static) treatments. Flasks containing contaminated media with no fungal spores were also provided as control. All treatments were done in triplicate. The strain was able to remove 97.50% and 98.73% mercury from shaken and static systems respectively. A. flavus strain KRP1 seems to have potential use in bioremediation of aqueous substrates containing mercury(II) through a biosorption mechanism.

  15. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghollahi, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin

    2016-09-15

    In this research the bioremediation of four different types of contaminated soils was monitored as a function of time and moisture content. The soils were categorized as sandy soil containing 100% sand (type I), clay soil containing more than 95% clay (type II), coarse grained soil containing 68% gravel and 32% sand (type III), and coarse grained with high clay content containing 40% gravel, 20% sand, and 40% clay (type IV). The initially clean soils were contaminated with gasoil to the concentration of 100 g/kg, and left on the floor for the evaporation of light hydrocarbons. A full factorial experimental design with soil type (four levels), and moisture content (10 and 20%) as the factors was employed. The soils were inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms. Soil samples were taken on days 90, 180, and 270, and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The moisture content of the soils was kept almost constant during the process by intermittent addition of water. The results showed that the efficiency of bioremediation was affected significantly by the soil type (Pvalue soil with the initial TPH content of 69.62 g/kg, and the lowest for the clay soil (23.5%) with the initial TPH content of 69.70 g/kg. The effect of moisture content on bioremediation was not statistically significant for the investigated levels. The removal percentage in the clay soil was improved to 57% (within a month) in a separate experiment by more frequent mixing of the soil, indicating low availability of oxygen as a reason for low degradation of hydrocarbons in the clay soil. PMID:27233045

  16. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frische, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation.

  17. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  18. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Maphosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring bacteria and also via hydrolytic, oxygenic and reductive mechanisms by aerobic bacteria. Microbial ecogenomics has enabled us to not only study the microbiology involved in these complex processes but also develop tools to better monitor and assess these sites during bioremediation. Microbial ecogenomics have capitalized on recent advances in high-throughput and -output genomics technologies in combination with microbial physiology studies to address these complex bioremediation problems at a system level. Advances in environmental metagenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics have provided insights into key genes and their regulation in the environment. They have also given us clues into microbial community structures, dynamics and functions at contaminated sites. These techniques have not only aided us in understanding the lifestyles of common organohalide respirers, for example Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium, but also provided insights into novel and yet uncultured microorganisms found in organohalide respiring consortia. In this paper we look at how ecogenomic studies have aided us to understand the microbial structures and functions in response to environmental stimuli such as the presence of chlorinated pollutants.

  19. Bioremediation of a pesticide polluted soil: Case DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) has been used since the Second World War to control insect-borne diseases in humans and domestic animals. The use of these organochlorine insecticides has been banned in most countries because of its persistence in the environment, biomagnification and potential susceptibility to toxicity to higher animals. Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in the environment, transforming them into simpler and less dangerous, even harmless compounds. This decontamination strategy has low costs, and wide public acceptance, also it can take place on the site. Compared to other methods, bioremediation is a more promising and less expensive to eliminate contaminants in soil and water. In soil, compounds such as DDT, chlorinated biphenyls can be partially biodegraded by a group of aerobic bacteria that cometabolize the contaminant. The bioavailability of pollutants may be enhanced by treating the soil in the presence of contaminant mobilizing agents such as surfactants. In this review we discuss the different strategies for bioremediation of soil contaminated with DDT, including mechanisms and degradation pathways. The application of these techniques in contaminated soil is also described. This review also discusses which is the best strategy for bioremediation of DDT.

  20. U.S. bioremediation market: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bioremediation for full-scale cleanup has increased dramatically throughout the past 10 years. This growth in activity is expected to continue through the year 2000. It is estimated that fewer than 10 companies offered field-level bioremedial services prior to 1985. Although the market today still is dominated by a small number of companies, the total number of firms claiming to offer services and/or products for bioremediation purposes has grown to over 1,000. It is estimated that aggregate bioremediation revenues for 1994 through 2000 will equal $2 to $3 billion (1994 dollars). This revenue will be generated in the initial part of this 7-year period primarily from underground storage cleanup, with revenues from hazardous waste sites becoming an increasingly important factor by accounting for the majority of revenues in the latter years. Market opportunities exist in technology development and implementation including biosparging, centralized treatment facilities for petroleum-contaminated soils, biofilters, and improvements in the cost-effectiveness of the technology

  1. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  2. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  3. Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in aquifer thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Z

    2015-01-01

      Subjects: bioremediation; biodegradation; environmental biotechnology, subsurface and groundwater contamination; biological processes; geochemistry; microbiology The combination of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) appears attractive because such integration provides a promising solution for redevelopment of urban areas in terms of improving the local environmental quality as well as achieving ...

  4. Electromigration of Contaminated Soil by Electro-Bioremediation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Azim, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals poses major environmental and human health problems. This problem needs an efficient method and affordable technological solution such as electro-bioremediation technique. The electro-bioremediation technique used in this study is the combination of bacteria and electrokinetic process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Pseudomonas putida bacteria as a biodegradation agent to remediate contaminated soil. 5 kg of kaolin soil was spiked with 5 g of zinc oxide. During this process, the anode reservoir was filled with Pseudomonas putida while the cathode was filled with distilled water for 5 days at 50 V of electrical gradient. The X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) test indicated that there was a significant reduction of zinc concentration for the soil near the anode with 89% percentage removal. The bacteria count is high near the anode which is 1.3x107 cfu/gww whereas the bacteria count at the middle and near the cathode was 5.0x106 cfu/gww and 8.0x106 cfu/gww respectively. The migration of ions to the opposite charge of electrodes during the electrokinetic process resulted from the reduction of zinc. The results obtained proved that the electro-bioremediation reduced the level of contaminants in the soil sample. Thus, the electro-bioremediation technique has the potential to be used in the treatment of contaminated soil.

  5. Genetic engineering microbes for bioremediation/ biorecovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation (both bioremoval and biorecovery) of metals is considered a feasible, economic and eco-friendly alternative to chemical methods of metal extraction, particularly when the metal concentration is very low. Scanty distribution along with poor ore quality makes biomining of uranium an attractive preposition. Biosorption, bioprecipitation or bioaccumulation of uranium, aided by recombinant DNA technology, offer a promising technology for recovery of uranium from acidic or alkaline nuclear waste, tailings or from sea-water. Genetic engineering of bacteria, with a gene encoding an acid phosphatase, has yielded strains that can bioprecipitate uranium from very low concentrations at acidic-neutral pH, in a relatively short time. Organisms overproducing alkaline phosphatase have been selected for uranium precipitation from alkaline waste. Such abilities have now been transferred to the radioresistant microbe Deinococcus radiodurans to facilitate in situ bioremediation of nuclear waste, with some success. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are being characterized for bioremediation of uranium in tailings with the dual objective of uranium precipitation and reduction of sulfate to sulphide. Certain marine cyanobacteria have shown promise for uranium biosorption to extracellular polysaccharides, and intracellular accumulation involving metal sequestering metallothionin proteins. Future work is aimed at understanding the genetic basis of these abilities and to engineer them into suitable organisms subsequently. As photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing microbes, which are considerably resistant to ionizing radiations, cyanobacteria hold considerable potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste. (author)

  6. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  7. BIOREMEDIATION AS A TECHNOLOGY: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ SPILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from our oil spill bioremediation project have demonstrated convincingly that fertilizers can be applied to oiled beaches to overcome nutrient limitations, thereby enhancing biodegradation of the oil. n Prince William Sound, the natural biodegradation rate of oil on t...

  8. Monitoring for bioremediation efficacy: The marrow marsh experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team analyzed samples taken from Marrow Marsh, Galveston Bay, Texas, to assess the efficacy of a bioremediation effort in the marsh following the Apex barges spill on July 28, 1990. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96-hour period following the first application of the bioremediation agent and then 25 days after the second application, which occurred 8 days after the first. Results of sample analyses to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil failed to show evidence of oil degradation during the 96 hours after the initial treatment, but did show evidence of degradation 25 days after the second treatment-although differences between samples from treated and untreated sites were not evident. Because control areas had not been maintained after the second application, contamination by the bioremediation agent of previously untreated (control) areas may have occurred, perhaps negating the possibility of detecting differences between treated and control areas. Better preparedness to implement bioremediation and conduct monitoring might have increased the effectiveness of the monitoring effort

  9. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION ON COASTAL SHORELINES: A CRITIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this chapter is not to provide an extensive review of the literature on oil spill bioremediation. For that, the reader is referred to Swannell et al. (1996), who have conducted the most exhaustive review I have yet to come across. Other reviews are also av...

  10. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  11. Bioremediation of lead contaminated soil with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Peng, Weihua; Jia, Yingying; Lu, Lin; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation with microorganisms is a promising technique for heavy metal contaminated soil. Rhodobacter sphaeroides was previously isolated from oil field injection water and used for bioremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil in the present study. Based on the investigation of the optimum culturing conditions and the tolerance to Pb, we employed the microorganism for the remediation of Pb contaminated soil simulated at different contamination levels. It was found that the optimum temperature, pH, and inoculum size for R. sphaeroides is 30-35 °C, 7, and 2 × 10(8) mL(-1), respectively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides did not remove the Pb from soil but did change its speciation. During the bioremediation process, more available fractions were transformed to less accessible and inert fractions; in particular, the exchangeable phase was dramatically decreased while the residual phase was substantially increased. A wheat seedling growing experiment showed that Pb phytoavailability was reduced in amended soils. Results inferred that the main mechanism by which R. sphaeroides treats Pb contaminated soil is the precipitation formation of inert compounds, including lead sulfate and lead sulfide. Although the Pb bioremediation efficiency on wheat was not very high (14.78% root and 24.01% in leaf), R. sphaeroides remains a promising alternative for Pb remediation in contaminated soil.

  12. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils, Comprehensive Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.

    2001-01-12

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system.

  13. In situ microcosms in aquifer bioremediation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, R T; Shati, M R; Ronen, D

    1997-07-01

    The extent to which aquifer microbiota can be studied under laboratory or simulated conditions is limited by our inability to authentically duplicate natural conditions in the laboratory. Therefore, extrapolation of laboratory results to real aquifer situations is often criticized, unless validation of the data is performed in situ. Reliable data acquisition is critical for the estimation of chemical and biological reaction rates of biodegradation processes in groundwater and as input data for mathematical models. Typically, in situ geobiochemical studies relied on the injection of groundwater spiked with compounds or bacteria of interest into the aquifer, followed by monitoring the changes over time and space. In situ microcosms provide a more confined study site for measurements of microbial reactions, yet closer to natural conditions than laboratory microcosms. Two basic types of in situ aquifer microcosm have been described in recent years, and both originated from in situ instruments initially designed for geochemical measurements. Gillham et al. [Ground Water 28 (1990) 858-862] constructed an instrument that isolates a portion of an aquifer for in situ biochemical rate measurements. More recently Shati et al. [Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2646-2653] modified a multilayer sampler for studying the activity of inoculated bacteria in a contaminated aquifer Keeping in mind recent advances in environmental microbiology methodologies such as immunofluorescence direct counts, oligonucleotide and PCR probes, fatty acid methyl esther analysis for the detection and characterization of bacterial communities, measurement of mRNA and expression of proteins, it is evident that much new information can now be gained from in situ work. Using in situ microcosms to study bioremediation efficiencies, the fate of introduced microorganisms and general geobiochemical aquifer processes can shed more realistic light on the microbial underworld. The aim of this paper is to

  14. Monitoring bioremediation of atrazine in soil microcosms using molecular tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular tools in microbial community analysis give access to information on catabolic potential and diversity of microbes. Applied in bioremediation, they could provide a new dimension to improve pollution control. This concept has been demonstrated in the study using atrazine as model pollutant. Bioremediation of the herbicide, atrazine, was analyzed in microcosm studies by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. Genes from the atrazine degrading pathway atzA/B/C/D/E/F, trzN, and trzD were monitored during the course of treatment and results demonstrated variation in atzC, trzD and trzN genes with time. Change in copy number of trzN gene under different treatment processes was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The amplified trzN gene was cloned and sequence data showed homology to genes reported in Arthrobacter and Nocardioides. Results demonstrate that specific target genes can be monitored, quantified and correlated to degradation analysis which would help in predicting the outcome of any bioremediation strategy. - Highlights: ► Degradation of herbicide, atrazine. ► Comparison of bioremediation via bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. ► Gene profile analysis in all treatments. ► Variation in trzN gene numbers correlated to degradation efficiency. ► Cloning and sequence analysis of trzN gene demonstrates very high homology to reported gene. - This study demonstrates the use of molecular tools in bioremediation to monitor and track target genes; correlates the results with degradation and thereby predicts the efficiency of treatment.

  15. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

  16. Benzene bioremediation using cow dung microflora in two phase partitioning bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation of benzene has been carried out using cow dung microflora in a bioreactor. The bioremediation of benzene under the influence of cow dung microflora was found to be 100% and 67.5%, at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l and 250 mg/l within 72 h and 168 h respectively; where as at higher concentration (500 mg/l), benzene was found to be inhibitory. Hence the two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has been designed and developed to carryout biodegradation at higher concentration. In TPPB 5000 mg/l benzene was biodegraded up to 50.17% over a period of 168 h. Further the Pseudomonas putida MHF 7109 was isolated from cow dung microflora as potential benzene degrader and its ability to degrade benzene at various concentrations was evaluated. The data indicates 100%, 81% and 65% degradation at the concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l within the time period of 24 h, 96 h and 168 h respectively. The GC-MS data also shows the presence of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which confirms the established pathway of benzene biodegradation. The present research proves the potential of cow dung microflora as a source of biomass for benzene biodegradation in TPPB.

  17. The role of soil hydrologic heterogeneity for modeling large-scale bioremediation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N.; Palladino, M.; Speranza, G.; Di Fiore, P.; Sica, B.; Nasta, P.

    2014-12-01

    The major aim of the EU-Life+ project EcoRemed (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) is the implementation of operating protocols for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated croplands, which also involves plants extracting pollutants being then used as biomasses for renewable energy production. The study area is the National Interest Priority Site (NIPS) called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano, which is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 ectars. In this area, a high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the groundwater. An accurate determination of the soil hydraulic properties to characterize the landscape heterogeneity of the study area plays a key role within the general framework of this project, especially in view of the use of various modeling tools for water flow and solute transport simulations and to predict the effectiveness of the adopted bioremediation protocols. The present contribution is part of an ongoing study where we are investigating the following research questions: a) Which spatial aggregation schemes seem more suitable for upscaling from point to block support? b) Which effective soil hydrologic characteristic schemes simulate better the average behavior of larger scale phytoremediation processes? c) Allowing also for questions a) and b), how the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties affect the variability of plant responses to hydro-meteorological forcing?

  18. Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Using Forced-Aeration Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory simulation studies and a composting pilot study were conducted to evaluate the capacity of three strains of fungi, indigenous fungus Fusarium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus Versicolor, to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. In laboratory, the fungi were inoculated into a liquid culture medium and the petroleum-contaminated soil samples for incubation of 40 and 50 days, respectively.In the 200-day pilot study, nutrient contents and moisture were adjusted and maintained under aerobic condition in composting units using concrete container (118.5 cm × 65.5 cm × 12.5 cm) designed specially for this study. The laboratory simulation results showed that all the three fungi were effective in degrading petroleum in the liquid culture medium and in the soil. At the end of both the laboratory incubations, the degradation rates by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 66% after incubation in liquid culture for 50 days. This was further demonstrated in the composting pilot study where the degradation rate by P. chrysosporium reached 79% within 200 days, higher than those of the other two fungi (53.1% and 46.1%), indicating that P. chrysosporium was the best fungus for bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum. Further research is required to increase degradation rate.Key Words: bioremediation, composting, fungi, petroleum, soil

  19. Enhanced bioremediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater in pot-scale wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shreejita; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Mathur, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Pot-scale wetlands were used to investigate the role of plants in enhancing the performance of engineered bioremediation techniques like biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and phytoremediation collectively. Canna generalis plants were grown hydroponically in BTEX contaminated groundwater supplied in wetland mesocosms. To quantify the contaminant uptake by the plants, wetlands with and without shoot biomass along with unplanted gravel bed were used under controlled conditions. The residual concentration of the selected BTEX compound, toluene, in the rhizosphere water was measured over the entire period of the experiment along with the water lost by evapotranspiration. The rate of biodegradation in all wetland mesocosms fitted best with the first-order kinetics. The total removal time of the BTEX compound was found to be highest in the unplanted gravel bed mesocosm followed by wetlands without and with shoot biomass. The cumulative uptake of toluene in shoot biomass of the wetland plants initially increased rapidly and started to decrease subsequently till it reached a peak value. Continuity equations integrated with biodegradation and plant uptake sink terms were developed to simulate residual concentration of toluene in rhizospheric water for comparison with the measured data for entire period of the experiments. The results of this research can be used to frame in situ plant-assisted bioremediation techniques for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil-water resources.

  20. Bioremediation of selected contaminants in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is generally accepted as a long-term and economic treatment option. However, quantitative information on bioremediation and biosorption is required before this option can be adopted successfully. The primary goal of this on-going project is to determine the extent of natural biodegradation of hazardous organics and biosorption of hazardous organics and heavy metals by the consortia of bacteria, fungi, and plants. Methods to enhance the biodegradation process will be studied during the second and third years of this 3-year proposed project. The Devil's Swamp area near Baton Rouge and Bayou St. John in New Orleans have been selected as the first set of test sites. Some samples from Lake Pontchartrain, bordering New Orleans on the north, have also been analyzed. It is expected that many of the contaminants found at the test site(s) are present at other sites of DOE's interest. Further, technology resulting from the proposed research involving enhanced natural biodegradation processes should be transferable to other DOE sites

  1. Properties of bacterial laccases and their application in bioremediation of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Chowdhary, Pankaj

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation process of industrial waste can be made more efficient using ligninolytic laccase enzymes, which are obtained from fungi, bacteria, higher plants, insects, and also in lichen. Laccase are catalyzed in the mono-electronic oxidation of a substrate from the expenditure of molecular oxygen. This enzyme belongs to the multicopper oxidases and participates in the cross linking of monomers, involved in the degradation of wide range industrial pollutants. In recent years, these enzymes have gained application in pulp and paper, textile and food industries. There are numerous reviews on laccases; however, a lot of information is still unknown due to their broad range of functions and applications. In this review, the bacterial laccases are focused for the bioremediation of various industrial pollutants. A brief description on structural molecular and physicochemical properties has been made. Moreover, the mechanism by which the reaction is catalyzed, the physical basis of thermostability and enantioselectivity, which requires more attention from researchers, and applications of laccase in various fields of biotechnology are pointed out.

  2. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  4. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  5. Perspectives of using fungi as bioresource for bioremediation of pesticides in the environment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Shahzad, Tanvir; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Azeem, Farrukh; Muzammil, Saima

    2016-09-01

    Pesticides are used for controlling the development of various pests in agricultural crops worldwide. Despite their agricultural benefits, pesticides are often considered a serious threat to the environment because of their persistent nature and the anomalies they create. Hence removal of such pesticides from the environment is a topic of interest for the researchers nowadays. During the recent years, use of biological resources to degrade or remove pesticides has emerged as a powerful tool for their in situ degradation and remediation. Fungi are among such bioresources that have been widely characterized and applied for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides. This review article presents the perspectives of using fungi for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides in liquid and soil media. This review clearly indicates that fungal isolates are an effective bioresource to degrade different pesticides including lindane, methamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cypermethrin, dieldrin, methyl parathion, heptachlor, etc. However, rate of fungal degradation of pesticides depends on soil moisture content, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, oxygen level, etc. Fungal strains were found to harbor different processes including hydroxylation, demethylation, dechlorination, dioxygenation, esterification, dehydrochlorination, oxidation, etc during the biodegradation of different pesticides having varying functional groups. Moreover, the biodegradation of different pesticides was found to be mediated by involvement of different enzymes including laccase, hydrolase, peroxidase, esterase, dehydrogenase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, etc. The recent advances in understanding the fungal biodegradation of pesticides focusing on the processes, pathways, genes/enzymes and factors affecting the biodegradation have also been presented in this review article.

  6. Benzene bioremediation using cow dung microflora in two phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dipty [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India); Fulekar, M.H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bioremediation of benzene has been carried out using cow dung microflora in a bioreactor. The bioremediation of benzene under the influence of cow dung microflora was found to be 100% and 67.5%, at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l and 250 mg/l within 72 h and 168 h respectively; where as at higher concentration (500 mg/l), benzene was found to be inhibitory. Hence the two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has been designed and developed to carryout biodegradation at higher concentration. In TPPB 5000 mg/l benzene was biodegraded up to 50.17% over a period of 168 h. Further the Pseudomonas putida MHF 7109 was isolated from cow dung microflora as potential benzene degrader and its ability to degrade benzene at various concentrations was evaluated. The data indicates 100%, 81% and 65% degradation at the concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l within the time period of 24 h, 96 h and 168 h respectively. The GC-MS data also shows the presence of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which confirms the established pathway of benzene biodegradation. The present research proves the potential of cow dung microflora as a source of biomass for benzene biodegradation in TPPB.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: NEW YORK STATE MULTI-VENDOR BIOREMEDIATION - R.E. WRIGHT ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.'S IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc.‘s (REWEI) In-situ Bioremediation Treatment System is an in-situ bioremediation technology for the treatment of soils contaminated with organic compounds. According to the Developer, contaminated soils are remediated in-situ by stimulating the a...

  8. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  9. [Application prospect about bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil with immobilized microorganism technique: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Xing; Su, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui-Bo; Shen, Chao-Feng; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-06-01

    As one type of the persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are tremendously harmful to organisms. These compounds are easily absorbed onto soil particles and able to accumulate in soil after they are released into the environment. Bioremediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils has become a research hotspot in recent years, and immobilized microorganism technique has high developing and applying value because of its unique advantages in environmental remediation. This paper reviewed the chief remediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils and then analyzed the characteristics of immobilized microorganism technique and its research progress in remediation of organic polluted soil. Finally, the feasibility and problems of this technique in remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil were also discussed.

  10. Genome-Based Models to Optimize In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium and Harvesting Electrical Energy from Waste Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-28

    The goal of this research was to provide computational tools to predictively model the behavior of two microbial communities of direct relevance to Department of Energy interests: 1) the microbial community responsible for in situ bioremediation of uranium in contaminated subsurface environments; and 2) the microbial community capable of harvesting electricity from waste organic matter and renewable biomass. During this project the concept of microbial electrosynthesis, a novel form of artificial photosynthesis for the direct production of fuels and other organic commodities from carbon dioxide and water was also developed and research was expanded into this area as well.

  11. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sa Wang; Shuhai Guo; Fengmei Li; Xuelian Yang; Fei Teng; Jianing Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM a...

  12. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  13. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes. PMID:23400445

  14. Structural analysis of enzymes used for bioindustry and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanokura, Masaru; Miyakawa, Takuya; Guan, Lijun; Hou, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been widely applied in the large-scale, bioindustrial manufacture of food products and pharmaceuticals due to their high substrate specificity and stereoselectivity, and their effectiveness under mild conditions with low environmental burden. At the same time, bioremedial techniques using microbial enzymes have been developed to solve the problem of industrial waste, particularly with respect to persistent chemicals and toxic substances. And finally, structural studies of these enzymes have revealed the mechanistic basis of enzymatic reactions, including the stereoselectivity and binding specificity of substrates and cofactors. The obtained structural insights are useful not only to deepen our understanding of enzymes with potential bioindustrial and/or bioremedial application, but also for the functional improvement of enzymes through rational protein engineering. This review shows the structural bases for various types of enzymatic reactions, including the substrate specificity accompanying cofactor-controlled and kinetic mechanisms.

  15. Kinetics of in situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and may require the remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to quantify the biological and chemical reactions that would occur during in situ bioremediation

  16. Microbial changes in rhizospheric soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons after bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin; LI Pei-jun; ZHOU Qi-xing; XU Hua-xia; ZHANG Hai-rong

    2004-01-01

    Effects of bioremediation on microbial communities in soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are a scientific problem to be solved. Changes in dominate microbial species and the total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi in rhizospheric soils after bioremediation were thus evaluated using field bioremediation experiments. The results showed that there were changed dominant microorganisms including 11 bacterial strains which are mostly Gram positive bacteria and 6 fungal species which were identified. The total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi increased after bioremediation of microbial agents combined with planting maize. On the contrary, fungi in rhizospheric soils were inhibited by adding microbial agents combined with planting soybean.

  17. Bioremediation of severely weathered hydrocarbons: is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weathering processes of spilled hydrocarbons promote a reduced biodegradability of petroleum compounds mixtures, and consequently bioremediation techniques are often ruled out within the selection of suitable remediation approaches. This is truly relevant wherever old spills at abandoned industrial sites have to be remediated. However it is well known most of the remaining fractions and individual compounds of weathered oil are still biodegradable, although at slow rates than alkanes or no and two-ring aromatics. (Author)

  18. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ławniczak, Łukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. Th...

  19. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremediation (bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation. In this study the assisted bioremediation capacity on the rehabilitation of three natural sub-soils (granite, limestone and schist contaminated with benzene was evaluated. Two different types of assisted bioremediation were used: without and with ventilation (bioventing. The bioaugmentation was held by inoculating the soil with a consortium of microorganisms collected from the protection area of crude oil storage tanks in a refinery. In unventilated trials, biostimulation was accomplished by the addition of a nutrient mineral media, while in bioventing oxygen was also added. The tests were carried out at controlled temperature of 25 ºC in stainless steel columns where the moist soil contaminated with benzene (200 mg per kg of soil occupied about 40% of the column’s volume. The processes were daily monitored in discontinued mode. Benzene concentration in the gas phase was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-FID, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored by respirometry. The results revealed that the three contaminated soils were remediated using both technologies, nevertheless, the bioventing showed faster rates. With this work it was proved that respirometric analysis is an appropriate instrument for monitoring the biological activity.

  20. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas; Laila Abdelfattah Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  1. BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER USING BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    OpenAIRE

    P.Priya darshini*, J.Sharpudin

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is a treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances. The microbes are effective in control of pollution due to waste water. The industrial and municipal waste water is analyzed for different Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, TDS, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Chlorides. The collected waste water samples were serially diluted and pour plated on Nutrient Agar medium and incubated at 37˚...

  2. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  3. Microbial Population Changes during Bioremediation of an Experimental Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Stephen, John R.; Venosa, Albert D.; Davis, Gregory A.; Chang, Yun-juan; White, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontaminat...

  4. The bioremediation potential of marine sandy sediment microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Răzvan POPOVICIU

    2012-01-01

    The natural microbiota from marine sandy sediments on the Romanian sea coast was tested for resilience in case of hydrocarbon contamination, for estimating the number of (culturable) hydrocarbon and lipid oil-degrading microorganisms and for determining the influence of inorganic nitrate and phosphate nutrients on hydrocarbon spill bioremediation process, by microcosm experiments.Results show that hydrocarbon contamination affects the bacteriobenthos both in terms of cell numbers and composit...

  5. Bioremediation of severely weathered hydrocarbons: is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. R.; Villa, R.; Sierra, C.; Sotres, A.; Pelaez, A. I.; Sanchez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Weathering processes of spilled hydrocarbons promote a reduced biodegradability of petroleum compounds mixtures, and consequently bioremediation techniques are often ruled out within the selection of suitable remediation approaches. This is truly relevant wherever old spills at abandoned industrial sites have to be remediated. However it is well known most of the remaining fractions and individual compounds of weathered oil are still biodegradable, although at slow rates than alkanes or no and two-ring aromatics. (Author)

  6. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  7. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  8. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  9. Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Cold Environments: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-Zhong; JIN Hui-Jun; WEI Zhi; HE Rui-Xia; JI Yan-Jun; LI Xiu-Mei; YU Shao-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Oil spills have become a serious problem in cold environments with the ever-increasing resource exploitation,transportation,storage,and accidental leakage of oil.Several techniques,including physical,chemical,and biological methods,are used to recover spilled oil from the environment.Bioremediation is a promising option for remediation since it is effective and economic in removing oil with less undue environmental damages.However,it is a relatively slow process in cold regions and the degree of success depends on a number of factors,including the properties and fate of oil spilled in cold environments,and the major microbial and environmental limitations of bioremediation.The microbial factors include bioavailability of hydrocarbons,mass transfer through the cell membrane,and metabolic limitations.As for the environmental limitations in the cold regions,the emphasis is on soil temperatures,freeze-thaw processes,oxygen and nutrients availability,toxicity,and electron acceptors.There have been several cases of success in the polar regions,particularly in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.However,the challenges and constraints for bioremediation in cold environments remain large.

  10. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  11. Microbial inoculants and fertilization for bioremediation of oil in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is an attractive alternative to physical methods of oil spill cleanup in wetlands where the ecosystem can be easily damaged. Because populations of oil-degrading microorganisms are usually low in wetlands, there is potential for increasing bioremediation through bioaugmentation in conjunction with N and P supplementation. Eight microbial inoculant products were added to microcosms containing soil from a salt marsh. Four of these products were also used in mesocosms containing Spartina alterniflora grown in a glasshouse. In unfertilized microcosms, the extent of oil degraded as measured by carbon dioxide evolution during 90 days, was 30% higher in the product with the highest activity than was recorded in the control with oil by 36%. None of the products when added to the fertilized soil increased activity above that of the fertilized control with oil. Addition of oil to microcosms increased populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, but bioaugmentation products did not increase populations. Neither addition of products nor fertilization enhanced the disappearance of oil in mesocosms in the glasshouse. Approximately 50% of the weathered oil disappeared in 41 d for all treatments. Because bioaugmentation did not enhance oil degradation, it seems that natural populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were adequate in the salt marsh soil for bioremediation

  12. The Study of Isolated Bacteria Application for Bioremediation Agent of Uranium Radionuclide in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the isolated bacteria on the Low Level Uranium Waste as uranium bioremediation agent in the environment has been studied. The objective of this research is to study the possibility of isolated bacteria to be used on uranium remediation process. The isolation of uranium resistance bacteria was carried out on the selective medium SBS containing 10 mg/l uranium, incubated at 37°C until the growth was visible. Selection of binding uranium bacteria was carried out based on their ability to grow on liquid medium containing various concentration of uranium that shacked on 120 rpm speed. The isolated bacteria with the highest specific growth rate constant (μ) were selected for biochemical characterization and identification by matching profile method. The result of this research showed that three selected isolate bacteria were able to grow well on liquid SBS medium until 100 mg/l uranium concentration. The identification results showed that two of them were suspected belong to the genus Pseudomonas and one isolates belong to the genus of Bacillus. The uranium reduction studied was performed by growing up the isolated bacteria on the SBS liquid medium that containing 40 mg/l uranium. Bacterial growth were measured by weighted of bacterial biomass and uranium concentration were measured by spectrophotometer. The research result showed that the selected isolates bacteria may applicable for bioremediation agent because of their ability to grow well on liquid SBS medium and their ability on uranium concentration reduction. The efficiency of reduction by Pseudomonas in the isolated bacteria one were 78.51 % and in the isolated bacteria three were 91.47 % , and Bacillus in the isolate bacteria six were 52.73%. (author)

  13. Identifying Field-scale Bioremediation Status from Geochemical and Geophysical Data Using Dynamic Linear Models with Switching: Development and Application at a Uranium Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    Many field bioremediation experiments have been carried out at the uranium-contaminated Rifle Integrated Field Research Center (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado. The experiments include continuously injecting acetate and bromide for a period of 1~2 months and subsequently collecting multiple geochemical samples from downstream monitoring wells. Surface spectral induced polarization data along several two-dimensional (2D) profiles have also been collected to obtain information on the spatial distribution of biogeochemical transformations induced by bioremediation. The biogeochemical reactions vary over space and time during the contaminated aquifer transitions from iron to sulfate reduction following introduction of the electron donor. Developing methods to identify the onset and distribution of these transitions could improve our ability to assess remediation efficacy and sustainability. In this study, we develop a dynamic linear model with switching to identify bioremediation transitions using time-lapse aqueous geochemical data (such as Fe(II), sulfate, sulfide, acetate, uranium, chloride, and bromide concentrations) and spectral induced polarization data. We consider the multivariate geochemical concentrations as hidden random processes (observed at borehole locations but unknown at other locations) and the time-lapse geophysical data as observations at each location along the 2D profiles. The connection between the geophysical observations and geochemical time-series is determined by design matrices, which vary depending upon redox status. We describe the unknown biogeochemical events as categorical random variables. We take a Bayesian approach to estimate unknown parameters by first assigning suitable priors to the unknowns and then drawing many samples from their joint posterior distribution using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The developed approach can provide us a wide range of information on bioremediation for evaluating the effectiveness of

  14. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil - Improvement of in situ bioremediation by bioaugmentation with endogenous and exogenous strains

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage tanks and pipelines, increase over time. The evolution of Legislation concerning soil pollution has led to the need of efficient techniques able to restore the polluted ground. Unfortunately, these techniques are expensive. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils has been recognized as...

  15. Bioremediation of the soils contaminated with cadmium and chromium, by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aseman

    2016-01-01

    Results: There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to the initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. On the other hand, chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Conclusion: said the research indicated that increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended. Although, this method is effective to remove cadmium from the soils having cadmium with concentrations of 0.04 and 0.08 mg/g but it needs further investigation.

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  17. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects. PMID:27638318

  18. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in preventative measures, recent events have demonstrated that accidental oil spills at sea will still occur. While physical (e.g. booms and skimmers) and chemical (e.g. chemical dispersants) methods have been developed to recover and/or disperse oil spilled at sea, they are not 100% effective and are frequently limited by operational constraints attributed to sea state and/or nature of the contamination. As a result, oil spills frequently impact shoreline environments. In situ bioremediation, the addition of substances or modification of habitat at contaminated sites to accelerate natural biodegradation processes, is now recognised as an alternative spill response technology of the remediation of these sites. Recommended for use following the physical removal of bulk oil, this treatment strategy has an operational advantage in that it breaks down and/or removes the residual contamination in place. Laboratory experiments and field trials have demonstrated the feasibility and success of bioremediation strategies such as nutrient enrichment to enhance bacterial degradation of oil on cobble, sand beach and salt marsh environments. With improved knowledge of the factors that limit natural oil degradation rates, the feasibility of other strategies such as phytoremediation, enhanced oil-mineral fines interaction and the addition of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors are now being evaluated. Laboratory and field test protocols are being refined for the selection of effective bioremediation agents and methods of application. It is recommended that future operational guidelines include real time product efficacy test and environmental effects monitoring programs. Termination of treatment should be implemented when: 1) it is no longer effective; 2) the oil has degraded to acceptable biologically benign concentrations; or 3) toxicity due to the treatment is increasing. (Author)

  19. [Dynamic changes in functional genes for nitrogen bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil cycle during].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin-Bin; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Microorganisms in nitrogen cycle serve as an important part of the ecological function of soil. The aim of this research was to monitor the abundance of nitrogen-fixing, denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria during bioaugmentation of petroleum-contaminated soil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) of nifH, narG and amoA genes which encode the key enzymes in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and ammoniation respectively. Three different kinds of soils, which are petroleum-contaminated soil, normal soil, and remediated soil, were monitored. It was shown that the amounts of functional microorganisms in petroleum-contaminated soil were far less than those in normal soil, while the amounts in remediated soil and normal soil were comparable. Results of this experiment demonstrate that nitrogen circular functional bacteria are inhibited in petroleum-contaminated soil and can be recovered through bioremediation. Furthermore, copies of the three functional genes as well as total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for soils with six different treatments were monitored. Among all treatments, the one, into which both E. cloacae as an inoculant and wheat straw as an additive were added, obtained the maximum copies of 2.68 x 10(6), 1.71 x 10(6) and 8.54 x 10(4) per gram dry soil for nifH, narG and amoA genes respectively, companying with the highest degradation rate (48% in 40 days) of TPH. The recovery of functional genes and removal of TPH were better in soil inoculated with E cloacae and C echinulata collectively than soil inoculated with E cloacae only. All above results suggest that the nitrogen circular functional genes could be applied to monitor and assess the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

  20. Integrated green algal technology for bioremediation and biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Xu, Jianfeng; Thompson, Robert W; Yang, Ying; Randol-Smith, Paula; Weathers, Pamela J

    2012-03-01

    Sustainable non-food energy biomass and cost-effective ways to produce renewable energy technologies from this biomass are continuously emerging. Algae are capable of producing lipids and hydrocarbons quickly and their photosynthetic abilities make them a promising candidate for an alternative energy source. In addition, their favorable carbon life cycle and a renewed focus on rural economic development are attractive factors. In this review the focus is mainly on the integrated approach of algae culture for bioremediation and oil-based biofuel production with mention of possible other value-added benefits of using algae for those purposes. PMID:22230775

  1. Ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of stress acclimated bacteria and nutrient supplements to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soil can be a cost effective and reliable treatment technology to reduce organic contaminant levels to below established by local, state, and federal regulatory clean-up criteria. This paper will summarize the results of a field study in which 12,000 yds3 of petroleum contaminated soil was successfully treated via ex-situ bioremediation and through management of macro and micronutrient concentrations, as well as, other site specific environmental factors that are essential for optimizing microbial growth

  2. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  3. Conceptualizing "suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms" for bioremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gunjan; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2005-02-18

    Use of genetically modified microorganisms (GEMs) for pollution abatement has been limited because of risks associated with their release in the environment. Recent developments in the area of recombinant DNA technologies have paved the way for conceptualizing "suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms" (S-GEMS) to minimize such anticipated hazards and to achieve efficient and safer bioremediation of contaminated sites. Our strategy of designing a novel S-GEM is based on the knowledge of killer-anti-killer gene(s) that would be susceptible to programmed cell death after detoxification of any given contaminated site(s). PMID:15649393

  4. In situ bioremediation of oil pollution in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage of an underground storage tank at the Trandum Army Base caused a 20.000 liter spill of fuel oil. Several options for remediation have been evaluated. In situ bioremediation was chosen as the most cost effective and realistic method and was evaluated in detail. Preliminary laboratory studies showed that a large number of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organism are present and that good degradation rates can be obtained with the addition of a nitrogen and phosphorus source. Since July 1991 a full scale bioventing installation has been in operation. The preliminary monitoring results give an indication of biological activity. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Potential new bioremediation technique of PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University of Michigan environmental engineers may have found a way to destroy toxic PCBs in contaminated riverbed sediments using sequential treatments with anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. According to the researchers, the process is the first to breakdown successfully PCBs in contaminated sediments. First anaerobic organisms remove chlorine atoms from PCBs, making them less toxic. Then aerobic bacteria chemically convert PCBs to carbon dioxide and water. The trick is putting oxygen into the system to create the switch from anaerobic to aerobic degradation. To date concentrations have been reduced from 300 mg/L to about 50 mg/L and work continues to attempt to perfect the process. EPA has been requested to test the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process on PBC-contaminated Superfund sites near Sheboygan, WI

  6. The phage-driven microbial loop in petroleum bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Bittan-Banin, Gili; Sharon, Gil; Shon, Avital; Hershko, Galit; Levy, Itzik; Ron, Eliora Z

    2010-07-01

    During the drilling process and transport of crude oil, water mixes with the petroleum. At oil terminals, the water settles to the bottom of storage tanks. This drainage water is contaminated with emulsified oil and water-soluble hydrocarbons and must be treated before it can be released into the environment. In this study, we tested the efficiency of a continuous flow, two-stage bioreactor for treating drainage water from an Israeli oil terminal. The bioreactor removed all of the ammonia, 93% of the sulfide and converted 90% of the total organic carbon (TOC) into carbon dioxide. SYBR Gold staining indicated that reactor 1 contained 1.7 × 10(8) bacteria and 3.7 × 10(8) phages per millilitre, and reactor 2 contained 1.3 × 10(8) bacteria and 1.7 × 10(9) phages per millilitre. The unexpectedly high mineralization of TOC and high concentration of phage in reactor 2 support the concept of a phage-driven microbial loop in the bioremediation of the drainage water. In general, application of this concept in bioremediation of contaminated water has the potential to increase the efficiency of processes. PMID:21255344

  7. Transformation of a petroleum pollutant during soil bioremediation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOVANCICEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of ex situ soil bioremediation was performed at the locality of the Oil Refinery in Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River, Serbia polluted with an oil type pollutant. The experiments of biostimulation, bioventilation and reinoculation of an autochthonous microbial consortium were performed during the six-month period (May–November 2006. The changes in the quantity and composition of the pollutant, or the bioremediation effect, were monitored by analysis of the samples of the polluted soil taken in time spans of two weeks. In this way, from the beginning until the end of the experiment, 12 samples were collected and marked as P1–P12 (Pančevo 1–Pančevo 12. The results obtained showed that more significant changes in the composition of the oil pollutant occurred only during the last phases of the experiment (P8–P12. The activity of microorganisms was reflected in the increase of the quantity of polar oil fractions, mainly fatty acid fractions. In this way, the quantity of total eluate increased, and the quantity of the insoluble residue was reduced to a minimum, whereby the oil pollutant was transformed to a form that could be removed more efficiently and more completely from the soil, as a segment of the environment.

  8. Bioremediation of petrochemical sludge from oil refining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum refineries have historically produced large quantities of hydrocarbon sludge as a waste product. A common past practice for disposal of this material was to deposit it in open pits. These hazardous waste sites now require remediation to meet current environmental regulations. This report will present data from a feasibility study on bioremediation for one such site. Data will be presented on the characteristics and composition of the crude sludge including organic analysis by GC/MS techniques, loss on ignition, TOC pH, oil and grease levels, metals content by atomic adsorption and bacteria plate counts. The effectiveness of bioremediation will be examined using data from shaker flask studies with indigenous and other bacteria sources. Key parameters being monitored will include toxicity using a Microtox assay, oil and grease levels, and the concentration of individual chemical species using GC/MS analysis. Biological data such as bacteria growth rates and nutrient uptake rates will also be presented and compared to biodegradation rates

  9. Degrading and Detoxifying Industrial Waste Water using Bioremediation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Agrawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation uses various microorganisms to detoxify or degrade various harmful substances in the nature, particularly soil and water. In the proposed work, five species of micro-organisms were used to analyse their impact on various physico-chemical parameters of water. In the first attempt the actual physico chemical parameters of the collected sample water were noted down (Fresh sample parameters. Then the sample water was treated with micro-organisms (one at a time. The growth of microbes was noted carefully over 96 hours after inoculation. The physico chemical parameters were recorded again and were compared with the fresh sample parameters. The results were analysed for any change and on this basis an impact factor was developed. The study reveals all the selected microbes have a great capacity of degrading and simplifying the complex molecules into simpler ones. Bioremediative treatment further enhances this capacity and therefore this approach can be utilized on large scale to minimize pollution of water bodies.

  10. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Pavitran

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-speed diesel, a slow process, is attributed to an overall combinedeffect of physico-chemical and biological processes which take months for complete dispersion.History of marine oil spill bioremediation indicates limited laboratory studies. But experiencesfrom various oil spill management and field trials indicate important role of bioremediation, where,biodegradation of hydrocarbons through microbial mediators plays a major role in pollutant oildispersion. These microbial mediators such as bioemulsifiers and fimbrae, help in emulsification,dispersion, allowing attachment of bacteria to oil layers, followed by substrate-specific enzymaticbiodegradation in water.

  11. In situ petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, C.; Bell, T.; Lee, K.; Delisle, S.; Kovanen, D.; Craig, D.; Juck, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on the in-situ bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils at the Canadian Forces Station CFS-Alert, in the Arctic. The soil was amended with monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The operation was designed to take place in a 2 month period during the brief thaw season. This presentation described the installation of the bioventing stacks, the turning of soil, and the application of an oxygen release compound (ORC) at the surface of the permafrost. A significant decrease in petroleum hydrocarbons (PC) was noted over 2 months. The effect of MAP amendment was a slight decrease in biomass in the pristine environment and a significant increase in biomass in the contaminated environment. The alkB gene was found to be important in the biodegradation of alkanes. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify active organisms. This bioremediation study showed that even in harsh Arctic climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be remediated effectively and economically via biodegradation. tabs., figs.

  12. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  13. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  14. Influence of salinity on bioremediation of oil in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills from oil production and processing result in soils being contaminated with oil and salt. The effect of NaCl on degradation of oil in a sandy-clay loam and a clay loam soil was determined. Soils were treated with 50 g kg-1 non-detergent motor oil (30 SAE). Salt treatments included NaCl amendments to adjust the soil solution electrical conductivities to 40, 120, and 200 dS m-1. Soils were amended with nutrients and incubated at 25oC. Oil degradation was estimated from the quantities of CO2 evolved and from gravimetric determinations of remaining oil. Salt concentrations of 200 dS m-1 in oil amended soils resulted in a decrease in oil mineralized by 44% for a clay loam and 20% for a sandy-clay loam soil. A salt concentration of 40 dS m-1 reduced oil mineralization by about 10% in both soils. Oil mineralized in the oil amended clay-loam soil was 2-3 times greater than for comparable treatments of the sandy-clay loam soil. Amending the sandy-clay loam soil with 5% by weight of the clay-loam soil enhanced oil mineralization by 40%. Removal of salts from oil and salt contaminated soils before undertaking bioremediation may reduce the time required for bioremediation. (author)

  15. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  16. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren; Terry Brown

    2006-03-02

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.

  17. Bioremediation of zirconium from aqueous solution by coriolus versicolor: process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the potential of live mycelia of Coriolus versicolor was explored for the removal of zirconium from simulated aqueous solution. Optimum experimental parameters for the bioremediation of zirconium using C. versicolor biomass have been investigated by studying the effect of mycelia dose, concentration of zirconium, contact time and temperature. The isothermal studies indicated that the ongoing bioremediation process was exothermic in nature and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) of bioremediation were also determined. The result showed that bioremediation of zirconium by live C. versicolor was feasible and spontaneous at room temperature. The equilibrium data verified the involvement of chemisorption during the bioremediation. The kinetic data indicated the operation of pseudo-second order process during the biosorption of zirconium from aqueous solution. Maximum bioremediation capacity (110.75 mg/g) of C. versicolor was observed under optimum operational conditions: pH 4.5, biomass dose 0.05 mg/100 mL, contact time 6 h and temperature 30 degree C. The results showed that C. versicolor could be used for bioremediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems. (author)

  18. Immobilization of bacteria isolated from the mining areas on polymeric supports for bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today pollution is an important environmental problem. Many bacteria have the ability to degrade several types of pollutants in various media (soil, water and air) are used in bioremediation. The present work is to study bacterial diversity colonizing contaminated soil from a mining site in the region of Gafsa and Sfax phosphogypsum and evaluate their potential in bioremediation. Three bacterial strains were selected based on the presence of pigments. These strains have been studied for their tolerances of strontium. Selected strains, was assessed for its bioremediation potential to confirm his use in the biodeppolution processes.

  19. Potential of cold-adapted microorganisms for bioremediation of oil-polluted Alpine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental contamination by organic pollutants is a widespread problem in all climates. The most widely distributed pollution can be attributed to oil contamination. Bioremediation methods can provide efficient, inexpensive and environmentally safe cleanup tools. The role of cold-adapted microorganisms for the bioremediation of experimentally and chronically oil-contaminated Alpine soils was evaluated in the studies described. The results demonstrated that there is a considerable potential for oil bioremediation in Alpine soils. Oil biodegradation can be significantly enhanced by biostimulation (inorganic nutrient supply), but a complete oil elimination is not possible by employing biological decontamination alone. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  1. Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™BIO-REM, Inc. - Demonstration Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™ developed by BIO-REM, Inc., uses microaerophilic bacteria and micronutrients (H-10) and surface tension depressants/penetrants for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater. The bacteria utilize hydroc...

  2. AQUIFER PROTIST RESPONSE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR TCE BIOREMEDIATION WITH BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA G4 PR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of bacteria into the environment for bioremediation purposes (bioaugmentation) requires analysis and monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial population for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR123 and PR131 constitutive...

  3. Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

    1999-01-01

    This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY: DINOSEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology is designed to anaerobically degrade nitroaromatic and energetic compounds in soils and liquids without forming identifiable toxic intermediate compounds produced by other biotreatment methods. This technology was evaluated un...

  5. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GRACE DEARBORN INC.'S DARAMEND BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil's ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to microorganisms and...

  6. Bioremediation efficacy in Marrow Marsh following the Apex oil spill, Galveston Bay, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples taken from Marrow Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas were taken to assess the efficacy of the August 5, 1990 bioremediation treatment in the marsh following the Apex barges oil spill on July 28, 1990. The bioremediation treatment combined a lyophilized bacterial mixture and a nutrient mix containing phosphorus and nitrogen. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96 h period from both treated and untreated oiled sites. Oil fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons analysis, and total petroleum hydrocarbons analysis were performed to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil. Results of analyses, although not statistically reliable, failed to support the occurrence of any definite chemical alteration in the spilled oil that could be attributed to the bioremediation treatment. The relatively short sampling period and the number of samples taken, however, may have been insufficient to document the efficacy of the overall bioremediation effect. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Deploying in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative in-situ bioremediation technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to destroy nitrate and carbon tetrachloride (CC14) in the Hanford ground water. The goal of this in-situ treatment process is to stimulate native microorganisms to degrade nitrate and CCl4. Nutrient solutions are distributed in the contaminated aquifer to create a biological treatment zone. This technology is being demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site to provide the design, operating, and cost information needed to assess its effectiveness in contaminated ground water. The process design and field operations for demonstration of this technology are influenced by the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties observed at the site. A description of the technology is presented including the well network design, nutrient injection equipment, and means for controlling the hydraulics and microbial reactions of the treatment process

  8. Selenite bioremediation potential of indigenous microorganisms from industrial activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbisu, C; Alkorta, I; Carlson, D E; Leighton, T; Buchanan, B B

    1997-12-01

    Ten bacterial strains were isolated from the activated sludge waste treatment system (BIOX) at the Exxon refinery in Benicia, California. Half of these isolates could be grown in minimal medium. When tested for selenite detoxification capability, these five isolates (members of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Aeromonas), were capable of detoxifying selenite with kinetics similar to those of a well characterized Bacillus subtilis strain (168 Trp+) studied previously. The selenite detoxification phenotype of the Exxon isolates was stable to repeated transfer on culture media which did not contain selenium. Microorganisms isolated from the Exxon BIOX reactor were capable of detoxifying selenite. Treatability studies using the whole BIOX microbial community were also carried out to evaluate substrates for their ability to support growth and selenite bioremediation. Under the appropriate conditions, indigenous microbial communities are capable of remediating selenite in situ.

  9. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste by windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, G; Ravikannan, S P; Meenambal, T

    2013-10-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and economic development the urban cities are facing the problem of solid waste management. It is one among the major challenges faced by governing bodies. Bioremediation of municipal solid waste can be effectively done by windrow composting. In this study, a consortium of effective microorganisms was used for the windrow composting process. About 500 kg of shredded waste was placed in two windrows and 1 litre effective microorganisms were sprayed on one of the windrows. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. The results indicate that usage of effective microorganisms not only shortens the stabilization time but also improves product quality. The final product was more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner. PMID:25906592

  10. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  11. UTILIZING Aspergillus niger FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF TANNERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bisht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannery waste water is characterized by highly toxic ammonium, sulfates, surfactants, acids, dyes, sulfonated oils and organic substances, including natural or synthetic tannins. This study was designed to study the potential of Aspergillus niger for bioremediation of tannery effluent. Addition of glucose as a carbon source in the tannery effluent encouraged the growth of A. niger but there was no change in physico-chemical parameters. The toxic effects were mostly reduced after treatment when 20% mineral salt medium was added in tannery effluent. Colour, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfides and chromium reduction were 71.9%, 72.1%, 69.0%, 65.0%, 68.1%, 66.8%, 65.7% and 57.8%, respectively.

  12. Bioremediation of organic pollutants in a radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation holds the promise as a cost effective treatment technology for a wide variety of hazardous pollutants. In this study, the biodegradation of organic compounds discharged together with radioactive wastes is investigated. Nuclear process wastewater was simulated by a mixture of phenol and strontium, which is a major radionuclide found in radioactive wastewater. Phenol was used in the study as a model compound due to its simplicity of molecular structure. Moreover, the biodegradation pathway of phenol is well known. Biodegradation studies were conducted using pure cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The rate of phenol degradation by both species was found to be higher in the test without strontium. This suggests some degree of inhibition in the degradation of phenol by strontium. There was no phenol degradation in the sterile controls. The results indicate the feasibility of the biodegradation of organic pollutants discharged in radioactive effluents by specialised microbial cultures. (authors)

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. PMID:26248825

  14. Rhamnolipids enhance marine oil spill bioremediation in laboratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingguo; Bao, Mutai; Fan, Xiaoning; Liang, Shengkang; Sun, Peiyan

    2013-06-15

    This paper presents a simulated marine oil spill bioremediation experiment using a bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipids. The role of rhamnolipids in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation was evaluated via GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Rhamnolipids enhanced total oil biodegradation efficiency by 5.63%, with variation in normal alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomakers biodegradation. The hydrocarbons biodegradation by bacteria consortium overall follows a decreasing order of PAHs>n-alkanes>biomarkers, while in different order of PAHs>biomarkers>n-alkanes when rhamnolipids was used, and the improvement in the removal efficiency by rhamnolipids follows another order of biomarkers>n-alkanes>PAHs. Rhamnolipids played a negative role in degradation of those hydrocarbons with relatively volatile property, such as n-alkanes with short chains, PAHs and sesquiterpenes with simple structure. As to the long chain normal alkanes and PAHs and biomakers with complex structure, the biosurfactant played a positive role in these hydrocarbons biodegradation. PMID:23566561

  15. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were tested in a field experiment in Delaware, United States to determine the progress of natural and accelerated attenuation during a controlled oil spill. The four treatments studied were: no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum. During the first 14 weeks, microbial numbers were high but were steadily declining with no major differences among treatments. However, after the 14 week period, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results showed that the communities shifted from being composed mostly of eukaryotes to gram-negative bacteria. The dominant species diversity changed and increased significantly over 14 weeks. Nutrient addition and the addition of the indigenous inoculum altered the nature of this change. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the oil analytes detected major differences in rates of biodegradation between the amended and unamended natural attenuation plots, but not between the nutrient and inoculum plots. 11 refs., 3 figs

  16. San Jacinto River oil spill: wetland bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline, diesel and unrefined Arabian light crude oil were accidentally released into the San Jacinto River after a series of pipelines ruptured. Natural removal processes (volatilization, dissolution, weathering), fire, and the spill clean-up effort, removed approximately 95% of the petroleum. The area where residual oil was found was an estuarine wetland on the lower San Jacinto River. Samples were collected from 21 study areas and an evaluation of the varying levels of bioremediation was conducted. Phase one has been completed and involved the evaluation of the natural recovery of oil from the spill. Phase two was still in progress and involved the addition of inorganic nutrients and the alternate electron acceptor to enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum. Results showed that biodegradation was responsible for much of the reduction of certain components in petroleum within the first 150 days. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea. PMID:24657912

  18. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  19. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-01

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  20. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  1. Bioremediation: Hope/Hype for Environmental Cleanup (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry [LBNL, Ecology Dept

    2007-07-18

    Summer Lecture Series 2007: Terry Hazen, Senior Staff Scientists and Head of the LBNL Ecology Department, discusses when it's best to resort to engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites, and when it's best to rely on natural attenuation. Recent advances have greatly broadened the potential applications for bioremediation. At the same time, scientists' knowledge of biogeochemical processes has advanced and they can better gauge how quickly and completely contaminants can be degraded without human intervention.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Canadian High Arctic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorga...

  3. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  4. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. PMID:26491984

  5. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive.

  6. Effects on lead bioavailability and plant uptake during the bioremediation of soil PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezcua-Allieri, M.A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Rodriguez-Vazquez, R. [CINVESTAV, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of priority pollutants that are present in the soils of many industrially contaminated sites. In Mexico, the petrochemical industry is the main source of soil pollution. Soils polluted with PAHs are often accompanied by high levels of metals. Although bioremediation of soil contaminated with PAHs have received increasing attentions, the influence of microbial activity on metal behaviour is not understood. For that reason, this study investigated lead behaviour during the bioremoval of phenanthrene in soils sampled from Tabasco, Mexico. Lead bioavailable concentrations were evaluated by diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT). Metal uptake to plants was quantified. Lead concentrations were determined before and after organic removal by Penicillium frequentans and soil microflora. Metal uptake by Echinochloa polystachya and Triticum aestivum L was also investigated. DGT concentrations increased significantly after the addition of fungi in the presence of plants before bioremediation and after fungal addition. Although DGT responded immediately to uptake, plant uptake did not begin immediately. The fungal bioremediation reduced organic contaminants significantly while it increased bioavailable metal concentrations and plant uptake. The results highlight the impact of bioremediation of organic contaminants on trace metal behaviour. The bioremediation process makes the toxic lead more available to plants, and therefore more metal may be incorporated into the human food chain if crops grown on bioremediated soil are used for human or animal consumption. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Assessment of microbial community changes and limiting factors during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil with new miniaturized physiological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Due to human activities, organic pollutants are spilled to the environment where they threaten public health, often as contaminants of soil or groundwater. Living organisms are able to transform or mineralize many organic pollutants, and bioremediation techniques have been developed to remove pollutants from a contaminated site. However, fast and easy methods to document both the efficacy of bioremediation and the changes in soil microbial communities during bioremediation are not well develo...

  8. Assessment of microbial community changes and limiting factors during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil with new miniaturized physiological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Karin; Holliger, Hans Christof

    2005-01-01

    Due to human activities, organic pollutants are spilled to the environment where they threaten public health, often as contaminants of soil or groundwater. Living organisms are able to transform or mineralize many organic pollutants, and bioremediation techniques have been developed to remove pollutants from a contaminated site. However, fast and easy methods to document both the efficacy of bioremediation and the changes in soil microbial communities during bioremediation are not well develo...

  9. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  10. Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

  11. (Bio-)remediation of VCHC contaminants in a Technosol under unsaturated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, W; Fleige, H; Peth, S; Horn, R

    2013-07-01

    The remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids has always been a concern of both public and scientific interest groups. In this research work a modified physical concept of (bio)remediation of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon (VCHC) contamination was elaborated under laboratory conditions and modeled with HYDRUS-2D. In field dechlorination is influenced by both physicochemical and hydraulic properties of the substrate, e.g. texture, pore size distribution, pore liquid characteristics, e.g. viscosity, pH, surface tension, and dependent on the degree of saturation of the vadose zone. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm³) were sampled from a Spolic Technosol. Considering hydraulic properties and functions, unsaturated percolation was performed with vertically and horizontally structured samples. VCHC concentrations were calculated prior, during, and after each percolation cycle. According to laboratory findings, microemulsion showed the most efficient results with regard to flow behavior in the unsaturated porous media and its accessibility for bacteria as nutrient. The efficiency of VCHC remediation could be increased by the application of a modified pump-and-treat system: the injection of bacteria Dehalococcoides ethanogenes with microemulsion, and extraction at a constant matric potential level of -6 kPa. Achieved data was used for HYDRUS-2D simulations, modeling in situ conditions, demonstrating the practical relevance (field scale) of performed unsaturated percolation (core scale), and in order to exclude capillary barrier effects. PMID:23160773

  12. [Arbuscular mycorrhizal bioremediation and its mechanisms of organic pollutants-contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Ling, Wanting; Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Fuchun; Xiong, Wei

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), the symbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plant root, has been proved to be able to improve soil structure and enhance the plant resistance to environmental stress. There are more than 170 kinds of AMF worldwide. Recently, the promoted degradation of organic pollutants in soils in the presence of AM was observed, and AM bioremediation (AMB) is becoming a promising and perspective remediation technique for organic pollutants-contaminated soils. This paper reviewed the research progress on the AMB of soils contaminated by typical organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAEs, petroleum, and pesticides. The mechanisms of AMB mainly include the metabolism of organic pollutants by AM fungi, the degradation of these pollutants by the enzymes derived from AM exudation and by the enhanced root exudation and rhizospheric microbial activity in the presence of AM, and the removal of the pollutants by plant uptake and accumulation. As a new approach for the remediation of contaminated soils, some aspects involved in AMB, e.g., the screening of high efficient AM fungi, efficacy of co-existing AM fungi, soil ageing, and plant uptake of organic pollutants from soils in the presence of AM, still need to be further investigated.

  13. Isolation and characterization of arsenic-resistant bacteria and possible application in bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttiya Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water arsenic contamination is a widespread problem in many developing countries including Bangladesh and India. In recent years development of modern innovative technologies for the removal of arsenic from aqueous system has become an interesting topic for research. In this present study, two rod shaped Gram-positive bacteria are being reported, isolated from arsenic affected ground water of Purbasthali block of Burdwan, West Bengal, India, which can tolerate arsenate concentration up to 4500 ppm and 550 ppm of arsenite concentration. From biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing, they were identified as Bacillus sp. and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus respectively. The isolates SW2 and SW4 can remove 51.45% and 51.99% of arsenite and 53.29% and 50.37% of arsenate, respectively from arsenic containing culture media. Both of the isolate can oxidize arsenite to less toxic arsenate. These two arsenic resistant bacteria can be used as a novel pathway for the bioremediation of arsenic.

  14. (Bio-)remediation of VCHC contaminants in a Technosol under unsaturated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, W; Fleige, H; Peth, S; Horn, R

    2013-07-01

    The remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids has always been a concern of both public and scientific interest groups. In this research work a modified physical concept of (bio)remediation of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon (VCHC) contamination was elaborated under laboratory conditions and modeled with HYDRUS-2D. In field dechlorination is influenced by both physicochemical and hydraulic properties of the substrate, e.g. texture, pore size distribution, pore liquid characteristics, e.g. viscosity, pH, surface tension, and dependent on the degree of saturation of the vadose zone. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm³) were sampled from a Spolic Technosol. Considering hydraulic properties and functions, unsaturated percolation was performed with vertically and horizontally structured samples. VCHC concentrations were calculated prior, during, and after each percolation cycle. According to laboratory findings, microemulsion showed the most efficient results with regard to flow behavior in the unsaturated porous media and its accessibility for bacteria as nutrient. The efficiency of VCHC remediation could be increased by the application of a modified pump-and-treat system: the injection of bacteria Dehalococcoides ethanogenes with microemulsion, and extraction at a constant matric potential level of -6 kPa. Achieved data was used for HYDRUS-2D simulations, modeling in situ conditions, demonstrating the practical relevance (field scale) of performed unsaturated percolation (core scale), and in order to exclude capillary barrier effects.

  15. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  16. Noncompetitive microbial diversity patterns in soils: their causes and implications for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou; Anthony Palumbo; Nathaniel Ostrom; Terence L. Marsh

    2007-07-05

    This funding provided support for over nine years of research on the structure and function of microbial communities in subsurface environments. The overarching goal during these years was to understand the impact of mixed contaminants, particularly heavy metals like uranium, on the structure and function of microbial communities. In addition we sought to identify microbial populations that were actively involved in the reduction of metals because these species of bacteria hold the potential for immobilizing soluble metals moving in subsurface water. Bacterial mediated biochemical reduction of metals like uranium, technetium and chromium, greatly reduces their mobility through complexation and precipitation. Hence, by taking advantage of natural metabolic capabilities of subsurface microbial populations it is possible to bioremediate contaminated subsurface environments with a cost-effective in situ approach. Towards this end we have i.) identified bacterial populations that have thrived under the adverse conditions at the contaminated FRC site, ii.) phylogenetically identified populations that respond to imposed remediation conditions at the FRC, iii.) used metagenomics to begin a reconstruction of the metabolic web in a contaminated subsurface zone, iv.) investigated the metal reducing attributes of a Gram-positive spore forming rod also capable of dechlorination.

  17. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence N. Warr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98% of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  18. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  19. In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in Hydraulically-Tight Sediments: Challenges and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2011-12-01

    Chlorinated ethenes, like perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), have been widely used by many industries, especially in developed countries like Japan. Because of their wide applications, lack of proper regulation, poor handing, storage and disposal practices in the past, chlorinated ethenes have become a type of the most prevalent contaminants for soils and groundwater pollution. For the sake of their degradability, bioremediation has been considered as a potentially cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for cleanup of chlorinated ethenes in situ. In this presentation, we briefly overview the status of soil and groundwater pollution, the recent amendment of the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan, comparison between the bioremediation and other techniques like pump and treat, and the mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, direct oxidation and co-metabolism of chlorinated ethenes. We then introduce and discuss some recent challenges and advancements in in-situ bioremediation including technologies for accelerating bio-degradation of chlorinated ethenes, technologies for assessing diffusive properties of dissolved hydrogen in hydraulically-tight soil samples, and combination of bioremediation with other techniques like electro-kinetic approach. Limiting factors that may cause incomplete remediation and/or ineffectiveness of bioremediation are examined from biochemical, geochemical and hydro-geological aspects. This study reconfirmed and illustrated that: 1) The key factor for an effective bioremediation is how to disperse a proper accelerating agent throughout the polluted strata, 2) The effective diffusion coefficient of dissolved hydrogen in geologic media is relatively big and is almost independent on their permeability, and 3) To effectively design and perform an accelerated bioremediation, a combination of natural migration with pressurized injection and/or other approaches, like electro-migration, for stimulating mass

  20. INFLUENCE OF TIDE AND WAVES ON WASHOUT OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS FROM THE BIOREMEDIATION ZONE OF A COARSE-SAND BEACH: APPLICATION IN OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful bioremediation of oil-contaminated beaches requires maintenance of a sufficient quantity of growth-limiting nutrients in contact with the oiled beach materials. A conservative tracer study was conducted on a moderate-energy, sandy beach on Delaware Bay to estimate the...

  1. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  2. Enzymatic bioremediation of cashew nut shell liquid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Soly; Abraham, Emilia T

    2010-04-15

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a by-product of the cashew kernel industry, is a caustic, viscous, dark liquid. The process is done manually, which leaves stains on the hands of the workers. The aim was to find the utility of enzymes, oxidoreductases and proteases for the bioremediation of CNSL, which contains phenolics, mainly cardanol (60-65%). The results show that peroxidase reduced the color of the CNSL solution by polymerization and precipitation, where as laccase, papain and fungal and bacterial protease degraded the phenolic constituents. The degradation was mainly at the double bonds of the C15 hydrocarbon chain of the cardanol. To improve the enzyme stability, laccase and papain was separately immobilized in alginate-starch beads. Immobilized laccase can degrade 28.6% CNSL within 2 h, where as papain takes longer duration, and at 73 h, the adsorbed phenols on the alginate (45.86%) also got degraded. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that, immobilized laccase-papain beads combination; 1:1 (w/w) degraded 60% of the cardanol and some phenolic compounds having molecular mass of 374, 390 and 407. These beads are active and stable in aqueous media, can be used to prepare a mild, nontoxic, ecofriendly, cost effective hand wash solution for the removal of phenolic stains. PMID:20005628

  3. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    and Mortierella sp. LEJ703. In the experimental setup a layer of sterile glass beads was added between the organisms and the sand column above; simulating air-filled gaps in soil. [Ring-U-14C]-diuron was mixed into the sand to a concentration of 100 μg diuron kg-1. Degradation was measured as the amount of 14C......-diuron mineralized and as 14C residues in the sand at experimental termination. Mineralization results established the three-member consortium LEJ702/SRS16/D47 as the most efficient transforming 32% of the diuron to 14CO2, while the single strains or other consortia mineralized no more than 10%. Furthermore...... in groundwater contamination. New technologies are therefore needed for cleaning up contaminated soil and water resources. This PhD was part of the project entitled Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) where the overall aim is to develop new technologies for bioremediation...

  4. Nanoassembly of immobilized ligninolytic enzymes for biocatalysis, bioremediation, and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Debasish; Tien, Ming; Lvov, Yuri M.; McShane, Michael J.; Aithal, Rajendra K.; Singh, Saurabh; Potluri, Avinash; Kaul, Swati; Patel, Devendra S.; Krishna, Gopal

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) from white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosoporium, have been shown to degrade various harmful organic compounds ranging from chlorinated compounds to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to polymeric dyes. The problems in using immobilized enzymes for biocatalysis/bioremediation are their loss of activity and long-term stability. To address these issues, adsorption by layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) using polyelectrolytes, entrapment using gelatin, and chmisorption using coupling reagents have been investigated. In order to increase surface area for catalysis, porous silicon, formed by electrochemical etching of silicon, has been considered. The efficacy of these extremely stable nanoassemblies towards degradation of model organic compounds-veratryl alcohol (VA and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP)-in aqueous and in a mixture of aqueous/acetone has already been demonstrated. In parallel, we are pursuing development of sensors using these immobilized enzymes. Experiments carried out in solution show that NO can reversibly bind Ferri-LiP to produce a diamagnetic complex with a distinct change in its optical spectrum. NO can be photolyzed off to produce the spectrum of native paramagnetic ferri-species. Preliminary data on the detection of NO by LiP, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using fiber optic probe, are presented.

  5. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties

  6. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties.

  7. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  8. Feasibility of electrokinetic oxygen supply for soil bioremediation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, E; Villaseñor Camacho, J; Rodrigo Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares Cañizares, P

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the possibility of providing oxygen to a soil by an electrokinetic technique, so that the method could be used in future aerobic polluted soil bioremediation treatments. The oxygen was generated from the anodic reaction of water electrolysis and transported to the soil in a laboratory-scale electrokinetic cell. Two variables were tested: the soil texture and the voltage gradient. The technique was tested in two artificial soils (clay and sand) and later in a real silty soil, and three voltage gradients were used: 0.0 (control), 0.5, and 1.0 V cm(-1). It was observed that these two variables strongly influenced the results. Oxygen transport into the soil was only available in the silty and sandy soils by oxygen diffusion, obtaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, between 4 and 9 mg L(-1), useful for possible aerobic biodegradation processes, while transport was not possible in fine-grained soils such as clay. Electro-osmotic flow did not contribute to the transport of oxygen, and an increase in voltage gradients produced higher oxygen transfer rates. However, only a minimum fraction of the electrolytically generated oxygen was efficiently used, and the maximum oxygen transport rate observed, approximately 1.4 mgO2 L(-1)d(-1), was rather low, so this technique could be only tested in slow in-situ biostimulation processes for organics removal from polluted soils.

  9. The bioremediation potential of marine sandy sediment microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Răzvan POPOVICIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbiota from marine sandy sediments on the Romanian sea coast was tested for resilience in case of hydrocarbon contamination, for estimating the number of (culturable hydrocarbon and lipid oil-degrading microorganisms and for determining the influence of inorganic nitrate and phosphate nutrients on hydrocarbon spill bioremediation process, by microcosm experiments.Results show that hydrocarbon contamination affects the bacteriobenthos both in terms of cell numbers and composition. Bacterial numbers showed a rapid decrease (28% in four days, followed by a relatively fast recovery (two weeks. The pollution favoured the increase of Gram-positive bacterial proportion (from around 25% to 33%Sandy sediment microbiota in both sites studied contained microorganisms able to use mineral or lipid oils as sole carbon sources, usually around 103-104/cm3, with variations according to the sediment grain size and substrate used.The biostimulation experiments showed that, in absence of water dynamism (and, implicitly, an efficient oxygenation, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus can be ineffective and even inhibit the remediation process, probably due to eutrophication.

  10. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  11. Bioremediation of an area contaminated by a fuel spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, B; Izquierdo, A; Blasco, R; Pérez del Campo, P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-06-01

    In order to decontaminate a large area of restricted access contaminated by a fuel spill, laboratory and field studies were developed in two steps: (a) monitoring of the laboratory experiment on bacterial growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with and without addition of nutrients; and (b) use of the best conditions obtained in (a) for the decontamination of the soil. A hydraulic barrier was installed both to clean the aquifer and to avoid migration of hydrocarbons as a consequence of their solution in the groundwater and subsequent displacement. The objective was to create an ideal environment for the treatment of the affected area that favoured the growth of the indigenous bacteria (Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter) that biodegrade the hydrocarbons. Monitoring of the changes in the total concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil subjected to bacterial action was performed by gas chromatography. In a field study, the progress of biodegradation of hydrocarbons was evaluated in situ by changes in subsurface CO2/O2 levels by means of an analyser equipped with an infrared detector. Biostimulation and oxygen were the most influential factors for the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The use of bioventing of the soil was shown as an excellent technology to promote in situ bioremediation of the polluted area.

  12. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation. PMID:26812756

  13. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties. PMID:18062656

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Méndez, Valentina; Aguila, Patricia; Seeger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is an environmental sustainable and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of hydrocarbon-polluted soils and coasts. In spite of that longer times are usually required compared with physicochemical strategies, complete degradation of the pollutant can be achieved, and no further confinement of polluted matrix is needed. Microbial aerobic degradation is achieved by the incorporation of molecular oxygen into the inert hydrocarbon molecule and funneling intermediates into central catabolic pathways. Several families of alkane monooxygenases and ring hydroxylating dioxygenases are distributed mainly among Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Fungi strains. Catabolic routes, regulatory networks, and tolerance/resistance mechanisms have been characterized in model hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to understand and optimize their metabolic capabilities, providing the basis to enhance microbial fitness in order to improve hydrocarbon removal. However, microbial communities taken as a whole play a key role in hydrocarbon pollution events. Microbial community dynamics during biodegradation is crucial for understanding how they respond and adapt to pollution and remediation. Several strategies have been applied worldwide for the recovery of sites contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. Common strategies include controlling environmental variables (e.g., oxygen availability, hydrocarbon solubility, nutrient balance) and managing hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, in order to overcome the rate-limiting factors that slow down hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  15. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leitão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation.

  16. Apparatus and method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Phelps, T.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Pfiffner, S.M.; Lombard, K.H.; Borthen, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  17. Microbial aspects of acid mine drainage and its bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.A.NATARAJAN

    2008-01-01

    The role of chemolithotrophs such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans which were isolated from some abandoned mines and processed waste tailings in the generation of acid mine drainage and toxic metal dissolution was discussed.Mechanisms of acid formation and dissolution of copper,zinc,iron and arsenic from copper,lead-zinc and arsenopyrite-bearing sulfide ores and tailings were established in the presence of Acidithiobacillus group of bacteria.Sulphate Reducing Bacteria(SRB) isolated from the above mine sites could be used to precipitate dissolved metals such as copper,zinc,iron and arsenic.Arsenic bioremediation was demonstrated through the use of native microorganisms such Thiomonas spp.which could oxidize arsenite to arsenate.Bioremoval of arsenic through the use of jarosite precipitates generated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was also found to be very effective.Biotechnological processes hold great promise in the remediation of acid mine drainage and efficient removal of toxic metal ions such as copper,zinc and arsenic.

  18. Testing the efficacy of oil spill bioremediation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten bioremediation products were tested in laboratory respirometers for their ability to enhance the biodegradation of artificially weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil compared to natural populations supplied with mineral nutrients. The sea water used was natural sea water obtained from the Gulf of Mexico near Gulf Breeze, Florida. All products were tested in triplicate in closed laboratory flasks connected to an instrument able to track and record cumulative oxygen uptake continuously over time. Triplicate flasks were sacrificed periodically, the contents extracted with hexane, and the oil components quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Correlations were made between the decline in aliphatic and aromatic analytes and the net oxygen uptake observed in each flask. From these correlations, the median time needed to consume enough oxygen to effect a 6O percent decline in the total resolved analytes was computed for each product, and this time was compared statistically to the time needed by the natural populations in the source sea water to effect the same removal. Using this approach, five of the ten products were found to enhance biotransformation of the crude oil analytes. When the analysis was repeated for the aromatic constituents only, using a target removal of only 25 percent, only two of the ten products gave shorter response times than the nutrient-supplemented sea water

  19. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Williams, K.H.; Callister, S.J.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Thomas, B.C.; Nicora, C.D.; Shah, M.B.; Lipton, M.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Hettich, R.L.; Long, P.E.; Banfield, J.F.; Abraham, P.

    2009-08-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods for monitoring the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here, we report a proteomics-based approach for simultaneously documenting the strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO, aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry spectra to peptides predicted from seven isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and Geobacter bemidjiensis-like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis-like strains more closely related to Geobacter lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate for central metabolism, while abundant peptides matching tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics-independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  1. Change of isoprenoids, steranes and terpanes during ex situ bioremediation of mazut on industrial level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the ex situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil in the field scale (600 m3. A treatment-bed (thickness 0.4 m consisted of mechanically mixed mazut-contaminated soil, softwood sawdust as the additional carbon source and crude river sand, as bulking and porosity increasing material. The inoculation/reinoculation was conducted periodically using a biomass of a consortium of zymogenous microorganisms isolated from the bioremediation substrate. The biostimulation was performed through addition of nutritious substances (N, P and K. The aeration was improved by systematic mixing of the bioremediation system. After 50 days, the number of hydrocarbon degraders increased 100 times. Based on the changes in the group composition, the average biodegradation rate during bioremediation was 24 mg/kg/day for the aliphatic fraction, 6 mg/kg/day for the aromatic fraction, and 3 mg/kg/day for the nitrogen-sulphuroxygen compounds (NSO-asphaltene fraction. In the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS in the single ion-monitoring mode (SIM was applied to analyse isoprenoids pristane and phytane and polycyclic molecules of sterane and triterpane type. Biodegradation occurred during the bioremediation process, as well as reduction of relative quantities of isoprenoids, steranes, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes and pentacyclic terpanes of hopane type.

  2. Investigation of the bioremediation potential of aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA ŠOLEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation potential of the aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil (Danube alluvium, Pančevo, Serbia for crude oil biodegradation was investigated. A mixture of paraffinic types of oils was used as the substrate. The laboratory experiment of the simulated oil biodegradation lasted 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. In parallel, an experiment with a control sample was conducted. Extracts were isolated from the samples with chloroform in a separation funnel. From these extracts, the hydrocarbons were isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. n-Alkanes, isoprenoids, phenanthrene and its derivatives with one and two methyl groups were quantitatively analyzed. The ability and efficiency of zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil bioremediation was assessed by comparison between the composition of samples which were exposed to the microorganisms and the control sample. The investigated microorganisms showed the highest bioremediation potential in the biodegradation of n-alkanes and isoprenoids. A considerably high bioremediation potential was confirmed in the biodegradation of phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrenes. Low bioremediation potential of these microorganisms was proven in the case of polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and triterpane types and dimethyl phenanthrenes.

  3. PROSPECTIVE IN-SILCO APPROACH IN BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON: SUCCESS SO FAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nadeem Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has the potential to reduce contaminated environment inexpensively yet effectively. But, the lack of information about the factors controlling the growth and metabolism in microorganisms in polluted environment often limits its implementation. However rapid advances in the understanding of bioremediation are on the horizon. With advances in biotechnology, bioremediation has become one of the most rapidly developing fields of environmental restoration, utilizing microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In this mini-review, the current state of the field is described and the role of synthetic biology in biotechnology in short and medium term is discussed. A number of bioremediation strategies have been developed to treat contaminated wastes and sites. Selecting the most appropriate strategy to treat a specific site can be guided by considering three basic principles: the amenability of the pollutant to biological transformation to less toxic products, the bioavailability of the contaminant to microorganisms and the opportunity for bioprocess optimization. By the recent advances on in-silico dimensions of bioremediation, it seems that the synthetic biology software will soon drive the wet-lab implementation at molecular level.

  4. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  6. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF TNT-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of the second evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-situ Bioremediation Technology also known as the Simplot Anaerobic Bioremediation (SABRE™) process. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company to biologically degrade nitroaromatic...

  7. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays

  8. Numerical simulations in support of the in situ bioremediation demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the performance of the in situ bioremediation technology demonstrated at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration (SRID) site in 1992--1993. The goal of the technology demonstration was to stimulate naturally occurring methanotrophic bacteria at the SRID site with injection of methane, air and air-phase nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate) such that significant amounts of the chlorinated solvent present in the subsurface would be degraded. Our approach is based on site-specific numerical simulations using the TRAMP computer code. In this report, we discuss the interactions among the physical and biochemical processes involved in in situ bioremediation. We also investigate improvements to technology performance, make predictions regarding the performance of this technology over long periods of time and at different sites, and compare in situ bioremediation with other remediation technologies

  9. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IRRIGATION ON SOIL MICROBES AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi D. M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the assessment of toxicity of distillery effluent on soil microorganisms and its quality improvement through bioremediation using Pseudomonas spp. Under lab scale experiment, different dilutions of distillery effluent i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% were used to examine effects on physico-chemical parameters of effluent and on soil microflora e.g. algae, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results revealed that dilution may reduce significantly the metal contents and other toxicants in the effluent as well as in the soil. Statistical analysis revealed that bioremediation of distillery effluent using Pseudomonas spp. caused significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, TN, TP and color. The study indicates that raw distillery effluent is harmful for soil microflora and bioremediation improves the quality of distillery effluent making it suitable as a soil amendment.

  11. Applicability and Limits of Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater by Organic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taboure Aboubacar; Lin Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives in some ways a broad look at the Bioremediation Technology in the treatment of polluted groundwater. Environmentalists and Hydrologeologists around the world, especially in the developed countries welcomed this revolutionizing technique at a moment when other methods were becoming rather expensive and sources of secondary and more challenging pollution problems across sole fresh groundwater. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater is based on the use of bacteria which breakdown organic matters to more stable forms, which will not create nuisance or give off foul odors. The Applicability of this technology at a specific site lies in the understanding of the site's hydrogeologic, physiochemical backgrounds and the knowledge of the properties of the designated bacteria colonies, which would likely stabilize the contaminants. These are key points, which determine the success of the all process. Only, by complying with all those measures, Bioremediation can meet all the expectations.

  12. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils. PMID:26205232

  13. Microorganism as a tool of bioremediation technology for cleaning environment: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Bioremediation is the most effective management tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. The hazardous wastes generated from the chemical processes/operations are being treated using physico-chemical and biological methods by the respective industries to meet the prescribed standard as per the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The wastes treated by the respective industries are collected at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, before discharge into the environment. After the treatment of collected waste at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, the solid and treated effluents are segregated and disposed of into the soil- water environment. In spite of the present treatment technology, the organic pollutants are found persisting in the soil-water environment above their acceptable level. Hence, bioremediation is an innovative technology that has the potential to alleviate the toxic contamination.

  14. Dynamism of PGPR in bioremediation and plant growth promotion in heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S; Sayyed, R Z

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination, particularly of cultivable lands, is a matter of concern. Bioremediation helps in reversing such contamination to certain extent. Here, we report isolation, polyphasic identification and the role of siderophore producing rhizobacteria Alcaligenes feacalis RZS2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and plant growth promotion activity in such contaminated soil. Siderophore produced by A. feacalis RZS2 and P. aeruginosa RZS3 strains chelated various heavy metal ions like MnCl₂.4H₂O, NiCl₂.6H₂O, ZnCl₂, CuCl₂ and CoCl₂ other than FeCl₃.6H2O at batch scale. Their bioremediation potential was superior over the chemical ion chelators like EDTA and citric acid. These isolates also promoted growth of wheat and peanut seeds sown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Effective root colonizing ability of these isolates was observed in wheat and peanut plants.

  15. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  16. Isolation, characterization and development of bacteria in the Mine Gafsa for applications in bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today pollution represents an important environmental problem. Bacterial ability to bioremediate many types of pollutants in different matrixes (soil, water, and air) have been widely acknowledged. The goal of the present work is to isolate from contaminated soil of Gafsa, in Tunisia, bacterial strains to evaluate their potential for bioremediation. Soil from the mining area of Gafsa was collected. Initially, many bacterial strains were isolated in TGY agar (Tryptone/Glucose/Yeast extract agar) based on the presence of pigments. The primary bacterial selection was performed using heavy metals and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a metal-resistant bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Isolated metal-resistant bacterium was checked for its potential to resistant to gamma radiation. Selected strain, Micrococcus luteus S7, was assessed for its bioremediation potential of matrixes artificially contaminated under laboratory conditions for its future use in developing a bio product for contaminated soil inoculation.

  17. Bioremediation of 60Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions of nuclear power reactors by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent decontamination solutions generated from nuclear power reactors contain radionuclides of cobalt (60Co, 56Co and 57Co) along with a large excess (105) of non-radioactive metal ions (Fe, Ni and Cr). Our previous studies demonstrated that bioremediation of 60Co from simulated effluents using fungal biomass can provide an alternative to conventional ion exchangers. In this study, we used several bacteria to further improve the process of bioremediation by decreasing biomass requirement and treatment period. Further, metabolite activation in specific bacterial species resulted in enhanced bioremediation of 60Co from simulated effluent. Optimization of conditions in simulated effluent for the eight bacterial species to accomplish maximum 60Co removal is discussed. (author)

  18. Approach of Bioremediation in Olive Oil and Dairy Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation methods are a promising way of dealing with soil and subsoil contamination by organic substances. This biodegradation process is supported by micro-organisms which use the organic carbon from the pollutants as energy source and cells building blocks. There are several advantages of the implementation of such methods but mainly they have to do with the lack of interference with the ecology of the ecosystem. This study presents the use of technique in numerous ways such as olive oil industry and dairy industry. Although the use of bioremediation technique is not innovative in food industry and microbiology. The use of herbicides, pesticides and contaminated chemicals are producing pollutant compounds in ecosystem which is effecting the environment. Bioremediation method is very constructive method to converted contaminated compounds into non contaminated compounds.

  19. Large Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Waste at Various Installations of ONGC. India: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ and ex situ bioremediation of oil contaminated effluent pits, sludge pits, oil spilled land and tank bottom, and effluent treatment plant (ETP oily sludge was carried out at Ankleshwar, Mehsana, Assam and Cauvery Asset of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC, India. The types of contaminant were heavy paraffinic, asphaltic and light crude oil and emulsified oily sludge /contaminated soil. An indigenous microbial consortium was developed by assembling four species of bacteria, isolated from various oil contaminated sites of India, which could biodegrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of the oily waste to environment friendly end products. The said consortium was on a large scale field applied to the above oil installations and it successfully bioremediated 30,706 tonnes of different types of oily waste. In 65 case studies of different batch size of in situ and ex situ bioremediation processes, the initial TPH content varying from 69.20 to 662.70 g/kg of oily waste has been biodegraded to 5.30 – 16.90 g/kg of oily waste in a range of 2 to 33 months. Biodegradation rate varied in the range of 0.22 – 1.10 Kg TPH /day/m2 area due to the climatic condition of the treatment zone and the type of waste treated. The bioremediated soil was non-toxic and natural vegetation was found to be grown on the same ground. Successful eco-restoration of one large effluent pit of 26,000 m2 area was carried out by cultivation of local fish species after completion of bioremediation. Bioremediation technology has helped ONGC with the management of their hazardous oily wastes in an environment friendly manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.5632

  20. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m-2. Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  1. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  2. Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium Pollution by Sporosarcina saromensis M52 Isolated from Offshore Sediments in Xiamen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ran; WANG Bi; CAI Qing Tao; LI Xiao Xia; LIU Min; HU Dong; GUO Dong Bei; WANG Juan; FAN Chun

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveCr(VI) removal from industrial effluents and sediments has attracted the attention of environmental researchers. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria for Cr(VI) bioremediation from sediment samples and to optimize parameters of biodegradation. MethodsStrains with the ability to tolerate Cr(VI) were obtained by serial dilution and spread plate methods and characterized by morphology, 16S rDNA identification, and phylogenetic analysis. Cr(VI) was determined using the 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method, and the optimum pH and temperature for degradation were studied using a multiple-factor mixed experimental design. Statistical analysis methods were used to analyze the results. ResultsFifty-five strains were obtained, and one strain (Sporosarcina saromensisM52; patent application number: 201410819443.3) having the ability to tolerate 500 mg Cr(VI)/L wasselected to optimize the degradation conditions. M52 was found be able to efficiently remove 50-200 mg Cr(VI)/L in 24 h, achieving the highest removal efficiency at pH 7.0-8.5 and 35°C. Moreover, M52 could completely degrade 100 mg Cr(VI)/L at pH 8.0 and35 °C in 24 h. The mechanism involved in the reduction of Cr(VI) was considered to be bioreduction rather than absorption. ConclusionThe strong degradation ability ofS. saromensis M52 and its advantageous functional characteristics support the potential use of this organism for bioremediation ofheavy metal pollution.

  3. Bioremediation of soluble heavy metals with recombinant Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohui; Lei, Yu; Patel, Jigar

    2010-01-01

    To achieve one-step separation of heavy metal ions from contaminated water, we have developed a novel bioremediation technology based on self-immobilization of the Caulobacter crescentus recombinant strain JS4022/p723-6H, which overexpresses hexahistidine peptide on the surface of the bacterial cells and serves as a whole-cell adsorbent for dissolved heavy metals. Biofilms formed by JS4022/p723-6H are effective at retaining cadmium from bacterial growth media or environmental water samples. Here we provide additional experiment data discussing the application potential of this new technology. Supplementation of calcium to the growth media produced robust JS4022/p723-6H cells by alleviating their sensitivity to chelators. After growth in the presence of 0.3% CaCl(2)·2H(2)O, double the amount of JS4022/p723-6H cells survived the treatment with 2 mM EDTA. Free cells of JS4022/p723-6H effectively sequestered 51% of the total cadmium from a Lake Erie water sample at pH 5.4, compared to 37% retrieved by the control strain. Similar levels of adsorption were observed at pH 4.2 as well. Cells of JS4022/p723-6H were tolerant of acid treatment for 90 min at pH ≥1.1 or 120 min at pH ≥2.5, which provides an avenue for the convenient regeneration of the bacterial cells metal-binding capacity with acidic solutions. Designs of possible bioreactors and an operation system are also presented.

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  5. Technical considerations regarding toxicity testing of commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicological evaluation of commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs) for use on oil spills is under consideration by the USEPA. Currently, acute and chronic bioassays are conducted with the CBA alone and with CBA that has been diluted with the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil. Endpoints are expressed as a concentration of the CBA. This approach may not address the toxicological issue of CBA use since it (1) does not determine if the CBA affects toxicity of the oil itself, and (2) does not consider temporal aspects associated with byproducts of oil degradation. The present study was conducted to address these issues. A CBA was mixed with unweathered crude oil from 1 to 42 days. The WSF of the mixture was then drawn off and acute bioassays were conducted with silverside minnows, Menidia beryllina, and mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia. For silversides, 96-hr LC50 values ranged from 42.7% WSF after 1 day mixing to 10.5% after 42 days. Toxicity increased sharply between days 4 and 7 when the 96-hr LC50 dropped from 39.0 to 18.2% WSF. A similar trend occurred for mysid shrimp. The presence of the CBA caused a more rapid increase in the toxicity of the oil as compared to bioassays in which oil was mixed alone and then tested. These data indicate that the interaction of CBAs with oil, and associated temporal trends in toxicity, are important aspects to consider in hazard evaluation of these products. The current proposed CBA toxicity testing protocol does not effectively address these issues

  6. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination of the site and (ii) define an end point for the removal of the hydrocarbon substrate. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift in all plots from primarily eukaryotic biomass to gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. PLFA profiles from the oiled plots suggested increased gram-negative biomass and adaptation to metabolic stress compared to unoiled controls. DGGE analysis of untreated control plots revealed a simple, dynamic dominant population structure throughout the experiment. This banding pattern disappeared in all oiled plots, indicating that the structure and diversity of the dominant bacterial community changed substantially. No consistent differences were detected between nutrient-amended and indigenous inoculum-treated plots, but both differed from the oil-only plots. Prominent bands were excised for sequence analysis and indicated that oil treatment encouraged the growth of gram-negative microorganisms within the α-proteobacteria and Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides phylum. α-Proteobacteria were never detected in unoiled controls. PLFA analysis indicated that by week 14 the microbial community structures of the oiled plots were becoming similar to those of the unoiled controls from the same time point, but DGGE analysis suggested that major differences in the bacterial communities remained

  7. Optimization of a Hydrocarbon Bioremediation System at Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuña A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the parameters of moisture, temperature and ratio of nutrients to estimate the possibility of applying the technique of bioremediation in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. For this, an initial characterization of contaminated soil was made according to their physical and chemical characteristics and the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon degraders bacteria. Also the contaminant concentration by gravimetric method and by gas chromatography was studied. To optimize moisture and temperature, microcosms with moisture of 3%, 10%, 15% and 20% and temperatures of 5°C, 15°C, 28°C and 37°C were used. The monitoring of the mineralization of hydrocarbons was performed by measuring the CO2 produced. To optimize the ratio of nutrients, different microcosms were designed and were monitored by oxygen consumption and by determination of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography. The C:N:P relationships studied were 100:20:2, 100:10:1, 100:5:0,5 and 100:1:0,1. The results indicate that the mineralization of hydrocarbons was optimal for moisture of 10% to 20% and temperatures of 25°C to 37°C with CO2 production values of 3000-4500 mgCO2 kg-1. The optimal C:N:P ratio was 100:1:0,1 in which the highest oxygen consumption was and the elimination of 83% of total hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography with 78% and 89% of n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons elimination, respectively.

  8. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Metagenomic clones could degrade saturated hydrocarbons up to 47% in petroleum. • Metagenomic clones consumed more than 90% of some aromatic portion after 21 days. • Isolated strains could degrade n-alkanes with rates up to 99% after 21 days. • Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones showed high petroleum degradation potential. - Abstract: Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC–FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications

  9. Effectiveness of bioremediation of crude oil contaminated subantarctic intertidal sediment: The microbial response

    OpenAIRE

    Delille, D.; B. Delille; Pelletier, E.

    2002-01-01

    A field study was initiated in February 1996 in a remote sandy beach of The Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago, 69°42' E, 49°19' S) with the objective of determining the long-term effects of some bioremediation agents on the biodegradation rate and the toxicity of oil residues under severe subantarctic conditions. A series of 10 experimental plots were settled firmly into sediment. Each plot received 2L of Arabian light crude oil and some of them were treated with bioremediation agents: slow...

  10. Immobilized Native Bacteria as a Tool for Bioremediation of Soils and Waters: Implementation and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lobo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (3,4-DHPA dioxygenase amino acid sequence and DNA sequence data for homologous genes, two different oligonucleotides were designed. These were assayed to detect 3,4-DHPA related aromatic compound—degrading bacteria in soil samples by using the FISH method. Also, amplification by PCR using a set of ERIC primers was assayed for the detection of Pseudomonas GCH1 strain, which used in the soil bioremediation process. A model was developed to understand and predict the behavior of bacteria and pollutants in a bioremediation system, taking into account fluid dynamics, molecular/cellular scale processes, and biofilm formation.

  11. Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aleisa C [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of a Large Chlorinated Solvent Plume, Dover AFB, DE Aleisa Bloom, (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) Robert Lyon (bob.lyon@aecom.com), Laurie Stenberg, and Holly Brown (AECOM, Germantown, Maryland, USA) ABSTRACT: Past disposal practices at Dover Air Force Base (AFB), Delaware, created a large solvent plume called Area 6 (about 1 mile long, 2,000 feet wide, and 345 acres). The main contaminants are PCE, TCE, and their degradation products. The remedy is in-situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB). AAB started in 2006 and is focusing on source areas and downgradient plume cores. Direct-push injections occurred in source areas where contamination is typically between 5 and 20 feet below ground surface. Lower concentration dissolved-phased contamination is present downgradient at 35 and 50 feet below ground surface. Here, permanent injection/extraction wells installed in transects perpendicular to the flow of groundwater are used to apply AAB. The AAB substrate is a mix of sodium lactate, emulsified vegetable oil, and nutrients. After eight years, dissolved contaminant mass within the main 80-acre treatment area has been reduced by over 98 percent. This successful application of AAB has stopped the flux of contaminants to the more distal portions of the plume. While more time is needed for effects to be seen in the distal plume, AAB injections will soon cease, and the remedy will transition to natural attenuation. INTRODUCTION Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Science Division (ORNL) and AECOM (formerly URS Corporation) have successfully implemented in situ accelerated anaerobic bioremediation (AAB) to remediate chlorinated solvent contamination in a large, multi-sourced groundwater plume at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). AAB has resulted in significant reductions of dissolved phase chlorinated solvent concentrations. This plume, called Area 6, was originally over 1 mile in length and over 2,000 feet wide (Figure 1

  12. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373, an Effective Bioremediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Fozia; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373 was isolated from effluent of the Hattar Industrial Estate, Haripur, Pakistan. K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae has few cultivated/characterized members so far. Whole-genome sequencing revealed its potential for metal and toxin resistance, which further elucidated various enzymatic processes for the degradation of xenobiotics, illuminating its bioremediation applications. PMID:27688323

  14. Characterization of bacterial consortia for its use in bioremediation of gas-oil contaminated antarctic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberto, L.; Vazquez, S.; Mestre, C.; Nogales, B.; Christie-Oleza, J.; Bosch, R.; Mac Cormack, W. P.

    2009-07-01

    Success of bio augmentation of chronically-contaminated soils is controversial, mainly because the inocula are frequently unable to establish in the matrix under bioremediation. In Antarctica, the environmental conditions and the restriction for the introduction of non-autochthonous organisms (imposed by the Antarctic Treaty) prevent inoculation with foreign bacteria. (Author)

  15. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments. - Highlights: ► Bioremediation performance was investigated on hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. ► Major changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition were observed. ► Temperature exerted the major effect on bacterial assemblages. ► High bacterial diversity increased significantly biodegradation performance. This should be considered for sediment remediation by bio-treatments. - Bioremediation strategies which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity may significantly increase the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated marine sediments.

  16. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediation MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were ...

  17. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS(TM) CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediation MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were ...

  18. BTEX AND MTBE BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS™ CONTAINING SOS, PM1 AND ISOLITE®

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in situ BioNets could bioremediate MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets w...

  19. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE�

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediate MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were plac...

  20. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments.

  1. Colloidal properties of nanoparticular biogenic selenium govern environmental fate and bioremediation effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchs, B.; Evangelou, M.H.W.; Winkel, L.; Lenz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial selenium (Se) bioremediation is based on conversion of water soluble, toxic Se oxyanions to water insoluble, elemental Se. Formed biogenic elemental Se is of nanometer size, hampering straightforward separation from the aqueous phase. This study represents the first systematic investigatio

  2. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg-1 glucose; 80-90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg-1·d-1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment.

  3. Characterization of bacterial consortia for its use in bioremediation of gas-oil contaminated antarctic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of bio augmentation of chronically-contaminated soils is controversial, mainly because the inocula are frequently unable to establish in the matrix under bioremediation. In Antarctica, the environmental conditions and the restriction for the introduction of non-autochthonous organisms (imposed by the Antarctic Treaty) prevent inoculation with foreign bacteria. (Author)

  4. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Hidalgo Lasso, D.; Zaan, van der B.M.; Gaans, van P.; Maphosa, F.; Smidt, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in

  5. In-situ bioremediation: Or how to get nutrients to all the contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. Bioremediation is winning favor primarily because the soil may be treated on site and systems can be installed to operate without interfering with facility activities. Although bioremediation has been utilized for many years, its acceptance as a cost-effective approach is only now being realized. KEMRON applied in-situ bioremediation at a retired rail yard which had maintained a diesel locomotive refueling station supplied by two 20,000 gallon above ground storage tanks. Contamination originated from both spillage at the pumps and leaking fuel distribution lines. The contamination spread over a 3 acre area from the surface to a depth of up to 20 feet. Levels of diesel contamination found in the soil ranged from less than a 100 ppm to more than 25,000 ppm. The volume of soil which ultimately required treatment was more than 60,000 cubic yards. Several remedial options were examined including excavation and disposal. Excavation was rejected because it would have been cost prohibitive due to the random distribution of the contaminated soil. In-situ Bioremediation was selected as the only alternative which could successfully treat all the contaminated soils. This paper focuses on how KEMRON solved four major problems which would have prevented a successful remediation project. These problems were: soil compaction, random distribution of contaminated soils, potential free product, and extremely high levels of dissolved iron in the groundwater

  6. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: EX-SITU ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY - TNT - J.R. SIMPLOT COMPANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The J. R. Simplot Ex-Situ Anaerobic Bioremediation System, also known as the J.R. Simplot Anaerobic Biological Remediaton Process (the SABRE™ Process), is a technology designed to destroy nitroaromatic and energetic compounds. The process does not evolve any known toxic intermedi...

  8. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY: TNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology is designed to degrade nitroaromatic compounds anaerobically, with total destruction of toxic intermediates at the completion of treatment. An evaluation of this technology was conducted under the SITE Program on TNT-contaminated...

  9. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments. PMID:26239066

  10. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373, an Effective Bioremediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Fozia; Yasmin, Azra; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae MB373 was isolated from effluent of the Hattar Industrial Estate, Haripur, Pakistan. K. quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae has few cultivated/characterized members so far. Whole-genome sequencing revealed its potential for metal and toxin resistance, which further elucidated various enzymatic processes for the degradation of xenobiotics, illuminating its bioremediation applications. PMID:27688323

  11. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  12. Feasibility of on-site bioremediation of loam soil contaminated by diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Narkis, N

    2001-09-01

    This study originated from an accidental event of diesel oil contamination in a loam soil area of 7,000 m2. Approximately a volume of 1,300 m3 of diesel oil was released into the environment. Reclamation of the contaminated soil by on-site bioremediation was selected as the most appropriate treatment method. A major concern was associated with the nature of the local loam soil. Loam has a very low hydraulic conductivity and very quickly becomes impermeable after its contact with water. The bioremediation approach incorporated excavation of the contaminated soil, mixing it with an agent, which increased its permeability. Following this preliminary treatment came the construction of bioreactors as a suitable environment of nutrients, moisture, dissolved oxygen, and enriched culture of microorganisms, which enabled breakdown of the diesel oil. This case study indicated that the target of 99% of diesel oil clean up could be achieved by using the technology of on-site bioremediation. The selected treatment method was found to be technologically and economically feasible. However, some improvement in the application of the basic treatment approach might increase the bioremediation efficiency. PMID:11597113

  13. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  14. ROLE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE BIOREMEDIATION OF THE OIL SPILL INPRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Alaskan BioremediationProject was initiated in the aftermath of the March 24, 1989, EXXONVALDEZ oil Spill. he objective of the project was to demonstratean alternative cleanup method for oil-contaminated shorelines basedon enhancing natu...

  15. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION PRODUCTS IN SALT AND FRESHWATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten oil spill bioremediation products were tested in the laboratory for their ability to enhance biodegradation of weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil in both fresh and salt-water media. The products included: nutrients to stimulate inoculated microorganisms, nutrients plus a...

  16. CONTAMINANT REDISTRIBUTION CAN CONFOUND INTERPRETATION OF OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical redistribution of oil between the inside and outside of experimental plots can affect the results of bioremediation field studies that are conducted on shorelines contaminated by real oil spills. Because untreated oil from the surrounding beach will enter the plot, ...

  17. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  18. Bioremediation of refinery wastewater using immobilised Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp and their transconjugants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi T. Ajao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When oil spill occurs, it poses serious toxic hazards to all forms of life. Mixed culture of Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp isolated from refinery sludge using selective enrichment technique was used for bioremediation of refinery wastewater in a laboratoryscale bioreactor. Physicochemical parameters of both raw and treated water were as determined and compared with Federal Environ - mental Protection Agency (FEPA-limit, Abuja, Nigeria to asses the efficiency of the bioremediation process. Each of the bacterium was screened for the presence of plasmid DNA and for the involvement or otherwise of plasmid in the bioremediation of wastewater. The immobilised cells showed percentage decrease in chemical oxygen demand (97%, biochemical oxygen demand (94%, phenol (98%, total petroleum hydrocarbon (79%, oil and grease (90% of the refinery waste water after 20 days of treatment while their transconjugants showed the multiplicative effect by achieving the same percentage after 10 days of treatment. Therefore, the findings revealed that bioaugmentation of wastewater using transmissible catabolic plasmid will enhance efficiency of the bioremediation by spreading the plasmid among indigenous microbial community either through horizontal gene transfer or transformation.

  19. Intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation in aquifers contaminated with chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Aalst-van Leeuwen, M.A. van; Heiningen, E. van; Buyzen, H. van; Sinke, A.; Liere, H.C. van; Harkes, M.; Baartmans, R.; Bosma, T.N.P.; Doddema, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation approaches for 16 contaminated sites in the Netherlands are discussed. At at least five out of 10 chlorinated solvent sites, natural attenuation can be used as one of the tools to prevent further dispersion of the plume. At two sites stimulati

  20. Monitoring Genetic and Metabolic Potential for In-Site Bioremediation: Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.

    2000-07-20

    A number of DOE sites are contaminated with mixtures of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. At many of these sites, in situ microbial bioremediation is an attractive strategy for cleanup, since it has the potential to degrade DNAPLs in situ without the need for pump-and-treat or soil removal procedures, and without producing toxic byproducts. A rapid screening method to determine broad range metabolic and genetic potential for contaminant degradation would greatly reduce the cost and time involved in assessment for in situ bioremediation, as well as for monitoring ongoing bioremediation treatment. The objective of this project was the development of mass-spectrometry-based methods to screen for genetic potential for both assessment and monitoring of in situ bioremediation of DNAPLs. These methods were designed to provide more robust and routine methods for DNA-based characterization of the genetic potential of subsurface microbes for degrading pollutants. Specifically, we sought to (1) Develop gene probes that yield information equivalent to conventional probes, but in a smaller size that is more amenable to mass spectrometric detection, (2) Pursue improvements to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) methodology in order to allow its more general application to gene probe detection, and (3) Increase the throughput of microbial characterization by integrating gene probe preparation, purification, and MALDI-MS analysis.

  1. Scaling methods of sediment bioremediation processes and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaens, P.; Li, M.Y.; Michalak, A.M. [The University of Michigan, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1351 Beal Ave, 175 EWRE Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Bioremediation has been argued to be one of the most cost-effective remediation technologies available to reduce soil, sediment, or groundwater contamination, particularly because this approach may allow for the implementation of in-place strategies. Recent trends have advocated the application of innovative sediment stabilization strategies through placement of (reactive) capping material to allow long-term biodegradation of contaminants in these complex biogeochemical environments. The potential long-term risk reduction associated with this approach requires a demonstration of causal relationships between sediment or contaminant stability on the one hand, and microbial reactivity on the other. The spatial analysis needed to fully understand and quantify these correlations requires sensitive probabilistic techniques. Geostatistics has been used for the characterization of multi-scale spatial patterns for the last few decades, and the analysis of microbial attributes has shown significant spatial structures on microbial abundance and activity. However, there is a dearth of information on the applicability of geostatistics to quantitatively describe the interaction between the microorganisms and their environment. Using the Passaic River (NJ) dioxin data as a model dataset, multiple scaling models were applied to scale and interpolate sampled dioxin data and derive dechlorination signatures in sediments. Unlike conventional geostatistic tools that are based on the point-to-point spatial structures, the new multi-scale model (M-Scale) introduces a new framework for spatial analysis in which regional values at different scales are anchored by the correlations to each other. Spatial dioxin distributions and microbial dechlorination signatures were used as benchmarks for comparison of M-Scale to ordinary kriging. The results from cross-validation and jackknifing approaches applied to these datasets were analyzed and compared using Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plots and

  2. Practical Bioremediation Course – Laboratory Exercises on Biodegradation of Cationic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Ivankovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 0 From the perspective of the lab exercises leader and teaching assistant for the Bioremediation course, it was very difficult to design and conduct a set of exercises that would fit the course curriculum and satisfactorily demonstrate bioremediation basics through practical laboratory work. Thus, Bioremediation course students designed the experiment with the help of the teaching assistant; a simulation of possible bioremediation of “Jarun” lake in Zagreb, Croatia, if contaminated with cationic surfactant. The experiment nicely showed how natural bioremediation differs from engineered bioremediation and the levels of success between different types of engineered bioremediation. The laboratory exercises were designed to be interesting and the results perceivable to the students.  Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 practices. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Integrative analysis of the interactions between Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lovley

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing microbial U(VI reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB predominated and U(VI reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30–40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  4. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lovley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing microbial U(VI reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB predominated and U(VI reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30–40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  5. Integrative analysis of the interactions between Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D. R.

    2011-11-01

    Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  6. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D.

    2012-03-01

    Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  7. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  8. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng; Fang, Hua; Li, Ting-qiang; Alva, A K; He, Zhen-li

    2012-10-15

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils. PMID:22868749

  9. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS FOR CLEAN-UP OF OIL-CONTAMINATED ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this document is to conduct a comprehensive review of the use of commercial bioremediation products treating oil spills in all environments, Literature assessed includes peer-reviewed articles, company reports, government reports, and reports by cleanup contracto...

  11. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karman, Salmah B.; S. Zaleha M. Diah; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast), and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Bio...

  12. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh; Abdolkarim Chehregani Rad; Mehrangiz Akbari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran) and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase) was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was ch...

  13. Resistance of Solid-Phase U(VI) to Microbial Reduction during In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Anderson, Robert T.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation of solid-phase uranium in uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments undergoing uranium bioremediation demonstrated that although microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) readily immobilized uranium as U(IV), a substantial portion of the U(VI) in the aquifer was strongly associated with the sediments and was not microbially reducible. These results have important implications for in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

  14. Bioremediation of CCA-Treated Wood By Brown-Rot Fungi Fomitopsis Palustris, Coniophora Puteana, and Laetiporus Sulphureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, S Nami; Munir, Erman; Kamitani, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation of chromated copper arscnate (CCA)-treated wood by three brown-rot fungi Fomitopsis palustris Coniophora puteane, and Laetiporus sulphureas. The fungi were first cultivated in a fermentation broth to accumulate oxalic acid. Bioremediation of CCA-treated wood was then carried out by leaching of heavy metals with oxalic acid over a 10-day fermentation period. Higher amounts of oxalic acid were produced by F. polustris and L. sulp...

  15. Design and field-scale implementation of an “on site” bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An “on site” bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m3 of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. -- Highlights: •A three-step bioremediation program was designed for a polluted soil with PAHs. •Biostimulation was based in applying nutrient plus surfactants, watering and aeration. •Microcosm and pilot scale studies allowed the selection of the best treatment. •Bioremediation of 900 m3 of contaminated soil showed a final reduction of 94.4% PAHs. •Autochthonous Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the bacterial genera with highest representation. -- PAH-polluted soil underwent biostimulation at the microcosms and pilot-scale to optimize subsequent field-scale bioremediation

  16. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  17. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Analyses of the Responses of High-Arctic Soil Bacteria to Hydrocarbon Pollution and Bioremediation Treatments▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Arbour, Mélanie; Brousseau, Roland; Juck, David; Lawrence, John R.; Masson, Luke; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    High-Arctic soils have low nutrient availability, low moisture content, and very low temperatures and, as such, they pose a particular problem in terms of hydrocarbon bioremediation. An in-depth knowledge of the microbiology involved in this process is likely to be crucial to understand and optimize the factors most influencing bioremediation. Here, we compared two distinct large-scale field bioremediation experiments, located at the Canadian high-Arctic stations of Alert (ex situ approach) a...

  18. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Mr. Abhijit Datta; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  19. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F < 0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions.

  20. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to ∼2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age--250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, use of biological sand filters, is capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biological principles and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.

  1. Evaluation of Four Bio fertilizers for Bioremediation of Pesticide contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to asses the ability of mixed populations of microorganisms which produced as a bio fertilizers by the General Organization of Agriculture Fund, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (phosphoren, microbien, cerealin and azospirillum) to degrade five selected pesticides representing different classes including organophosphate, carbamate and chlorinated organic compounds. There were differences in rates of biotransformation, suggesting the selective induction of certain metabolic enzymes. Inoculation of soil incorporated with malathion, fenamiphos, carbaryl, aldicarb and dieldrin, resulted in ca. 80-90% removal of malathion and fenamiphos within 8 days, carbaryl and aldicarb within 11-15 days respectively. Dieldrin removal occurred slowly within 2 months. These data suggest that bioremediate may act as potential candidates for soil inoculation to bioremediate pesticide contaminated soil. The production of Co2 (soil respiration ) was stimulated by some pesticides. In samples with microbien, an about 2 times higher Co2 production was measured

  2. Downscaling the in vitro test of fungal bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Mickienė, Rūta; Maruška, Audrius; Stankevičius, Mantas; Tiso, Nicola; Mikašauskaitė, Jurgita; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Levišauskas, Donatas; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina; Polcaro, Chiara; Galli, Emanuela; Donati, Enrica; Tekorius, Tomas; Kornyšova, Olga; Kaškonienė, Vilma

    2016-02-01

    The miniaturization and optimization of a white rot fungal bioremediation experiment is described in this paper. The optimized procedure allows determination of the degradation kinetics of anthracene. The miniaturized procedure requires only 2.5 ml of culture medium. The experiment is more precise, robust, and better controlled comparing it to classical tests in flasks. Using this technique, different parts, i.e., the culture medium, the fungi, and the cotton seal, can be analyzed. A simple sample preparation speeds up the analytical process. Experiments performed show degradation of anthracene up to approximately 60% by Irpex lacteus and up to approximately 40% by Pleurotus ostreatus in 25 days. Bioremediation of anthracene by the consortium of I. lacteus and P. ostreatus shows the biodegradation of anthracene up to approximately 56% in 23 days. At the end of the experiment, the surface tension of culture medium decreased comparing it to the blank, indicating generation of surfactant compounds. PMID:26660875

  3. Isolation, identification and characterization of fluoride resistant bacteria: possible role in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, S; Tuteja, U; Flora, S J S

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms found in industrial effluents and near the sites of the contamination can be used to indicate pollution and detoxify the contaminated water resources. Emergence of xenobiotic resistant bacteria among them might be potential application in bioremediation. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize fluoride resistant bacteria from soil and water samples of different regions of India. Five isolates were recovered from different samples which were found to be fluoride resistant. Two of them effectively reduced the fluoride from their media. Through the current study it can be predicted that fluoride pollution results in selective pressure that leads to the development of fluoride resistant among bacterial populations, probably through the mechanism which involved high affinity anion binding compounds called ionophores. Resistant microbes may play a bioremediative role by transforming and concentrating these anions so that they are less available and less dangerous. PMID:22567885

  4. In silico Analysis for Laccase-mediated Bioremediation of the Emerging Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccases, a copper oxidase enzyme, has been employed for bioremediation of anthropogenic pollutants in the recent past. Laccase has a broad range of substrate specificity which offers the prospect for screening in numerable xenobiotics. The present study was aimed to use protein-ligand docking as a tool for prediction of biodegradation of selected pharmaceutical pollutants. A comparative study was also done to determine the binding efficacy of bacterial and fungal laccase for those selected pollutants. The laccase-pollutant docking was carried out using HEX software. The docking scores of bacterial and fungal laccase for predefined pollutants were comparable to ABTS, a substrate for laccase, which suggested that laccase might be able to degrade emerging pharmaceutical pollutants. The docking analysis approach can be useful in prediction of binding competence of pharmaceutical pollutants with laccase for in situ laccase-mediated bioremediation.

  5. Bioremediation strategies of hydrocarbons and microbial diversity in the Trindade Island shoreline--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Edmo M; Kalks, Karlos H M; Fernandes, Péricles L; Tótola, Marcos R

    2015-12-30

    This study analyzed the microbial diversity colonizing the surface of an oil sample during its contact with water, off the Trindade Island coast and simulated the efficiency of eight different bioremediation strategies for this environment. The diversity analysis was performed using acrylic coupons that served as the support for an oil inclusion at sea. The coupons were sampled over 30 days, and T-RFLP multiplex was employed to access the diversity of fungi, Bacteria and Archaea present on the oil surface. The bioremediation strategies were simulated in a respirometer. The results showed that the bacterial domain was the most dominant in oil colonization and that the richness of the species attached to the oil gradually increases with the exposure time of the coupons. The combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation with a native population was proven to be an effective strategy for the remediation of oil off the Trindade Island shoreline.

  6. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Nelson, E-mail: duran@iqm.unicamp.br; Marcato, Priscyla D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio A. [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Material Chemistry Laboratory, Biochemical Research Center (Brazil); Esposito, Elisa [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  7. Implications of nitrogen fertilization for in-situ bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ bioremediation is a promising and rapidly evolving technology for the cleanup of contaminated soils. Although the principles of biodegradation are not new, they are being applied to field remediations in novel ways. Likewise, the metabolic requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus during biodegradation are well-established. However, their effect on the quality of biodegradation still needs delineation. In addition to the physiological effects of mineral nutrients, their mobility and bioavailability in soil becomes critical during an in-situ bioremediation. Studies in the authors laboratory have investigated the effect of different types of fertilizers on hydrocarbon biodegradation in a variety of contaminated soils. Results indicate that the amount and/or species of fertilizer may affect not only the rate of biodegradation, but also the quality of biodegradation, i.e. mineralization of CO2

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis and characterization of waste lignocellulosic biomass produced after dye bioremediation under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Kadam, Avinash A; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2014-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) adsorbes 60% Reactive Blue172 (RB172). Providensia staurti EbtSPG able to decolorize SCB adsorbed RB172 up to 99% under solid state fermentation (SSF). The enzymatic saccharification efficiency of waste biomass after bioremediation of RB172 process (ddSCB) has been evaluated. The cellulolyitc crude enzyme produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium used for enzymatic hydrolysis of native SCB and ddSCB which produces 0.08 and 0.3 g/L of reducing sugars respectively after 48 h of incubation. The production of hexose and pentose sugars during hydrolysis was confirmed by HPTLC. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on SCB and ddSCB has been evaluated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Thus, during dye biodegradation under SSF causes biological pretreatment of SCB which significantly enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Adsorption of dye on SCB, its bioremediation under SSF produces wastes biomass and which further utilized for enzymatic saccharification for biofuel production.

  9. Mega Borg oil spill of the Texas coast: An open-water bioremediation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature has developed hydrocarbons as a part of life. Since the origin of life, more than 60,000 organic molecules have evolved that make up protoplasm; a given percentage of these molecules are hydrocarbons. Commercial hydrocarbon deposits are a by-product of this natural process and a continual source of oil in the aquatic environment through seeps. As a result, nature has also evolved a recycling system for the hydrocarbons. This cycle is the basis for a program of bioremediation using microorganisms. Effort has been made to develop mixed cultures capable of a wide range of hydrocarbon metabolism and co-metabolism. The cultures are economically produced in high concentrations as a dry powder with a shelf life of one year. The result is an economical process for the application of bacteria to hydrocarbon pollutants on water and soils. The process of bioremediation to the recent Mega Borg accident will be discussed

  10. Biofilm lifestyle enhances diesel bioremediation and biosurfactant production in the Antarctic polyhydroxyalkanoate producer Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelli, Paula M; Di Martino, Carla; López, Nancy I; Raiger Iustman, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    Diesel is a widely distributed pollutant. Bioremediation of this kind of compounds requires the use of microorganisms able to survive and adapt to contaminated environments. Pseudomonas extremaustralis is an Antarctic bacterium with a remarkable survival capability associated to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production. This strain was used to investigate the effect of cell growth conditions--in biofilm versus shaken flask cultures--as well as the inocula characteristics associated with PHAs accumulation, on diesel degradation. Biofilms showed increased cell growth, biosurfactant production and diesel degradation compared with that obtained in shaken flask cultures. PHA accumulation decreased biofilm cell attachment and enhanced biosurfactant production. Degradation of long-chain and branched alkanes was observed in biofilms, while in shaken flasks only medium-chain length alkanes were degraded. This work shows that the PHA accumulating bacterium P. extremaustralis can be a good candidate to be used as hydrocarbon bioremediation agent, especially in extreme environments.

  11. Metagenomic analysis of the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Canadian high arctic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Yergeau

    Full Text Available As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0 and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m, when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y, when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons.

  12. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in cold environments : electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation and biodegradable oil sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Suni, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the vast amounts of oil in the world, oil spills are common on land as well as at sea. In addition to oil products, other industrially used hydrocarbons, such as creosote, also contaminate soils. Most hydrocarbons are biodegradable. Hence, bioremediation is an attractive alternative for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills. In cold climate areas, however, biodegradation is often a slow process. The aim of this thesis was to develop efficient, cost-effective, and ecologically sound techniqu...

  13. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH's, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Sangely, Matthieu; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Vialle, Claire; Strehaiano, Pierre; Thannberger, Laurent; Vignoles, Mireille

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  15. Improvement of Bioremediation Performance for the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Rocchetti; Francesca Beolchini; Maurizio Ciani; Antonio Dell'Anno

    2011-01-01

    Microcosm bioremediation strategies were applied to sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed in aerobic conditions in a single-step treatment and in a two-step anaerobic-aerobic treatment. In aerobic conditions, either inorganic nutrients or composts were added to the microcosms, while, in the first anaerobic phase of the two-step experiment, acetate and/or allochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria were used. After the treatment under anaerobic conditions, samples we...

  16. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides. PMID:26413801

  17. Approach of Bioremediation in Olive Oil and Dairy Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hamid; Zohra Bibi; Irum Ghafoor; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are a promising way of dealing with soil and subsoil contamination by organic substances. This biodegradation process is supported by micro-organisms which use the organic carbon from the pollutants as energy source and cells building blocks. There are several advantages of the implementation of such methods but mainly they have to do with the lack of interference with the ecology of the ecosystem. This study presents the use of technique in numerous ways such as olive ...

  18. Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Dawn; Giloteaux, L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Thompson, Courtney A.; Roper, Thomas J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek

    2013-07-28

    The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well-recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species followed by the growth of sulfate-reducers, as previously observed. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater prior to the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the amoeboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity, and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

  19. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    OpenAIRE

    PAYEL SARKAR; SHILPI GHOSH

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulat...

  20. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barlett; K. Zhuang; R Mahadevan; Lovley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominat...

  1. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides.

  2. Model-based analysis of the role of biological, hydrological and geochemical factors affecting uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D; Mahadevan, R

    2011-07-01

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  3. Importance of organic amendment characteristics on bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, B; Huguenot, D; Panico, A; Fabbricino, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the importance of the organic matter characteristics of several organic amendments (i.e., buffalo manure, food and kitchen waste, fruit and vegetables waste, and activated sewage sludge) and their influence in the bioremediation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soil. The removal of low molecular weights (LMW) and high molecular weights (HMW) PAHs was monitored in four bioremediation reactors and used as an indicator of the role of organic amendments in contaminant removal. The total initial concentration of LMW PAHs was 234 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight), while the amount for HMW PAHs was 422 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). Monitoring of operational parameters and chemical analysis was performed during 20 weeks. The concentrations of LMW PAH residues in soil were significantly lower in reactors that displayed a mesophilic phase, i.e., 11 and 15 %, compared to reactors that displayed a thermophilic phase, i.e., 29 and 31 %. Residual HMW PAHs were up to five times higher compared to residual LMW PAHs, depending on the reactor. This demonstrated that the amount of added organic matter and macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the biochemical organic compound classes (mostly soluble fraction and proteins), and the operational temperature are important factors affecting the overall efficiency of bioremediation. On that basis, this study shows that characterization of biochemical families could contribute to a better understanding of the effects of organic amendments and clarify their different efficiency during a bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil.

  4. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Beškoski Vladimir P.; Gojgić-Cvijović Gordana Đ.; Milić Jelena S.; Ilić Mila V.; Miletić Srđan B.; Jovančićević Branimir S.; Vrvić-Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of b...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IRRIGATION ON SOIL MICROBES AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi D. M; Tripathi S

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of toxicity of distillery effluent on soil microorganisms and its quality improvement through bioremediation using Pseudomonas spp. Under lab scale experiment, different dilutions of distillery effluent i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% were used to examine effects on physico-chemical parameters of effluent and on soil microflora e.g. algae, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results revealed that dilution may reduce significantly the metal contents and other...

  6. Isolation and Screening of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollution in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Disi, Zulfa Ali

    2013-01-01

    Pollution, due to activities related to the oil industry, represents a serious threat to the natural environment. The application of biotechnological methods provides much safer and sustainable alternatives for bioremediation of polluted areas, using microorganisms. Several techniques for the isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria have been investigated and published worldwide. A wide range of bilogical activities was shown. However, local hydrocarbon degrading strains and the factors af...

  7. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Using Bacterium from the Coastal Sediments of Kish Island, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SADEGHI HADDAD ZAVAREH, Maryam; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; SHAHRIARI MOGHADAM, Mohsen; Fakhari, Javad; ABDOLI, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the environment is affected by petroleum contamination. It imposes serious health problems for humans as well as serious environmental impact. Bioremediation is an important consideration for removing environmental pollutants because, compared with other technologies, it incurrs lower costs and is environmentally compatible. Methods: Crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated using serial dilutions of a bacterial consortium. The Taguchi experimental design L16 (45) was use...

  8. Robust Hydrocarbon Degradation and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities during Nutrient-Enhanced Oil Spill Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Milner, Michael G.; Jones, D. Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J. P.; Head, Ian M.

    2002-01-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel...

  9. Bioremediation of marine oil spills: when and when not – the Exxon Valdez experience

    OpenAIRE

    Atlas, Ronald; Bragg, James

    2009-01-01

    Summary In this article we consider what we have learned from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in terms of when bioremediation should be considered and what it can accomplish. We present data on the state of oiling of Prince William Sound shorelines 18 years after the spill, including the concentration and composition of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) sampled by systematic shoreline surveys conducted between 2002 and 2007. Over this period, 346 sediment samples were analysed by GC‐MS and ext...

  10. Natural attenuation and bioremediation of Prestige fuel oil along the Atlantic coast of Galicia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    2006-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil spilled from the oil tanker Prestige in November 2002 affected hundreds of km of Spanish shoreline. We carried out a two year study at two highly contaminated sites in order to monitor natural attenuation of the residues coating shore rocks and to test the effectiveness of bioremediation with an oleophilic fertilizer (S200). The methodology included an innovative approach for oil load calculation (based on image analysis techniques), the analysis of the fate of hydr...

  11. Bioremediation of refinery wastewater using immobilised Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp and their transconjugants

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi T. Ajao; Sabo E. Yakubu; Veronica J. Umoh; Joseph B. Ameh

    2013-01-01

    When oil spill occurs, it poses serious toxic hazards to all forms of life. Mixed culture of Burkholderia cepacia and Corynebacterium sp isolated from refinery sludge using selective enrichment technique was used for bioremediation of refinery wastewater in a laboratoryscale bioreactor. Physicochemical parameters of both raw and treated water were as determined and compared with Federal Environ - mental Protection Agency (FEPA-limit, Abuja, Nigeria) to asses the efficiency of the bioremediati...

  12. Design, installation and testing of a bioremediation-based system for treating regulated medical waste

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Anil Kumar

    1994-01-01

    Disposal of regulated waste has become a major challenge for the generators. Disposal of such waste is regulated by local, state and federal agencies and the problem is intensified because of liability issues, public perception and increasing cost. This document describes the mechanical design, installation and testing of a system that employs bioremediation to disinfect regulated medical waste. Currently marketed treatment systems generally use either heat or extreme pH to...

  13. Model-Based Analysis of the Role of Biological, Hydrological and Geochemical Factors Affecting Uranium Bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  14. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  15. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that

  16. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher.

  17. Role of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in the detoxification and bioremediation of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian eXu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial bioremediation is a promising technology to treat heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the efficiency of filamentous fungi as bioremediation agents remains unknown, and the detoxification mechanism of heavy metals by filamentous fungi remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cell morphology and antioxidant systems of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in response to different Cd concentrations (0–10 mM by using physico-chemical and biochemical methods. Cd in XJ-1 was mainly bound to the cell wall. The malondialdehyde (MDA level in XJ-1 cells was increased by 14.82–94.67 times with the increase in Cd concentration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH peaked at 1 mM Cd, whereas that of catalase (CAT peaked at 5 mM Cd. Cd exposure increased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and the activities of GR and G6PDH in XJ-1. These results suggested that the Cd detoxification mechanism of XJ-1 included biosorption, cellular sequestration, and antioxidant defense. The application of XJ-1 in Cd-polluted soils (5–50 mg kg−1 successfully reduced bioavailable Cd and increased the plant yield, indicating that this fungus was a promising candidate for in-situ bioremediation of Cd-polluted soil.

  18. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  19. Role of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in the Detoxification and Bioremediation of Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingjian; Xia, Lu; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Zheyi; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Microbial bioremediation is a promising technology to treat heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the efficiency of filamentous fungi as bioremediation agents remains unknown, and the detoxification mechanism of heavy metals by filamentous fungi remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cell morphology and antioxidant systems of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in response to different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0–10 mM) by using physico-chemical and biochemical methods. Cd in XJ-1 was mainly bound to the cell wall. The malondialdehyde level in XJ-1 cells was increased by 14.82–94.67 times with the increase in Cd concentration. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) peaked at 1 mM Cd, whereas that of catalase peaked at 5 mM Cd. Cd exposure increased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and the activities of GR and G6PDH in XJ-1. These results suggested that the Cd detoxification mechanism of XJ-1 included biosorption, cellular sequestration, and antioxidant defense. The application of XJ-1 in Cd-polluted soils (5–50 mg kg-1) successfully reduced bioavailable Cd and increased the plant yield, indicating that this fungus was a promising candidate for in situ bioremediation of Cd-polluted soil. PMID:26733967

  20. New parameters for a better evaluation of vegetative bioremediation, leaching, and phytodesalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Mokded; Atia, Abdallah; Abdelly, Chedly; Smaoui, Abderrazak

    2015-10-21

    Vegetative bioremediation of calcareous sodic and saline-sodic soils is a biological approach for soil desalination by plants. It is based on three main processes: (i) sodium release from cation exchange sites, (ii) its leaching, and/or (iii) phytodesalination (Na(+) uptake by plant roots and its accumulation in shoots). Leaching needs sufficient rainfall and/or adequate irrigation. Thus, under non-leaching conditions, phytodesalination is the only existing process in terms of sodium removal. Several works tried to evaluate these processes; used plants were grown in field, in lysimeters, or in non-perforated pots. The evaluation of vegetative bioremediation, leaching, and phytodesalination was mainly based on plant analyses (including biomass production, sodium accumulation, test culture, and co-culture) and soil analyses (porosity, salinity, sodicity...). Nevertheless, used parameters are not enough to ensure comparisons between results found in different investigations. The present study introduces new parameters like phytodesalination efficiency, yield, and rate as well as vegetative bioremediation and leaching yields and rates. Our study is also illustrated by an estimation of all parameters for several previously-published data from our own works and those of other authors. Obtained results showed usefulness of these parameters and some of them can be extended to heavy metal phytoexraction. PMID:26254216

  1. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  2. Anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater using edible oil substrate EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedor, M.; Yoseph, Y. [Remediation Sciences Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Baker, J. [Vironex Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Sankey, J. [True Blue Technologies Inc., BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed an enhanced anaerobic bioremediation technique that used emulsified edible oils to remediate ground around a dry cleaning establishment in San Jose, California. The project aimed to find a substrate that was easily distributed into the contaminated soils using anaerobic bioremediation. The anaerobic bioremediation process consisted of organic substrates and halorespiring bacteria. Vitamins and trace minerals were used to stimulate Dehalococcoides growth. Soybean oil was used to ferment the hydrogen. Details of the soy and lactate emulsions prepared for the project were provided. Edible oils were used because of their slow-release properties as well as the fact that they are easy to inject and distribute. A barrier technique was also used to define treatment zone dimensions. An in-line metering system was used to dilute the emulsions. Total costs for project were provided. Injection system design options were reviewed. Results of the study demonstrated that the EOS was effectively distributed throughout the treatment area. It was concluded that dramatic improvements in groundwater conditions were observed using the technology. tabs., figs.

  3. Glyphosate biodegradation and potential soil bioremediation by Bacillus subtilis strain Bs-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X M; Yu, T; Yin, G H; Dong, Q L; An, M; Wang, H R; Ai, C X

    2015-11-23

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicides have an adverse effect on mammals, humans, and soil microbial ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for enhancing glyphosate degradation in soil through bioremediation. We investigated the potential of glyphosate degradation and bioremediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis Bs-15. Bs-15 grew well at high concentrations of glyphosate; the maximum concentration tolerated by Bs-15 reached 40,000 mg/L. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth and glyphosate degradation were less than 10,000 mg/L glyphosate, with a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 8.0. Optimal fermentation occurred at 180 rpm for 60 h with an inoculum ratio of 4%. Bs-15 degraded 17.65% (12 h) to 66.97% (96 h) of glyphosate in sterile soil and 19.01% (12 h) to 71.57% (96 h) in unsterilized soil. Using a BIOLOG ECO plate test, we observed no significant difference in average well color development values between the soil inoculated with Bs-15 and the control soil before 72 h, although there was a significant difference (P glyphosate-containing herbicides, increasing the microbial functional diversity in glyphosate-contaminated soils and thus enhancing the bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.

  4. Bioremediation of Quinoline-contaminated Soil Using Bioaugmentation in Slurry-phase Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; ZE-YU MAO; LI-PING HAN; YI QIAN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of using bioaugmentation as a strategy for remediating quinoline-contaminated soil. Methods Microorganisms were introduced to the soil to assess the feasibility of enhancing the removal of quinoline from quinoline-contaminated soil. Slurry-phase reactor was used to investigate the bioremediation of quinoline-contaminated soil. HPLC (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with an UV detector) was used for analysis of quinoline concentration. Results The biodegradation rate of quinoline was increased through the introduction of Burkholderia pickettii. Quinoline, at a concentration of 1 mg/g soil, could be removed completely within 6 and 8 hours with and without combined effect of indigenous microbes, respectively. Although the indigenous microbes alone had no quinoline-degrading ability, they cooperated with the introduced quinoline-degrader to remove quinoline more quickly than the introduced microbes alone. Bioaugmentaion process was accelerated by the increase of inoculum size and bio-stimulation. The ratio of water to soil in slurry had no significant impact on bioremediation results. Conclusion Bioaugmetation is an effective way for bioremediation of quinoline-contaminated soil.

  5. [Response of soil microbial community to the bioremediation of soil contaminated with PAHs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xian-gui; Liu, Wei-wei; Yin, Rui

    2012-08-01

    The diversity of bacterial community in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated during the plant-microbe remediation enhanced by biosurfactant rhamnolips (RH), using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method. The results showed that Shannon-Weaver diversity index was only 3.17 before bioremediation, and increased to 3.24-3.45 after bioremediation, in particular, highest value was found in the treatment of alfalfa (AL) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and PAHs-degrading bacteria (DB) among all the treatments. The clustering analysis showed that the similarities of soil bacterial community of AL, AL + RH, AL + AM and AL + AM + RH were above 90%. At the same time, the similarity of AL + DB was much closer to those of the four treatments mentioned above. Additionally, when the bacterial communities of AL + DB + RH, AL + DB + AM and AL + DB + AM + RH were grouped together, the similarities of these three treatments were also higher than 80%. By sequence alignment, it was found that the predominant and characteristic bands in DGGE patterns were closely related with PAHs-degrading bacteria, such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acidobacteria, Sphingmonas, Rhodopseudomonas, Firmicutes, and Methylocytaceae. Application of rhamnolipids in plant-microbe bioremediation not only improved the bioavailability of PAHs, but also had a simultaneous influence on the diversity of soil bacterial community, resulting in the efficient promotion of PAHs removal from soils.

  6. New parameters for a better evaluation of vegetative bioremediation, leaching, and phytodesalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Mokded; Atia, Abdallah; Abdelly, Chedly; Smaoui, Abderrazak

    2015-10-21

    Vegetative bioremediation of calcareous sodic and saline-sodic soils is a biological approach for soil desalination by plants. It is based on three main processes: (i) sodium release from cation exchange sites, (ii) its leaching, and/or (iii) phytodesalination (Na(+) uptake by plant roots and its accumulation in shoots). Leaching needs sufficient rainfall and/or adequate irrigation. Thus, under non-leaching conditions, phytodesalination is the only existing process in terms of sodium removal. Several works tried to evaluate these processes; used plants were grown in field, in lysimeters, or in non-perforated pots. The evaluation of vegetative bioremediation, leaching, and phytodesalination was mainly based on plant analyses (including biomass production, sodium accumulation, test culture, and co-culture) and soil analyses (porosity, salinity, sodicity...). Nevertheless, used parameters are not enough to ensure comparisons between results found in different investigations. The present study introduces new parameters like phytodesalination efficiency, yield, and rate as well as vegetative bioremediation and leaching yields and rates. Our study is also illustrated by an estimation of all parameters for several previously-published data from our own works and those of other authors. Obtained results showed usefulness of these parameters and some of them can be extended to heavy metal phytoexraction.

  7. Comparative Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Amended Tropical Soil Microcosms by Natural Attenuation, Bioaugmentation, or Bioenrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marques Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an efficient strategy for cleaning up sites contaminated with organic pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation, bioenrichment, and bioaugmentation using a consortium of three actinomycetes strains in remediating two distinct typical Brazilian soils from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes that were contaminated with crude oil, with or without the addition of NaCl. Microcosms were used to simulate bioremediation treatments over a 120-day period. During this period, we monitored total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs and n-alkanes degradation and changes in bacterial communities. Over time, we found the degradation rate of n-alkanes was higher than TPH in both soils, independent of the treatment used. In fact, our data show that the total bacterial community in the soils was mainly affected by the experimental period of time, while the type of bioremediation treatment used was the main factor influencing the actinomycetes populations in both soils. Based on these data, we conclude that monitored natural attenuation is the best strategy for remediation of the two tropical soils studied, with or without salt addition.

  8. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation.

  9. Impact of bioremediation treatments on the biodegradation of buried oil and predominant bacterial populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using mineral fertilizers as a bioremediation treatment for oil buried in fine sediments was tested in field trials at a site in the south-west of England. The plots were divided into three blocks of four treatments including untreated, fertilized, oiled unfertilized and oiled fertilized plots. The changes in residual hydrocarbons were monitored to study the biodegradation of Arabian Light Crude Oil which is known to have a high portion of biodegradable components. Samples were extracted at random points at intervals of 0, 42 and 101 days. The analysis process identified a range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as a range of geochemical biomarkers. The final results suggested that the oil in the fertilized plots was more degraded than in the oiled, unfertilized control plots. Three way, factorial analysis of variance was used to analyse the data from the oiled fertilized and oiled unfertilized plots. No significant effect of treatment on the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed. The results also showed that oil treatment and treatment with oil and fertilizer increased the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. One significant observation was that different bacterial populations were stimulated in response to oil alone and a bioremediation treatment. It was concluded that the addition of inorganic fertilizers to the oiled oxic fine sediment substantially enhanced the level of biodegradation compared to untreated oiled sediment. Bioremediation is a feasible treatment for oil spills where the oil is buried in fine sediment. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. pH Control for Effective Anaerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C.; Barry, D.; Gerhard, J. I.; Kouznetsova, I.

    2007-12-01

    SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) is a 4-year collaborative project that aims to evaluate the performance of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation for the treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. The project focuses on a pilot scale demonstration at a trichloroethene (TCE) DNAPL field site, and includes complementary laboratory and modelling studies. Organic acids and hydrogen ions (HCl) typically build up in the treatment zone during anaerobic bioremediation. In aquifer systems with relatively low buffering capacity the generation of these products can cause significant groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting dehalogenating activity. Where the soil buffering capacity is exceeded, addition of buffer may be needed for the effective continuation of TCE degradation. As an aid to the design of remediation schemes, a geochemical model was designed to predict the amount of buffer required to maintain the source zone pH at a suitable level for dechlorinating bacteria (i.e. > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of TCE to be degraded, site water chemistry, type of organic amendment and soil mineralogy. It assumes complete dechlorination of TCE, and further considers mineral dissolution and precipitation kinetics. The model is applicable to a wide range of sites. For illustration we present results pertinent to the SABRE field site. Model results indicate that, for the extensive dechlorination expected in proximity to the SABRE DNAPL source zone, significant buffer addition may be necessary. Additional simulations are performed to identify buffer requirements over a wider range of field conditions.

  11. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation. PMID:25786771

  12. Bioremediation and fodder potentials of two Sargassum spp. in coastal waters of Shenzhen, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Yuelu; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun

    2014-08-30

    In this study, the bioremediation potentials of two seaweeds (Sargassum hemiphyllum and S. henslowianum) against pollution in a coastal mariculture area of Shenzhen, South China, were investigated by comparing the growth, nutrient bioaccumulation capacity of plants from the seaweed bed (control site) with plants from the fish farm. Results indicated that both species are potential candidates for bioremediation in the fish farm areas in terms of their high growth rates and high bioaccumulation capacities on inorganic nutrients. Both Sargassum spp. contain high levels of crude protein (11.7-14.0%) and crude fat (2.2-2.7%), suggesting high nutritional values. The S. hemiphyllum may serve as a good aquaculture fodder with high nutritional compositions and low heavy metal contents. However, heavy metals (Cr, Pb and Cd) of S. henslowianum exceed the maximum allowable concentrations as aquatic feed, which restricts its fodder application. In general, the results of this study may contribute to the marine pollution bioremediation in the coastal areas of South China, especially in mariculture zones.

  13. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher. PMID:23213912

  14. Study on the Change Law of Petroleum Component in Soil Bioremediation%土壤生物修复过程中石油类组分变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑玉全; 郑经堂

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究土壤生物修复过程中石油类组分的变化规律.[方法]采用微生物修复和植物修复法对油污土壤进行修复,通过分析土壤生物修复过程中石油类含量厦组分的变化来评价污染土壤的生物修复效果.[结果]随着修复时间的延长,土壤中矿物油可降到3 000 mg/kg以下;土壤中石油类总烃所占比例大幅下降,而沥青质所占比例明显上升;修复前土壤中石油类以C24为主,微生物修复后(41 d)主碳峰为C29,植物修复后(139 d)主碳峰为C17和C18.[结论]该研究为今后油污土壤生物修复效果的评价提供了科学依据.%[ Objective] Our study was carried out to research the change law of petroleum component in soil bioremediation. [ Method] By means of microbial remediation and plant remediation to restore oily soil, the bioremediation effect of oily soil was assessed based on analysis on the change of petroleum content and component in soil bioremediation. [ Result ] With the increase of remediation time, mineral oil in soil decreased to below 3 000 mg/kg; the proportion of total hydrocarbon in petroleum went down greatly, while asphaltene proportion in petroleum went up obviously; the main carbon peak of petroleum in soil was C24 before bioremediation and C29 after microbial remediation (41 d), while it changed into C17 and C18 after plant remediation ( 139 d). [ Conclusion] Our study could provide scientific reference for the assessment on the bioremediation effect of oily soil in the further.

  15. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons.

  16. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26217887

  17. 浅谈污染土壤的生物修复%Discussion on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有哲

    2015-01-01

    随着我国人口的迅速增长、社会工业化速度的加快.在经济迅速发展的同时,人类向自然界中排放的有毒和有害化学物质越来越多,这对我们的环境,尤其是对我们的土壤污染极其严重.本文论述了土壤环境的特征、土壤中主要的污染物质、污染土壤生态修复的基本原理、以及对生物修复方面研究的展望.%With the rapid growth of China's population,the high speed of social industrialization and the rapid development of economy, human beings discharge more and more poisonous and harmful chemicals to the nature, which is very serious pollution to the environment, especially to the soil. This paper discusses the characteristics of soil environment,the main pollutants in soil,the basic principle of soil ecological restoration and the prospect of the research on bioremediation.

  18. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils.

  19. APPLICATION OF METAL RESISTANT BACTERIA BY MUTATIONAL ENHANCMENT TECHNIQUE FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF COPPER AND ZINC FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Shakibaie ، A. Khosravan ، A. Frahmand ، S. Zare

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, using mutation in the metal resistant bacteria, the bioremediation of the copper and zinc from copper factory effluents was investigated. Wastewater effluents from flocculation and rolling mill sections of a factory in the city of Kerman were collected and used for further experiments. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from soil and effluents surrounding factory and identified by microbiological methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn were determined by agar dilution method. Those strains that exhibited highest minimum inhibitory concentrations values to the metals (5mM were subjected to 400-3200 mg/L concentrations of the three mutagenic agents, acriflavine, acridine orange and ethidium bromide. After determination of subinhibitory concentrations, the minimum inhibitory concentrations values for copper and zinc metal ions were again determined, which showed more than 10 fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations value (10 mM for Cu and 20 mM for Zn with P≤0.05. The atomic absorption spectroscopy of dried biomass obtained from resistant strains after exposure to mutagenic agents revealed that strains 13 accumulate the highest amount of intracellular copper (0.35% Cu/mg dried biomass and strain 10 showed highest accumulation of zinc (0.3% Zn/mg dried biomass respectively with P≤0.05. From above results it was concluded that the treatment of industrial waste containing heavy metals by artificially mutated bacteria may be appropriate solution for effluent disposal problems.

  20. A Review on Bioremediation Technologies of Organic Pollutants Contaminated Soils%土壤有机污染物生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周际海; 袁颖红; 朱志保; 姚春阳; 张谷雨; 高琪

    2015-01-01

    biphenyls (PCBs) and Antibiotics (ATBs), worsen soil organic matter pollution, thus making remediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils a pressing issue. The remediation of contaminated soils is a qualitative process in which pollutant concentration is reduced to an acceptable level, or poisonous and harmful pollutants transformed into innoxious substances through absorption, degradation, transfer and transformation in soils using physical, chemical or biological methods. It includes physical remediation technology, chemical remediation technology and bioremediation technology. Among all kinds of soil remediation techniques, bioremediation is receiving more and more attention because of its safety and low cost. Besides, it won’t cause secondary pollution. The bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils consists of phytoremediation technologies, soil fauna remediation technologies and microbial remediation technologies. The microbial bioremediation as an important component of the bioremediation of contaminated soils, boasts the most value in development and application in biological environmental protection. This paper systematically introduces the bioremediation technologies of organic pollutants contaminated soils at home and abroad in terms of their principles, the research progresses, the advantages and limitations. In the meantime, we cast a brief look into the prospects of the research of soil fauna remediation in future. Hopefully, it will provide references for research on bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils.