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Sample records for bioremediation field site

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  2. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  3. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.; Block, C.S.; Mills, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated

  4. Contaminants at DOE sites and their susceptibility to bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Skeen, R.S.; Brouns, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    Contaminants at DOE sites encompass a range of common industrial pollutants. However, the prevalence of contaminant mixtures including organics, metals, and radionuclides is relatively unique to DOE's facilities. Bioremediation has been shown to be effective for destruction of many of the organic pollutants. The technology also has promise for application to many of the metals and radionuclides; however, field demonstrations for these applications have not yet been attempted. Because of the complexity of biodegradation of even a single-compound class, little has been done to develop or demonstrate in situ bioremediation technologies for multicompound combinations. The current bioremediation demonstration on CCl 4 and nitrates within the VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration is one the first efforts to address inorganic and organic co-contaminants simultaneously. Additional research, technology development, and field demonstrations are needed to evaluate the applicability of in situ bioremediation to DOE's most common contaminant mixtures

  5. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  6. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: Laboratory to field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, E.E.; Mardlin, D.P.; Killham, K.S.; Paton, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. - Detailed biological, chemical and physical characterisation reduces uncertainty in predicting bioremediation.

  8. Field scale molecular analysis for the monitoring of bacterial community structures during on-site diesel bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Griffiths, Robert I; Philp, James C; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2010-07-01

    A diesel contaminated groundwater site was surveyed using 16S rRNA gene based analyses to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation on the bacterial communities present. The analyses included the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to profile microbial community structure and the construction and sequencing of clone libraries in order to identify the organisms present. Community analyses revealed a high degree of similarity in the inoculated compartments during bioaugmentation, not observed once inoculation had ceased. However, it was also shown that there was very little community similarity between the inoculum and the inoculated samples. Instead, the similarity seen during the application of the bioaugmentation treatment was thought to be due to nutrient addition applied along with the inoculum. Furthermore, once the bioaugmentation treatment had ceased the communities around the site became more diverse, suggesting that the hierarchical structure seen during treatment was due to the stimulation of a group of opportunistic indigenous organisms by the nutrients added. The findings not only highlight the importance of monitoring the fate of inocula used in bioaugmentation but also how crucial the process of the selection of species and the culture conditions used in the construction of these consortia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deploying in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Johnson, C.D.; Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hooker, B.S.; Peyton, B.M.; Skeen, R.S.; Chilakapati, A.

    1994-11-01

    An innovative in-situ bioremediation technology was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to destroy nitrate and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ) in the Hanford ground water. The goal of this in-situ treatment process is to stimulate native microorganisms to degrade nitrate and CCl 4 . Nutrient solutions are distributed in the contaminated aquifer to create a biological treatment zone. This technology is being demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site to provide the design, operating, and cost information needed to assess its effectiveness in contaminated ground water. The process design and field operations for demonstration of this technology are influenced by the physical, chemical, and microbiological properties observed at the site. A description of the technology is presented including the well network design, nutrient injection equipment, and means for controlling the hydraulics and microbial reactions of the treatment process

  10. A field experimentation on bioremediation: Bioren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, S.; Merlin, F.-X.; Guillerme, M.; Dalmazzone, C.; Le Corre, P.

    1999-01-01

    Most shoreline bioremediation strategies are based on the addition of limiting nutrients to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of the natural biodegradation process. Before approval for operational use, these products designed to be used in the environment, should be validated in field trials to assure their efficiency in reducing residual contaminant concentrations and toxicity. This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of an experimental field study to evaluate the effectiveness of the bioremediation agents BIOREN 1 and BIOREN 2 of interest to the EUREKA BIOREN program. The agents BIOREN 1 and 2 are proprietary formulations of nutrients synthesised from fish meal and they were proven effective in laboratory studies of the two granular nutrient formulations. BIOREN 1 is unique in that it is augmented with a biosurfactant. To provide equivalent nitrogen concentrations the quantities of BIOREN 1 and 2 added were respectively 10 and 14.4% of the oil quantity. The results showed a 'starter effect' for the formulation BIOREN 1: biodegradation was significantly enhance during the first five weeks of the experiment; after that the enhancement was weaker and significant differences were not observed between treatments. These results may be attributed to the fact that significant nutrient depletion may not occur in small scale controlled spill experiments. In addition, it has been proven that oxygen availability limited biodegradation. There is a need to develop aeration techniques, such as raking, that aerate the sediment without further burying the pollutant. Final oil balance assessment proved to be very instructive as it is the main practical factor taken into consideration by the operational team: the aim of the shoreline cleaning operation remains to reduce oil sediment content. (Author)

  11. In-situ bioremediation at the French Limited Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, R.; Ramsden, D.

    1990-01-01

    In situ biodegradation of petrochemical wastes at the French Limited Superfund Site was stimulated by providing the appropriate pH, essential nutrients, oxygen, and substrate availability. Fourteen wastewater treatment parameters, plus toxicity, were monitored to document the program of bioremediation. Periodic, organic priority pollutant analysis of mixed liquor, settled sludges and subsoils provided data for kinetics interpretation and half life calculation. The half lives of thirteen PAH compounds ranged from 27 to 46 days, in contrast to the degradation rate, in months, reported for these compounds in LTUs. An ambitious air monitoring program measured fugitive emissions at lagoon side, fenceline, and from the lagoon surface by floating flux chamber. The amount of volatiles lost never exceeded 1/2 of the OSHA 8 hr TLV and it could be readily managed by adjusting the intensity and frequency of mixing and aeration. The demonstration confirmed the feasibility of in situ bioremediation and led to one of the first US EPA Record of Decisions to use bioremediation for cleanup of a large Superfund site. A consent Decree outlining the site remedial action program was signed by the PRP task group and published in the Federal Register. This represents a landmark project for in situ bioremediation and has established precedence for use of this technology at CERCLA and RCRA sites nationwide

  12. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  13. Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites March 19, 2015 SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series (#11) SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series Welcome and...Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites Ms. Carmen Lebrón, Independent Consultant (20 minutes + Q&A) Dr...ESTCP Webinar Series Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated

  14. In situ groundwater and sediment bioremediation: barriers and perspectives at European contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, Mauro; Verdini, Roberta; Aulenta, Federico; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Agathos, Spiros; Puig, Sebastià; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    This paper contains a critical examination of the current application of environmental biotechnologies in the field of bioremediation of contaminated groundwater and sediments. Based on analysis of conventional technologies applied in several European Countries and in the US, scientific, technical and administrative barriers and constraints which still need to be overcome for an improved exploitation of bioremediation are discussed. From this general survey, it is evident that in situ bioremediation is a highly promising and cost-effective technology for remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater and sediments. The wide metabolic diversity of microorganisms makes it applicable to an ever-increasing number of contaminants and contamination scenarios. On the other hand, in situ bioremediation is highly knowledge-intensive and its application requires a thorough understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and ecology of contaminated soils, groundwater and sediments, under both natural and engineered conditions. Hence, its potential still remains partially unexploited, largely because of a lack of general consensus and public concerns regarding the lack of effectiveness and control, poor reliability, and possible occurrence of side effects, for example accumulation of toxic metabolites and pathogens. Basic, applied and pre-normative research are all needed to overcome these barriers and make in situ bioremediation more reliable, robust and acceptable to the public, as well as economically more competitive. Research efforts should not be restricted to a deeper understanding of relevant microbial reactions, but also include their interactions with the large array of other relevant phenomena, as a function of the truly variable site-specific conditions. There is a need for a further development and application of advanced biomolecular tools for site investigation, as well as of advanced metabolic and kinetic modelling tools. These would allow a

  15. The use of modern on-site bioremediation systems to reduce crude oil contamination on oilfield properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, W.W.; Wilson, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Oil-field properties frequently have areas in which the soil has been degraded with crude oil. Soil contaminated in this manner is often considered either a hazardous waste or designated waste under regulatory guidelines. As a result, there is often concern about an owner's liabilities and the financial institution's liabilities whenever oilfield properties are transferred to new operators, abandoned, or converted to other uses such as real estate. There is also concern about the methods and relative costs to remediate soil which has been contaminated with crude oil. Modern, well-designed, soil bioremediation systems are cost effective for the treatment of crude oil contamination, and these systems can eliminate an owner's subsequent liabilities. Compared to traditional land-farming practices, a modern on-site bioremediation system (1) requires significantly less surface area, (2) results in lower operating costs, and (3) provides more expeditious results. Compared to excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil, on-site bioremediation will eliminate subsequent liabilities and is typically more cost effective. Case studies indicate that o-site bioremediation systems have been successful at reducing the crude oil contamination in soil to levels which are acceptable to regulatory agencies in less than 10 weeks. Total costs for on-site bioremediation has ranged from $35 to $40 per cubic yard of treated soil, including excavation

  16. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site

  18. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

  19. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  20. Enhance soil bioremediation with electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Y.B.; Rabbi, M.F.; Gale, R.J.; Ozsu, E.E.; Alshawabkeh, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ remediation technique that uses low-level direct-current electric potential differences (on the order of volts per centimeter) or an electric current (on the order of milliamps per square centimeter of cross-sectional area between electrodes) applied across a soil mass by electrodes placed in an open- or closed-flow arrangement. In electrokinetic methods, the groundwater in the boreholes or an externally supplied fluid (processing fluid) is used as the conductive medium. Electrokinetic remediation technology for metal extraction is expected to decrease the cost of remediating contaminated soils to the lower end of the $100--$1,000/m 3 range. This would be a significant savings in the $350 billion hazardous waste site cleanup and remediation market. The environmental restoration cost for the mixed (radioactive)-waste market is separately estimated to be $65 billion. The potential of the electrokinetic remediation technique in remediating soils contaminated with radioactive mixed waste using depolarization agents and complexing agents is noteworthy. The authors have removed uranyl ions from spiked kaolinite using the technique

  1. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION (EPA/625/K-96/001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains abstracts and slide hardcopy for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "Seminar Series on Bioremediation of Hazardous Waste Sites: Practical Approaches to Implementation." This technology transfer seminar series, sponsored by EPA's Biosystems ...

  2. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  3. Creosote-contaminated sites: their potential for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J G; Chapman, P J; Pritchard, P H [US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)

    1989-10-01

    Coal tar creosote contamination is generally associated with surface soils, waters in treatment lagoons or evaporation areas, and groundwater contaminated with leachate from the above sources. The basic principle of bioremediation is to exploit the ability of microorganisms to catabolize a wide range of organic substrates. There are limitations which much be addressed if in situ bioremediation is to be successful: the pollutant must be in a chemical state conducive to microbial utilization, aeration and nutrient supplementation are essential elements of many in situ treatments, and there must be present an acclimated microbial population capable of degrading the pollutant. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. A demonstration of in situ bioremediation of CCL4 at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, B.S.; Skeen, R.S.; Truex, M.J.; Peyton, B.M.

    1994-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy's VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC/Arid-ID) is developing an in situ bioremediation technology to meet the need for a cost-effective method to clean ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents, nitrates, or other organic and inorganic contaminants. Currently, a field demonstration of the technology is being conducted at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The goal of this demonstration is to stimulate native denitrifying microorganisms to destroy carbon tetrachloride and nitrate. Contaminants are destroyed by mixing an electron donor (acetate) and an electron acceptor (nitrate) into the aquifer, using a matrix of recirculation wells. This work also evaluates the effectiveness.of applying scale-up techniques developed in the petrochemical industry to bioremediation. The scale-up process is based on combining fluid mixing and transport predictions with numerical descriptions for biological transport and reaction kinetics. This paper focuses on the necessity of this design approach to select nutrient feeding strategies that limit biofouling while actively destroying contaminants

  5. Assessment of natural hydrocarbon bioremediation at two gas condensate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.; Trent, G.L.; Brown, D.R.; Sublette, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Condensate liquids are present in soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver-Julesburg Basin operated by Amoco. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores strongly suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction

  6. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  7. Field test for treatment verification of an in-situ enhanced bioremediation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taur, C.K.; Chang, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Due to a leakage from a 12-inch pressurized diesel steel pipe four years ago, an area of approximately 30,000 square meters was contaminated. A pilot study applying the technology of in-situ enhanced bioremediation was conducted. In the study, a field test kit and on-site monitoring equipment were applied for site characterization and treatment verification. Physically, the enhanced bioremediation study consisted of an air extraction and air supply system, and a nutrition supply network. Certain consistent sampling methodology was employed. Progress was verified by daily monitoring and monthly verification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade the petroleum hydrocarbons with provision of oxygen and nutrients. Nine extraction wells and eight air sparging wells were installed. The air sparging wells injected the air into geoformation and the extraction wells provided the underground air circulation. The soil samples were obtained monthly for treatment verification by a Minuteman drilling machine with 2.5-foot-long hollow-stem augers. The samples were analyzed on site for TPH-diesel concentration by a field test kit manufactured by HNU-Hanby, Houston, Texas. The analytical results from the field test kit were compared with the results from an environmental laboratory. The TVPH concentrations of the air extracted from the vadose zone by a vacuum blower and the extraction wells were routinely monitored by a Foxboro FID and Cosmos XP-311A combustible air detector. The daily monitoring of TVPH concentrations provided the reliable data for assessing the remedial progress

  8. Electrokinetically Emplaced Amendments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Clay: a Pilot Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Inglis, A.; Head, N.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Garcia, A. N.; Reynolds, D. A.; Hogberg, D.; Edwards, E.; Lomheim, L.; Austrins, L. M.; Hayman, J.; Auger, M.; Sidebottom, A.; Eimers, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is an increasingly popular treatment technology for contaminated sites due to the proven success of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. However, bioremediation, along with other in-situ remediation technologies, faces limitations due to challenges with amendment delivery in low permeability media. Studies have suggested that electrokinetics (EK) can enhance the delivery of amendments in low permeability soils, such as clay. A pilot field trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for electrokinetics to support anaerobic dechlorination in clay by improving the transport of lactate and microorganisms. The study was performed on a former chlorinated solvent production facility in Ontario, Canada. Five transect cells were set up within the contaminated clay test area. Different amendments were injected in three of these cells to test various remediation strategies under the influence of EK. The other two cells were used as controls, one with EK applied and the other with no EK. This study focuses on the cell that applied electrokinetics for lactate emplacement followed by bioremediation (EK-Bio). This cell had an initial single injection of KB-1 bioaugmentation culture (SiREM, Canada) followed by injection of sodium lactate as a biostimulant while direct current was applied for 45 days between two electrodes 3 m apart. EK can enhance lactate migration by electromigration, while microorganisms have the potential to be influenced by electroosmosis of the bulk fluid or by electrophoresis of the charged bacteria themselves. All monitoring well locations in the EK-Bio cell exhibited evidence of successful lactate delivery corresponding to an increase in dissolved organic carbon. Reduction in chlorinated volatile organic compound (cVOC) concentrations, in particular 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), were evident in monitoring locations coinciding with significant lactate breakthrough. Further investigation into the influence of EK-Bio on the abundance and

  9. Fluorescent antibody application in bioremediation procedures at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct Fluorescent Antibodies (DFA) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques are currently being employed at the Savannah River Site to monitor methanotrophic bacteria for the bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in field studies. Direct Fluorescent Antibodies were developed against various methanotrophic bacteria isolated from SRS as well as methanotrophic bacteria acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). DFA's are anticipated to be more efficient for monitoring methanotroph activity than MPN's because of shorter processing time, lower cost, and the direct nature of the assay. The DFA method is a direct technique, in that samples are processed immediately and can be enumerated within an hour. The MPN method is indirect, since samples must be cultured for 6-8 weeks before measuring methane consumption and carbon dioxide production. Indirect methods are not highly selective and have limited application. The greatest advantage of a faster assay, is that bioremediation procedures utilizing methanotrophic bacteria could be amended. These amendments would be based on environmental monitoring with results in real time (1 hour). The elimination of the MPN technique and the use of DFA's will save significantly on both materials and labor. The data obtained from the DFA's and MPN's were statistically compared to each other and to total bacterial counts (AODC). The statistical analysis used was Analysis of Variants (ANOVA). Using this analysis, groundwater samples were found to be not significantly different; whereas soil were significantly different. These methods were employed on soil samples from the Southern Sector and ground water samples from the TCE-contaminated Sanitary Landfill at SRS. Acridine Orange Direct Counts were compared to show relative differences between total bacterial and methanotroph population

  10. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (soil) observed in the aquifer also indicate that the iron reduction and methanogenesis are not the dominant biodegradation patterns in the contaminant plume. Results from the microcosm study reveal that preliminary laboratory study is required to determine the appropriate substrates and oxidation-reduction conditions to enhance the biodegradation of MTBE. Results suggest that in situ or on-site aerobic bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would

  12. Bioremediation of ground water contaminants at a uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, L.L.; Nuttall, H.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Lutze, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water contaminated with uranium from milling operations must be remediated to reduce the migration of soluble toxic compounds. At the mill tailings site near Tuba City, Arizona (USA) the approach is to employ bioremediation for in situ immobilization of uranium by bacterial reduction of uranyl, U(VI), compounds to uraninite, U(IV). In this initial phase of remediation, details are provided to indicate the magnitude of the contamination problem and to present preliminary evidence supporting the proposition that bacterial immobilization of uranium is possible. Additionally, consideration is given to contaminating cations and anions that may be at toxic levels in ground water at this uranium mill tailing site and detoxification strategies using bacteria are addressed. A model concept is employed so that results obtained at the Tuba City site could contribute to bioremediation of ground water at other uranium mill tailings sites

  13. Monitoring Genetic and Metabolic Potential for In-Site Bioremediation: Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    A number of DOE sites are contaminated with mixtures of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. At many of these sites, in situ microbial bioremediation is an attractive strategy for cleanup, since it has the potential to degrade DNAPLs in situ without the need for pump-and-treat or soil removal procedures, and without producing toxic byproducts. A rapid screening method to determine broad range metabolic and genetic potential for contaminant degradation would greatly reduce the cost and time involved in assessment for in situ bioremediation, as well as for monitoring ongoing bioremediation treatment. The objective of this project was the development of mass-spectrometry-based methods to screen for genetic potential for both assessment and monitoring of in situ bioremediation of DNAPLs. These methods were designed to provide more robust and routine methods for DNA-based characterization of the genetic potential of subsurface microbes for degrading pollutants. Specifically, we sought to (1) Develop gene probes that yield information equivalent to conventional probes, but in a smaller size that is more amenable to mass spectrometric detection, (2) Pursue improvements to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) methodology in order to allow its more general application to gene probe detection, and (3) Increase the throughput of microbial characterization by integrating gene probe preparation, purification, and MALDI-MS analysis

  14. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-01-01

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m 3 of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project

  15. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES - RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATIONS - 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes, hosted by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the EPA in Rye Brook, New York. he symposium was the eighth annual meeting for the presentation of research conducted by EPA's Biosystems Technol...

  16. Advances in speed and performance of on-site bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearon, M.S.; Autry, A.R.; Archer, B.

    1991-01-01

    SafeSoil is a proprietary additive and ex-situ treatment process which mediates and enhances biodegradation of environmental pollutants. The additive itself contains natural surfactants, organic and inorganic nutrients, and enzymes (primarily oxygenases). The treatment is an ex-situ process involving excavation and stockpiling of contaminated soil, mixing of the excavated soil with the authors proprietary additive in a mixer, and then the placement of the treated soil in curing piles, during which time biodegradation is actively occurring. SafeSoil was proven effective at treating approximately 35,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, motor oil, and transmission fluid to below specified action levels (50 ppm for TFH, and five ppm for total BTEX) in a full-scale remedial action for the channel Gateway Development project at Marina del Rey, California, within 15 days for 70 to 75% of the soil mass treated. More time was required for successful bioremediation of some of the more recalcitrant (persistent) contaminants, principally longer chain aliphatic hydrocarbons

  17. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  18. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  19. Development and Validation of a Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Ethene Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FINAL REPORT Development and Validation of a Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development and Validation of a Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation ...project ER-201129 was to develop and validate a framework used to make bioremediation decisions based on site-specific physical and biogeochemical

  20. Bioremediation techniques?classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendl...

  1. Two US EPA bioremediation field initiative studies: Evaluation of in-situ bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayles, G.D.; Brenner, R.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Vogel, C.M.; Miller, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of supplying oxygen in-situ to oxygen-deprived soil microbes by forcing air through contaminated soil at low air flow rates. Unlike soil venting or soil vacuum extraction technologies, bioventing attempts to stimulate biodegradative activity while minimizing stripping of volatile organics. The process destroys the toxic compounds in the ground. Bioventing technology is especially valuable for treating contaminated soils in areas where structures and utilities cannot be disturbed because the equipment needed (air injection/withdrawal wells, air blower, and soil gas monitoring wells) is relatively non-invasive. The US EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, with resources from the US EPA Bioremediation Field Initiative, began two parallel 2-year field studies of in-situ of 1991 in collaboration with the US Air Force. The field sites are located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska, and Hill AFB near Salt Lake City, Utah. Each site has jet fuel JP-4 contaminated unsaturated soil where a spill has occurred in association with a fuel distribution network. With the pilot-scale experience gained in these studies and others, bioventing should be available in the very near future as an inexpensive, unobtrusive means of treating large quantities of organically contaminated soils. 5 figs

  2. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2006-10-15

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs.

  3. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs

  4. In situ bioremediation (natural attenuation) at a gas plant waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginn, J.S.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A former manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste site in New York was evaluated with regard to natural attenuation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Parent-compound concentrations of PAHs within an aquifer plume were observed to decrease with time subsequent to source removal of coal tar. Biotransformation-potential studies indicated that indigenous microorganisms in soil from the site were capable of degrading naphthalene and phenanthrene. A biochemical metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1H2NA), was tentatively characterized in coal-tar-contaminated soil from the site-based on liquid chromatographic retention time. Kinetic information was developed for the disappearance of phenanthrene and 1H2NA in nonspiked contaminated soil at the site. The Microtox trademark bioassay was used to evaluate toxicity trends in contaminated soil at the site. Results from the Microtox trademark indicated a decreasing trend in toxicity with respect to time in contaminated site soil. Research results were evaluated with regard to the National Research Council's guidelines for evaluating in situ bioremediation, and were used to enhance site characterization and monitoring information for evaluating the role of bioremediation as part of natural attenuation of PAHs at coal-tar-contaminated sites

  5. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi - from laboratory to field scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winquist, E.; Björklöf, K.; Schultz, E.; Räsänen, M.; Salonen, K.; Anasonye, F.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Steffen, K.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Tuomela, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 238-247 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bioremediation * contaminated soil * PAH * field scale Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  6. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  7. PAH loss during bioremediation of manufactured gas plant site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D C [and others

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies using soil samples from a former gas works site showed that PAH in the soil were present in a form resistant to biodegradation, whereas added naphthalene and phenanthrene were quickly degraded. The PAH already present were not extractable into water, and were not toxic to bacteria.

  8. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993

  9. Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project

  10. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or

  11. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  13. The use of bench- and field-scale data for design of an in situ carbon tetrachloride bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    A suite of simulation models were developed as a design tool in support of an in situ bioremediation demonstration at the Hanford site in Washington state. The design tool, calibrated with field - and bench-scale data, was used to answer four field-scale system design questions: (1) What are the important reaction processes and kinetics? (2) How will biomass distribute in the aquifer in response to injected substrate? (3) What well configuration best ensures proper nutrient transport and process control? (4) What operating and monitoring strategy should be used to confirm effective remediation? This paper does not describe the design tool itself, but describes how the design tool was used to optimize field site design parameters such as well spacing, hydraulic control, contaminant destruction, and nutrient injection strategies

  14. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leitão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation.

  15. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Polluted with Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-01-01

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had many field tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recent years. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metals and radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies can be generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation, bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization, treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applications there are ...

  16. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  17. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  18. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: Bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One of the important issues is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These site areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltenes, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost-effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico

  19. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2000-07-01

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs.

  20. Controlled field release of a bioluminescent genetically engineered microorganism for bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Ahn, Y.; Werner, C.; Jarrell, J. IV; Easter, J.P.; Cox, C.D.; Burlage, R.S.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represents the first genetically engineered microorganism approved for field testing in the United States for bioremediation purposes. Strain HK44 harbors an introduced lux gene fused within a naphthalene degradative pathway, thereby allowing this recombinant microbe to bioluminescent as it degrades specific polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. The bioremediation process can therefore be monitored by the detection of light. P. fluorescens HK44 was inoculated into the vadose zone of intermediate-scale, semicontained soil lysimeters contaminated with naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene, and the population dynamics were followed over an approximate 2-year period in order to assess the long-term efficacy of using strain HK44 for monitoring and controlling bioremediation processes. Results showed that P. fluorescens HK44 was capable of surviving initial inoculation into both hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated soils and was recoverable from these soils 660 days post inoculation. It was also demonstrated that strain HK44 was capable of generating bioluminescence in response to soil hydrocarbon bioavailability. Bioluminescence approaching 166,000 counts/s was detected in fiber optic-based biosensor devices responding to volatile polyaromatic hydrocarbons, while a portable photomultiplier module detected bioluminescence at an average of 4300 counts/s directly from soil-borne HK44 cells within localized treatment areas. The utilization of lux-based bioreporter microorganisms therefore promises to be a viable option for in situ determination of environmental contaminant bioavailability and biodegradation process monitoring and control.

  1. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  2. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 μg/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 μg/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone

  3. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  4. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  5. Postremediation bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Hicks, P.M.; Hicks, R.J.; Leahy, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    In applying remediation technology, an important question is when to stop operations. Conventional wisdom states that each site has a limit of treatability. Beyond a point, the site conditions limit access to residual contaminants and, therefore, treatment effectiveness. In the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons, the issue in ceasing remedial operations is not what is the limit of treatment, but what should be the limit of effort. Because hydrocarbons are inherently biodegradable, there is a point in remediation where natural or intrinsic bioremediation is adequate to complete the remedial process. This point is reached when the rate of residual carbon release is the limiting factor, not the rate of oxygen or nutrient supply. At such a point, the rate and degree of remediation is the same whether an active system is being applied or whether nothing is being actively done. This paper presents data from several bioremediation projects where active remediation was terminated above the desired closure levels. These site data illustrate that intrinsic bioremediation is as effective in site closure as continued active remediation

  6. Extended Bioremediation Study of the POPILE, Inc., Site, El Dorado, Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Lance

    2001-01-01

    A pilot scale study was conducted using land treatment units (LTUs) to evaluate the efficacy of bioremediation using traditional landfarming technology on contaminated soil from a wood treatment facility...

  7. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  8. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day −1 in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day −1 in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were

  9. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring biodegradation of ethene and bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated site using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundle, Scott O C; Johnson, Tiffany; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Duhamel, Melanie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; McMaster, Michaye L; Cox, Evan; Révész, Kinga; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2012-02-07

    Chlorinated ethenes are commonly found in contaminated groundwater. Remediation strategies focus on transformation processes that will ultimately lead to nontoxic products. A major concern with these strategies is the possibility of incomplete dechlorination and accumulation of toxic daughter products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC)). Ethene mass balance can be used as a direct indicator to assess the effectiveness of dechlorination. However, the microbial processes that affect ethene are not well characterized and poor mass balance may reflect biotransformation of ethene rather than incomplete dechlorination. Microbial degradation of ethene is commonly observed in aerobic systems but fewer cases have been reported in anaerobic systems. Limited information is available on the isotope enrichment factors associated with these processes. Using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) we determined the enrichment factors associated with microbial degradation of ethene in anaerobic microcosms (ε = -6.7‰ ± 0.4‰, and -4.0‰ ± 0.8‰) from cultures collected from the Twin Lakes wetland area at the Savannah River site in Georgia (United States), and in aerobic microcosms (ε = -3.0‰ ± 0.3‰) from Mycobacterium sp. strain JS60. Under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, CSIA can be used to determine whether biotransformation of ethene is occurring in addition to biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes. Using δ(13)C values determined for ethene and for chlorinated ethenes at a contaminated field site undergoing bioremediation, this study demonstrates how CSIA of ethene can be used to reduce uncertainty and risk at a site by distinguishing between actual mass balance deficits during reductive dechlorination and apparent lack of mass balance that is related to biotransformation of ethene.

  11. Surfactant-aided recovery/in situ bioremediation for oil-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducreaux, J.; Baviere, M.; Seabra, P.; Razakarisoa, O.; Shaefer, G.; Arnaud, C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has been the most commonly used method way for in situ cleaning of soils contaminated with low-volatility petroleum products such as diesel oil. However, whatever the process (bioventing, bioleaching, etc.), it is a time-consuming technique that may be efficiency limited by both accessibility and too high concentrations of contaminants. A currently developed process aims at quickly recovering part of the residual oil in the vadose and capillary zones by surfactant flushing, then activating in situ biodegradation of the remaining oil in the presence of the same or other surfactants. The process has been tested in laboratory columns and in an experimental pool, located at the Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherche sur l'Environnement (IFARE) in Strasbourg, France. Laboratory column studies were carried out to fit physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters of the process to the field conditions. The possibility of recovering more than 80% of the oil in the flushing step was shown. For the biodegradation step, forced aeration as a mode of oxygen supply, coupled with nutrient injection aided by surfactants, was tested

  12. Applied bioremediation of hazardous, petroleum, and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, D.J.; McGuire, P.N.; Lynch, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Blasland and Bouck Engineers, P.C. (Blasland and Bouck) conducted a large-scale soil bioremediation pilot study at an inactive hazardous waste site in Upstate New York. Remediation of soils at the site is regulated in accordance with a Consent Order entered into with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The chemicals of concern in soils at the site consist of a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds including: trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, methanol, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline. The large-scale soil Bioremediation Pilot Study consisted of evaluating the effectiveness of two bioremediation techniques: ex-situ solid phase treatment of excavation soils; and in-situ solid phase treatment with soil mixing. The feasibility of bioremediation for soils at this site was evaluated in the field at pilot scale due to the generally high sensitivity of the technology's effectiveness and feasibility from site to site

  13. Variably Saturated Flow and Multicomponent Biogeochemical Reactive Transport Modeling of a Uranium Bioremediation Field Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Murray, Christopher J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Dayvault, Richard; Waichler, Scott R.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Spane, Frank A.; Long, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site have identified the potential for stimulating indigenous bacteria to catalyze the conversion of aqueous uranium in the +6 oxidation state to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. This effectively removes uranium from solution resulting in groundwater concentrations below actionable standards. Three-dimensional, coupled variably-saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a 2008 in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment is used to better understand the interplay of transport rates and biogeochemical reaction rates that determine the location and magnitude of key reaction products. A comprehensive reaction network, developed largely through previous 1-D modeling studies, was used to simulate the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. A principal challenge is the mechanistic representation of biologically-mediated terminal electron acceptor process (TEAP) reactions whose products significantly alter geochemical controls on uranium mobility through increases in pH, alkalinity, exchangeable cations, and highly reactive reduction products. In general, these simulations of the 2008 Big Rusty acetate biostimulation field experiment in Rifle, Colorado confirmed previously identified behaviors including (1) initial dominance by iron reducing bacteria that concomitantly reduce aqueous U(VI), (2) sulfate reducing bacteria that become dominant after ∼30 days and outcompete iron reducers for the acetate electron donor, (3) continuing iron-reducer activity and U(VI) bioreduction during dominantly sulfate reducing conditions, and (4) lower apparent U(VI) removal from groundwater during dominantly sulfate reducing conditions. New knowledge on simultaneously active metal and sulfate reducers has been

  14. Field test and mathematical modeling of bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil. Part 1: Field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.Y.; Xu, T.; Colapret, J.A.; Cawley, W.A.; Bonner, J.S.; Ernest, A.; Verramachaneni, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fire-wall area (about 270 ft x 310 ft) with the Bunker C oil contaminated soil was selected for the bioremediation field test. This fire-wall area was separated into 18 plots by dirt dikes to test 6 bioremediation methods with three tests of each method. The six treatment methods were: (a) aeration with basic nutrients and indigenous organisms (BNIO); (b) aeration with basic nutrients and inoculation from a refinery wastewater treatment facility (BNSIWT); (c) aeration with an oleophilic fertilizer and indigenous organisms (INIPOL); (d) aeration with basic nutrients and biosurfactant organisms (EPA Seal Beach consortia) (EPA); (e) aeration with proprietary nutrients and organisms (PRO); and (f) aeration only for active control (CONTROL). This field test was conducted for 91 days. In general the oil contents in 18 plots were reduced, but the results showed significant fluctuations. A statistical method was used to examine if the oil reductions of six methods were the results from the random error of sampling and sample analysis or biodegradation. The results of the statistical analysis showed that oil reduction was concluded from all but the plots of PRO. From the data analysis, it may be concluded that the oil reduction rate in these studies is controlled by oil transfer from soil into the aqueous solution. An example of calculation was used to illustrate this conclusion

  15. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  16. Insights into microbial communities mediating the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2018-05-01

    The study of microbial communities involved in soil bioremediation is important to identify the specific microbial characteristics that determine improved decontamination rates. Here, we characterized bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in terms of (i) abundance (using quantitative PCR) and (ii) taxonomic diversity and structure (using Illumina amplicon sequencing) during the bioremediation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site during 15 weeks comparing biostimulation (inorganic NPK fertilization) vs. natural attenuation and considering the effect of temperature (10 vs. 20 °C). Although a considerable amount of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) loss could be attributed to natural attenuation, significantly higher TPH removal rates were obtained with NPK fertilization and at increased temperature, which were related to the stimulation of the activities of indigenous soil microorganisms. Changing structures of bacterial and fungal communities significantly explained shifts in TPH contents in both natural attenuation and biostimulation treatments at 10 and 20 °C. However, archaeal communities, in general, and changing abundances and diversities in bacterial and fungal communities did not play a decisive role on the effectiveness of soil bioremediation. Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidia classes, within bacterial community, and undescribed/novel groups, within fungal community, proved to be actively involved in TPH removal in natural attenuation and biostimulation at both temperatures.

  17. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ... . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .., . .. . . . . *... *.. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . v IX PART I. OVERVIEW ., .,... . ,.. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . ., 7 1 Uses Emer of Bacteria Colleran in Bioremediation...

  18. Management of groundwater in-situ bioremediation system using reactive transport modelling under parametric uncertainty: field scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, E.; Atteia, O.; Rouvreau, L.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is a commonly used remediation technology to clean up the subsurface of petroleum-contaminated sites. Forecasting remedial performance (in terms of flux and mass reduction) is a challenge due to uncertainties associated with source properties and the uncertainties associated with contribution and efficiency of concentration reducing mechanisms. In this study, predictive uncertainty analysis of bio-remediation system efficiency is carried out with the null-space Monte Carlo (NSMC) method which combines the calibration solution-space parameters with the ensemble of null-space parameters, creating sets of calibration-constrained parameters for input to follow-on remedial efficiency. The first step in the NSMC methodology for uncertainty analysis is model calibration. The model calibration was conducted by matching simulated BTEX concentration to a total of 48 observations from historical data before implementation of treatment. Two different bio-remediation designs were then implemented in the calibrated model. The first consists in pumping/injection wells and the second in permeable barrier coupled with infiltration across slotted piping. The NSMC method was used to calculate 1000 calibration-constrained parameter sets for the two different models. Several variants of the method were implemented to investigate their effect on the efficiency of the NSMC method. The first variant implementation of the NSMC is based on a single calibrated model. In the second variant, models were calibrated from different initial parameter sets. NSMC calibration-constrained parameter sets were sampled from these different calibrated models. We demonstrate that in context of nonlinear model, second variant avoids to underestimate parameter uncertainty which may lead to a poor quantification of predictive uncertainty. Application of the proposed approach to manage bioremediation of groundwater in a real site shows that it is effective to provide support in

  19. Bioremediation: A natural solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.N.; Caplan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive remediation alternative because most full-scale bioremediation projects involve cost-effective contaminant treatment on-site. Recently, large scale bioremediation projects have included cleanups of ocean tanker spills, land-based chemical spills, and leaking chemical and petroleum storage tanks. Contaminated matrices have included beaches, soils, groundwater, surface waters (i.e., pits, ponds, lagoons), process waste streams and grease traps. Bioremediation is especially cost-effective when both soil and groundwater matrices are impacted because one remediation treatment system can be design to treat both media simultaneously in place. The primary advantages of in situ bioremediation include: on-site destruction of contaminants; accelerated cleanup time; minimal disruption to operations; lower remediation costs; and reduction of future liability

  20. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2000-01-01

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs

  1. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils: A recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbach, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation of land crude oil and lube oil spills is an effective and economical option. Other options include road spreading (where permitted), thermal desorption, and off-site disposal. The challenge for environment and operations managers is to select the best approach for each remediation site. Costs and liability for off-site disposal are ever increasing. Kerr-McGee`s extensive field research in eastern and western Texas provides the data to support bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical, bioremediation also offers a lower risk of, for example, Superfund clean-up exposure than off-site disposal.

  2. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Waste at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach; Stephanie Sanford

    2006-01-01

    A consensus workshop was developed and convened with ten state regulators to characterize concerns regarding emerging bioremediation technology to be used to clean-up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at US DOE sites. Two questions were explored: integrated questions: (1) What impact does participation in a consensus workshop have on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of state regulators regarding bioremediation technology? (2) How effective is a consensus workshop as a strategy for eliciting and articulating regulators concerns regarding the use of bioremediation to clean up radionuclides and heavy metals in mixed wastes at U.S. Department of Energy Sites around the county? State regulators met together for five days over two months to learn about bioremediation technology and develop a consensus report of their recommendations regarding state regulatory concerns. In summary we found that panel members: quickly grasped the science related to bioremediation and were able to effectively interact with scientists working on complicated issues related to the development and implementation of the technology; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, implementation (e.g., institutional controls), and long-term effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technological and implementation issues; and believed that the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation was appropriate and useful. Finally, regulators wanted decision makers at US DOE to know they are willing to work with DOE regarding innovative approaches to clean-up at their sites, and consider a strong relationship between states and the DOE as critical to any effective clean-up. They do not want perceive themselves to be and do not want others to perceive them as barriers to successful clean-up at their sites

  3. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  4. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  5. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foght, J.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-243 Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Bioremediation Pad. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 600-243 waste site consisted of a bioremediation pad for petroleum-contaminated soils resulting from the 1100 Area Underground Storage Tank (UST) upgrades in 1994. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  7. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Borchert, S.; Heard, C.

    1996-01-01

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  8. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  9. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects for Fungal Bioremediation of Acidic Radioactive Waste Sites: Characterization and Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkavc, Rok; Matrosova, Vera Y; Grichenko, Olga E; Gostinčar, Cene; Volpe, Robert P; Klimenkova, Polina; Gaidamakova, Elena K; Zhou, Carol E; Stewart, Benjamin J; Lyman, Mathew G; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Courtot, Melanie; Singh, Jatinder; Dalgard, Clifton L; Hamilton, Theron; Frey, Kenneth G; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Dugan, Lawrence; Daly, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Highly concentrated radionuclide waste produced during the Cold War era is stored at US Department of Energy (DOE) production sites. This radioactive waste was often highly acidic and mixed with heavy metals, and has been leaking into the environment since the 1950s. Because of the danger and expense of cleanup of such radioactive sites by physicochemical processes, in situ bioremediation methods are being developed for cleanup of contaminated ground and groundwater. To date, the most developed microbial treatment proposed for high-level radioactive sites employs the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans . However, the use of Deinococcus spp. and other bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to low pH. We report the characterization of 27 diverse environmental yeasts for their resistance to ionizing radiation (chronic and acute), heavy metals, pH minima, temperature maxima and optima, and their ability to form biofilms. Remarkably, many yeasts are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and heavy metals. They also excrete carboxylic acids and are exceptionally tolerant to low pH. A special focus is placed on Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149, which was the most resistant to acid and gamma radiation. MD1149 is capable of growing under 66 Gy/h at pH 2.3 and in the presence of high concentrations of mercury and chromium compounds, and forming biofilms under high-level chronic radiation and low pH. We present the whole genome sequence and annotation of R. taiwanensis strain MD1149, with a comparison to other Rhodotorula species. This survey elevates yeasts to the frontier of biology's most radiation-resistant representatives, presenting a strong rationale for a role of fungi in bioremediation of acidic radioactive waste sites.

  11. Prospects for Fungal Bioremediation of Acidic Radioactive Waste Sites: Characterization and Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Tkavc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated radionuclide waste produced during the Cold War era is stored at US Department of Energy (DOE production sites. This radioactive waste was often highly acidic and mixed with heavy metals, and has been leaking into the environment since the 1950s. Because of the danger and expense of cleanup of such radioactive sites by physicochemical processes, in situ bioremediation methods are being developed for cleanup of contaminated ground and groundwater. To date, the most developed microbial treatment proposed for high-level radioactive sites employs the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. However, the use of Deinococcus spp. and other bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to low pH. We report the characterization of 27 diverse environmental yeasts for their resistance to ionizing radiation (chronic and acute, heavy metals, pH minima, temperature maxima and optima, and their ability to form biofilms. Remarkably, many yeasts are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and heavy metals. They also excrete carboxylic acids and are exceptionally tolerant to low pH. A special focus is placed on Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149, which was the most resistant to acid and gamma radiation. MD1149 is capable of growing under 66 Gy/h at pH 2.3 and in the presence of high concentrations of mercury and chromium compounds, and forming biofilms under high-level chronic radiation and low pH. We present the whole genome sequence and annotation of R. taiwanensis strain MD1149, with a comparison to other Rhodotorula species. This survey elevates yeasts to the frontier of biology's most radiation-resistant representatives, presenting a strong rationale for a role of fungi in bioremediation of acidic radioactive waste sites.

  12. Comparative analysis of on site bioremediation: Alternatives for petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.E.; Tremaine, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Protection Systems, Inc. has developed a low maintenance, highly effective method to remediate petroleum and hazardous waste contamination of soils. This method combines the use of a slow release chemical oxygen source, along with nutrient amendments for the degradation of contaminants that require oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. This method has been used successfully in bench and field experiments on creosote. The authors have performed laboratory experiments on diesel fuel. This paper describes rapid (site closure in 2.5 months in cold weather) field degradation of relatively freshly spilled diesel fuel using native bacteria and tailored nutrient amendments

  13. Site characterization for the in situ bioremediation of the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemagno, C.D.; Leo, A.; Craig, J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether bioremediation can be used to treat a diesel fuel spill in the deep vadose zone (>30 m). After laboratory studies confirmed the ability of the natural population of organisms to degrade the diesel fuel, the technological issue of transporting the required mass of nutrients to the contaminated soils was addressed. Laboratory studies demonstrated that nutrient and oxygen transport can be enhanced by the addition of divalent cations to injected waters. This addition of minerals caused the observed hydraulic conductivity to be maintained at elevated levels that allowed the macronutrient nitrogen, provided as ammonium ion, to be more uniformly distributed to target soil domains

  14. Assessment of the horizontal transfer of functional genes as a suitable approach for evaluation of the bioremediation potential of petroleum-contaminated sites: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Ince, Bahar; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Orhan

    2017-06-01

    Petroleum sludge contains recalcitrant residuals. These compounds because of being toxic to humans and other organism are of the major concerns. Therefore, petroleum sludge should be safely disposed. Physicochemical methods which are used by this sector are mostly expensive and need complex devices. Bioremediation methods because of being eco-friendly and cost-effective overcome most of the limitations of physicochemical treatments. Microbial strains capable to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons are practically present in all soils and sediments and their population density increases in contact with contaminants. Bacterial strains cannot degrade alone all kinds of petroleum hydrocarbons, rather microbial consortium should collaborate with each other for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. Horizontal transfer of functional genes between bacteria plays an important role in increasing the metabolic potential of the microbial community. Therefore, selecting a suitable degrading gene and tracking its horizontal transfer would be a useful approach to evaluate the bioremediation process and to assess the bioremediation potential of contaminated sites.

  15. Hanford Site 100-N Area In Situ Bioremediation of UPR-100-N-17, Deep Petroleum Unplanned Release - 13245

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueressig, Daniel G. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In 1965 and 1966, approximately 303 m{sup 3} of Number 2 diesel fuel leaked from a pipeline used to support reactor operations at the Hanford Site's N Reactor. N Reactor was Hanford's longest operating reactor and served as the world's first dual purpose reactor for military and power production needs. The Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100-N Area identified in situ bioremediation as the preferred alternative to remediate the deep vadose zone contaminated by this release. A pilot project supplied oxygen into the vadose zone to stimulate microbial activity in the soil. The project monitored respiration rates as an indicator of active biodegradation. Based on pilot study results, a full-scale system is being constructed and installed to remediate the vadose zone contamination. (authors)

  16. Hanford Site 100-N Area In Situ Bioremediation of UPR-100-N-17, Deep Petroleum Unplanned Release - 13245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saueressig, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    In 1965 and 1966, approximately 303 m 3 of Number 2 diesel fuel leaked from a pipeline used to support reactor operations at the Hanford Site's N Reactor. N Reactor was Hanford's longest operating reactor and served as the world's first dual purpose reactor for military and power production needs. The Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100-N Area identified in situ bioremediation as the preferred alternative to remediate the deep vadose zone contaminated by this release. A pilot project supplied oxygen into the vadose zone to stimulate microbial activity in the soil. The project monitored respiration rates as an indicator of active biodegradation. Based on pilot study results, a full-scale system is being constructed and installed to remediate the vadose zone contamination. (authors)

  17. Strategy for implementing a bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memood, T.; Malik, S.A.; Kazmi, S.A.R.; Alam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradation, is the partial simplification or complete destruction of the molecular structure of environmental pollutants by physiological reactions catalyzed by microorganisms, by applying chemical and physiological assays to laboratory incubations of flasks containing pure culture of microorganism, mixed cultures or environmental. whereas Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation process to eliminate environmental pollutants from sites where they have been released either intentionally or inadvertently, as documented most readily in laboratory assays to eliminate or reduce the concentration of environmental pollutants in field sites to levels that acceptable to site owners or Regulatory Agencies. The poster highlights the demonstration, how the diverse techniques derived from the Science of microbial contaminants from field sites., which is inherently multidisciplinary Bioremediation integrate the approaches, protocols, strategies and analysis from Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Hydrology, Soil Science, Physiology and Analytical Chemistry. (author)

  18. Effect of electric field on the performance of soil electro-bioremediation with a periodic polarity reversal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, E; Villaseñor, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this work, it is studied the effect of the electric fields (within the range 0.0-1.5 V cm(-1)) on the performance of electrobioremediation with polarity reversal, using a bench scale plant with diesel-spiked kaolinite with 14-d long tests. Results obtained show that the periodic changes in the polarity of the electric field results in a more efficient treatment as compared with the single electro-bioremediation process, and it does not require the addition of a buffer to keep the pH within a suitable range. The soil heating was not very important and it did not cause a change in the temperature of the soil up to values incompatible with the life of microorganisms. Low values of water transported by the electro-osmosis process were attained with this strategy. After only 14 d of treatment, by using the highest electric field studied in this work (1.5 V cm(-1)), up to 35.40% of the diesel added at the beginning of the test was removed, value much higher than the 10.5% obtained by the single bioremediation technology in the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ pilot test for bioremediation of energetic compound-contaminated soil at a former military demolition range site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugnia, Louis B; Manno, Dominic; Drouin, Karine; Hendry, Meghan

    2018-05-04

    Bioremediation was performed in situ at a former military range site to assess the performance of native bacteria in degrading hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). The fate of these pollutants in soil and soil pore water was investigated as influenced by waste glycerol amendment to the soil. Following waste glycerol application, there was an accumulation of organic carbon that promoted microbial activity, converting organic carbon into acetate and propionate, which are intermediate compounds in anaerobic processes. This augmentation of anaerobic activity strongly correlated to a noticeable reduction in RDX concentrations in the amended soil. Changes in concentrations of RDX in pore water were similar to those observed in the soil suggesting that RDX leaching from the soil matrix, and treatment with waste glycerol, contributed to the enhanced removal of RDX from the water and soil. This was not the case with 2,4-DNT, which was neither found in pore water nor affected by the waste glycerol treatment. Results from saturated conditions and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure testing, to investigate the environmental fate of 2,4-DNT, indicated that 2,4-DNT found on site was relatively inert and was likely to remain in its current state on the site.

  20. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  1. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires nonspecialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate was found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory results

  2. Getting results in bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzuk, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a sustainable, low-cost solution for many contaminated sites, but it is important to know which sites are suitable and be aware of common pitfalls. Chlorinated solvents, lighter petroleum hydrocarbons, non-aqueous phase liquids have all be demonstrated to be readily biodegradable. However, the success of enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) depends on the successful growth and establishment of a viable, mature microbial community. Low or high pH groundwater, or high concentrations of some chemicals can inhibit microbial activity.

  3. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua; Parker, Jack; Brandt, Craig; Holladay, Susan; Wolfe, Amy; Bogle, Mary Anna; Lowe, Kenneth; Hyder, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge (Fig. 1), Tennessee supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) goal of understanding the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites for new solutions to environmental remediation and long-term stewardship. In particular, the FRC provides the opportunity for researchers to conduct studies that promote the understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of existing remediation options, and the development of improved remediation strategies. It offers a series of contaminated sites around the former S-3 Waste Disposal Ponds and uncontaminated sites in which investigators and students conduct field research or collect samples for laboratory analysis. FRC research also spurs the development of new and improved characterization and monitoring tools. Site specific knowledge gained from research conducted at the FRC also provides the DOE-Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM) the critical scientific knowledge needed to make cleanup decisions for the S-3 Ponds and other sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

  4. Using a Consensus Conference to Characterize Regulatory Concerns Regarding Bioremediation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in Mixed Wastes at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, Denise

    2005-01-01

    We have spent this first part of the project preparing background material for conference participants and making arrangements for the conference itself. Material regarding state regulatory constraints to the use of bioremediation in the cleanup of radionuclides and heavy metals at DOE sites around the country has been added to the Bioremediation Briefing paper for participants. The Steering Committee has been formulated and will hold their first meeting via phone conference on Monday, September 13, 2005. On the agenda is identification of conference participants, experts, and initial issues likely to be addressed. Human Subjects approval has been secured from the University. The ''pre-test'' has been developed and is ready to implement. The Consensus Conference will be held in Phoenix, AZ during January and February 2005; we are working with the Chamber of Commerce to find an appropriate site

  5. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  6. Bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms and their biodegradative capacity to remove pollutants. The byproducts of effective bioremediation, such as water and carbon dioxide, are nontoxic and can be accommodated without harm to the environment and living organisms. This paper reports that using bioremediation to remove pollutants has many advantages. This method is cheap, whereas physical methods for decontaminating the environment are extraordinarily expensive. Neither government nor private industry can afford the cost to clean up physically the nation's known toxic waste sites. Therefore, a renewed interest in bioremediation has developed. Whereas current technologies call for moving large quantities of toxic waste and its associated contaminated soil to incinerators, bioremediation can be done on site and requires simple equipment that is readily available. Bioremediation, though, is not the solution for all environmental pollution problems. Like other technologies, bioremediation has limitations

  7. Soil bioremediation at CFB Trenton: evaluation of bioremediation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, L.; Cathum, S.; Avotins, J.; Kokars, V.; Cooper, D.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation processes and their application in the cleanup of contaminated soil, were discussed. The petroleum contaminated soil at CFB Trenton, was evaluated to determine which bioremediation process or combination of processes would be most effective. The following processes were considered: (1) white hot fungus, (2) Daramend proprietary process, (3) composting, (4) bioquest proprietary bioremediation processes, (5) Hobbs and Millar proprietary bioremediation process, and (6) farming. A brief summary of each of these options was included. The project was also used as an opportunity to train Latvian and Ukrainian specialists in Canadian field techniques and laboratory analyses. Preliminary data indicated that bioremediation is a viable method for treatment of contaminated soil. 18 refs., 3 figs

  8. Measurement of volatile organic compounds during start-up of bioremediation of French limited superfund site in Crosby Texas using wind dependent whole-air sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleil, J.D.; Fortune, C.R.; Yoong, M.; Oliver, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Whole-air sampling was performed before and after the start-up of the bioremediation of an industrial (primarily petrochemical) waste lagoon in Crosby Texas, near Houston. Four 'Sector Samplers' were deployed at the four corners of the French Limited Superfund Site. These samplers collect air into one of two SUMMA polished canisters depending upon wind direction and speed. When the wind blows at the sampler from across the waste lagoon, air is routed to the 'IN' sector canister, otherwise sample is collected in the 'OUT' sector canister. As such, each sampler provides its own background sample, and, upon gas chromatographic analysis, individual compounds can be associated with the waste lagoon. Five sets of 24-hour sector samples were taken; the first set was collected prior to the start of the bioremediation effort and the remaining four sets were taken sequentially for four 24-hour periods after the start-up of the procedure

  9. Diversity of 16S rRNA and dioxygenase genes detected in coal-tar-contaminated site undergoing active bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M; Khanna, S [NIIT Univ, Neemrana (India). Dept. of Biotechnology & Bioinformation

    2010-04-15

    In order to develop effective bioremediation strategies for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities need to be better understood, especially in highly PAH contaminated sites in which little information on the cultivation-independent communities is available. Coal-tar-contaminated soil was collected, which consisted of 122-122.5 mg g{sup -1} total extractable PAH compounds. Biodegradation studies with this soil indicated the presence of microbial community that is capable of degrading the model PAH compounds viz naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene at 50 ppm each. PCR clone libraries were established from the DNA of the coal-tar-contaminated soil, targeting the 16S rRNA to characterize (I) the microbial communities, (ii) partial gene fragment encoding the Rieske iron sulfur center {alpha}-subunit) common to all PAH dioxygenase enzymes and (iii) {beta}-subunit of dioxygenase. Phylotypes related to Proteobacteria ({Alpha}-, {Epsilon}- and Gammaproteobacteria), Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococci were detected in 16S rRNA derived clone libraries. Many of the gene fragment sequences of alpha-subunit and beta-subunit of dioxygenase obtained from the respective clone libraries fell into clades that are distinct from the reference dioxygenase gene sequences. Presence of consensus sequence of the Rieske type (2Fe2S) cluster binding site suggested that these gene fragments encode for {alpha}-subunit of dioxygenase gene. Sequencing of the cloned libraries representing {alpha}-subunit gene fragments (Rf1) and beta-subunit of dioxygenase showed the presence of hitherto unidentified dioxygenase in coal-tar-contaminated soil.

  10. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  11. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  12. Assessment of Bioremediation Technologies: Focus on Technologies Suitable for Field-Level Demonstrations and Applicable to DoD Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Bioremediation Microbial Mats Phytoremediation /construc- ted wetlands White Rot Fungus Full scale commercial technology for treatment of hydro...industrial facilities include chromium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury , cadmium, and zinc. Table 3 shows that inorganics in soil were identified as high... mercury , molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and tin. Constructed wetlands. The passive bioremediation of metals in wetlands is a concept borrowed from

  13. Cometabolic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-15

    Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.

  14. Assessing field-scale biogeophysical signatures of bioremediation over a mature crude oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Atekwana, Estella; Mewafy, Farag; Revil, Andre; Skold, Magnus; Gorby, Yuri; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John W.; Trost, Jared J.; Werkema, Dale D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.; Rectanus, H.V.; Sirabian, R.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted electrical geophysical measurements at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site (Bemidji, MN). Borehole and surface self-potential measurements do not show evidence for the existence of a biogeobattery mechanism in response to the redox gradient resulting from biodegradation of oil. The relatively small self potentials recorded are instead consistent with an electrodiffusion mechanism driven by differences in the mobility of charge carriers associated with biodegradation byproducts. Complex resistivity measurements reveal elevated electrical conductivity and interfacial polarization at the water table where oil contamination is present, extending into the unsaturated zone. This finding implies that the effect of microbial cell growth/attachment, biofilm formation, and mineral weathering accompanying hydrocarbon biodegradation on complex interfacial conductivity imparts a sufficiently large electrical signal to be measured using field-scale geophysical techniques.

  15. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  16. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.; Liddell, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area

  17. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate as a slow-release carbon source for in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers: From laboratory investigation to pilot-scale testing in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Lucia; Matturro, Bruna; Rossetti, Simona; Sagliaschi, Marco; Sucato, Salvatore; Alesi, Eduard; Bartsch, Ernst; Arjmand, Firoozeh; Papini, Marco Petrangeli

    2017-07-25

    A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Prior to field testing, PHB was experimentally verified as a suitable electron donor for biological reductive dechlorination processes at the investigated site by microcosm studies carried out on site aquifer material and measuring the quantitative transformation of detected CAHs to ethene. Owing to the complex geological characteristics of the aquifer, the use of a groundwater circulation well (GCW) was identified as a potential strategy to enable effective delivery and distribution of electron donors in less permeable layers and to mobilise contaminants. A 3-screened, 30-m-deep GCW coupled with an external treatment unit was installed at the site. The effect of PHB fermentation products on the in situ reductive dechlorination processes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results from the first 4 months of operation clearly demonstrated that the PHB fermentation products were effectively delivered to the aquifer and positively influenced the biological dechlorination activity. Indeed, an increased abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (up to 6.6 fold) and reduced CAH concentrations at the installed monitoring wells were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  20. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater

  2. Final Report for Project ''Role of Metal Bioavailability in In Situ Bioremediation of Metal and Organic Co-Contaminated Sites''; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina M. Maier

    2002-01-01

    A large proportion of hazardous waste sites are co-contaminated with organics and various metals. Such co-contaminated sites are difficult to bioremediate due to the nature of the mixed contaminants. Specifically, the presence of a co-contaminating metal imposes increased stress on indigenous populations already impacted by organic contaminant stress. The overall objective of this research is to investigate the effect of varying metal bioavailability on microbial populations and biodegradation of organics to allow a better understanding of how optimize remediation of co-contaminated sites. The hypothesis for this project is that metal bioavailability is not directly correlated with metal stress imposed on microbial populations that are degrading organics in soil and that further understanding of the relationship between metal bioavailability and metal stress is required for successful treatment of sites contaminated with mixtures of organics and metals. The specific objectives to be addressed to accomplish this goal are: (1) To determine the influence of metal bioavailability in soil microcosms co-contaminated with organics and metals on degradation of the organic contaminants and on mechanisms of metal resistance and (2) To determine the efficacy of different bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated soils based on metal bioavailability

  3. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  6. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  7. Bioremediation of bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bioremediation, Inc. has had an opportunity to perform two projects involving soil contaminated with bunker C. One was at a bulk terminal site which involved predominantly diesel, but also had bunker C contamination; the other was a paper-mill site which had exclusively bunker C contamination. This paper will address the authors' experiences at the paper-mill site. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. They have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps, as discussed later, have been developed for their own use in their treatability laboratory

  8. Environmental bioremediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.N.; Tripathi, R.D. (eds.) [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India). Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation

    2007-07-01

    The rapid expansion and increasing sophistication of various industries in the past century has remarkably increased the amount and complexity of toxic waste effluents, which may be bioremediated by suitable plants and microbes, either natural occurring or tailor-made for the specific purpose. This technology is termed as bioremediation. Bioremediation is an eco- friendly, cost-effective and natural technology targeted to remove heavy metals, radionuclides, xenobiotic compounds, organic waste, pesticides etc. from contaminated sites or industrial discharges through biological means. Since this technology is used in in-situ conditions, it does not physically disturb the site unlike conventional methods i.e. chemical or mechanical methods. In this technology, higher plants or microbes are used alone or in combination for phytoextraction of heavy metals from metal contaminated sites. Through microbial interventions, either the metals are immobilized or mobilized through redox conversions at contaminated sites. If mobilized, metal accumulating plants are put in place to accumulate metals in their body. Thereafter, metal-loaded plants are harvested and incinerated to reduce the volume of waste and then disposed off as hazardous materials or used for recovery of precious metals, if possible. In case of immobilization, metals are no longer available to be toxic to organisms. (orig.)

  9. Know Your Enemy - Implementation of Bioremediation within a Suspected DNAPL Source Zone Following High-Resolution Site Characterization at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrest, Anne; Daprato, Rebecca; Burcham, Michael; Johnson, Jill

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), has adopted high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) sampling techniques during baseline sampling prior to implementation of remedies to confirm and refine the conceptual site model (CSM). HRSC sampling was performed at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area (CRHE) prior to bioremediation implementation to verify the extent of the trichloroethene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source area (defined as the area with TCE concentrations above 1% solubility) and its daughter product dissolved plume that had been identified during previous HRSC events. The results of HRSC pre-bioremediation implementation sampling suggested that the TCE source area was larger than originally identified during initial site characterization activities, leading to a design refinement to improve electron donor distribution and increase the likelihood of achieving remedial objectives. Approach/Activities: HRSC was conducted from 2009 through 2014 to delineate the vertical and horizontal extent of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in the groundwater. Approximately 2,340 samples were collected from 363 locations using direct push technology (DPT) groundwater sampling techniques. Samples were collected from up to 14 depth intervals at each location using a 4-foot sampling screen. This HRSC approach identified a narrow (approx. 5 to 30 feet wide), approximately 3,000 square foot TCE DNAPL source area (maximum detected TCE concentration of 160,000 micrograms per liter [micro-g/L] at DPT sampling location DPT0225). Prior to implementation of a bioremediation interim measure, HRSC baseline sampling was conducted using DPT groundwater sampling techniques. Concentrations of TCE were an order of magnitude lower than previous reported (12,000 micro-g/L maximum at DPT sampling location DPT0225) at locations sampled adjacent to previous sampling locations. To further evaluate the variability

  10. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M.; Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T.

    2002-01-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs

  11. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle-Guichard, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.fayolle@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Durand, Jonathan [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Cheucle, Mathilde [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Rosell, Monica [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Michelland, Rory Julien [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Tracol, Jean-Philippe [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Le Roux, Francoise [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Grundman, Genevieve [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Atteia, Olivier [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Richnow, Hans H. [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dumestre, Alain [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); and others

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L{sup -1}) found in a groundwater (gas-station). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and BTEX (0.64 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}ethB gene copies L{sup -1}). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L{sup -1}) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L{sup -1}). An on-site pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant

  12. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Durand, Jonathan; Cheucle, Mathilde; Rosell, Mònica; Michelland, Rory Julien; Tracol, Jean-Philippe; Le Roux, Françoise; Grundman, Geneviève; Atteia, Olivier; Richnow, Hans H.; Dumestre, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L −1 ) found in a groundwater (gas-station). ► No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. ► MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L −1 h −1 ) and BTEX (0.64 mg L −1 h −1 ). ► A pilot plant (2 m 3 ) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 °C). ► ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 × 10 6 ethB gene copies L −1 ). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L −1 ) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L −1 h −1 and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L −1 h −1 , respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L −1 ). An on-site pilot plant (2 m 3 ) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant which yield up to 5 × 10 6 copies of ethB gene per L −1 .

  13. The development and application of engineered proteins for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. [ed.

    1995-09-26

    Clean up of the toxic legacy of the Cold War is projected to be the most expensive domestic project the nation has yet undertaken. Remediation of the Department of Energy and Department of Defense toxic waste sites alone are projected to cost {approximately}$1 trillion over a 20-30 year period. New, cost effective technologies are needed to attack this enormous problem. Los Alamos has put together a cross-divisional team of scientist to develop science based bioremediation technology to work toward this goal. In the team we have expertise in: (1) molecular, ecosystem and transport modeling; (2) genetic and protein engineering; (3) microbiology and microbial ecology; (4) structural biology; and (5) bioinorganic chemistry. This document summarizes talks at a workshop of different aspects of bioremediation technology including the following: Introducing novel function into a Heme enzyme: engineering by excavation; cytochrome P-450: ideal systems for bioremediation?; selection and development of bacterial strains for in situ remediation of cholorinated solvents; genetic analysis and preparation of toluene ortho-monooxygenase for field application in remediation of trichloroethylene; microbial ecology and diversity important to bioremediation; engineering haloalkane dehalogenase for bioremediation; enzymes for oxidative biodegradation; indigenous bacteria as hosts for engineered proteins; performance of indigenous bacterial, hosting engineered proteins in microbial communities.

  14. Soil and brownfield bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-09-01

    Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, halogenated organic chemicals and toxic metal(loid)s is a serious global problem affecting the human and ecological health. Over the past half-century, the technological and industrial advancements have led to the creation of a large number of brownfields, most of these located in the centre of dense cities all over the world. Restoring these sites and regeneration of urban areas in a sustainable way for beneficial uses is a key priority for all industrialized nations. Bioremediation is considered a safe economical, efficient and sustainable technology for restoring the contaminated sites. This brief review presents an overview of bioremediation technologies in the context of sustainability, their applications and limitations in the reclamation of contaminated sites with an emphasis on brownfields. Also, the use of integrated approaches using the combination of chemical oxidation and bioremediation for persistent organic pollutants is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  16. Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated volatile organic compounds, including chlorinated solvents, are the most frequently-occurring type of soil and groundwater contaminant at Superfund and other hazardous waste sites in the United States. The U.S...

  17. New Technique for Speciation of Uranium in Sediments Following Acetate-Stimulated Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-22

    Acetate-stimulated bioremediation is a promising new technique for sequestering toxic uranium contamination from groundwater. The speciation of uranium in sediments after such bioremediation attempts remains unknown as a result of low uranium concentration, and is important to analyzing the stability of sequestered uranium. A new technique was developed for investigating the oxidation state and local molecular structure of uranium from field site sediments using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and was implemented at the site of a former uranium mill in Rifle, CO. Glass columns filled with bioactive Rifle sediments were deployed in wells in the contaminated Rifle aquifer and amended with a hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) stock solution to increase uranium concentration while maintaining field conditions. This sediment was harvested and XAS was utilized to analyze the oxidation state and local molecular structure of the uranium in sediment samples. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data was collected and compared to known uranium spectra to determine the local molecular structure of the uranium in the sediment. Fitting was used to determine that the field site sediments did not contain uraninite (UO{sub 2}), indicating that models based on bioreduction using pure bacterial cultures are not accurate for bioremediation in the field. Stability tests on the monomeric tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) produced by bioremediation are needed in order to assess the efficacy of acetate-stimulation bioremediation.

  18. Using proteomic data to assess a genome-scale "in silico" model of metal reducing bacteria in the simulation of field-scale uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Wilkins, M. J.; Long, P.; Rifle IFRC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A series of field experiments in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site have demonstrated that indigenous bacteria can be stimulated with acetate to catalyze the conversion of hexavalent uranium in a groundwater plume to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. While this bioreduction of uranium has been shown to lower groundwater concentrations below actionable standards, a viable remediation methodology will need a mechanistic, predictive and quantitative understanding of the microbially-mediated reactions that catalyze the reduction of uranium in the context of site-specific processes, properties, and conditions. At the Rifle IFRC site, we are investigating the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, acetate-oxidizing iron and sulfate reducing bacteria, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. The simulation of three-dimensional, variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport during a uranium bioremediation field experiment includes a genome-scale in silico model of Geobacter sp. to represent the Fe(III) terminal electron accepting process (TEAP). The Geobacter in silico model of cell-scale physiological metabolic pathways is comprised of hundreds of intra-cellular and environmental exchange reactions. One advantage of this approach is that the TEAP reaction stoichiometry and rate are now functions of the metabolic status of the microorganism. The linkage of in silico model reactions to specific Geobacter proteins has enabled the use of groundwater proteomic analyses to assess the accuracy of the model under evolving hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions. In this case, the largest predicted fluxes through in silico model reactions generally correspond to high abundances of proteins linked to those reactions (e.g. the condensation reaction catalyzed by the protein

  19. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, titled Geotechnical Considerations for Radiological Hazard Assessment of WIPP on January 17-18, 1980. During this conference, it was realized that a field trip to the site would further clarify the different views on the geological processes active at the site. The field trip of June 16-18, 1980 was organized for this purpose. This report provides a summary of the field trip activities along with the participants post field trip comments. Important field stops are briefly described, followed by a more detailed discussion of critical geological issues. The report concludes with EEG's summary and recommendations to the US Department of Energy for further information needed to more adequately resolve concerns for the geologic and hydrologic integrity of the site

  20. Geochemical and microbiological characteristics during in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation at a diesel contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Kalisz, Mariusz; Krupanek, Janusz; Marek, Jan; Grotenhuis, Tim; Smidt, Hauke; de Weert, Jasperien; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; van Gaans, Pauline; Keijzer, Thomas

    2014-02-18

    While in situ chemical oxidation with persulfate has seen wide commercial application, investigations into the impacts on groundwater characteristics, microbial communities and soil structure are limited. To better understand the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and to determine the compatibility with further bioremediation, a pilot scale treatment at a diesel-contaminated location was performed consisting of two persulfate injection events followed by a single nutrient amendment. Groundwater parameters measured throughout the 225 day experiment showed a significant decrease in pH and an increase in dissolved diesel and organic carbon within the treatment area. Molecular analysis of the microbial community size (16S rRNA gene) and alkane degradation capacity (alkB gene) by qPCR indicated a significant, yet temporary impact; while gene copy numbers initially decreased 1-2 orders of magnitude, they returned to baseline levels within 3 months of the first injection for both targets. Analysis of soil samples with sequential extraction showed irreversible oxidation of metal sulfides, thereby changing subsurface mineralogy and potentially mobilizing Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Together, these results give insight into persulfate application in terms of risks and effective coupling with bioremediation.

  1. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  2. A field demonstration of the efficacy of bioremediation to treat oiled shorelines following the Sea Empress incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swannell, R.P.J.; Mitchell, D. [AEA Technology Environment, National Environmental Technology Centre, Culham (United Kingdom); Lethbridge, G. [Texaco Ltd., Environment, Health and Safety, Pembroke (GB)] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    Bioremediation was investigated as a method of treating a mixture of Forties Crude Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil stranded on Bullwell Bay, Milford Haven, UK after the grounding of the Sea Empress in 1996. A randomised block design in triplicate was used to test the efficacy of two bioremediation treatments: a weekly application of mineral nutrient dissolved in sea water and a single application of a slow-release fertiliser. Each treatment supplied an equivalent amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Concentrations of residual hydrocarbon normalised to the biomarker 17{alpha}(H),21{beta}(H)-hopane showed that after two months the oil was significantly (p<0.001) more biodegraded in the treated plots than in the controls. On average, the oil in the nutrient amended plots was 37% more degraded than that found in the controls. There was no evidence that the bioremediation treatment increased the toxicity of the oiled sediment. The results confirm that bioremediation can be used to treat a mixture of crude and heavy fuel oil on a pebble beach. In particular, the data suggest that the application of a slow-release fertiliser alone may be a cost-effective method of treating low-energy, contaminated shorelines after a spill incident. (Author)

  3. A field demonstration of the efficacy of bioremediation to treat oiled shorelines following the Sea Empress incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannell, R.P.J.; Mitchell, D.; Lethbridge, G.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation was investigated as a method of treating a mixture of Forties Crude Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil stranded on Bullwell Bay, Milford Haven, UK after the grounding of the Sea Empress in 1996. A randomised block design in triplicate was used to test the efficacy of two bioremediation treatments: a weekly application of mineral nutrient dissolved in sea water and a single application of a slow-release fertiliser. Each treatment supplied an equivalent amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Concentrations of residual hydrocarbon normalised to the biomarker 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane showed that after two months the oil was significantly (p<0.001) more biodegraded in the treated plots than in the controls. On average, the oil in the nutrient amended plots was 37% more degraded than that found in the controls. There was no evidence that the bioremediation treatment increased the toxicity of the oiled sediment. The results confirm that bioremediation can be used to treat a mixture of crude and heavy fuel oil on a pebble beach. In particular, the data suggest that the application of a slow-release fertiliser alone may be a cost-effective method of treating low-energy, contaminated shorelines after a spill incident. (Author)

  4. Bioremediation of Bunker C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the states of Washington and Oregon, the highest priority for waste management is now given to recycling, reuse and permanent solutions as opposed to landfill disposal. Bioremediation is recognized as a treatment of choice over other technologies that do not provide permanent solutions. From a business point of view, it is usually the most cost-effective. Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. The authors have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps have been developed for our own use in our treatability laboratory

  5. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an

  6. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  7. Enhanced bioremediation as a cost effective approach following thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction for sites requiring remediation of chlorinated solvents - 16296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, Anna-Maria; Kahlon, Manjit S.; Langford, Steve R.; Williams, Haydn G.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally enhanced bioremediation can be a more cost-effective alternative to full scale in-situ thermal treatment especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents, where reductive dechlorination is or might be a dominant biological step. The effect of Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapour Extraction (TESVE) on indigenous microbial communities and the potential for subsequent biological polishing of chlorinated solvents was investigated in field trials at the Western Storage Area (WSA) - RSRL (formerly United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA) Oxfordshire, UK. The WSA site had been contaminated with various chemicals including mineral oil, chloroform, trichloroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The contamination had affected the unsaturated zone, groundwater in the chalk aquifer and was a continuing source of groundwater contamination below the WSA. During TESVE the target treatment zone was heated to above the boiling point of water increasing the degree of volatilization of contaminants of concern (CoC), which were mobilised and extracted in the vapour phase. A significant reduction of concentrations of chlorinated solvent in the unsaturated zone was achieved by the full-scale application of TESVE - In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) technology. The rock mass temperature within target treatment zone remained in the range of 35 deg. - 44 deg. C, 6 months after cessation of heating. The concentration of chlorinated ethenes and other CoC were found to be significantly lower adjacent to the thermal treatment area and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower within the thermal treatment zone. Samples were collected within and outside the thermal treatment zone using BioTraps R (passive, in- situ microbial samplers) from which the numbers of specific bacteria were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods of analysis. High populations of reductive de-chlorinators such as Dechalococcoides spp. and Dehalobacter spp

  8. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L. [HDR Engineering Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  9. Plant-microbial association in petroleum and gas exploration sites in the state of Assam, north-east India-significance for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Islam, N F; Prasad, M N V

    2017-03-01

    The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils. Among 15 species of grasses, 10 species with high important value index (IVI) were found to be better adapted. The highest IVI is exhibited by Axonopus compressus (21.41), and this grass can be identified as key ecological tool in the rehabilitation of the degraded site. But no definite correlation between the IVI and the biomass of the various grass existed in the study sites. Chemical study of rhizosphere (RS) and non-rhizosphere (NRS) soil of these grasses revealed both aromatic and aliphatic compounds (M.W. 178-456). Four-ring pyrene was detected in NRS soil but not in RS soil. Microbiological study of RS and NRS soil showed high colony-forming unit (CFU) of HC-degrading microbes in RS compared to NRS. The increased microbial catabolism in RS soil established the fact that pyrene is transformed to aliphatic compounds. Metals in RS soil ranged from (in mg kg -1 ) 222.6 to 267.3 (Cr), 854 to 956 (Pb) and 180 to 247 (Ni), but despite the very high total metal concentration in RS and NRS soil, the CaCl 2 -extracted metals were relatively low in RS soil (1.04 for Cr, 0.56 for Pb, 0.35 for Ni). Plants with the highest uptake of metals were Leersia hexandra (36.43 mg Cr kg -1 ) and Kyllinga brevifolia (67.73 mg Pb kg -1 and 40.24 mg Ni kg -1 ). These plant species could be potentially exploited for biomonitoring and bioremediation. Out of 15 plant species, 8 of them have high percentages of cellulose, crude fibres, lignin

  10. Heavy metal accumulation and ecosystem engineering by two common mine site-nesting ant species: implications for pollution-level assessment and bioremediation of coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shbbir R; Singh, Satish K; Rastogi, Neelkamal

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the abundance, heavy metal content, and the impact of ecosystem engineering activities of two coal mine site-inhabiting ant species, Cataglyphis longipedem and Camponotus compressus. The abundance of Ct. longipedem increased while that of C. compressus decreased, with increasing soil pollution. Correspondence analysis reveals a close association between soil heavy metal concentrations and Ct. longipedem abundance, but this association is lacking in the case of C. compressus. Cataglyphis ants which occupy stress-characterized niches appear to be pre-adapted to tolerate heavy metal pollution. Higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in Ct. longipedem may contribute to the strengthening of the cuticular structures, necessary for nest excavation in the hard, arid soil and for single load carrying. C. compressus ants appear to be pollution sensitive. Their higher Fe content may be related to metal uptake via plant-derived liquids and species-specific regulatory mechanisms. The metal pollution index and biota-to-soil accumulation factors, calculated by using the ant body metal content of the two species, indicate an overall decrease of soil heavy metal concentrations with increase of the site age, which reflects the degree of pollution related to the mine site age. The concentrations of total and available heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cu) were significantly lower in the ant nest debris soil as compared to the reference soil. The results of the present study highlight the role of ants as bioindicators and in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

  11. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, G.R.; McCabe, G.H.; White, K.A.; Gajewski, S.W.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Jaksch, J.A.; Kirwan-Taylor, H.A.; McKinney, M.D.

    1996-09-01

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment.

  12. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.; McCabe, G.H.; White, K.A.; Gajewski, S.W.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Jaksch, J.A.; Kirwan-Taylor, H.A.; McKinney, M.D.

    1996-09-01

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment

  13. U.S. bioremediation market: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of bioremediation for full-scale cleanup has increased dramatically throughout the past 10 years. This growth in activity is expected to continue through the year 2000. It is estimated that fewer than 10 companies offered field-level bioremedial services prior to 1985. Although the market today still is dominated by a small number of companies, the total number of firms claiming to offer services and/or products for bioremediation purposes has grown to over 1,000. It is estimated that aggregate bioremediation revenues for 1994 through 2000 will equal $2 to $3 billion (1994 dollars). This revenue will be generated in the initial part of this 7-year period primarily from underground storage cleanup, with revenues from hazardous waste sites becoming an increasingly important factor by accounting for the majority of revenues in the latter years. Market opportunities exist in technology development and implementation including biosparging, centralized treatment facilities for petroleum-contaminated soils, biofilters, and improvements in the cost-effectiveness of the technology

  14. Enhancement of metal bioremediation by use of microbial surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pooja; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2004-01-01

    Metal pollution all around the globe, especially in the mining and plating areas of the world, has been found to have grave consequences. An excellent option for enhanced metal contaminated site bioremediation is the use of microbial products viz. microbial surfactants and extracellular polymers which would increase the efficiency of metal reducing/sequestering organisms for field bioremediation. Important here is the advantage of such compounds at metal and organic compound co-contaminated site since microorganisms have long been found to produce surface-active compounds when grown on hydrocarbons. Other options capable of proving efficient enhancers include exploiting the chemotactic potential and biofilm forming ability of the relevant microorganisms. Chemotaxis towards environmental pollutants has excellent potential to enhance the biodegradation of many contaminants and biofilm offers them a better survival niche even in the presence of high levels of toxic compounds

  15. Microbial bioremediation of Uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Celin

    2015-01-01

    Uranium contamination is a worldwide problem. Preventing uranium contamination in the environment is quite challenging and requires a thorough understanding of the microbiological, ecological and biogeochemical features of the contaminated sites. Bioremediation of uranium is largely dependent on reducing its bioavailability in the environment. In situ bioremediation of uranium by microbial processes has been shown to be effective for immobilizing uranium in contaminated sites. Such microbial processes are important components of biogeochemical cycles and regulate the mobility and fate of uranium in the environment. It is therefore vital to advance our understanding of the uranium-microbe interactions to develop suitable bioremediation strategies for uranium contaminated sites. This article focuses on the fundamental mechanisms adopted by various microbes to mitigate uranium toxicity which could be utilized for developing various approaches for uranium bioremediation. (author)

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  17. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  18. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  19. Design Of Bioremediation Systems For Groundwater (Aerobic and Anaerobic Plus Representative Case Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioremediation in the subsurface. The basics of aerobic, cometabolic, and anaerobic bioremediation are presented. Case studies from the Delaware Sand & Gravel Superfund Site, Dover Cometabolic Research Project and the SABR...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOKINETICS DETERMINATION METHODS FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SOIL TO ENHANCE IN-SITU AND ON-SITE BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biodegradation rates of organics in soil slurry and compacted soil systems is essential for evaluating the efficacy of bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soils. In this paper, a systematic protocol has been developed for evaluating bioknetic and transp...

  1. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, C. M

    2004-01-01

    ... can be used in other situations dealing with surface soil contamination. This project included field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POLs...

  2. Microalgal biomass production and on-site bioremediation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide from flue gas using Chlorella sp. cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Chia-Jung; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    The growth and on-site bioremediation potential of an isolated thermal- and CO₂-tolerant mutant strain, Chlorella sp. MTF-7, were investigated. The Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures were directly aerated with the flue gas generated from coke oven of a steel plant. The biomass concentration, growth rate and lipid content of Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultured in an outdoor 50-L photobioreactor for 6 days was 2.87 g L⁻¹ (with an initial culture biomass concentration of 0.75 g L⁻¹), 0.52 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ and 25.2%, respectively. By the operation with intermittent flue gas aeration in a double-set photobioreactor system, average efficiency of CO₂ removal from the flue gas could reach to 60%, and NO and SO₂ removal efficiency was maintained at approximately 70% and 50%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that flue gas from coke oven could be directly introduced into Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures to potentially produce algal biomass and efficiently capture CO₂, NO and SO₂ from flue gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater by intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Surampalli, Rao Y; Lee, Mu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the first phase of this study, the effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation on the containment of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated at a gasoline spill site. Evidences of the occurrence of intrinsic bioremediation within the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) plume included (1) decreased BTEX concentrations; (2) depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, and sulfate; (3) production of dissolved ferrous iron, methane, and CO2; (4) deceased pH and redox potential; and (5) increased methanogens, total heterotrophs, and total anaerobes, especially within the highly contaminated areas. In the second phase of this study, enhanced aerobic bioremediation process was applied at site to enhance the BTEX decay rates. Air was injected into the subsurface near the mid-plume area to biostimulate the naturally occurring microorganisms for BTEX biodegradation. Field results showed that enhanced bioremediation process caused the change of BTEX removal mechanisms from anaerobic biodegradation inside the plume to aerobic biodegradation. This variation could be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the enhanced aerobic bioremediation process: (1) increased in DO, CO2, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decreased in dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total heterotrophs and decreased total anaerobes. Field results also showed that the percentage of total BTEX removal increased from 92% to 99%, and the calculated total BTEX first-order natural attenuation rates increased from 0.0092% to 0.0188% per day, respectively, after the application of enhanced bioremediation system from the spill area to the downgradient area (located approximately 300 m from the source area).

  4. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future

  5. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  6. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  7. Emerging technologies in bioremediation: constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayu, Smriti; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Singh, Brajesh K

    2012-11-01

    Intensive industrialisation, inadequate disposal, large-scale manufacturing activities and leaks of organic compounds have resulted in long-term persistent sources of contamination of soil and groundwater. This is a major environmental, policy and health issue because of adverse effects of contaminants on humans and ecosystems. Current technologies for remediation of contaminated sites include chemical and physical remediation, incineration and bioremediation. With recent advancements, bioremediation offers an environmentally friendly, economically viable and socially acceptable option to remove contaminants from the environment. Three main approaches of bioremediation include use of microbes, plants and enzymatic remediation. All three approaches have been used with some success but are limited by various confounding factors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview on the approaches, their limitations and highlights emerging technologies that have potential to revolutionise the enzymatic and plant-based bioremediation approaches.

  8. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  10. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  11. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Hubbard, Susan S

    2009-07-15

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can bean effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  12. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Dan; Bergkvist, Bo; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats; Langvall, Ola; Majdi, Hooshang; Weslien, Per

    2004-01-01

    arena, and thus LUSTRA has gradually put more focus on the Kyoto process. LUSTRA was evaluated during spring 2002 and the general overall statement was that 'The ambitious goals of the LUSTRA program are very good and seem to be well understood by the participating researchers. However, for a second phase a focus on synthesis and synergy is recommended'. In LUSTRA we are performing integrated research on C fluxes at three common field sites (CFS) situated in a south-north transect in Sweden: Asa, Knottaasen and Flakaliden. Measurements started summer 2000. The intention was to establish a climate gradient through Sweden but keep other environmental parameters rather similar. Also within each site the ambition was to get a hydrological gradient going from dry, over mesic to moist conditions, i.e. from deep lying ground water level to shallow groundwater. According to the advises by the reviewers of LUSTRA phase 1, more focus will be on syntheses during LUSTRA phase 2 (2003-2006). However, measurements at the CFS will be continued during 2003 and 2004. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give a general description of the sites, (ii) to describe the abiotic measurements made at the different sites, including the data base, (iii) to describe the methods used to obtain background information about soils and vegetation (C pools and fluxes) and (iv) to present the background information about soils and vegetation

  13. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  14. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  15. Field trip guide to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report is designed to provide a guide to the key geologic and hydrologic features of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site located in south-central Washington. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part is a general introduction to the geology of the Hanford Site and its relation to the regional framework of south-central Washington. The second part is a road log that provides directions to important geologic features on the Hanford Site and descriptions of the locality. The exposures described were chosen for their accessibility and importance to the geologic history of the Hanford Site and to understanding the geohydrology of the Site

  16. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd 3 of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm? Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work

  17. Ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of stress acclimated bacteria and nutrient supplements to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soil can be a cost effective and reliable treatment technology to reduce organic contaminant levels to below established by local, state, and federal regulatory clean-up criteria. This paper will summarize the results of a field study in which 12,000 yds 3 of petroleum contaminated soil was successfully treated via ex-situ bioremediation and through management of macro and micronutrient concentrations, as well as, other site specific environmental factors that are essential for optimizing microbial growth

  18. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  19. Bioremediation in fractured rock: 1. Modeling to inform design, monitoring, and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, Claire; Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Goode, Daniel J.; Lacombe, Pierre; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Drew, Scott R.; Johnson, Carole D.; Williams, John H.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    Field characterization of a trichloroethene (TCE) source area in fractured mudstones produced a detailed understanding of the geology, contaminant distribution in fractures and the rock matrix, and hydraulic and transport properties. Groundwater flow and chemical transport modeling that synthesized the field characterization information proved critical for designing bioremediation of the source area. The planned bioremediation involved injecting emulsified vegetable oil and bacteria to enhance the naturally occurring biodegradation of TCE. The flow and transport modeling showed that injection will spread amendments widely over a zone of lower‐permeability fractures, with long residence times expected because of small velocities after injection and sorption of emulsified vegetable oil onto solids. Amendments transported out of this zone will be diluted by groundwater flux from other areas, limiting bioremediation effectiveness downgradient. At nearby pumping wells, further dilution is expected to make bioremediation effects undetectable in the pumped water. The results emphasize that in fracture‐dominated flow regimes, the extent of injected amendments cannot be conceptualized using simple homogeneous models of groundwater flow commonly adopted to design injections in unconsolidated porous media (e.g., radial diverging or dipole flow regimes). Instead, it is important to synthesize site characterization information using a groundwater flow model that includes discrete features representing high‐ and low‐permeability fractures. This type of model accounts for the highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and groundwater fluxes in fractured‐rock aquifers, and facilitates designing injection strategies that target specific volumes of the aquifer and maximize the distribution of amendments over these volumes.

  20. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  1. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface before and after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Dermal exposure can represent a significant health risk in settings involving potential contact with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, there is limited work on the ability of PAHs in contaminated soil to reach the skin surface via desorption from the soil. We evaluated PAH desorption from a field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface (C18 extraction disk) as a measure of potential dermal exposure as a function of soil loading (5-100 mg dry soil cm(-2)), temperature (20-40°C), and soil moisture content (2-40%) over periods up to 16d. The efficacy of bioremediation in removing the most readily desorbable PAH fractions was also evaluated. Desorption kinetics were described well by an empirical two-compartment kinetic model. PAH mass desorbed to the C18 disk kept increasing at soil loadings well above the estimated monolayer coverage, suggesting mechanisms for PAH transport to the surface other than by direct contact. Such mechanisms were reinforced by observations that desorption occurred even with dry or moist glass microfiber filters placed between the C18 disk and the soil. Desorption of all PAHs was substantially reduced at a soil moisture content corresponding to field capacity, suggesting that transport through pore air contributed to PAH transport to the C18 disk. The lower molecular weight PAHs had greater potential to desorb from soil than higher molecular weight PAHs. Biological treatment of the soil in a slurry-phase bioreactor completely eliminated PAH desorption to the C18 disks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface before and after bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Dermal exposure can represent a significant health risk in settings involving potential contact with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, there is limited work on the ability of PAHs in contaminated soil to reach the skin surface via desorption from the soil. We evaluated PAH desorption from a field-contaminated soil to a two-dimensional hydrophobic surface (C18 extraction disk) as a measure of potential dermal exposure as a function of soil loading (5 to 100 mg dry soil/cm2), temperature (20 °C to 40 °C), and soil moisture content (2% to 40%) over periods up to 16 d. The efficacy of bioremediation in removing the most readily desorbable PAH fractions was also evaluated. Desorption kinetics were described well by an empirical two-compartment kinetic model. PAH mass desorbed to the C18 disk kept increasing at soil loadings well above the estimated monolayer coverage, suggesting mechanisms for PAH transport to the surface other than by direct contact. Such mechanisms were reinforced by observations that desorption occurred even with dry or moist glass microfiber filters placed between the C18 disk and the soil. Desorption of all PAHs was substantially reduced at a soil moisture content corresponding to field capacity, suggesting that transport through pore air contributed to PAH transport to the C18 disk. The lower molecular weight PAHs had greater potential to desorb from soil than higher molecular weight PAHs. Biological treatment of the soil in a slurry-phase bioreactor completely eliminated PAH desorption to the C18 disks. PMID:22704210

  3. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Mora, S. de

    1999-01-01

    Despite advances in preventative measures, recent events have demonstrated that accidental oil spills at sea will still occur. While physical (e.g. booms and skimmers) and chemical (e.g. chemical dispersants) methods have been developed to recover and/or disperse oil spilled at sea, they are not 100% effective and are frequently limited by operational constraints attributed to sea state and/or nature of the contamination. As a result, oil spills frequently impact shoreline environments. In situ bioremediation, the addition of substances or modification of habitat at contaminated sites to accelerate natural biodegradation processes, is now recognised as an alternative spill response technology of the remediation of these sites. Recommended for use following the physical removal of bulk oil, this treatment strategy has an operational advantage in that it breaks down and/or removes the residual contamination in place. Laboratory experiments and field trials have demonstrated the feasibility and success of bioremediation strategies such as nutrient enrichment to enhance bacterial degradation of oil on cobble, sand beach and salt marsh environments. With improved knowledge of the factors that limit natural oil degradation rates, the feasibility of other strategies such as phytoremediation, enhanced oil-mineral fines interaction and the addition of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors are now being evaluated. Laboratory and field test protocols are being refined for the selection of effective bioremediation agents and methods of application. It is recommended that future operational guidelines include real time product efficacy test and environmental effects monitoring programs. Termination of treatment should be implemented when: 1) it is no longer effective; 2) the oil has degraded to acceptable biologically benign concentrations; or 3) toxicity due to the treatment is increasing. (Author)

  4. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  5. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    and metal objects. The area has been anaerobic and the corrosion rate has been very low for the metal objects to be preserved for so long, but it is now a major concern, whether the artefacts will further on be preserved in the area or will now corrode away. The National Museum is now monitoring...... measurements, electrical resistance corrosion rate measurements and weight loss data from the initial 15 months exposure will be presented and discussed as well as some practical aspects of field monitoring....

  6. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N'Guessan

    2008-01-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  7. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  8. Soil mesocosm studies on atrazine bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Nousiainen, Aura; Shaligram, Shraddha; Björklöf, Katarina; Lindström, Kristina; Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Kapley, Atya

    2014-06-15

    Accumulation of pesticides in the environment causes serious issues of contamination and toxicity. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound method to manage soil pollution, but the bottleneck here, is the successful scale-up of lab-scale experiments to field applications. This study demonstrates pilot-scale bioremediation in tropical soil using atrazine as model pollutant. Mimicking field conditions, three different bioremediation strategies for atrazine degradation were explored. 100 kg soil mesocosms were set-up, with or without atrazine application history. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation were tested, where augmentation with an atrazine degrading consortium demonstrated best pollutant removal. 90% atrazine degradation was observed in six days in soil previously exposed to atrazine, while soil without history of atrazine use, needed 15 days to remove the same amount of amended atrazine. The bacterial consortium comprised of 3 novel bacterial strains with different genetic atrazine degrading potential. The progress of bioremediation was monitored by measuring the levels of atrazine and its intermediate, cyanuric acid. Genes from the atrazine degradation pathway, namely, atzA, atzB, atzD, trzN and trzD were quantified in all mesocosms for 60 days. The highest abundance of all target genes was observed on the 6th day of treatment. trzD was observed in the bioaugmented mesocosms only. The bacterial community profile in all mesocosms was monitored by LH-PCR over a period of two months. Results indicate that the communities changed rapidly after inoculation, but there was no drastic change in microbial community profile after 1 month. Results indicated that efficient bioremediation of atrazine using a microbial consortium could be successfully up-scaled to pilot scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring

  10. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcolm, Colin A.; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G. J.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an

  12. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Bioremediation--Why doesn't it work sometimes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, R.; Stroo, H.; Swett, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Biological treatment has rapidly become the technology of choice for remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum constituents. Since the mid-1980s, bioremediation has been used at more than 100 locations to cost-effectively remediate hundreds of thousands of cubic yards of contaminated soil. However, despite the excellent track record of bioremediation, during the past few years bioremediation was not successful at several sites. The same type of contaminated soils has been treated successfully at numerous other sites. The treatment process was the same, but bioremediation was not effective. Testing identified other sites where bioremediation was unsuccessful for remediating petroleum constituents, and the factors that contributed to the failures were explored in greater depth. This article outlines a quick and inexpensive screening technique that allows one to determine whether bioremediation is practical and also provides an assessment of the time and cost factors. It involves four steps: (1) Site study; (2) Regulatory analysis; (3) Biological screening; (4) Treatability testing. The methodology can be reduced to a set of decision trees to simplify the screening process

  14. DNAPL Bioremediation-RTDF. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2002-01-01

    The Bioremediation Working Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum is a consortium including General Electric, Beak International, Ciba-Geigy, Dow, DuPont, ICI Americas, Novartis, Zeneca, DOE, the U.S. Air Force and the EPA. Each partner in the consortium brings expertise as well as resources to conduct studies on the effectiveness of bioremediation in degrading contaminants in soil. Reactive Transport in Three Dimensions (RT3D) software is based on the premise that bioremediation processes can be designed and controlled like other chemical processes and is now being using for natural attenuation evaluation at several government and industrial chlorinated ethenes contaminated sites. Users simply enter the site-specific information to simulate the contaminant plume in the ground water and can then evaluate various bioremediation options

  15. Development of combinatorial bacteria for metal and radionuclide bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. C. Matin

    2006-01-01

    The grant concerned chromate [Cr(VI)] bioremediation and it was our aim from the outset to construct individual bacterial strains capable of improved bioremediation of multiple pollutants and to identify the enzymes suited to this end. Bacteria with superior capacity to remediate multiple pollutants can be an asset for the cleanup of DOE sites as they contain mixed waste. I describe below the progress made during the period of the current grant, providing appropriate context

  16. Development of combinatorial bacteria for metal and radionuclide bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. C. Matin, Ph. D.

    2006-06-15

    The grant concerned chromate [Cr(VI)] bioremediation and it was our aim from the outset to construct individual bacterial strains capable of improved bioremediation of multiple pollutants and to identify the enzymes suited to this end. Bacteria with superior capacity to remediate multiple pollutants can be an asset for the cleanup of DOE sites as they contain mixed waste. I describe below the progress made during the period of the current grant, providing appropriate context.

  17. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Historical, uncontrolled disposal practices have made perchlorate a significant threat to drinking water supplies in the United States. In-situ bioremediation (ISB) technologies are cost effective and provide an environmental friendly solution for treating contaminated groundwater and soil. In situ bioremediation was considered as an option for treatment of perchlorate in groundwater and soil in Lockheed Martin Corporation's Beaumont Site 2 (Beaumont, CA). Based on the perchlorate distribu...

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF BIOREMEDIATED SOILS FROM THE REILLY TARSITE, ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro approach was used to measure the genotoxicity of creosote-contaminated soil before and after four bioremediation processes. The soil was taken from the Reilly Tar site, a closed Superfund site in Saint Louis Park, Minnesota. The creosote soil was bioremediated in bios...

  19. Contamination-remedying technology based on biotechnology. ; Bioremediation. Biotechnology wo mochiita osen shufuku gijutsu. ; Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    Bioremediation technology is outlined. The bioremediation technology is a contamination-remedying technology for the injurious chemical matter discharged in the environment to be made innocuous by utilizing the decomposing ability of microorganisms. That technology is characterized by its energywise economical performance, secondary waste which is not producible and remedy which is possible on site against the contamination. As a treatment system, that technology comprises solid phase bioremediation (The contaminated soil is purified in a soil treatment unit.), slurry phase bioremediation (The contaminated soil is made slurry and decomposed by microorganisms.) and in-situ bioremediation (The treatment is made by injecting nutrients and microorganisms underground.). As for how to use the microorganisms, there are two methods: One in which living groups of microorganisms are activated and the other in which microorganisms are artificially cultivated. As contaminants in the US, listed are organic solvent, wood preservative, high-molecular aromatic halide, agricultural chemical, military waste, heavy metal waste and radioactive waste. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  1. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  2. Ex situ bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ta-Chen; Pan, Po-Tsen; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2010-04-15

    An innovative bioprocess method, Systematic Environmental Molecular Bioremediation Technology (SEMBT) that combines bioaugmentation and biostimulation with a molecular monitoring microarray biochip, was developed as an integrated bioremediation technology to treat S- and T-series biopiles by using the landfarming operation and reseeding process to enhance the bioremediation efficiency. After 28 days of the bioremediation process, diesel oil (TPH(C10-C28)) and fuel oil (TPH(C10-C40)) were degraded up to approximately 70% and 63% respectively in the S-series biopiles. When the bioaugmentation and biostimulation were applied in the beginning of bioremediation, the microbial concentration increased from approximately 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g dry soil along with the TPH biodegradation. Analysis of microbial diversity in the contaminated soils by microarray biochips revealed that Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the predominant groups in indigenous consortia, while the augmented consortia were Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis in both series of biopiles during bioremediation. Microbial respiration as influenced by the microbial activity reflected directly the active microbial population and indirectly the biodegradation of TPH. Field experimental results showed that the residual TPH concentration in the complex biopile was reduced to less than 500 mg TPH/kg dry soil. The above results demonstrated that the SEMBT technology is a feasible alternative to bioremediate the oil-contaminated soil. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO 2 relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes

  4. Bioremediation evaluation of surface soils contaminated with organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezak, J.; Miller, J.A.; Lawrence, A.W.; Keffer, R.E.; Weightman, R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents background information on bioremediation; information on biotechnologies that have been proven in other industries and that may be applicable to the natural gas industry; a protocol for assessing the feasibility of bioremediation; and, some preliminary results on some soils that were evaluated using the protocol. Background information related to natural gas production and processing sites and chemicals that are typically used are presented because both are important preliminary feasibility screening criteria. Applications of bioremediation to sites with similar chemicals such as refineries, wood treating plants, and former manufactured gas plants (MGP's) have been used for approximately 30 years, however bioremediation is not widely used to treat wellhead sites or natural gas production and processing sites. Examples of applications of bioremediation to non-natural gas industry sites are presented and the similarities, primarily chemical, are presented. The GRI developed an Accelerated Biotreatability Protocol for former MGP sites and it is currently being modified for application to the Exploration and Production (E and P) industry. The Accelerated Treatability Protocol is a decision-making framework to evaluate the potential full-scale biological treatment options. Preliminary results from some soils collected and evaluated using the protocol are presented

  5. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Model Parameter Variability for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation of DNAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Gerhard, J. I.; Barry, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the Source Area Bioremediation (SABRE) project, an international collaboration of twelve companies, two government agencies and three research institutions, is to evaluate the performance of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation for the treatment of chlorinated ethene source areas containing dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). This 4-year, 5.7 million dollars research effort focuses on a pilot-scale demonstration of enhanced bioremediation at a trichloroethene (TCE) DNAPL field site in the United Kingdom, and includes a significant program of laboratory and modelling studies. Prior to field implementation, a large-scale, multi-laboratory microcosm study was performed to determine the optimal system properties to support dehalogenation of TCE in site soil and groundwater. This statistically-based suite of experiments measured the influence of key variables (electron donor, nutrient addition, bioaugmentation, TCE concentration and sulphate concentration) in promoting the reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. As well, a comprehensive biogeochemical numerical model was developed for simulating the anaerobic dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. An appropriate (reduced) version of this model was combined with a parameter estimation method based on fitting of the experimental results. Each of over 150 individual microcosm calibrations involved matching predicted and observed time-varying concentrations of all chlorinated compounds. This study focuses on an analysis of this suite of fitted model parameter values. This includes determining the statistical correlation between parameters typically employed in standard Michaelis-Menten type rate descriptions (e.g., maximum dechlorination rates, half-saturation constants) and the key experimental variables. The analysis provides insight into the degree to which aqueous phase TCE and cis-DCE inhibit dechlorination of less-chlorinated compounds. Overall, this work provides a database of the numerical

  7. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  8. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

  9. Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Field of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierides, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the challenge of how educational research might be practised in a contemporary world that is no longer necessarily organised by nearness and unity. Focusing on ethnography, it argues for what a multi-sited imaginary contributes to research in the field of education. By giving prominence to the notion of multi-sited…

  10. Patterns of magnetic field merging sites on the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, J.G.; Walker, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Crooker, N.U.; Spreiter, J.R.; Stahara, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Several years ago, Crooker presented a qualitative picture of the merging sites on the magnetopause defined as the points where the magnetospheric and magnetosheath field are antiparallel. However, Cowley pointed out that merging can also occur where these fields are not exactly antiparallel, but merely have antiparallel components. Using realistic models of the magnetosphere and magnetosheath magnetic fields, the angles between the fields at the magnetopause boundary were determined for different interplanetary field orientations, including radial field and Parker spiral field. The results are summarized in Figure 1, which displays contours on the dayside magnetopause (viewed from the sun, i.e., the GSE Y-Z plane projection) of equal value of the cosine of the angle between the magnetospheric and magnetosheath model fields. Only contours with negative values, implying some antiparallel component, are shown. Values at the contours, starting with the contour filled with shading, are -.98, -.95, -.9, -.8, -.7, -.6, -.5, -.4, -.3, -.2, -.1, -.0. The interplanetary field orientations are indicated in vector notation in the lower right corners. In particular, the pattern for a 45 0 cone angle is shown in the fourth diagram in the right hand column and patterns for northward and southward fields occupy the first position in the first column and the second position in the right hand column. These results can be used for comparisons with observed distribution of flux transfer events and for studies of magnetospheric particle leakage

  11. Bioremediation of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, D.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has evolved from the refinery land treatment units of thirty years ago to the modern slurry reactors of today. Modifications in the process include engineering controls designed to prevent the migration of hydrocarbons into the unsaturated zone, the saturated zone and groundwater, and the atmosphere. Engineering innovations in the area of composting and bioaugmentation that have focused on further process control and the acceleration of the treatment process will form the basis for future improvements in bioremediation technology. Case studies for established methods that have survived this development process and continue to be used as cost effective biological treatments like engineered land farms, soil heap treatment and in situ treatment will be discussed

  12. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  13. Evaluating intrinsic bioremediation at five sour gas processing facilities in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J. E.; Moore, B. J.; Sevigny, J. H.; Forrester, P. I.

    1997-01-01

    Mass attenuation through intrinsic bioremediation of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) was studied at four facilities in Alberta. The objective of the study was to assess whether intrinsic bioremediation could attenuate BTEX-contaminated groundwater plumes at the four sites. The depletion of electron acceptors, and the enriched metabolic byproducts within the BTEX plumes indicate that BTEX biodegradation is occurring at all four sites. Bacterial plate counts were generally higher at three of the sites and lower at one site. At the three sites microcosm experiments indicated aerobic biodegradation, while anaerobic biodegradation was observed at only two sites after four to five months incubation. Theoretical estimates of the biodegradation potential were calculated for each site with intrinsic bioremediation appearing to have bioremediation potential at three of the sites. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsenzadeh Fariba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w. Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  15. Evaluation of Oil Removal Efficiency and Enzymatic Activity in Some fungal Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation.Methods: In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w.Results: Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected asthe most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed thehighest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp.,Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively.Conclusions: Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  16. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  17. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  18. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Site, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1992-12-03

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear fuel or nuclear reactors. i.e., the U.S. DOE and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS). Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason. information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  19. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-10-21

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonoradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  20. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1993-12-14

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  1. Bioremediation case studies: Abstracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1992-03-01

    The report contains abstracts of 132 case studies of bioremediation technology applied to hazardous waste clean-up. It was prepared to compile bioremediation studies in a variety of locations and treating diverse contaminants, most of which were previously undocumented. All data are based on vendor-supplied information and there was no opportunity to independently confirm its accuracy. These 132 case studies, from 10 different biotechnology companies, provide users with reference information about on-going and/or completed field applications and studies. About two-thirds of the cases were at full-scale clean-up level with the remainder at pilot or laboratory scale. In 74 percent of the cases, soil was at least one of the media treated. Soil alone accounts for 46 percent of the cases. Petroleum-related wastes account for the largest contaminant with 82 cases. Thirty-one states are represented in the case studies

  2. Comparative bioremediation of soils contaminated with diesel oil by natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Fatima M; Camargo, Flávio A O; Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

    2005-06-01

    Bioremediation of diesel oil in soil can occur by natural attenuation, or treated by biostimulation or bioaugmentation. In this study we evaluated all three technologies on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. In addition, the number of diesel-degrading microorganisms present and microbial activity as indexed by the dehydrogenase assay were monitored. Soils contaminated with diesel oil in the field were collected from Long Beach, California, USA and Hong Kong, China. After 12 weeks of incubation, all three treatments showed differing effects on the degradation of light (C12-C23) and heavy (C23-C40) fractions of TPH in the soil samples. Bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil showed the greatest degradation in the light (72.7%) and heavy (75.2%) fractions of TPH. Natural attenuation was more effective than biostimulation (addition of nutrients), most notably in the Hong Kong soil. The greatest microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity) was observed with bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil (3.3-fold) and upon natural attenuation of the Hong Kong sample (4.0-fold). The number of diesel-degrading microorganisms and heterotrophic population was not influenced by the bioremediation treatments. Soil properties and the indigenous soil microbial population affect the degree of biodegradation; hence detailed site specific characterization studies are needed prior to deciding on the proper bioremediation method.

  3. Impact of bioremediation treatments on the biodegradation of buried oil and predominant bacterial populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannell, R.P.J.; Mitchell, D.J.; Waterhouse, J.C.; Miskin, I.P.; Head, I.M.; Petch, S.; Jones, D.M.; Willis, A.; Lee, K.; Lepo, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of using mineral fertilizers as a bioremediation treatment for oil buried in fine sediments was tested in field trials at a site in the south-west of England. The plots were divided into three blocks of four treatments including untreated, fertilized, oiled unfertilized and oiled fertilized plots. The changes in residual hydrocarbons were monitored to study the biodegradation of Arabian Light Crude Oil which is known to have a high portion of biodegradable components. Samples were extracted at random points at intervals of 0, 42 and 101 days. The analysis process identified a range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as a range of geochemical biomarkers. The final results suggested that the oil in the fertilized plots was more degraded than in the oiled, unfertilized control plots. Three way, factorial analysis of variance was used to analyse the data from the oiled fertilized and oiled unfertilized plots. No significant effect of treatment on the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed. The results also showed that oil treatment and treatment with oil and fertilizer increased the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial population. One significant observation was that different bacterial populations were stimulated in response to oil alone and a bioremediation treatment. It was concluded that the addition of inorganic fertilizers to the oiled oxic fine sediment substantially enhanced the level of biodegradation compared to untreated oiled sediment. Bioremediation is a feasible treatment for oil spills where the oil is buried in fine sediment. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Integrated Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Studies to Determine the Effects of Linked Microbial and Physical Spatial Heterogeneity on Engineered Vadose Zone Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Brokman; John Selker; Mark Rockhold

    2004-01-26

    While numerous techniques exist for remediation of contaminant plumes in groundwater or near the soil surface, remediation methods in the deep vadose zone are less established due to complex transport dynamics and sparse microbial populations. There is a lack of knowledge on how physical and hydrologic features of the vadose zone control microbial growth and colonization in response to nutrient delivery during bioremediation. Yet pollution in the vadose zone poses a serious threat to the groundwater resources lying deeper in the sediment. While the contaminants may be slowly degraded by native microbial communities, microbial degradation rates rarely keep pace with the spread of the pollutant. It is crucial to increase indigenous microbial degradation in the vadose zone to combat groundwater contamination.

  5. Integrated Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Studies to Determine the Effects of Linked Microbial and Physical Spatial Heterogeneity on Engineered Vadose Zone Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockman, Fred J.; Selker, John S.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2004-10-31

    Executive Summary - While numerous techniques exist for remediation of contaminant plumes in groundwater or near the soil surface, remediation methods in the deep vadose zone are less established due to complex transport dynamics and sparse microbial populations. There is a lack of knowledge on how physical and hydrologic features of the vadose zone control microbial growth and colonization in response to nutrient delivery during bioremediation. Yet pollution in the vadose zone poses a serious threat to the groundwater resources lying deeper in the sediment. While the contaminants may be slowly degraded by native microbial communities, microbial degradation rates rarely keep pace with the spread of the pollutant. It is crucial to increase indigenous microbial degradation in the vadose zone to combat groundwater contamination...

  6. Site Study Plan for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Land Use Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of characterization of the site; seismic survey rights-of-way and transportation and utility corridors, the vicinity, the region, future land use, and monitoring land-use change. Aerial photography will be used to characterize the site, seismic rows and transportation and utility corridors, and the vicinity. The resulting land-use maps and overlays will then be verified in the field. Interviews with farm managers and local experts will provide additional information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite imagery will be used to characterize the region, monitor land-use change, and provide information to assist with the future land use study. The site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the filed data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the personnel requirements and management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The directives and requirements that drive these studies are derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 51 refs; 6 figs; 3 tabs

  7. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R ampersand D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE)

  9. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition

  10. Bioremediation capacity, nutritional value and biorefining of macroalga Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo

    Macroalgae have the ability to assimilate and convert waste nutrients (N and P) into valuable biomass. In this context, they have been extensively studied for their bioremediation potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). With a global aquaculture production of 23.8 million tonnes...... attention as sustainable feedstock for biorefinery. Nevertheless, macroalgae resources are still very little explored in western countries. The aim of this study was fulfilled by the investigation of the bioremediation potential of the macroalga Saccharina latissima cultivated at a reference site (control...... two growing seasons enhanced the biomass yield and thus value, but not the bioremediation capacity. Harvest time had a significant impact in overall chemical composition, while cultivation site did not generally result in marked differences. The growth of epiphytic organisms from July to November...

  11. In-situ bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, B.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rosenberg, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A barrier to wider use of in situ bioremediation technology is that results are often variable and difficult to predict. In situ bioremediation has shown some very notable and well publicized successes, but implementation of the technology is complex. An incomplete understanding of the effects of variable site characteristics and the lack of adequate tools to predict and measure success have made the design, control and validation of bioremediation more empirical than desired. The long-term objective of this project is to improve computational tools used to assess and optimize the expected performance of bioremediation at a site. An important component of the approach is the explicit inclusion of uncertainties and their effect on the end result. The authors have extended their biokinetics model to include microbial competition and predation processes. Predator species can feed on the microbial species that degrade contaminants, and the simulation studies show that species interactions must be considered when designing in situ bioremediation systems. In particular, the results for TCE indicate that protozoan grazing could reduce the amount of biodegradation by about 20%. These studies also indicate that the behavior of barrier systems can become complex due to predator grazing.

  12. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-12-01

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail

  13. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnick, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    An assessment is presented of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution. A number of allied technologies are also considered. The basic technology in bioremediation involves adding fertilizers to an oil spill to enhance the natural process of oil biodegradation. Bioremediation can be applied to open systems such as beach or land spills, or in closed and controlled environments such as storage containers, specially constructed or modified bioreactors, and cargo tanks. The major advantage of using closed environments is the opportunity to control the physical and nutritional parameters to optimize the rate of biodegradation. An evaluation of the state of the art of bioremediation in Canada is also included. Recommendations are made to involve the Canadian Transportation Development Centre in short-term research projects on bioremediation. These projects would include the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor for the treatment of off-loaded oily waste products, the use of in-situ bioremediation to carry out extensive cleaning, degassing, and sludge remediation on board an oil tanker, and the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor and facility for the bioremediation of bilges. 51 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-11-01

    An assessment is presented of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution. A number of allied technologies are also considered. The basic technology in bioremediation involves adding fertilizers to an oil spill to enhance the natural process of oil biodegradation. Bioremediation can be applied to open systems such as beach or land spills, or in closed and controlled environments such as storage containers, specially constructed or modified bioreactors, and cargo tanks. The major advantage of using closed environments is the opportunity to control the physical and nutritional parameters to optimize the rate of biodegradation. An evaluation of the state of the art of bioremediation in Canada is also included. Recommendations are made to involve the Canadian Transportation Development Centre in short-term research projects on bioremediation. These projects would include the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor for the treatment of off-loaded oily waste products, the use of in-situ bioremediation to carry out extensive cleaning, degassing, and sludge remediation on board an oil tanker, and the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor and facility for the bioremediation of bilges. 51 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Bioremediation of cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine; Lawton, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of mainly aquatic microorganisms which occur globally. Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) of water bodies, often as a result of human activities, results in prolific grow of cyanobacteria that develop into a thick scum or bloom. Many of these blooms are toxic due to the production of hepatotoxins (microcystins and cylindrospermopsin) and/or neurotoxins (saxitoxins and anatoxins) posing a serious health hazard to humans and animals. The presence of these cyanotoxins is of particular concern in drinking water supplies where conventional water treatment often fails to eliminate them. Hence, there is significant interest in water treatment strategies that ensure the removal of cyanotoxins, with the exploitation of microbes being on such possible approach. As naturally occurring compounds it is assumed that these toxins are readily biodegraded. Furthermore, there is no significant evidence of their accumulation in the environment and their relative stable under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions, suggests biodegradation is the main route for their natural removal from the environment. Microcystins, as the most commonly occurring toxins, have been the most widely studied and hence form the main focus here. The review provides an overview of research into the biodegradation of cyanotoxin, including evidence for natural bioremediation, screening and isolation of toxin biodegrading bacteria, genetic and biochemical elucidation of a degradation pathway along with attempts to harness them for bioremediation through bioactive water treatment processes.

  16. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Grimsel Test Site: modelling radionuclide migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    In the migration field experiments at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site, the processes of nuclide transport through a well defined fractured shear-zone in crystalline rock are being investigated. For these experiments, model calculations have been performed to obtain indications on validity and limitation of the model applied and the data deduced under field conditions. The model consists of a hydrological part, where the dipole flow fields of the experiments are determined, and a nuclide transport part, where the flow field driven nuclide propagation through the shear-zone is calculated. In addition to the description of the model, analytical expressions are given to guide the interpretation of experimental results. From the analysis of experimental breakthrough curves for conservative uranine, weakly sorbing sodium and more stronger sorbing strontium tracers, the following main results can be derived: i) The model is able to represent the breakthrough curves of the migration field experiments to a high degree of accuracy, ii) The process of matrix diffusion is manifest through the tails of the breakthrough curves decreasing with time as t -3/2 and through the special shape of the tail ends, both confirmed by the experiments, iii) For nuclide sorbing rapidly, not too strongly, linearly, and exhibiting a reversible cation exchange process on fault gouge, the laboratory sorption coefficient can reasonably well be extrapolated to field conditions. Adequate care in selecting and preparing the rock samples is, of course, a necessary requirement. Using the parameters determined in the previous analysis, predictions are made for experiments in a smaller an faster flow field. For conservative uranine and weakly sorbing sodium, the agreement of predicted and measured breakthrough curves is good, for the more stronger sorbing strontium reasonable, confirming that the model describes the main nuclide transport processes adequately. (author) figs., tabs., 29 refs

  19. Bioremediation of a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Polluted Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of field cells involving a control and five treatment cells were evaluated under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil over a six-week period. Previous works have indicated that crude oil contamination of soils depletes oxygen reserves in the soils and slows ...

  20. Treatability and scale-up protocols for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation of manufactured-gas-plant soils. Final report, September 1987-July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sanseverino, J.

    1991-07-01

    The report describes activities to develop a framework to reliably scale-up and apply challenging bioremediation processes to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils. It includes: a discussion of the accuracy needed for competitive application of bioremediation; a framework and examples for treatability and scale-up protocols for selection, design and application of these processes; both batch and continuous testing protocols for developing predictive rate data; and special predictive relationships that may be used in process selection/scale-up. The work, coupled with subsequent work (as recommended) to develop an MGP soil desorption/diffusion protocol and new scale-up methods, and with subsequent scale-up testing should lead to the capability for improved selection of MGP sites for bioremediation and improved performance, success, and reliability of field applications. With this greater predictive reliability, bioremediation will be used more often in the field on the most favorable applications and its cost advantages over other remediation options will be realized

  1. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  2. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  3. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  4. SITE-94. Modelling of near-field chemistry for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This report evaluates methods for the incorporation of site data into models simulating the long-term chemical evolution of the near field. The models are based on limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister and spent fuel. A l kg reference mass of site groundwater is assumed to equilibrate first with bentonite and then with the canister`s corrosion products. A third closed system representing spent fuel is modeled in terms of spent-fuel dissolution in 1 kg of water evolved from the canister, coupled with steady-state constraints on the rate of oxidant production by {alpha} radiolysis of H{sub 2}O(l). Precipitation of secondary minerals controlling the solubilities of radioelements dissolved from spent fuel is also simulated in this model. Version 7.2 of the EQ3/6 geochemical software package and its supporting composite thermodynamic database, dataO.com.R22, are used to carry out these calculations. It is concluded that chemical models of near-field evolution combined with thermodynamic models of radionuclide speciation-solubility behavior can assist efforts to assimilate site characterization data into the performance assessment process, and to deal with uncertainties that are inherent in both site properties and in concepts of near field chemistry. It is essential, however, that expert judgement and prudence should be exercised such that model results are conservative with respect to acknowledged and documented uncertainties. Most importantly, it must be recognized that it is probably not possible to model with a high-level of accuracy the complex chemical environments and long timescales involved in disposal technologies for nuclear wastes. For performance assessment, however, only bounding values are needed, and modeling approaches such as described in this report are useful for this purpose. Technical peer review and cross-comparisons of near-field

  5. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution, as well as a number of allied technologies. Many of the topics discussed are presented in a summary of a workshop on bioremediation of marine oil pollution. The summary includes an overview of the formal presentations as well as the results of the working groups.

  6. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site. Open Field Scoring Record Number 154

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  7. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  8. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 354

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  9. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 311

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  10. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Recording Number 231 (Human Factors Applications, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbuy and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  11. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 426

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  12. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 657

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  13. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 129

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APO Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 229

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  15. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 411

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  16. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record No. 897

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, William; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by William Burch and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  17. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 673 (Naval Research Laboratories)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  18. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 169

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  19. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 492 (Shaw Environmental, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 442

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) unitizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 201

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Fling, Rick; Robitaille, George

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  2. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 668 (NAEVA Geophysics, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing they PG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  3. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 165

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APO Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  4. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record Number 638

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Robitaille, George; Boutin, Matthew; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  5. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 857

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Banta, Matthew; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  6. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  7. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Bollag, J.M. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (USA). Soil Biochemical Lab.

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by it wide variety of micro-organisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures - lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released to the environment its a result of spillage of oil and byproducts of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of PAHs limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of PAHs has potential applications in bioremediation.

  8. Site Study Plan for salt, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Salt Site Study Plan (SSP) describes a program for characterizing the existing salt environment in the site vicinity. A step-by-step approach is described which proceeds from published data and planned theoretical studies, to planned laboratory studies, and finally to planned field studies, to provide the necessary data to meet program requirements contained in the Salt Repository Project - Requirements Document (SRP-RD). The plan also draws on the results of other SSP's for certain data; for example, soil salinity data are to be provided under the Soils SSP. The salt studies consist of evaluation of control and mitigation measures, salt monitoring studies, emission factors development, air models development and validation, and risk assessment. For each study, its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of activities; organization of personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements are described. 90 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norzila Othman; Mohd Irwan Juki; Norhana Hussain; Suhaimi Abdul Talib

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compou...

  10. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcione José M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-penetrating radar (GPR is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability. The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  12. Technology summary of the in situ bioremediation demonstration (methane biostimulation) via horizontal wells at the Savannah River Site Integrated Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Lombard, K.H.; Enzien, M.V.; Dougherty, J.M.; Wear, J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, has been sponsoring full-scale environmental restoration technology demonstrations for the past 4 years. The Savannah River Site Integrated Demonstration focuses on ''Clean-up of Soils ad Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated VOCs.'' Several laboratories including our own had demonstrated the ability of methanotrophic bacteria to completely degrade or mineralize chlorinated solvents, and these bacteria were naturally found in soil and aquifer material. Thus the test consisted of injection of methane mixed with air into the contaminated aquifer via a horizontal well and extraction from the vadose zone via a parallel horizontal well

  13. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  14. Application of radioisotope induced EDXRF in bioremediation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.; Choudhury, R.K.; Acharya, C.; Narasimha, A.; Apte, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Bioremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of certain microbes for the clean up of heavy metals/radionuclides contaminated environments. Progress in this field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in microbial metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and microbe-metal interactions. Therefore a better understanding of the basic biological processes involved in cell/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of bioremediation technologies. Advanced analytical techniques have proven to be instrumental in understanding the metal microbe interactions. It is important that in bioremediation studies, the analytical procedures used for elemental determination in cells should be fast, cheap, non-destructive, with easy, sample preparation, good sensitivity and accuracy. The present paper demonstrates the utility of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy in detection of uranium and tellurium associated with the microbial cells. This technique was found to be convenient and suitable for such metal microbial interactive studies

  15. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  16. Genomic and physiological perspectives on bioremediation processes at the FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Erick; Leigh, Mary Beth; Hemme, Christopher; Gentry, Terry; Harzman, Christina; Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.; Zhou, Jizhong; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-04-05

    A suite of molecular and physiological studies, including metal reduction assays, metagenomics, functional gene microarrays and community sequence analyses were applied to investigate organisms involved in bioremediation processes at the ERSP Field Research Center and to understand the effects of stress on the makeup and evolution of microbial communities to inform effective remediation strategies.

  17. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  18. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C.; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L.; Aitken, Michael D.; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2015-01-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (pre-bioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (post-bioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, post-bioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental to xicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, post-bioremediation (p bioremediation (p bioremediation. The increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase post-bioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded. PMID:26200254

  19. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  20. Immobilization of bacteria isolated from the mining areas on polymeric supports for bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romdhane, Marwa

    2011-01-01

    Today pollution is an important environmental problem. Many bacteria have the ability to degrade several types of pollutants in various media (soil, water and air) are used in bioremediation. The present work is to study bacterial diversity colonizing contaminated soil from a mining site in the region of Gafsa and Sfax phosphogypsum and evaluate their potential in bioremediation. Three bacterial strains were selected based on the presence of pigments. These strains have been studied for their tolerances of strontium. Selected strains, was assessed for its bioremediation potential to confirm his use in the biodeppolution processes.

  1. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field

  3. Bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with stoddard solvent and mop oil using the PetroClean bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.K.; Lieberman, M.T.; Caplan, J.A.; Blaes, D.; Keating, P.; Richards, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Environmental Science and Engineering Inc. (ESE) was contracted by a confidential industrial client to perform a three-phased project. Phase I involved characterizing the site and delineating the extent of subsurface contamination. Phase II included biofeasibility and pilot-scale evaluations, determining remedial requirements, and designing the full-scale treatment system. Phase III involved implementing and operating the designed in situ bioremediation system (i.e., PetroClean 4000) to achieve site closure

  4. Bioremediation performance as related to chemical availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.; Olivera, F.; Webster, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two side-by-side field prepared bed land treatment units (PBLTU) were evaluated. One PBLTU (H unit) treated soils containing chemicals from a diesel spill that had occurred about 12 months earlier. The other PBLTU (G unit) treated soils containing crude oil that had been in the soil for many decades. Laboratory slurry treatability studies and indicated that the hydrocarbons in both soils could be bioremediated if adequate nutrients were provided. The PBLTU had nutrients applied periodically, and were operated in a manner consistent with good operational guidelines. PBLTU performance was based on reductions in mobility, toxicity, and chemical concentration. Spatially random soil samples were taken from the two field PBLTU monthly and analyzed for the above parameters as well as nutrients and pH. Periodically, microbial numbers and type in the soil samples also were evaluated. Performance was monitored over an 18 month period. In the H unit, no detectable TPH reductions occurred although petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms existed in the soil and other conditions were appropriate for bioremediation. GC/MS analyses indicated reduction in some specific hydrocarbons. The H unit soils had low chemical mobility as determined by leachability tests (TCLP, SPLP) and had low relative toxicity as determined by Microtox trademark

  5. Characterizations of purple non-sulfur bacteria isolated from paddy fields, and identification of strains with potential for plant growth-promotion, greenhouse gas mitigation and heavy metal bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakpirom, Jakkapan; Kantachote, Duangporn; Nunkaew, Tomorn; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at selecting purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolated from various paddy fields, including Cd- and Zn-contaminated paddy fields, based on their biofertilizer properties. Among 235 PNSB isolates, strain TN110 was most effective in plant growth-promoting substance (PGPS) production, releasing 3.2 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 4.11 mg/L of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 3.62 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and reducing methane emission up to 80%. This strain had nifH, vnfG and anfG, which are the Mo, V and Fe nitrogenase genes encoded for key enzymes in nitrogen fixation under different conditions. This strain provided 84% and 55% removal of Cd and Zn, respectively. Another isolate, TN414, not only produced PGPS (1.30 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 0.94 mg/L of ALA and 0.65 mg/L of IAA), but was also efficient in removing both Cd and Zn at 72% and 74%, respectively. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, strain TN110 was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris, while strain TN414 was Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A combination of TN110 and TN414 could potentially provide a biofertilizer, which is a greener alternative to commercial/chemical fertilizers and an agent for bioremediation of heavy metals and greenhouse gas mitigation in paddy fields. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of ion contents and microorganisms during the electro-bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Wu, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the distribution of ion contents and microorganisms during the electro-bioremediation (EK-Bio) of petroleum-contaminated saline soil. The results showed that soil ions tend to accumulate around the electrodes, and the concentration was correlated with the distance from the electrodes. The average soil ion content was 7.92 g/kg around the electrodes (site A) and 0.55 g/kg at the furthest distance from the electrodes (site B) after 112 days of treatment, while the initial average content was 3.92 g/kg. Smooth linear (R 2 = 0.98) loss of soil ions was observed at site C, which was closer to the electrodes than site B, and had a final average soil ion content of 1.96 g/kg. The dehydrogenase activity was much higher in EK-Bio test soil than in the Bio test soil after 28 days of treatment, and followed the order: site C > site B > site A. However, the soil dehydrogenase activity dropped continuously when the soil ion reached very high and low concentrations at sites A and B. The soil microbial community varied in sample sites that had different ion contents, and the soil microbial diversity followed the order: site C > site B > site A. The applied electric field clearly enhanced the biodegradation efficiency for soil petroleum contaminants. However, the biodegradation promotion effects were weakening in soils where the ion contents were extremely high and low (sites A and B). These results can provide useful information for EK-Bioremediation of organic-contaminated saline soil.

  7. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  8. In situ vadose zone bioremediation of soil contaminated with nonvolatile hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.S.; Burden, R.J.; Riddell, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In situ bioremediation has been successfully carried out on petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a decommissioned bulk storage terminal in New Zealand. The site soils were contaminated mainly with diesel fuel and spent oil at concentrations ranging up to 95,000 mg/kg of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons. The in situ remediation system combines an enhanced bioremediation with vapor extraction and is installed almost entirely below grade, thereby allowing above ground activities to continue unimpeded. Laboratory-scale feasibility testing indicated that although appreciable volatilization of low molecular weight components would occur initially, biodegradation would be the primary mechanism by which contaminated soil would be remediated. During the remedial design phase, preliminary field testing was conducted to evaluate the optimum spacing for extraction wells and inlet vents. A pilot-scale system was installed in a 15-m by 35-m area of the site in June 1989 and operated for approximately 1 year. Soil monitoring performed approximately every 3 months indicated an overall reduction in soil petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of 87% for the period from June 1989 to May 1991

  9. Bioremediation without earth moving. Biologische Altlastensanierung ohne Erdaushub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, B; Knapp, A; Mueller, D

    1992-05-01

    According to rough estimates, there are 70,000 sites in the pre-unification Federal Republic of Germany where contamination is suspected. Some 50 to 60% of the contaminated sites are suitable for bioremediation. The Bioux-S process permits in-situ cleanup without any need for complicated and expensive earth moving operations. The culture conditions of the aerobic microorganisms already present in the soil are improved by the introduction of pure oxygen and special nutrients. Such microorganisms are already ideally adapted to the contaminants present and utilise them partly as nutrients and partly to maintain their energy balance. The process has already been successfully used for bioremediation of refinery and gasworks as well as chemical production sites. (orig.).

  10. Bioremediation: Hope/Hype for Environmental Cleanup (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Ecology Dept.

    2007-07-18

    Summer Lecture Series 2007: Terry Hazen, Senior Staff Scientists and Head of the LBNL Ecology Department, discusses when it's best to resort to engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites, and when it's best to rely on natural attenuation. Recent advances have greatly broadened the potential applications for bioremediation. At the same time, scientists' knowledge of biogeochemical processes has advanced and they can better gauge how quickly and completely contaminants can be degraded without human intervention.

  11. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Improving Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Contaminated Soil Through Low-Level Surfactant Addition After Conventional Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Alden C; Singleton, David R; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs. This work extends that concept by treating the effluent from the slurry-phase bioreactor in a second-stage batch reactor, to which POESH was added, for an additional 7 or 12 days. Surfactant amendment removed substantial amounts of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs remaining after conventional slurry-phase bioremediation, including more than 80% of residual 4-ring PAHs. Surfactant-amended treatment decreased soil cytotoxicity, but often increased the genotoxicity of the soil as measured using the DT-40 chicken lymphocyte DNA damage response assay. Potential ecotoxicity, measured using a seed germination assay, was reduced by bioreactor treatment and was reduced further after second-stage treatment with POESH. Of bacteria previously implicated as potential PAH degraders under POESH-amended conditions in a prior study, members of the Terrimonas genus were associated with differences in high-molecular weight PAH removal in the current study. Research using submicellar doses of surfactant as a second-stage treatment step is limited and these findings can inform the design of bioremediation systems at field sites treating soil contaminated with PAHs and other hydrophobic contaminants that have low bioaccessibility.

  15. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of BTEX in a cold temperature environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.; Biggar, K.; Foght, J.; Mullick, A.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of Intrinsic bioremediation technology at cold temperature sites contaminated with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) is discussed. Site investigation at each of the sites was carried out to delineate stratigraphy, hydrogeology, microbiological setting, level of contamination and geochemical conditions. Preferred conditions for viable sites were found to include minimal risk of contaminants coming into contact with receptors, low hydraulic gradient, and the presence of adequate nutrients and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Enumeration of contaminant degrading microorganisms was completed through the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique indicating viable populations of aerobic petroleum degrading, nitrogen reducing and iron reducing bacteria. The effects of cold temperatures on the rate and extent of substrate utilization was studied in the laboratory, Results to date indicate that the sites under consideration are suitable candidates for intrinsic bioremediation and that significant rates of biodegradation are possible at low temperatures. If risk analysis proves to be favorable, the intrinsic bioremediation methodology is likely to provide an effective and affordable solution. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  17. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks...

  18. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks including...

  19. Monitoring for bioremediation efficacy: The marrow marsh experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.; Singhvi, R.; Ryabik, J.; Lin, Yihua; Syslo, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team analyzed samples taken from Marrow Marsh, Galveston Bay, Texas, to assess the efficacy of a bioremediation effort in the marsh following the Apex barges spill on July 28, 1990. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96-hour period following the first application of the bioremediation agent and then 25 days after the second application, which occurred 8 days after the first. Results of sample analyses to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil failed to show evidence of oil degradation during the 96 hours after the initial treatment, but did show evidence of degradation 25 days after the second treatment-although differences between samples from treated and untreated sites were not evident. Because control areas had not been maintained after the second application, contamination by the bioremediation agent of previously untreated (control) areas may have occurred, perhaps negating the possibility of detecting differences between treated and control areas. Better preparedness to implement bioremediation and conduct monitoring might have increased the effectiveness of the monitoring effort

  20. Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover, these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development. Remedy: Bioremediation is the 'green' imperative technique for the heavy metal removal without creating secondary metabolites in the ecosystem. The metabolic potential of several bacterial, algal, fungal as well as plant species has the efficiency to exterminate the heavy metals from the contaminated sites. Different strategies like bioaccumulation, biosorption, biotransformation, rhizofilteration, bioextraction and volatilization are employed for removal of heavy metals by the biological species. Bioremediation approach is presenting a splendid alternate for conventional expensive and inefficient methods for the heavy metal removal. The patents granted on the bioremediation of toxic heavy metals are summarized in the present manuscript which supported the applicability of bioremediation technique at commercial scale. However, the implementation of the present information and advanced research are mandatory to further explore the concealed potential of biological species to resume the originality of the environment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Bioremediation of a pesticide polluted soil: Case DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy; Penuela, Gustavo A; Cardona Gallo, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) has been used since the Second World War to control insect-borne diseases in humans and domestic animals. The use of these organochlorine insecticides has been banned in most countries because of its persistence in the environment, biomagnification and potential susceptibility to toxicity to higher animals. Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in the environment, transforming them into simpler and less dangerous, even harmless compounds. This decontamination strategy has low costs, and wide public acceptance, also it can take place on the site. Compared to other methods, bioremediation is a more promising and less expensive to eliminate contaminants in soil and water. In soil, compounds such as DDT, chlorinated biphenyls can be partially biodegraded by a group of aerobic bacteria that cometabolize the contaminant. The bioavailability of pollutants may be enhanced by treating the soil in the presence of contaminant mobilizing agents such as surfactants. In this review we discuss the different strategies for bioremediation of soil contaminated with DDT, including mechanisms and degradation pathways. The application of these techniques in contaminated soil is also described. This review also discusses which is the best strategy for bioremediation of DDT.

  2. Advances and perspective in bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra K; Gautam, Ravindra K; Nanekar, Sneha V; Weber, Roland; Singh, Brajesh K; Singh, Sanjeev K; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, microbial degradation and bioremediation approaches of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied extensively considering their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistency potential in the environment. In this direction, different catabolic enzymes have been identified and reported for biodegradation of different PCB congeners along with optimization of biological processes. A genome analysis of PCB-degrading bacteria has led in an improved understanding of their metabolic potential and adaptation to stressful conditions. However, many stones in this area are left unturned. For example, the role and diversity of uncultivable microbes in PCB degradation are still not fully understood. Improved knowledge and understanding on this front will open up new avenues for improved bioremediation technologies which will bring economic, environmental and societal benefits. This article highlights on recent advances in bioremediation of PCBs in soil. It is demonstrated that bioremediation is the most effective and innovative technology which includes biostimulation, bioaugmentation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation and acts as a model solution for pollution abatement. More recently, transgenic plants and genetically modified microorganisms have proved to be revolutionary in the bioremediation of PCBs. Additionally, other important aspects such as pretreatment using chemical/physical agents for enhanced biodegradation are also addressed. Efforts have been made to identify challenges, research gaps and necessary approaches which in future, can be harnessed for successful use of bioremediation under field conditions. Emphases have been given on the quality/efficiency of bioremediation technology and its related cost which determines its ultimate acceptability.

  3. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  4. Bioremediation 3.0: Engineering pollutant-removing bacteria in the times of systemic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Pavel; Nikel, Pablo I; Damborský, Jiří; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2017-11-15

    Elimination or mitigation of the toxic effects of chemical waste released to the environment by industrial and urban activities relies largely on the catalytic activities of microorganisms-specifically bacteria. Given their capacity to evolve rapidly, they have the biochemical power to tackle a large number of molecules mobilized from their geological repositories through human action (e.g., hydrocarbons, heavy metals) or generated through chemical synthesis (e.g., xenobiotic compounds). Whereas naturally occurring microbes already have considerable ability to remove many environmental pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents. The complexity of this endeavour and the lack of fundamental knowledge nonetheless led to the virtual abandonment of such a recombinant DNA-based bioremediation only a decade later. In a twist of events, the last few years have witnessed the emergence of new systemic fields (including systems and synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering) that allow revisiting the same environmental pollution challenges through fresh and far more powerful approaches. The focus on contaminated sites and chemicals has been broadened by the phenomenal problems of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and the accumulation of plastic waste on a global scale. In this article, we analyze how contemporary systemic biology is helping to take the design of bioremediation agents back to the core of environmental biotechnology. We inspect a number of recent strategies for catabolic pathway construction and optimization and we bring them together by proposing an engineering workflow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation of in situ uranium bioremediation with slow-release organic amendment injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Parker, J.; Ye, M.; Tang, G.; Wu, W.; Mehlhorn, T.; Gihring, T. M.; Schadt, C.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a highly uranium-contaminated gravel aquifer with a slow-release electron donor (emulsified edible oil) has been investigated at the US DOE Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in east Tennessee. Groundwater at the study location has pH ~6.7 and contains high concentrations of U (5-6 μM), sulfate (1.0-1.2) mM and Ca (3-4 mM). Diluted emulsified oil (20% solution) was injected into three injection wells within 1.5 hrs. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential reduction of nitrate, Mn, Fe(III) and sulfate. The oil was degraded by indigenous microorganisms with acetate as a major product. Rapid removal of U(VI) from the aqueous phase occurred concurrently with acetate production and sulfate reduction. The field test data were analyzed using a reaction network with a kinetic model for lipid hydrolysis and glycerol fermentation and equilibrium reactions representing microbial reduction of sulfate, nitrate, iron, uranium, manganese and carbon dioxide based on the thermodynamic approach of Istok et al. (2010) using the parallelized HGC5 code. Model-simulated chemical concentrations and relative abundance of functional microbial populations are compared with field measurements. Application of the thermodynamically-based modeling approach instead of the widely used multi-Monod kinetic rate law to formulate bioreduction reactions substantially reduces the number of reaction parameters that need to be calibrated thus facilitating a more comprehensive representation of microbial community dynamics. The model developed through this study is expected to aid the design of future bioremediation strategies for the site.

  6. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record No. 901 (Sky Research, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClung, J. S; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; Lombardo, Leonardo; McDonnell, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Stephen McClung and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  7. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 245

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  8. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 675

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ... (UXO) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  9. Intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation in aquifers contaminated with chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Aalst-van Leeuwen, M.A. van; Heiningen, E. van; Buyzen, H. van; Sinke, A.; Liere, H.C. van; Harkes, M.; Baartmans, R.; Bosma, T.N.P.; Doddema, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of intrinsic and enhanced bioremediation approaches for 16 contaminated sites in the Netherlands are discussed. At at least five out of 10 chlorinated solvent sites, natural attenuation can be used as one of the tools to prevent further dispersion of the plume. At two sites

  10. Bioremediation of lead contaminated soil with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Peng, Weihua; Jia, Yingying; Lu, Lin; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation with microorganisms is a promising technique for heavy metal contaminated soil. Rhodobacter sphaeroides was previously isolated from oil field injection water and used for bioremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil in the present study. Based on the investigation of the optimum culturing conditions and the tolerance to Pb, we employed the microorganism for the remediation of Pb contaminated soil simulated at different contamination levels. It was found that the optimum temperature, pH, and inoculum size for R. sphaeroides is 30-35 °C, 7, and 2 × 10(8) mL(-1), respectively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides did not remove the Pb from soil but did change its speciation. During the bioremediation process, more available fractions were transformed to less accessible and inert fractions; in particular, the exchangeable phase was dramatically decreased while the residual phase was substantially increased. A wheat seedling growing experiment showed that Pb phytoavailability was reduced in amended soils. Results inferred that the main mechanism by which R. sphaeroides treats Pb contaminated soil is the precipitation formation of inert compounds, including lead sulfate and lead sulfide. Although the Pb bioremediation efficiency on wheat was not very high (14.78% root and 24.01% in leaf), R. sphaeroides remains a promising alternative for Pb remediation in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  12. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  13. Bioremediation efficacy in Marrow Marsh following the Apex oil spill, Galveston Bay, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.; Singhvi, R.; Ryabik, J.; Lin, Yihua; Syslo, J.

    1992-01-01

    Samples taken from Marrow Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas were taken to assess the efficacy of the August 5, 1990 bioremediation treatment in the marsh following the Apex barges oil spill on July 28, 1990. The bioremediation treatment combined a lyophilized bacterial mixture and a nutrient mix containing phosphorus and nitrogen. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96 h period from both treated and untreated oiled sites. Oil fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons analysis, and total petroleum hydrocarbons analysis were performed to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil. Results of analyses, although not statistically reliable, failed to support the occurrence of any definite chemical alteration in the spilled oil that could be attributed to the bioremediation treatment. The relatively short sampling period and the number of samples taken, however, may have been insufficient to document the efficacy of the overall bioremediation effect. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Bioremediation: is it the solution to reclamation of heavy oil contaminated soils in the Canadian climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.; Nicholson, P.; Varga, M.; Boadi, D.; Yang, A.

    1997-01-01

    The issue of bioremediation of heavy oil contaminated soils in cold climates was discussed. No model of the bioremediation system for cold climates exists. Environmental groups use three environmental concepts as the basis to evaluate petroleum activities: (1) cradle to grave responsibility, (2) the precautionary principle, and (3) sustainable development. The reclamation of an abandoned petroleum production facility must meet stringent standards. Most sites are contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons, brine and other chemicals that have been used at the location. Bioremediation, either in-situ or ex-situ, is one of the lowest cost remediation techniques available and has been used extensively by the downstream petroleum industry in warm climates. However, there are many unresolved issues with the use of bioremediation in cold climates, for heavy or weathered crude oil products and in areas of clay or other low permeability. Some of these unresolved issues are highlighted

  15. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 740

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Jr., Larry; Fling, Rick; McClug, Christina; Watts, Kimberly; Banta, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The objective in the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Program is to evaluate the detection and discrimination capabilities of a given technology under various field and soil conditions...

  16. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  17. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  19. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Manuela; Vila, Maria Cristina; Matos, Cristina Delerue; Teles, Maria Teresa Oliva; Fiúza, António

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremedia...

  20. Bioremediation of severely weathered hydrocarbons: is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. R.; Villa, R.; Sierra, C.; Sotres, A.; Pelaez, A. I.; Sanchez, J.

    2009-01-01

    Weathering processes of spilled hydrocarbons promote a reduced biodegradability of petroleum compounds mixtures, and consequently bioremediation techniques are often ruled out within the selection of suitable remediation approaches. This is truly relevant wherever old spills at abandoned industrial sites have to be remediated. However it is well known most of the remaining fractions and individual compounds of weathered oil are still biodegradable, although at slow rates than alkanes or no and two-ring aromatics. (Author)

  1. Selection of electron acceptors and strategies for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The most critical aspect of designing in situ bioremediation systems is, typically, the selection and method of delivery of the electron acceptor. Nitrate, sulfate, and several forms of oxygen can be introduced, depending on the contaminants and the site conditions. Oxygen can be added as air, pure oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, or an oxygen release compound. Simplistic cost calculations can illustrate the advantages of some methods over others, providing technical requirements can be met

  2. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  3. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  4. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation at two U.S. Air Force bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Swanson, M.A.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) occurs when indigenous microorganisms work to reduce the total mass of contamination in the subsurface without the addition of nutrients. A conservative tracer, such as trimethylbenzene, found commingled with the contaminant plume can be used to distinguish between attenuation caused by dispersion, dilution from recharge, volatilization, and sorption and attenuation caused by biodegradation. Patterns of intrinsic bioremediation can vary markedly from site to site depending on governing physical, biological, and chemical processes. Intrinsic bioremediation causes measurable changes in groundwater chemistry. Specifically, concentrations of contaminants, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, sulfate, and methane in groundwater change both temporally and spatially as biodegradation proceeds Operations at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) and Patrick AFB resulted in fuel-hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater. In both cases, trimethylbenzene data confirm that dissolved BTEX is biodegrading. Geochemical evidence from the Hill AFB site suggests that aerobic respiration, denitrification, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis all are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Sulfate reduction is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site. Geochemical evidence from Patrick AFB suggests that aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and methanogenesis are contributing to intrinsic bioremediation of dissolved BTEX. Methanogenesis is the dominant biodegradation mechanism at this site

  5. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring

  6. Numerical simulations in support of the in situ bioremediation demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Rosenberg, N.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the performance of the in situ bioremediation technology demonstrated at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration (SRID) site in 1992--1993. The goal of the technology demonstration was to stimulate naturally occurring methanotrophic bacteria at the SRID site with injection of methane, air and air-phase nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate) such that significant amounts of the chlorinated solvent present in the subsurface would be degraded. Our approach is based on site-specific numerical simulations using the TRAMP computer code. In this report, we discuss the interactions among the physical and biochemical processes involved in in situ bioremediation. We also investigate improvements to technology performance, make predictions regarding the performance of this technology over long periods of time and at different sites, and compare in situ bioremediation with other remediation technologies

  7. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Abhijit Datta; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  8. Evaluation of New Fluid Mud Survey System at Field Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engler

    1992-01-01

    This technical note presents an intermediate evaluation of a fluid mud survey system with respect to operability, practicability, and repeatability based on field tests conducted at Calcasieu River, Louisiana...

  9. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  10. Incorporating Sustainability into Site Closure - A Field Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrins, L. M.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long term management of former chemical production facilities can be a costly and time consuming element of site closure, however, implementation of creative measures to introduce sustainability and reduce the need for onsite presence can be successfully incorporated into the site closure process. A case study demonstrating this involves a facility located in Sarnia, Ontario, which was an active multi chemical production facility from the 1940s, until it was decommissioned and sold between 2005 and 2010. The facility consisted of 322 acres of production areas. Several elements which allowed for reduced onsite presence and lower management costs were incorporated into the site decommissioning plan, including; phased remediation planning, and selection of sustainable components as part of remediation, surface water management, and groundwater management. The sustainability and management modifications were successfully negotiated and approved by the local regulatory agency. Due to the size and complexity of the site, a holistic approach for the facility was needed and included the development of a comprehensive decision matrix. Each remediation alternative incorporated sustainable practices. Ex-situ remediation consisted of excavation of contaminated subsurface medium and consolidation at a 4.7 acre onsite soil treatment area designed specifically for the site closure process. In-situ remediation consisted of injection of amendment into the native soils using hydraulic fracture and injection. When the plant was an active operating facility, groundwater management required active pumping and groundwater treatment through a series of carbon treatment units. Active pumping has been replaced by passive hydraulic control through the use of tree plantations.

  11. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    bioremediation treatments, leading to partial removal of PCBs from contaminated soil. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community was increased, and Rhodococcus-like bacterial population was identified as its key player. Combination of molecular approaches with chemical analyses is of prime interest to monitor microbial processes involved in the bioremediation treatment. They offer new insight in the managing of PCBs contaminated sites providing the opportunity to design the bioremediation strategy based on on-site evaluation of PCBs degrading ability of the soil microbial community. (orig.)

  12. perspectives of bioremediation as a panacea for ecological pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    the area of contaminated land and water by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon has ... KEYWORDS: Bioremediation, environmental pollution, phytoremediation, rhizosphere, ..... Biotechnology and bioremediation: successes and.

  13. Introduction to In Situ Bioremediation of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is an engineered technology that modifies environmental conditions (physical, chemical, biochemical, or microbiological) to encourage microorganisms to destroy or detoxify organic and inorganic contaminants in the environment.

  14. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  15. Enhancing Stakeholder Acceptance Of Bioremediation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  16. Testing of in situ and ex situ bioremediation approaches for an oil-contaminated peat bog following a pipeline break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.J.; Lee, D.W.; Yeske, B.M.; Kuipers, F.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a 1985 pipeline spill of light Pembina Cardium crude oil at a bog near Violet Grove, Alberta was discussed. Pembina Pipeline Corporation arranged for a treatability test to be conducted on oil-contaminated sphagnum peat moss from the site to determine effective in situ or ex situ remediation options for the site. The test was used to evaluate the biodegradation potential of contaminants. Four tests were designed to simulate field different field treatment approaches and to collect critical data on toxicity and leachability of the peat moss. The tests included a bioslurry test, a soil microcosm test, an aerated water saturated peat column test, and a standard toxicity characteristic leachate potential test. The first three tests gave similar results of at least 74 per cent biodegradation of the residual crude oil on the peat solids and no residual toxicity as measured by the Microtox Assay. It was determined that both in situ bioremediation using an aerated water injection system or an ex situ landfarming approach would achieve required criteria and no fertilizers would be necessary to maintain active bioremediation. The new gas-liquid reactor (GLR) aeration technology used in these tests creates a constant supply of hyperoxygenated water prior to column injection. The continuous release of tiny air bubbles maximizes air surface area and increases the gas transfer rates. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Opportune Landing Site Program: Opportune Landing Site Southeastern Indiana Field Data Collection and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barna, Lynette A; Ryerson, Charles C; Affleck, Rosa T

    2008-01-01

    .... The opportune landing site (OLS) program utilized existing technologies to rapidly accelerate the process of selecting OLSs using remote sensing technology and state-of-the-ground forecast tools...

  18. Virtual-site correlation mean field approach to criticality in spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2013-01-01

    We propose a virtual-site correlation mean field theory for dealing with interacting many-body systems. It involves a coarse-graining technique that terminates a step before the mean field theory: While mean field theory deals with only single-body physical parameters, the virtual-site correlation mean field theory deals with single- as well as two-body ones, and involves a virtual site for every interaction term in the Hamiltonian. We generalize the theory to a cluster virtual-site correlation mean field, that works with a fundamental unit of the lattice of the many-body system. We apply these methods to interacting Ising spin systems in several lattice geometries and dimensions, and show that the predictions of the onset of criticality of these models are generally much better in the proposed theories as compared to the corresponding ones in mean field theories

  19. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

  20. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  1. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  2. Bioremediation of contaminated soil: Strategy and case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of micro-organisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental conditions. Two general reasons account for the failure of microbes to degrade pollutants in any environment: (1) inherent molecular recalcitrance of the contaminants and (2) environmental factors. The inherent molecular recalcitrance is usually associated with xenobiotic compounds where the chemical structure of the molecule is such that microbes and enzymes required for its catabolism have not evolved yet in nature. The environmental factors include a range of physicochemical conditions which influence microbial growth and activity. Biological remediation of contaminated sites can be accomplished using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. Only particular groups of microorganisms are capable of decomposing specific compounds. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: thorough site/soil/waste characterization; treatability studies; and design and implementation of the bioremediation plan. The results of in situ and ex situ treatment programs involving the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil will be discussed in detail. The paper will address key issues affecting the success of the bioremediation process such as nutrient transport, metal precipitation and potential soil clogging, microbial inoculation, etc

  3. Subtask 1.16-Slow-Release Bioremediation Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc D. Kurz; Edwin S. Olson

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost methods are needed to enhance various bioremediation technologies, from natural attenuation to heavily engineered remediation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination. Many subsurface sites have insufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus, resulting in poor bioactivity and increased remediation time and costs. The addition of conventional fertilizers can improve bioactivity, but often the nutrients dissolve quickly and migrate away from the contaminant zone before being utilized by the microbes. Through this project, conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center, polymers were developed that slowly release nitrogen and phosphorus into the subsurface. Conceptually, these polymers are designed to adhere to soil particles in the subsurface contamination zone where they slowly degrade and release nutrients over longer periods of time compared to conventional fertilizer applications. Tests conducted during this study indicate that some of the developed polymers have excellent potential to satisfy the microbial requirements for enhanced bioremediation

  4. Subtask 1.16-Slow-Release Bioremediation Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc D. Kurz; Edwin S. Olson

    2006-07-31

    Low-cost methods are needed to enhance various bioremediation technologies, from natural attenuation to heavily engineered remediation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination. Many subsurface sites have insufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus, resulting in poor bioactivity and increased remediation time and costs. The addition of conventional fertilizers can improve bioactivity, but often the nutrients dissolve quickly and migrate away from the contaminant zone before being utilized by the microbes. Through this project, conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, polymers were developed that slowly release nitrogen and phosphorus into the subsurface. Conceptually, these polymers are designed to adhere to soil particles in the subsurface contamination zone where they slowly degrade and release nutrients over longer periods of time compared to conventional fertilizer applications. Tests conducted during this study indicate that some of the developed polymers have excellent potential to satisfy the microbial requirements for enhanced bioremediation.

  5. Phytoremediation and bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): state of knowledge and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Laura; Rossetti, Simona; Juwarkar, Asha A; Massacci, Angelo

    2014-08-15

    This review summarizes the bioremediation and phytoremediation technologies proposed so far to detoxify PCB-contaminated sites. A critical analysis about the potential and limits of the PCB pollution treatment strategies by means of plants, fungi and bacteria are elucidated, including the new insights emerged from recent studies on the rhizosphere potential and on the implementation of simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes. The review describes the biodegradation and phytoremediation processes and elaborates on the environmental variables affecting contaminant degradation rates, summarizing the amendments recommended to enhance PCB degradation. Additionally, issues connected with PCB toxicology, actual field remediation strategies and economical evaluation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioremediation of a No. 6 fuel spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, S.; Leahy, M.; Jones, M.; Butts, R.

    1991-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that the major constituents of petroleum are highly biodegradable, the natural or unenhanced rate can be extremely slow. This is best exemplified by the petroleum reserves which have existed for million of years without substantial biodegradation due exclusively to nutrient limitations. The limiting nutrients include oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements. The enhancement of the biodegradation process is termed bioremediation and consists of adding these nutrients in a prescribed and defined manner to soil and aquifers. Laboratory biodegradation tests are conducted prior to pilot- or full-scale remedial action to ensure the feasibility of the process. Depending on the comparability between the laboratory test and the field application, the data generated from the laboratory scale test can be used for purposes of field design and for prediction of the rate of biodegradation under field conditions. It is a critical assumption in the remediation industry that a laboratory treatment simulation does indeed simulate the field process and predicts the results of the full-scale remediation. This paper provides evidence that a laboratory scale treatment simulation can indeed predict field results

  7. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  9. Bioremediating silty soil contaminated by phenanthrene, pyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... followed in the order of their increasing molecular weight. The synergy of the bacterial isolates and the biosurfactant produced from B. vulgaris agrowaste could be used in environmental bioremediation of PAHs even in silty soil. Keywords: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, bioremediation, biosurfactant, Beta vulgaris, ...

  10. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  11. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  12. Oil field rejuvenation work starts at 14 project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzet, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy and oil and gas companies have released more information about a joint effort to rejuvenate aging U.S. oil fields in danger of abandonment. Work is starting on 14 demonstration projects that could recover 21 million bbl of oil from the fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs in which they are conducted. Wider application of the same techniques, if they are successful, could results in addition of 6.3 billion bbl of reserves, nearly 25% of U.S. crude oil reserves. A multidisciplinary team approach is to be used, with as many as 11 operators, service companies, universities, or state agencies participating in each project. All of the projects will culminate in extensive technology transfer activities. Here are descriptions of the projects gleaned from public abstracts provided by the DOE contractors

  13. Natural carriers in bioremediation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dzionek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater or soil is currently the cheapest and the least harmful method of removing xenobiotics from the environment. Immobilization of microorganisms capable of degrading specific contaminants significantly promotes bioremediation processes, reduces their costs, and also allows for the multiple use of biocatalysts. Among the developed methods of immobilization, adsorption on the surface is the most common method in bioremediation, due to the simplicity of the procedure and its non-toxicity. The choice of carrier is an essential element for successful bioremediation. It is also important to consider the type of process (in situ or ex situ, type of pollution, and properties of immobilized microorganisms. For these reasons, the article summarizes recent scientific reports about the use of natural carriers in bioremediation, including efficiency, the impact of the carrier on microorganisms and contamination, and the nature of the conducted research.

  14. Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Populations in Bio-remediation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A.; Vayenas, Dimitris V.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2011-09-01

    An understanding of bacterial behaviour concerns many field applications, such as the enhancement of water, wastewater and subsurface bio-remediation, the prevention of environmental pollution and the protection of human health. Numerous microorganisms have been identified to be able to degrade chemical pollutants, thus, a variety of bacteria are known that can be used in bio-remediation processes. In this study the development of mathematical models capable of describing bacterial behaviour considered in bio-augmentation plans, such as bacterial growth, consumption of nutrients, removal of pollutants, bacterial transport and attachment in porous media, is presented. The mathematical models may be used as a guide in designing and assessing the conditions under which areas contaminated with pollutants can be better remediated.

  15. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes.

  16. Hyperfine field calculations: search for muon stopping sites in Fe3O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekema, C.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Muon Spin Rotation (μSR) results for magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) are analyzed and discussed. At room temperature, a μSR signal is observed due to the presence of an internal magnetic field (Bsub(int)) at the muon site. External transverse field measurements show that Bsub(int) is parallel to the magnetic spin direction, the direction in zero applied field. Calculations of the hyperfine field to pinpoint muon stopping sites in magnetite show that the local field contains supertransfer (covalent) and dipolar field contributions. The implanted muons appear to stop at sites structurally similar to those reported for hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), where muon-oxygen bond formation was strongly indicated. (Auth.)

  17. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi 2 site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  19. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  20. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Open Field Scoring Record No. 770. Magnetometer FEREX DLG GPS/Sling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwatka, Mike; Packer, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site open field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Mike Karwatka and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise

  2. BigFoot Field Data for North American Sites, 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered field data for selected EOS Land Validation Sites in North America from 1999 to 2003. Data collected and derived for varying intervals...

  3. BigFoot Field Data for North American Sites, 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered field data for selected EOS Land Validation Sites in North America from 1999 to 2003. Data collected and derived for varying...

  4. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials

  5. Integration of pneumatic fracturing with bioremediation from the enhanced removal of BTX from low permeability gasoline-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, S.N.; Kosson, D.S.; Schuring, J.R.; Boland, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale evaluation of the integrated pneumatic fracturing and bioremediation system was carried out to demonstrate the enhanced removal of BTX from a gasoline contaminated, low permeability soil formation. The fracturing enhanced subsurface permeability by an average of over 36 times, and established an extended bioremediation zone supporting aerobic, denitrifying and methanogenic populations. Subsurface amendment injections consisting of phosphate and nitrogen were made periodically over a 50-week period to stimulate microbial activity. Results indicate that 79% of the soil-phase BTX was removed during the field test, with over 85% of the mass removed attributable to bioremediation

  6. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremediation (bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation. In this study the assisted bioremediation capacity on the rehabilitation of three natural sub-soils (granite, limestone and schist contaminated with benzene was evaluated. Two different types of assisted bioremediation were used: without and with ventilation (bioventing. The bioaugmentation was held by inoculating the soil with a consortium of microorganisms collected from the protection area of crude oil storage tanks in a refinery. In unventilated trials, biostimulation was accomplished by the addition of a nutrient mineral media, while in bioventing oxygen was also added. The tests were carried out at controlled temperature of 25 ºC in stainless steel columns where the moist soil contaminated with benzene (200 mg per kg of soil occupied about 40% of the column’s volume. The processes were daily monitored in discontinued mode. Benzene concentration in the gas phase was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-FID, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored by respirometry. The results revealed that the three contaminated soils were remediated using both technologies, nevertheless, the bioventing showed faster rates. With this work it was proved that respirometric analysis is an appropriate instrument for monitoring the biological activity.

  7. bioremediation of some environmental pollutants by the biological activity of fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sharkia governorate is an important area of egypt because it include an important places, economically and scientifically as 10th of Ramadan City which is the biggest industrial City and the nuclear reactor of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA). so that this study was conducted for isolation of some fungal bioremediators of the famous pollutants as some of heavy metals Mn +2 and Co +2 and some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)as textile direct dyes (orange,pink,red and black) regarding the aim of this study, which was conducted for isolation of some fungal bioremediators and study the bioremediation efficiency in the most suitable conditions for a success to attain bioremediation process of some dangerous heavy metals and / or toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic textile dyes, in addition to the biological pathways for the uptake of heavy metals and dyes accumulation and/or degradation and after finishing this study, it can be concluded that; the fungal microfolora of each polluted sites is best bioremediators for these sites

  8. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  9. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Identifying the Tunneling Site in Strong-Field Ionization of H_{2}^{+}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2017-12-15

    The tunneling site of the electron in a molecule exposed to a strong laser field determines the initial position of the ionizing electron and, as a result, has a large impact on the subsequent ultrafast electron dynamics on the polyatomic Coulomb potential. Here, the tunneling site of the electron of H_{2}^{+} ionized by a strong circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse is studied by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that the electron removed from the down-field site is directly driven away by the CP field and the lateral photoelectron momentum distribution (LPMD) exhibits a Gaussian-like distribution, whereas the corresponding LPMD of the electron removed from the up-field site differs from the Gaussian shape due to the Coulomb focusing and scattering by the down-field core. Our current study presents the direct evidence clarifying a long-standing controversy over the tunneling site in H_{2}^{+} and raises the important role of the tunneling site in strong-field molecular ionization.

  11. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.W.; Jarvis, J.; Richardson, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  12. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  13. Preferential transport of isoproturon at a plot scale and a field scale tile-drained site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Flühler, Hannes

    2001-06-01

    Irrigation experiments using the tracers Brilliant Blue (BB) and Bromide (Br) were conducted on three plots of 1.4×1.4 m 2 (plot scale) and a field scale subsurface drained test site (900 m 2) to clarify mechanisms causing rapid transport of surface applied Isoproturon (IPU) during preferential flow events. One of the small plots (site 10) and the field scale test site are located on the same field. One day after irrigation of the plot scale sites the Br and IPU concentration in two vertical soil profiles as well as the macroporousity on separate profiles and hydraulic properties of single macropores were determined. During irrigation of the field scale test site discharge, soil moisture as well as the concentration of IPU and Br in the drainage outlet were measured. Preferential flow in deep penetrating earthworm burrows caused a fast breakthrough of IPU and Br into the tile drain (1.2 m depth) at the field scale site as well as leaching of IPU into the subsoil (>0.8 m) at site 10. The results suggest a hierarchy of preconditions for the occurrence of preferential flow events of which a sufficient number of deep penetrating macropores interconnected to the soil surface seems to be the most important one. Moreover there is evidence that facilitated transport of IPU attached to mobile soil particles occurred during the preferential flow events at the field scale site and site 10. The susceptibility for preferential flow as well as the susceptibility for facilitated transport appear to be intrinsic properties of the investigated soil.

  14. Challenging oil bioremediation at deep-sea hydrostatic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Scoma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (biotechnology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons at deep-sea remain unanswered, as much as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil take up are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled-oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar and that of hydrocarbons degradation rates was largely overlooked, as the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea, despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation.

  15. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m 3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  16. Preliminary investigation on determination of radionuclide distribution in field tracing test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Guo Zede; Li Shushen; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1993-12-01

    Field tracing tests for radionuclide migration have been conducted by using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs, in the natural unsaturated loess zone at field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection. It is necessary to obtain confidable distribution data of the radionuclides in the test site, in order to evaluate exactly the migration behavior of the radionuclides in situ. An available method to determine the distribution was proposed on the basis of preliminary discussing results on sampling method of soils from the test site and analytical method of radioactivity in the soils. (author)

  17. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioremediation of a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer: simulation studies in laboratory aquifer columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Höhener, P.; Hunkeler, D.; Zeyer, J.

    1996-08-01

    The in situ bioremediation of aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is commonly based on the infiltration of groundwater supplemented with oxidants (e.g., O 2, NO 3-) and nutrients (e.g., NH 4+, PO 43-). These additions stimulate the microbial activity in the aquifer and several field studies describing the resulting processes have been published. However, due to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and due to the limited number of observation wells usually available, these field data do not offer a sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, flow-through columns of 47-cm length equipped with 17 sampling ports were filled with homogeneously contaminated aquifer material from a diesel fuel contaminated in situ bioremediation site. The columns were operated over 96 days at 12°C with artificial groundwater supplemented with O 2, NO 3- and PO 43-. Concentration profiles of O 2, NO 3-, NO 2-, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC, respectively), protein, microbial cells and total residual hydrocarbons were measured. Within the first 12 cm, corresponding to a mean groundwater residence time of < 3.6 h, a steep O 2 decrease from 4.6 to < 0.3 mg l -1, denitrification, a production of DIC and DOC, high microbial cell numbers and a high removal of hydrocarbons were observed. Within a distance of 24 to 40.5 cm from the infiltration, O 2 was below 0.1 mg l -1 and a denitrifying activity was found. In the presence and in the absence of O 2, n-alkanes were preferentially degraded compared to branched alkanes. The results demonstrate that: (1) infiltration of aerobic groundwater into columns filled with aquifer material contaminated with hydrocarbons leads to a rapid depletion of O 2; (2) O 2 and NO 3- can serve as oxidants for the mineralization of hydrocarbons; and (3) the modelling of redox processes in aquifers has to consider denitrifying activity in presence of O 2.

  19. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  1. Phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soils: application of Polygonum aviculare and its root-associated (penetrated) fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Fariba; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Zafari, Doustmorad; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Chehregani, Abdolkarim

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum-polluted soils are a common disaster in many countries. Bioremediation of oil contamination in soils is based on the stimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading fungal and microbial communities. A field study was conducted in a petroleum-contaminated site to find petroleum-resistant plants and their root-associated fungal strains for use in bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. Results and observations showed that the amounts of petroleum pollution in nonvegetated soils were several times higher than in vegetated soils. Plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas were identified using morphological characters. Results indicated that seven plant species were growing on the contaminated sites: Alhaji cameleron L. (Fabaceae), Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. retroflexus (Amaranthaceae), Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae), Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreg. (Euphorbiaceae), Noea mucronata L. (Boraginaceae), Poa sp. (Poaceae), and Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae). The root-associated fungi of each plant were determined and results showed the presence of 11 species that associated with and also penetrated the roots of plants growing in the polluted areas. Altenaria sp. was common to all of the plants and the others had species-specific distribution within the plants. The largest numbers of fungal species (six) were determined for P. aviculare and Poa sp. in polluted areas. However, the variation of fungal strains in the plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas was greater than for nonpolluted ones. Culture of fungi in oil-contaminated media showed that all the studied fungi were resistant to low petroleum pollution (1% v/v) and a few species, especially Fusarium species, showed resistance to higher petroleum pollution (10% v/v) and may be suitable for bioremediation in highly polluted areas. Bioremediation tests with P. aviculare, with and without fungal strains, showed that application of both the plant and its root-associated fungal

  2. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNaughton, S.J.; Stephen, J.R.; Chang, Y.J.; Davis, G.A.; White, D.C.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN

    1999-01-01

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination of the site and (ii) define an end point for the removal of the hydrocarbon substrate. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift in all plots from primarily eukaryotic biomass to gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. PLFA profiles from the oiled plots suggested increased gram-negative biomass and adaptation to metabolic stress compared to unoiled controls. DGGE analysis of untreated control plots revealed a simple, dynamic dominant population structure throughout the experiment. This banding pattern disappeared in all oiled plots, indicating that the structure and diversity of the dominant bacterial community changed substantially. No consistent differences were detected between nutrient-amended and indigenous inoculum-treated plots, but both differed from the oil-only plots. Prominent bands were excised for sequence analysis and indicated that oil treatment encouraged the growth of gram-negative microorganisms within the α-proteobacteria and Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides phylum. α-Proteobacteria were never detected in unoiled controls. PLFA analysis indicated that by week 14 the microbial community structures of the oiled plots were becoming similar to those of the unoiled controls from the same time point, but DGGE analysis suggested that major differences in the bacterial communities remained

  3. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  4. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or affect one or ...

  5. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The use of composting in bioremediation has received little attention (Potter et al., ..... Counts of microorganisms in the compost during composting. Values are means of three ..... chlorinated pesticides. J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.

  6. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.R.; Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediation MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were ...

  9. BTEX AND MTBE BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS™ CONTAINING SOS, PM1 AND ISOLITE®

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in situ BioNets could bioremediate MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets w...

  10. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS(TM) CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediation MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were ...

  11. MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MTBE, BTEX BIOREMEDIATION: BIONETS CONTAINING PM1, SOS, ISOLITE�

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) are major problems of many sites in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if biologically active in-situ BioNets could bioremediate MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater. Seven BioNets were plac...

  12. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter, carbon and ...

  13. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with. 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter ...

  14. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills †

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  15. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of an Arctic spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental site assessment was conducted in summer 2001 at Repulse Bay, Nunavut where a recent diesel spill flowed from groundwater into a small creek leading to Hudson Bay. The spill produced a microbial mat several mm in thickness and which colonized the creek for about 50 m from the point where the groundwater entered the creek. Further down the gradient, the mat increased in thickness and changed in colour from yellowish brown to green. Sedimentary iron deposition was occurring along the banks of the creek where the mat was found and a free phase diesel product was found a few mm below the sediment-water interface. The microbial mats were found to have gradients of oxygen which peaked at surface and decreased with depth. Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were formed by sulphate reduction. In comparison, an older weathered diesel spill did not appear to have much effect on the stream's geochemistry and did not form a microbial mat. It is noted that the mat may have formed in the new spill because its' volatile component may have had a toxic effect on bacterial predators in the stream. It was concluded that intrinsic bioremediation takes place through dissimilatory sulphate and iron reduction and aerobic degradation. This may be cause for about 13 per cent ppm of hydrocarbon degradation known as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  17. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  18. [The assessment of radionuclide contamination and toxicity of soils sampled from "experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A; Kriazheva, E Iu

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale maps (1:25000) of soil contamination with radionuclides, lateral distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, Fe and Mn water-soluble compounds and soil toxicity in "Experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were charted. At present soils from studied site (4 km2) according to basic sanitary standards of radiation safety adopted in Russian Federation (OSPORB) do not attributed to radioactive wastes with respect to data on artificial radionuclide concentration, but they do in compliance with IAEA safety guide. The soils studied can not be released from regulatory control due to radioactive decay of 137Cs and 90Sr and accumulation-decay of 241Am up to 2106 year according to IAEA concept of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Data on bioassay "increase of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer biomass production in aqueous extract from soils" show that the largest part of soils from the studied site (74%) belongs to stimulating or insignificantly influencing on the algae reproduction due to water-soluble compounds effect. Toxic soils occupy 26% of the territory. The main factors effecting the algae reproduction in the aqueous extracts from soil are Fe concentration and 90Sr specific activity: 90Sr inhibits but Fe stimulates algae biomass production.

  19. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  20. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE

  1. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays

  2. Elucidating the fate of a mixed toluene, DHM, methanol, and i-propanol plume during in situ bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, E.; Atteia, O.; Prommer, H.

    2017-06-01

    Organic pollutants such as solvents or petroleum products are widespread contaminants in soil and groundwater systems. In-situ bioremediation is a commonly used remediation technology to clean up the subsurface to eliminate the risks of toxic substances to reach potential receptors in surface waters or drinking water wells. This study discusses the development of a subsurface model to analyse the performance of an actively operating field-scale enhanced bioremediation scheme. The study site was affected by a mixed toluene, dihydromyrcenol (DHM), methanol, and i-propanol plume. A high-resolution, time-series of data was used to constrain the model development and calibration. The analysis shows that the observed failure of the treatment system is linked to an inefficient oxygen injection pattern. Moreover, the model simulations also suggest that additional contaminant spillages have occurred in 2012. Those additional spillages and their associated additional oxygen demand resulted in a significant increase in contaminant fluxes that remained untreated. The study emphasises the important role that reactive transport modelling can play in data analyses and for enhancing remediation efficiency.

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Application of data assimilation technique for flow field simulation for Kaiga site using TAPM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, R.; Oza, R.B.; Puranik, V.D.; Hegde, M.N.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data assimilation techniques are becoming popular nowadays to get realistic flow field simulation for the site under consideration. The present paper describes data assimilation technique for flow field simulation for Kaiga site using the air pollution model (TAPM) developed by CSIRO, Australia. In this, the TAPM model was run for Kaiga site for a period of one month (Nov. 2004) using the analysed meteorological data supplied with the model for Central Asian (CAS) region and the model solutions were nudged with the observed wind speed and wind direction data available for the site. The model was run with 4 nested grids with grid spacing varying from 30km, 10km, 3km and 1km respectively. The models generated results with and without nudging are statistically compared with the observations. (author)

  5. Investigating the biogeochemical interactions involved in simultaneous TCE and Arsenic in situ bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E.; Troyer, E.; Keren, R.; Liu, T.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The in situ bioremediation of contaminated sediment and groundwater is often focused on one toxin, even though many of these sites contain multiple contaminants. This reductionist approach neglects how other toxins may affect the biological and chemical conditions, or vice versa. Therefore, it is of high value to investigate the concurrent bioremediation of multiple contaminants while studying the microbial activities affected by biogeochemical factors. A prevalent example is the bioremediation of arsenic at sites co-contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE). The conditions used to promote a microbial community to dechlorinate TCE often has the adverse effect of inducing the release of previously sequestered arsenic. The overarching goal of our study is to simultaneously evaluate the bioremediation of arsenic and TCE. Although TCE bioremediation is a well-understood process, there is still a lack of thorough understanding of the conditions necessary for effective and stable arsenic bioremediation in the presence of TCE. The objective of this study is to promote bacterial activity that stimulates the precipitation of stable arsenic-bearing minerals while providing anaerobic, non-extreme conditions necessary for TCE dechlorination. To that end, endemic microbial communities were examined under various conditions to attempt successful sequestration of arsenic in addition to complete TCE dechlorination. Tested conditions included variations of substrates, carbon source, arsenate and sulfate concentrations, and the presence or absence of TCE. Initial arsenic-reducing enrichments were unable to achieve TCE dechlorination, probably due to low abundance of dechlorinating bacteria in the culture. However, favorable conditions for arsenic precipitation in the presence of TCE were eventually discovered. This study will contribute to the understanding of the key species in arsenic cycling, how they are affected by various concentrations of TCE, and how they interact with the key

  6. Bioremediation of PAHs and VOCs: Advances in clay mineral-microbial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Bioremediation is an effective strategy for cleaning up organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Advanced bioremediation implies that biotic agents are more efficient in degrading the contaminants completely. Bioremediation by microbial degradation is often employed and to make this process efficient, natural and cost-effective materials can serve as supportive matrices. Clay/modified clay minerals are effective adsorbents of PAHs/VOCs, and readily available substrate and habitat for microorganisms in the natural soil and sediment. However, the mechanism underpinning clay-mediated biodegradation of organic compounds is often unclear, and this requires critical investigation. This review describes the role of clay/modified clay minerals in hydrocarbon bioremediation through interaction with microbial agents in specific scenarios. The vision is on a faster, more efficient and cost-effective bioremediation technique using clay-based products. This review also proposes future research directions in the field of clay modulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ bioremediation of the saturated zone: It can be done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, A.; Kennel, N.D.; Jaworski, C.

    1994-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used to successfully reduce contaminant levels at a site located in central Iowa. At this site, indigenous microbial populations are being stimulated by the addition of nutrients and oxygen to degrade the contaminants of interest. The site is a former service station and an automobile repair facility. Gasoline and diesel fuel stored underground and/or dispensed through pumps leaked into the subsurface over a period of forty years. A site assessment revealed that significant adsorbed, dissolved, and phase separated contamination was present beneath the surface. A pump and treat system was installed in 1990 by others to treat the ground water contamination and achieve hydraulic control. Biotreatability studies indicated that bioremediation would be an effective remedial option for this site and in May 1992, the treatment system was retrofitted in order to expedite remediation. Microbial populations, ionic nutrient concentrations, physical, and contaminant data were evaluated over time to optimize treatment

  8. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  9. Woodlouse locomotor behavior in the assessment of clean and contaminated field sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayley, M.; Baatrup, E. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biological Sciences; Bjerregaard, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1997-11-01

    Specimens of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus were collected at four clean field sites and from a recently closed iron foundry heavily contaminated with zinc, lead, chromium, and nickel. Each of the 30 woodlice per group was housed individually and acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 2 d on a humid plaster of paris substrate. Thereafter, the locomotor behavior of each animal was measured for 4 h employing automated computer-aided video tracking. Linear discriminant analysis of five locomotor parameters revealed average velocity and path length as the principle components separating the polluted site and control animals. Post hoc analysis of the discriminant variable for animals from all five sites showed that the animals from the polluted site where significantly hyperactive when compared to all controls. Further, control animals collected from sites separated by several hundred kilometers were remarkably similar in their locomotor behavior. This preliminary study highlights the potential utility of quantitative analysis of animal locomotor behavior in environmental monitoring.

  10. Bioremediation of soils and sediments containing PAHs and PCP using Daramend trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration of Grace Dearborn's Daramend trademark for bioremediation of soil containing chlorinated phenols, PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted at an industrial wood treatment site in Ontario. A pilot-scale demonstration of Daramend for the clean-up of sediments contaminated with PAHs was also conducted. The full-scale demonstration, which includes bioremediation of approximately 4,500 m 3 of soil, was initiated at a wood preserving facility in Ontario, in the summer of 1993. The soil contains chlorinated phenols, PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations of up to 700, 1,400 and 6,300 mg/kg respectively. Full-scale bioremediation at this site employs the same Daramend protocols and organic amendment treatments that were used at the pilot-scale phase where the PAH, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and pentachlorophenol concentrations were reduced to below the Canadian clean-up guidelines for industrial soils. In addition, the toxicity of the soil to earthworms was eliminated while the rate of seed germination was increased to that of an agricultural soil during the pilot scale demonstration phase. The ex-situ portion of the full-scale demonstration is currently being audited by the EPA under the SITE program. This paper will focus on the ex-situ work. The pilot-scale demonstration of sediment remediation consisted of ex-situ bioremediation of approximately 90 tonnes of PAH-contaminated sediment in a confined treatment area

  11. Review of heavy metal bio-remediation in contaminated freeway facilitated by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity around biological systems is a significant issue for environmental health in a long term. Recent biotechnological approaches for bio-remediation of heavy metals in freeway frequently include mineralization, bio-adsorption or even remediation. Thus, adequate restoration in freeway requiring cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bio-remediation was reviewed with highlights to better understand problems associated with toxicity of heavy metals and eco-friendly technologies.

  12. Bioremediation 3.0: Engineering pollutant-removing bacteria in the times of systemic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvořák, Pavel; Nikel, Pablo Ivan; Damborskýc, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    pollutants with no external intervention, the onset of genetic engineering in the 1980s allowed the possibility of rational design of bacteria to catabolize specific compounds, which could eventually be released into the environment as bioremediation agents. The complexity of this endeavour and the lack...... of fundamental knowledge nonetheless led to the virtual abandonment of such a recombinant DNA-based bioremediation only a decade later. In a twist of events, the last few years have witnessed the emergence of new systemic fields (including systems and synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering) that allow....... In this article, we analyze how contemporary systemic biology is helping to take the design of bioremediation agents back to the core of environmental biotechnology. We inspect a number of recent strategies for catabolic pathway construction and optimization and we bring them together by proposing an engineering...

  13. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in that they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors subject to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions

  14. Guidelines for the Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document includes a review and critique of the literature and theories pertinent to oil biodegradation and nutrient dynamics and provides examples of bioremediation options and case studies of oil bioremediation in coastal wetland environments.

  15. A geometric construction of traveling waves in a bioremediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, M.A.; Doelman, A.; Kaper, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for cleaning contaminated soil. We study an idealized bioremediation model involving a substrate (contaminant to be removed), electron acceptor (added nutrient), and microorganisms in a one-dimensional soil column. Using geometric singular perturbation theory,

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of diesel-contaminated cold groundwater in bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, K.M.; Biggar, K.W.; Guigard, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Natural attenuation refers to the natural process by which contaminants in groundwater or soil are reduced through a combination of physico-chemical processes and biodegradation by indigenous organisms. The physico chemical processes include advection, dilution, dispersion, sorption, volatilization and abiotic transformation. This study evaluated the historical contaminant and geochemical evidence of natural attenuation at a well site where groundwater had been contaminated by a diesel fuel leak in 1982. In particular, evidence of intrinsic bioremediation was evaluated. Evidence of microbial activity was determined by most probably number (MPN) and commercial biological activity reaction tests. Groundwater samples from the site were incubated in a laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with electron acceptor and nutrient amendment to assess microbial activity. Mineralization of carbon 14-dodecane was measured to determine aerobic biodegradation rates. Anaerobic biodegradation rates were calculated from the depletion of total extractable hydrocarbon over 717 days. Nutrient addition increased the anaerobic first-order biodegradation rate from 0.0005 to 0.0016 per day. It was suggested controlled nutrient addition can improve the current slow rates of intrinsic bioremediation. 33 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Bioremediation of petrochemical sludge from oil refining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.J.; Sambasivam, Yasodha

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum refineries have historically produced large quantities of hydrocarbon sludge as a waste product. A common past practice for disposal of this material was to deposit it in open pits. These hazardous waste sites now require remediation to meet current environmental regulations. This report will present data from a feasibility study on bioremediation for one such site. Data will be presented on the characteristics and composition of the crude sludge including organic analysis by GC/MS techniques, loss on ignition, TOC pH, oil and grease levels, metals content by atomic adsorption and bacteria plate counts. The effectiveness of bioremediation will be examined using data from shaker flask studies with indigenous and other bacteria sources. Key parameters being monitored will include toxicity using a Microtox assay, oil and grease levels, and the concentration of individual chemical species using GC/MS analysis. Biological data such as bacteria growth rates and nutrient uptake rates will also be presented and compared to biodegradation rates

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  20. Ecotoxicological evaluation of diesel-contaminated soil before and after a bioremediation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Barahona, L; Vega-Loyo, L; Guerrero, M; Ramírez, S; Romero, I; Vega-Jarquín, C; Albores, A

    2005-02-01

    Evaluation of contaminated sites is usually performed by chemical analysis of pollutants in soil. This is not enough either to evaluate the environmental risk of contaminated soil nor to evaluate the efficiency of soil cleanup techniques. Information on the bioavailability of complex mixtures of xenobiotics and degradation products cannot be totally provided by chemical analytical data, but results from bioassays can integrate the effects of pollutants in complex mixtures. In the preservation of human health and environment quality, it is important to assess the ecotoxicological effects of contaminated soils to obtain a better evaluation of the healthiness of this system. The monitoring of a diesel-contaminated soil and the evaluation of a bioremediation technique conducted on a microcosm scale were performed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests including phytotoxicity, Daphnia magna, and nematode assays. In this study we biostimulated the native microflora of soil contaminated with diesel by adding nutrients and crop residue (corn straw) as a bulking agent and as a source of microorganisms and nutrients; in addition, moisture was adjusted to enhance diesel removal. The bioremediation process efficiency was evaluated directly by an innovative, simple phytotoxicity test system and the diesel extracts by Daphnia magna and nematode assays. Contaminated soil samples were revealed to have toxic effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and Daphnia survival. After biostimulation, the diesel concentration was reduced by 50.6%, and the soil samples showed a significant reduction in phytotoxicity (9%-15%) and Daphnia assays (3-fold), confirming the effectiveness of the bioremediation process. Results from our microcosm study suggest that in addition to the evaluation of the bioremediation processes efficiency, toxicity testing is different with organisms representative of diverse phylogenic levels. The integration of analytical, toxicological and bioremediation data

  1. Performance parameters for ex situ bioremediation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology to reduce the concentration of undesirable hydrocarbons, i.e. gasoline and diesel fuel pollution, is very attractive due to its apparent benign nature and potentially low cost. When good industrial practices are used in the design, construction, and administration of the bioremediation system, the performance of the technology can be predicted and monitored. Some of the principles behind the design, construction, and operation of ex situ bioremediation systems and facilities are described. Biological considerations include creation of a favorable environment for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soils, selection of bacteria, and bacterial byproducts. Chemical considerations include nutrient augmentation, oxygen availability, and the use of surfactants and dispersants. Physical considerations include soil textures and structures, soil temperatures, moisture content, and the use of bulking agents. Experience has shown that indigenous microbes will usually be sufficient to implement bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons if encouraged through the application of fertilizers. The introduction of additional carbon sources may be considered if rapid bioremediation rates are desired or if soil conditions are poor. Adjustments to a bioremediation system may be made to enhance the performance of the bacterial community by introducing bulking agents and external temperature sources. Surfactants may be helpful in promoting bacteria-hydrocarbon contact and may be particularly useful for mobilization of free-phase hydrocarbons. 7 refs

  2. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Transformations associated with Cr(VI) Bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth H.; Conrad, Mark E.; Faybishenko, Boris; Peterson, John; Chen, Jinsong; Long, Philip E.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how hydrological and biogeochemical properties change over space and time in response to remedial treatments is hindered by our ability to monitor these processes with sufficient resolution and over field relevant scales. Here, we explored the use of geophysical approaches for monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological and biogeochemical transformations associated with a Cr(VI)bioremediation experiment performed at Hanford, WA. We first integrated hydrological wellbore and geophysical tomographic datasets to estimate hydrological zonation at the study site. Using results from laboratory biogeophysical experiments and constraints provided by field geochemical datasets, we then interpreted time-lapse seismic and radar tomographic datasets, collected during thirteen acquisition campaigns over a three year experimental period, in terms of hydrological and biogeochemical transformations. The geophysical monitoring datasets were used to infer: the spatial distribution of injected electron donor; the evolution of gas bubbles; variations in total dissolved solids (nitrate and sulfate) as a function of pumping activity; the formation of precipitates and dissolution of calcites; and concomitant changes in porosity. Although qualitative in nature, the integrated interpretation illustrates how geophysical techniques have the potential to provide a wealth of information about coupled hydrobiogeochemical responses to remedial treatments in high spatial resolution and in a minimally invasive manner. Particularly novel aspects of our study include the use of multiple lines of evidence to constrain the interpretation of a long-term, field-scale geophysical monitoring dataset and the interpretation of the transformations as a function of hydrological heterogeneity and pumping activity

  3. Crystal-fields at rare-earth sites in R2Fe14B compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, G.; Burzo, E.

    1985-12-01

    Crystal-field effects are expected to be important in R 2 Fe 14 B compounds. Within a model-independent approach, it is proved that four distinct rare-earth sites exist with respect to the crystalline electric fields, namely, R(4f; z=0), R(4f; z=0.5 c), R(4g; z=0), and R(4g; z=0.5 c), and relationships are established between the corresponding crystal-fields coefficients. Further, generalized Stevens parametrizations of the crystal field coefficients are derived at three levels of approximation for the interatomic forces inside the crystal. A crystal lattice dressing effect upon the radial electronic integrals is found to occur, the magnitude of which depends on the deviation of the interatomic forces from Coulombian. Finally, computation of crystal-field coefficients in Nd 2 Fe 14 B leads to results which raise questions about the validity of the simple Coulomb point-charge model. (author)

  4. Performance of in situ chemical oxidation field demonstrations at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been investigating the use of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate organic contaminants (VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs) in soils and groundwater at the laboratory and field scales. Field scale design parameters (e.g., oxidant loading rates and oxidant delivery techniques) are often dictated by site conditions (e.g., soil properties and initial contaminant concentrations). Chemical destruction of organic compounds can be accomplished using a variety of oxidants. Recent research has involved field scale in situ chemical oxidation demonstrations using H 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 in conjunction with soil mixing as the oxidant delivery mechanism. A description of some of these fields activities and future field-scale work is presented here

  5. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems

  6. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  7. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  8. Reduction and immobilization of uranium in the subsurface: controls, mechanisms, and implications for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stylo, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    Decades of uranium (U) mining, milling and military use left a legacy of U contamination around the world. The radioactivity and chemical toxicity of U at contaminated sites pose an acute and long-term hazard to human health and the surrounding environment. In order to diminish the risk, in situ bioremediation methods, which contribute to contaminant immobilization, are proposed. Nevertheless, the reported prevalent formation of labile and non-crystalline U(IV) species as a result of microbial U(VI) reduction, in contrast to more stable and crystalline uraninite, undermines the effectiveness of the applied bioremediation. Therefore, a holistic understanding of the controls and mechanisms that govern the formation of non-crystalline U(IV) in the environment is at the core of this thesis. Presence of common groundwater solutes (sulfate, silicate and phosphate) were shown to induce the production of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (biofilm matrix components), which in turn increases the formation of non-crystalline U(IV) as a result of microbial U reduction. In contrast, a field study suggested that non-crystalline U(IV) was a product of abiotic U reduction followed by the sequestration of U(IV) ions by the biofilm matrix. Those contrasting theories, motivated us to look for an indicator capable of differentiating between biotic and abiotic U reduction in the environment. Uranium isotope fractionation proved to be an excellent tool. Based on our results, the isotopic signature of biotic U reduction (accumulation of {sup 238}U in the reduced phase) is easily distinguishable from the abiotic U reduction signature (either no isotopic fractionation or fractionation in the opposite direction). When contrasted with U isotope signatures recorded in the sediments, the findings of this study indicated that biological activity contributed to the formation of many ancient and modern U(IV) deposits. Equipped with a tool capable of assessing the origin of the U

  9. Reduction and immobilization of uranium in the subsurface: controls, mechanisms, and implications for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylo, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of uranium (U) mining, milling and military use left a legacy of U contamination around the world. The radioactivity and chemical toxicity of U at contaminated sites pose an acute and long-term hazard to human health and the surrounding environment. In order to diminish the risk, in situ bioremediation methods, which contribute to contaminant immobilization, are proposed. Nevertheless, the reported prevalent formation of labile and non-crystalline U(IV) species as a result of microbial U(VI) reduction, in contrast to more stable and crystalline uraninite, undermines the effectiveness of the applied bioremediation. Therefore, a holistic understanding of the controls and mechanisms that govern the formation of non-crystalline U(IV) in the environment is at the core of this thesis. Presence of common groundwater solutes (sulfate, silicate and phosphate) were shown to induce the production of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (biofilm matrix components), which in turn increases the formation of non-crystalline U(IV) as a result of microbial U reduction. In contrast, a field study suggested that non-crystalline U(IV) was a product of abiotic U reduction followed by the sequestration of U(IV) ions by the biofilm matrix. Those contrasting theories, motivated us to look for an indicator capable of differentiating between biotic and abiotic U reduction in the environment. Uranium isotope fractionation proved to be an excellent tool. Based on our results, the isotopic signature of biotic U reduction (accumulation of 238 U in the reduced phase) is easily distinguishable from the abiotic U reduction signature (either no isotopic fractionation or fractionation in the opposite direction). When contrasted with U isotope signatures recorded in the sediments, the findings of this study indicated that biological activity contributed to the formation of many ancient and modern U(IV) deposits. Equipped with a tool capable of assessing the origin of the U(IV) product

  10. Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)

  11. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture trademark condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox reg-sign Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox reg-sign bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products

  12. The Western Arabian intracontinental volcanic fields as a potential UNESCO World Heritage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2017-04-01

    UNESCO promotes conservation of the geological and geomoprhological heritage through promotion of protection of these sites and development of educational programs under the umbrella of geoparks among the most globally significant ones labelled as UNESCO Global Geoparks. UNESCO also maintains a call to list those natural sites that provide universal outstanding values to demonstrate geological features or their relevance to our understanding the evolution of Earth. Volcanoes currently got a surge in nomination to be UNESCO World Heritage sites. Volcanic fields in the contrary fell in a grey area of nominations as they represents the most common manifestation of volcanism on Earth hence they are difficult to view as having outstanding universal values. A nearly 2500-km long 300-km wide region of dispersed volcanoes located in the Western Arabian Penninsula mostly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia form a near-continuous location that carries universal outstanding value as one of the most representative manifestation of dispersed intracontinental volcanism on Earth to be nominated as an UNESCO World Heritage site. The volcanic fields formed in the last 20 Ma along the Red Sea as group of simple basaltic to more mature and long-lived basalt to trachyte-to-rhyolite volcanic fields each carries high geoheritage values. While these volcanic fields are dominated by scoria and spatter cones and transitional lava fields, there are phreatomagmatic volcanoes among them such as maars and tuff rings. Phreatomagmatism is more evident in association with small volcanic edifices that were fed by primitive magmas, while phreatomagmatic influences during the course of a larger volume eruption are also known in association with the silicic eruptive centres in the harrats of Rahat, Kishb and Khaybar. Three of the volcanic fields are clearly bimodal and host small-volume relatively short-lived lava domes and associated block-and-ash fans providing a unique volcanic landscape commonly not

  13. Evaluating bioremediation: distinguishing fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, M J; Unterman, R

    1993-01-01

    Bioremediation options encompass diverse types of biochemical mechanisms that may lead to a target's mineralization, partial transformation, humification, or altered redox state (e.g. for metallic elements). Because these various mechanisms produce alternative fates of the targeted pollutants, it is often necessary to use diverse evaluation criteria to qualify a successful bioremediation. Too often target depletion from a treated matrix can be mistakenly ascribed to biological activity when in fact the depletion is caused by abiotic losses (e.g. volatilization, leaching, and stripping). Thus, effective, and therefore convincing, evaluation requires that experimental and engineering designs anticipate all possible routes of target depletion and that these routes be carefully monitored.

  14. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  15. Extent and persistence of secondary water quality impacts after enhanced reductive bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.; Jason M. Tillotson,; Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Electron donor (ED) addition can be very effective in stimulating enhanced reductive bioremediation (ERB) of a wide variety of groundwater contaminants. However, ERB can result in Secondary Water Quality Impacts (SWQIs) including decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3- ), and sulfate (SO42- ), and elevated levels of dissolved manganese (Mn2+), dissolved iron (Fe2+), methane (CH4), sulfide (S2- ), organic carbon, and naturally occurring hazardous compounds (e.g., arsenic). Fortunately, this ‘plume’ of impacted groundwater is usually confined within the original contaminant plume and is unlikely to adversely impact potable water supplies. This report summarizes available information on processes controlling the production and natural attenuation of SWQI parameters and can be used as a guide in understanding the magnitude, areal extent, and duration of SWQIs in ERB treatment zones and the natural attenuation of SWQI parameters as the dissolved solutes migrate downgradient with ambient groundwater flow. This information was compiled from a wide variety of sources including a survey and statistical analysis of SWQIs from 47 ERB sites, geochemical model simulations, field studies at sites where organic-rich materials have entered the subsurface (e.g., wastewater, landfill leachate, and hydrocarbon plumes), and basic information on physical, chemical, and biological processes in the subsurface. This information is then integrated to provide a general conceptual model of the major processes controlling SWQI production and attenuation.

  16. Fuzzy systems modeling of in situ bioremediation of chlorinatedsolve n ts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris; Hazen, Terry C.

    2001-09-05

    A large-scale vadose zone-groundwater bioremediationdemonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by injectingseveral types of gases (ambient air, methane, and nitrous oxide andtriethyl phosphate mixtures) through a horizontal well in the groundwaterat a 175 ft depth. Simultaneously, soil gas was extracted through aparallel horizontal well in the vadose zone at a 80 ft depth Monitoringrevealed a wide range of spatial and temporal variations ofconcentrations of VOCs, enzymes, and biomass in groundwater and vadosezone monitoring boreholes over the field site. One of the powerful modernapproaches to analyze uncertain and imprecise data chemical data is basedon the use of methods of fuzzy systems modeling. Using fuzzy modeling weanalyzed the spatio-temporal TCE and PCE concentrations and methanotrophdensities in groundwater to assess the effectiveness of differentcampaigns of air stripping and bioremediation, and to determine the fuzzyrelationship between these compounds. Our analysis revealed some detailsabout the processes involved in remediation, which were not identified inthe previous studies of the SRS demonstration. We also identified somefuture directions for using fuzzy systems modeling, such as theevaluation of the mass balance of the vadose zone - groundwater system,and the development of fuzzy-ruled methods for optimization of managingremediation activities, predictions, and risk assessment.

  17. Can field-in-field technique replace wedge filter in radiotherapy treatment planning: a comparative analysis in various treatment sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.; Julka, P.K.; Rath, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether field-in-field (FIF) technique can be used to replace wedge filter in radiation treatment planning. The study was performed in cases where wedges are commonly used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Thirty patients with different malignancies who received radiotherapy were studied. This includes patients with malignancies of brain, head and neck, breast, upper and lower abdomen. All the patients underwent computed tomography scanning and the datasets were transferred to the treatment planning system. Initially, wedge based planning was performed to achieve the best possible dose distribution inside the target volume with multileaf collimators (Plan1). Wedges were removed from a copy of the same plan and FIF plan was generated (Plan2). The two plans were then evaluated and compared for mean dose, maximum dose, median dose, doses to 2% (D 2 ) and 98% (D 9 8) of the target volume, volume receiving greater than 107% of the prescribed dose (V>107%), volume receiving less than 95% of the prescribed dose (V 2 , V>107% and CI for more of the sites with statistically significant reduction in monitor units. FIF results in better dose distribution in terms of homogeneity in most of the sites. It is feasible to replace wedge filter with FIF in radiotherapy treatment planning.

  18. Increased field-emission site density from regrown carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Gupta, S.; Liang, M.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron field-emission properties of as-grown, etched, and regrown carbon nanotube thin films were investigated. The aligned carbon nanotube films were deposited by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. The surface of the as-grown film contained a carbon nanotube mat of amorphous carbon and entangled nanotubes with some tubes protruding from the surface. Hydrogen plasma etching resulted in the removal of the surface layer, and regrowth on the etched surface displayed the formation of a new carbon nanotube mat. The emission site density and the current-voltage dependence of the field emission from all of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that the as-grown sample had a few strong emission spots and a relatively high emission current density (∼20 μA/cm 2 at 1 V/μm), while the regrown sample exhibited a significantly increased emission site density

  19. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  20. Safety assessment of hypothetical near surface disposal at Serpong site: far-field modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, E.; D Mallants; G Volckraert

    2001-01-01

    The far field modeling of radionuclide disposed at Serpong site was carried out based on the hydrogeological data. The simulation of radionuclide in the groundwater was calculated by the PORFLOW computer code. The groundwater simulation was done for 2 cases. In the first case the conductivity of soil layer at Serpong site contains of two layers and in the second case just contains of one layer. The results of the first case, indicated that the flow calculations show that depending on the location of the disposal site, radionuclides that are released from the repository may either show up in the nearby Cisalak creek or in Cisadane river. The results of the second case indicated that the local flow system exist. This means that all radionuclides that migrate out of the repository will appear in the Cisalak creek. The transport time for radionuclides with a low retardation factor in lateric clay soil is around 10 years for a travel of 200 m distance

  1. In-situ bioremediation: Or how to get nutrients to all the contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.S.; Scovazzo, P.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. Bioremediation is winning favor primarily because the soil may be treated on site and systems can be installed to operate without interfering with facility activities. Although bioremediation has been utilized for many years, its acceptance as a cost-effective approach is only now being realized. KEMRON applied in-situ bioremediation at a retired rail yard which had maintained a diesel locomotive refueling station supplied by two 20,000 gallon above ground storage tanks. Contamination originated from both spillage at the pumps and leaking fuel distribution lines. The contamination spread over a 3 acre area from the surface to a depth of up to 20 feet. Levels of diesel contamination found in the soil ranged from less than a 100 ppm to more than 25,000 ppm. The volume of soil which ultimately required treatment was more than 60,000 cubic yards. Several remedial options were examined including excavation and disposal. Excavation was rejected because it would have been cost prohibitive due to the random distribution of the contaminated soil. In-situ Bioremediation was selected as the only alternative which could successfully treat all the contaminated soils. This paper focuses on how KEMRON solved four major problems which would have prevented a successful remediation project. These problems were: soil compaction, random distribution of contaminated soils, potential free product, and extremely high levels of dissolved iron in the groundwater

  2. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for α, β and γ emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for γ and α/β monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in α/β liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure 241 Am produced from 241 Pu by β decay. Because 241 Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., 137 Cs)

  3. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  5. Bioremediation of petroleum products impacted freshwater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation seeks to degrade or decompose toxic pollutants in the environment into less harmful ones using organisms. This is achieved when the organisms metabolize the pollutants for cellular growth. Algae grow naturally in puddles, drainages and on wet soils and could constitute a nuisance when they cause ...

  6. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, M.C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  7. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  8. Bioremediation potential of Lentinus subnudus in decontaminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    in bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil amended with plantain peels. Keywords: ... accepted as a method for treating contaminated soil. This technology takes advantage of the .... (0.03mg/l), Chromium (0.025mg/l), Cadmium. (1.28mg/l) ...

  9. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  10. States' attitudes on the use of bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.; Graham, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results from a telephone survey of state government program coordinators and representatives from companies performing full-scale bioremediation shows differences among states in the use and degree of acceptance of bioremediation for environmental cleanup. The survey also found that states vary in the potential future direction of regulatory activity concerning bioremediation. The survey focused primarily on underground storage tank (UST) cleanups. Diminishing state UST cleanup funds have provided the impetus for many states to consider alternative cost-effective measures in order to continue with cleanups. In recent years, more than 30 states have either implemented programs that consider the cost-effectiveness of various cleanup measures, or are considering adoption of programs that are founded on risk-based corrective action. Less than a dozen states were considered as having made significant strides in innovative technology utilization. Forums whereby state groups can exchange ideas and experiences associated with the practical application of bioremediation will facilitate this nationwide movement towards cost-effective cleanup

  11. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.G.; Harner, E.J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  12. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  13. Site-specific waste management instruction for the field sampling organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for the management of waste generated from field-sampling activities performed by the Environment Restoration Contractor (ERC) Sampling Organization that are not managed as part of a project SSWMI. Generally, the waste is unused preserved groundwater trip blanks, used and expired calibration solutions, and other similar waste that cannot be returned to an ERC project for disposal. The specific waste streams addressed by this SSWMI are identified in Section 2.0. This SSWMI was prepared in accordance with BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements. Waste generated from field sample collection activities should be returned to the project and managed in accordance with the applicable project-specific SSWMI whenever possible. However, returning all field sample collection and associated waste to a project for disposal may not always be practical or cost effective. Therefore, the ERC field sampling organization must manage and arrange to dispose of the waste using the (Bechtel Hanford, Inc. [BHI]) Field Support Waste Management (FSWM) services. This SSWMI addresses those waste streams that are the responsibility of the field sampling organization to manage and make arrangements for disposal

  14. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  15. Remediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater: best technology assessment between pump&treat and bioremediation by oxygen injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Baldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX dissolved in the groundwater and migrated from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL source in an alluvial aquifer required a remedial action to be taken by the responsible party as established by the Italian regulation (Legislative Decree 152/06 and subsequent amendments. For such purpose, field investigations were conducted on site in order to define the site conceptual model and to identify the appropriate remediation technology to be applied. The remediation design was developed by means of a flow and reactive transport mathematical model, applied to saturated media, using the numerical codes MODFLOW and RT3D. Groundwater field observations showed evidence of occurring BTEX biodegradation processes by bacteria naturally present in the aquifer. Since such specific bacterial activity would be significantly enhanced by the injection of free oxygen in the aquifer, the performance of traditional pump and treat systems (P&T was assessed and compared with cost/efficiency of reactive oxygen bio-barrier technology (OD. The results showed a clear advantage in terms of cost/efficiency with the application of the OD. This presents an overall cost of about 30% of the P&T installation and maintenance, and it reaches remedial target in a shorter timeframe. Moreover, the system is also applicable as a bioremediation technology in case of Environmental Emergency Measures (MISE. The site examined is part of an industrial plant located in Central Italy.

  16. Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge-contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nitu; Patle, Sonali; Lal, Banwari

    2010-03-01

    Primitive wax refining techniques had resulted in almost 50,000 tonnes of acidic oily sludge (pH 1-3) being accumulated inside the Digboi refinery premises in Assam state, northeast India. A novel yeast species Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 was obtained that could degrade the acidic petroleum hydrocarbons at pH 3 under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation potential of this strain under laboratory and field conditions. The ability of TERI ASN6 to degrade the hydrocarbons found in the acidic oily sludge was established by gravimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Following this, a feasibility study was done, on site, to study various treatments for the remediation of the acidic sludge. Among the treatments, the application of C. digboiensis TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed the highest degradation of the acidic oily sludge. This treatment was then selected for the full-scale bioremediation study conducted on site, inside the refinery premises. The novel yeast strain TERI ASN6 could degrade 40 mg of eicosane in 50 ml of minimal salts medium in 10 days and 72% of heneicosane in 192 h at pH 3. The degradation of alkanes yielded monocarboxylic acid intermediates while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene found in the acidic oily sludge yielded the oxygenated intermediate pyrenol. In the feasibility study, the application of TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed a reduction of solvent extractable total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 160 to 28.81 g kg(-1) soil as compared to a TPH reduction from 183.85 to 151.10 g kg(-1) soil in the untreated control in 135 days. The full-scale bioremediation study in a 3,280-m(2) area in the refinery showed a reduction of TPH from 184.06 to 7.96 g kg(-1) soil in 175 days. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes is a well-known phenomenon, but most microbes are unable to withstand the low pH conditions found in Digboi refinery. The strain C. digboiensis could efficiently degrade

  17. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  18. Post Audit of a Field Scale Reactive Transport Model of Uranium at a Former Mill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site near Naturita CO has been monitored for nearly 30 years by the US Department of Energy and the US Geological Survey. Groundwater at the site has high concentrations of chloride, alkalinity and U(VI) as a owing to ore processing at the site from 1941 to 1974. We previously calibrated a multicomponent reactive transport model to data collected at the site from 1986 to 2001. A two dimensional nonreactive transport model used a uniform hydraulic conductivity which was estimated from observed chloride concentrations and tritium helium age dates. A reactive transport model for the 2km long site was developed by including an equilibrium U(VI) surface complexation model calibrated to laboratory data and calcite equilibrium. The calibrated model reproduced both nonreactive tracers as well as the observed U(VI), pH and alkalinity. Forward simulations for the period 2002-2015 conducted with the calibrated model predict significantly faster natural attenuation of U(VI) concentrations than has been observed by the persistent high U(VI) concentrations at the site. Alternative modeling approaches are being evaluating evaluated using recent data to determine if the persistence can be explained by multirate mass transfer models developed from experimental observations at the column scale(~0.2m), the laboratory tank scale (~2m), the field tracer test scale (~1-4m) or geophysical observation scale (~1-5m). Results of this comparison should provide insight into the persistence of U(VI) plumes and improved management options.

  19. In situ closed-loop bioremediation: Rapid closure in a northern climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, D.F.; Hammerbeck, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In situ closed-loop bioremediation was employed to achieve site closure at a former railyard in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Soil and groundwater were contaminated with gasoline. The closed-loop remediation system design incorporated three downgradient groundwater recovery wells and a low-pressure pipe infiltration gallery. Aboveground treatment of recovered groundwater was provided by a fixed-film bioreactor. The total reported benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)-removal efficiency of the bioreactor ranged from 98.8% to 100%. Concentrations of BTEX components in groundwater wells were reduced by 45% to 98%. The cleanup goals set by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency were met within the first 6 months of treatment, and the remediation system was shut down after 20 months of operation. This project further demonstrates the effectiveness of reactor-based, closed-loop in situ bioremediation at sites with favorable conditions

  20. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance

  1. Problems getting from the laboratory to the field: Reclamation of an AML site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acid and toxic abandoned mineland sites provide an opportunity whereby flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product can be beneficially used as a reclamation amendment material. Studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of FGD by-product, as compared with resoil, for reclamation purposes. Initial studies provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the FGD by-product and how to transport and blend the FGD by-product with yard waste compost. Greenhouse studies indicated that rates of 125 dry tons/acre of FGD and 50 dry tons/acre of yard waste compost would provide optimum results for reclamation of acid and toxic spoil contained at the Fleming abandoned mineland (AML) site. Their results showed that heavy metal loading rates were much lower using the FGD/compost mixture than using resoil material. Dioxin in the mixture was also less than the 5 ppt level considered as normal background. The technical problems of using FGD by-product for reclamation of an AML site were solved. However, considerable efforts to educate the public about the merits of reclaiming the Fleming AML site using this FGD/compost mixture were required before initiating field reclamation activities. Education efforts must continue if FGD by-products are to achieve general acceptance as a reclamation alternative to resoil in cases where resoil is of scarce supply

  2. Vodnyi. A long-term, low-level radiation exposure field site in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Guryev, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The Vodnyi site in the Komi Republic of Russia represents a unique radioecological field site. The history of industrial operations associated with radioactivity here spans the period 1931 to 1956. Initial operations focused on the extraction of radium from groundwater [ 226 Ra concentration up to 7840 pCi/L (290 Bq/L) ]. In 1947, the extraction of uranium and radium from ores began. Radionuclide contamination in the Vodnyi region includes soils that had been in long-term contact with radium-rich groundwater, charcoal- and gypsum/anhydrite-bearing solid wastes associated with radium production from groundwater, and uranium/radium mill tailings (ore residues). Environmental monitoring and radioecological investigations in the region began in 1957. Due to the restrictive publication practices of the past, many of the radioecological studies done at the Vodnyi site have received limited attention outside the former Soviet Union. Our goal here is to introduce the Vodnyi site to a wider audience and to describe past and current investigations. (author)

  3. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Site remediation using biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  5. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poggi-Varaldo Héctor M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to present a critical review on slurry bioreactors (SB and their application to bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with recalcitrant and toxic compounds. The scope of the review encompasses the following subjects: (i process fundamentals of SB and analysis of advantages and disadvantages; (ii the most recent applications of SB to laboratory scale and commercial scale soil bioremediation, with a focus on pesticides, explosives, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic pollutants; (iii trends on the use of surfactants to improve availability of contaminants and supplementation with degradable carbon sources to enhance cometabolism of pollutants; (iv recent findings on the utilization of electron acceptors other than oxygen; (v bioaugmentation and advances made on characterization of microbial communities of SB; (vi developments on ecotoxicity assays aimed at evaluating bioremediation efficiency of the process. From this review it can be concluded that SB is an effective ad situ and ex situ technology that can be used for bioremediation of problematic sites, such as those characterized by soils with high contents of clay and organic matter, by pollutants that are recalcitrant, toxic, and display hysteretic behavior, or when bioremediation should be accomplished in short times under the pressure and monitoring of environmental agencies and regulators. SB technology allows for the convenient manipulation and control of several environmental parameters that could lead to enhanced and faster treatment of polluted soils: nutrient N, P and organic carbon source (biostimulation, inocula (bioaugmentation, increased availability of pollutants by use of surfactants or inducing biosurfactant production inside the SB, etc. An interesting emerging area is the use of SB with simultaneous electron acceptors, which has demonstrated its usefulness for the bioremediation of soils polluted with

  6. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-González, Ireri V; Fava, Fabio; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2008-02-29

    The aim of this work is to present a critical review on slurry bioreactors (SB) and their application to bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with recalcitrant and toxic compounds. The scope of the review encompasses the following subjects: (i) process fundamentals of SB and analysis of advantages and disadvantages; (ii) the most recent applications of SB to laboratory scale and commercial scale soil bioremediation, with a focus on pesticides, explosives, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic pollutants; (iii) trends on the use of surfactants to improve availability of contaminants and supplementation with degradable carbon sources to enhance cometabolism of pollutants; (iv) recent findings on the utilization of electron acceptors other than oxygen; (v) bioaugmentation and advances made on characterization of microbial communities of SB; (vi) developments on ecotoxicity assays aimed at evaluating bioremediation efficiency of the process.From this review it can be concluded that SB is an effective ad situ and ex situ technology that can be used for bioremediation of problematic sites, such as those characterized by soils with high contents of clay and organic matter, by pollutants that are recalcitrant, toxic, and display hysteretic behavior, or when bioremediation should be accomplished in short times under the pressure and monitoring of environmental agencies and regulators. SB technology allows for the convenient manipulation and control of several environmental parameters that could lead to enhanced and faster treatment of polluted soils: nutrient N, P and organic carbon source (biostimulation), inocula (bioaugmentation), increased availability of pollutants by use of surfactants or inducing biosurfactant production inside the SB, etc. An interesting emerging area is the use of SB with simultaneous electron acceptors, which has demonstrated its usefulness for the bioremediation of soils polluted with hydrocarbons and some

  7. Bioremediation of Petroleum hydrocarbon by using Pseudomonas species isolated from Petroleum contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Simranjeet Singh; Anu Manhas; Joginder Singh; Sourav Singla; Parvinder Kaur; Shivika Data; Pritika Negi; Arjun Kalia

    2014-01-01

    A newly isolated strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (Accession number KF 279042.1) have potential in diesel degradation and can be recommended for bioremediation of sites that are contaminated with diesel. This bacterium was characterized on the basis of microbiological, biochemical and molecular analysis. Bacterial growth optimization was studied based on carbon source, nitrogen source, pH and temperature. The strain was selected based on its ability to show growth in medium containing diesel. I...

  8. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.L.; Rashidi, M.

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology

  9. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L.L. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology.

  10. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S

    2016-02-27

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  11. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  12. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  13. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  14. Development of a biomarker for Geobacter activity and strain composition: Proteogenomic analysis of the citrate synthase protein during bioremediation of U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Callister, S.J.; Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; Nicora, C.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Long, P.E.; Lipton, M.S.

    2010-02-15

    Monitoring the activity of target microorganisms during stimulated bioremediation is a key problem for the development of effective remediation strategies. At the US Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, CO, the stimulation of Geobacter growth and activity via subsurface acetate addition leads to precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater as U(IV). Citrate synthase (gltA) is a key enzyme in Geobacter central metabolism that controls flux into the TCA cycle. Here, we utilize shotgun proteomic methods to demonstrate that the measurement of gltA peptides can be used to track Geobacter activity and strain evolution during in situ biostimulation. Abundances of conserved gltA peptides tracked Fe(III) reduction and changes in U(VI) concentrations during biostimulation, whereas changing patterns of unique peptide abundances between samples suggested sample-specific strain shifts within the Geobacter population. Abundances of unique peptides indicated potential differences at the strain level between Fe(III)-reducing populations stimulated during in situ biostimulation experiments conducted a year apart at the Rifle IFRC. These results offer a novel technique for the rapid screening of large numbers of proteomic samples for Geobacter species and will aid monitoring of subsurface bioremediation efforts that rely on metal reduction for desired outcomes.

  15. In situ air sparging for bioremediation of groundwater and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.; Lei, J.; Chapdelaine, M.C.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities at a former petroleum products depot resulted in the hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater over a 30,000-m 2 area. Site remediation activities consisted of three phases: site-specific characterization and treatability study, pilot-scale testing, and full-scale bioremediation. During Phase 1, a series of site/soil/waste characterizations was undertaken to ascertain the degree of site contamination and to determine soil physical/chemical and microbiological characteristics. Treatability studies were carried out to simulate an air sparging process in laboratory-scale columns. Results indicated 42% mineral oil and grease removal and 94% benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) removal over an 8-week period. The removal rate was higher in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone. Phase 2 involved pilot-scale testing over a 550-m 2 area. The radius of influence of the air sparge points was evaluated through measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater and of groundwater mounding. A full-scale air sparging system (Phase 3) was installed on site and has been operational since early 1994. Physical/chemical and microbiological parameters, and contaminants were analyzed to evaluate the system performance

  16. Use of a mathematical model for prediction of optimum feeding strategies for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouche, M.; Petersen, J.N.

    1992-05-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of the contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of the existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In-situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at the Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCL 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to develop effective in-situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations. In particular, strategies for nutrient injection are developed which minimize biomass accumulation within the flow field and thus extend the life of injection wells

  17. Comparison of Natural and Engineered Chlorophenol Bioremediation Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    herein addresses the urgent need to incorporate biological strategies into environmental restoration efforts ( bioremediation ) that focus on the catalytic... Bioremediation Enzymes The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 dehaloperoxidase, bioremediation , halophenol, Amphitrite ornata, marine

  18. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... relative removal of isoprenoids (e.g. norpristane, pristane and phytane). It is concluded that the CHEMSIC method is a valuable tool for assessing bioremediation efficiency....

  19. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lovley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing microbial U(VI reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB predominated and U(VI reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30–40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  20. Linking Publications to Instruments, Field Campaigns, Sites and Working Groups: The ARM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, D.; Cialella, A. T.; Gregory, L.; Lazar, K.; Liang, M.; Ma, L.; Tilp, A.; Wagener, R.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, the ARM Climate Research Facility - a US Department of Energy scientific user facility - has been collecting atmospheric data in different climatic regimes using both in situ and remote instrumentation. Configuration of the facility's components has been designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols. Placing a premium on long-term continuous data collection resulted in terabytes of data having been collected, stored, and made accessible to any interested person. All data is accessible via the ARM.gov website and the ARM Data Discovery Tool. A team of metadata professionals assign appropriate tags to help facilitate searching the databases for desired data. The knowledge organization tools and concepts are used to create connections between data, instruments, field campaigns, sites, and measurements are familiar to informatics professionals. Ontology, taxonomy, classification, and thesauri are among the customized concepts put into practice for ARM's purposes. In addition to the multitude of data available, there have been approximately 3,000 journal articles that utilize ARM data. These have been linked to specific ARM web pages. Searches of the complete ARM publication database can be done using a separate interface. This presentation describes how ARM data is linked to instruments, sites, field campaigns, and publications through the application of standard knowledge organization tools and concepts.

  1. Field-scale permeation testing of jet-grouted buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Zdinak, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted field-scale hydraulic conductivity testing of simulated buried waste sites with improved confinement. The improved confinement was achieved by jet grouting the buried waste, thus creating solid monoliths. The hydraulic conductivity of the monoliths was determined using both the packer technique and the falling head method. The testing was performed on simulated buried waste sites utilizing a variety of encapsulating grouts, including high-sulfate-resistant Portland cement, TECT, (a proprietary iron oxide cement) and molten paraffin. By creating monoliths using in-situ jet grouting of encapsulating materials, the waste is simultaneously protected from subsidence and contained against further migration of contaminants. At the INEL alone there is 56,000 m 3 of buried transuranic waste commingled with 170,000--224,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. One of the options for this buried waste is to improve the confinement and leave it in place for final disposal. Knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity for these monoliths is important for decision-makers. The packer tests involved coring the monolith, sealing off positions within the core with inflatable packers, applying pressurized water to the matrix behind the seal, and observing the water flow rate. The falling head tests were performed in full-scale 3-m-diameter, 3-m-high field-scale permeameters. In these permeameters, both water inflow and outflow were measured and equated to a hydraulic conductivity

  2. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m 3 of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste

  3. Monitoring production using surface deformation: the Hijiori test site and the Okuaizu geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2002-01-01

    Production in geothermal reservoirs often leads to observable surface displacement. As shown in this paper, there is a direct relationship between such displacement and reservoir dynamics. This relationship is exploited in order to image fluid flow at two geothermal field sites. At the first locality, the Hijiori Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site, 17 tilt meters record deformation associated with a 2.2 km deep injection experiment. Images of fluid migration along a ring fracture system of the collapsed Hijiori caldera are obtained. At the Okuaizu geothermal field, leveling and tilt meter data provide constraints on long- and short-term fluid movement within the reservoir. A set of 119 leveling data suggest that the north-to-northeast trending Takiyagawa fault acts as a barrier to flow. The northwesterly oriented Chinoikezawa and Sarukurazawa faults appear to channel fluid from the southeast. The tilt data from Okuaizu indicate that a fault paralleling the Takiyagawa fault zone acts as a conduit to transient flow, on a time scale of several weeks. The volume strain in a region adjacent to the injection wells reaches a maximum and then decreases with time. The transient propagation of fluid along the fault may be due to pressure build-up, resulting from the re-initiation of injection. (author)

  4. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  5. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  6. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil

  7. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario

  9. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  10. Structure-based Markov random field model for representing evolutionary constraints on functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Seok; Kim, Dongsup

    2016-02-24

    Elucidating the cooperative mechanism of interconnected residues is an important component toward understanding the biological function of a protein. Coevolution analysis has been developed to model the coevolutionary information reflecting structural and functional constraints. Recently, several methods have been developed based on a probabilistic graphical model called the Markov random field (MRF), which have led to significant improvements for coevolution analysis; however, thus far, the performance of these models has mainly been assessed by focusing on the aspect of protein structure. In this study, we built an MRF model whose graphical topology is determined by the residue proximity in the protein structure, and derived a novel positional coevolution estimate utilizing the node weight of the MRF model. This structure-based MRF method was evaluated for three data sets, each of which annotates catalytic site, allosteric site, and comprehensively determined functional site information. We demonstrate that the structure-based MRF architecture can encode the evolutionary information associated with biological function. Furthermore, we show that the node weight can more accurately represent positional coevolution information compared to the edge weight. Lastly, we demonstrate that the structure-based MRF model can be reliably built with only a few aligned sequences in linear time. The results show that adoption of a structure-based architecture could be an acceptable approximation for coevolution modeling with efficient computation complexity.

  11. Hyperfine field calculations: search for muon stopping sites in Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, C. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA)); Denison, A.B. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie (USA)); Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1983-12-01

    Muon Spin Rotation (..mu..SR) results for magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) are analyzed and discussed. At room temperature, a ..mu..SR signal is observed due to the presence of an internal magnetic field (Bsub(int)) at the muon site. External transverse field measurements show that Bsub(int) is parallel to the magnetic spin direction, the <111> direction in zero applied field. Calculations of the hyperfine field to pinpoint muon stopping sites in magnetite show that the local field contains supertransfer (covalent) and dipolar field contributions. The implanted muons appear to stop at sites structurally similar to those reported for hematite (..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/), where muon-oxygen bond formation was strongly indicated.

  12. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  13. Bioremediation case study: Fuel-contaminated soil cleanup in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machanoff, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using microbes to degrade fuels in contaminated soils is becoming increasingly more attractive as an approach to environmental restoration. Removing contamination by traditional methods is costly, does not always eliminate the problem, and often just moves it somewhere else. Biodegradation of contaminants can often be accomplished in situ, resulting in the actual destruction of the contaminants by microbial conversion to harmless by-products. Bioremediation is not applicable to all forms of environmental contamination but has been demonstrated to be particularly effective on petroleum hydrocarbon based fuels. Bioremediation can offer a cost-effective means for site cleanup, particularly where challenging logistical considerations have to be factored into cleanup projects. Logistical considerations have made bioremediation the method of choice for the decontamination of fuel-containing soils on Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Kwajalein is located more than 2,100 miles west of Hawaii in the southernmost part of the North Pacific. The site of a major missile range of the Strategic Defense Command (SDC), Kwajalein has been the center of US defense activities for almost 50 years. The island is part of a typical coral atoll and is only 2.5 miles long and 0.5 miles wide. Mission-related activities over the past 5 decades have resulted in about 10% of the island being contaminated with diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. SDC has executed an agreement with the Department of Energy for the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), a division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to assist the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) in the management of the Base restoration activities on Kwajalein Atoll. HAZWRAP initiated sampling and feasibility studies to determine whether bioremediation was a viable choice for site cleanup at USAKA

  14. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouser, P.J.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, D.E.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of ammonium availability on microbial community structure and the physiological status and activity of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 {micro}M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that ammonium influenced the composition of the microbial community prior to acetate addition with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species at the site with the highest ammonium, and Dechloromonas species dominating at sites with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to the concentration of acetate that was delivered to each location rather than the amount of ammonium available in the groundwater. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium importer gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during in situ uranium reduction, and that the abundance of amtB transcripts was inversely correlated to ammonium levels across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression by subsurface Geobacter species are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of Geobacter species in subsurface environments during bioremediation. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes.

  15. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  16. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    M. Šabić; M. Vuković Domanovac; Z. Findrik Blažević; E. Meštrović

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  17. Use of molecular techniques in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Ulfig, K; Hazen, T C; Brigmon, R L

    2001-01-01

    In a practical sense, biotechnology is concerned with the production of commercial products generated by biological processes. More formally, biotechnology may be defined as "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services" (Cantor, 2000). From a historical perspective, biotechnology dates back to the time when yeast was first used for beer or wine fermentation, and bacteria were used to make yogurt. In 1972, the birth of recombinant DNA technology moved biotechnology to new heights and led to the establishment of a new industry. Progress in biotechnology has been truly remarkable. Within four years of the discovery of recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were making human insulin, interferon, and human growth hormone. Now, recombinant DNA technology and its products--GMOs are widely used in environmental biotechnology (Glick and Pasternak, 1988; Cowan, 2000). Bioremediation is one of the most rapidly growing areas of environmental biotechnology. Use of bioremediation for environmental clean up is popular due to low costs and its public acceptability. Indeed, bioremediation stands to benefit greatly and advance even more rapidly with the adoption of molecular techniques developed originally for other areas of biotechnology. The 1990s was the decade of molecular microbial ecology (time of using molecular techniques in environmental biotechnology). Adoption of these molecular techniques made scientists realize that microbial populations in the natural environments are much more diverse than previously thought using traditional culture methods. Using molecular ecological methods, such as direct DNA isolation from environmental samples, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), PCR methods, nucleic acid hybridization etc., we can now study microbial consortia relevant to pollutant degradation in the environment. These techniques promise to

  18. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  19. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Stephen, J.R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Chang, Y.; White, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were tested in a field experiment in Delaware, United States to determine the progress of natural and accelerated attenuation during a controlled oil spill. The four treatments studied were: no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum. During