WorldWideScience

Sample records for biorefinery recycle water

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency and Enabling Water Recycle in Biorefineries Using Bioelectrochemical Cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Improving biofuel yield and water reuse are two important issues in further development of biorefineries. The total energy content of liquid fuels (including ethanol and hydrocarbon) produced from cellulosic biomass via biochemical or hybrid bio-thermochemical routes can vary from 49% to 70% of the biomass entering the biorefinery, on an energy basis. Use of boiler for combustion of residual organics and lignin results in significant energy and water losses. An alternate process to improve energy recovery from the residual organic streams is via use of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The potential advantages of this alternative scheme in a biorefinery include minimization of heat loss and generation of a higher value product, hydrogen. The need for 5-15 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol can be reduced significantly via recycle of water after MEC treatment. Removal of inhibitory byproducts such as furans, phenolics and acetate in MFC/MECs to generate energy, thus, has dual advantages including improvements in energy efficiency and ability to recycle water. Conversion of the sugar- and lignin- degradation products to hydrogen is synergistic with biorefinery hydrogen requirements for upgrading F-T liquids and other byproducts to high-octane fuels and/or high value products. Some of these products include sorbitol, succinic acid, furan and levulinate derivatives, glycols, polyols, 1,4-butenadiol, phenolics polymers, etc. Potential process alternatives utilizing MECs in biorefineries capable of improving energy efficiency by up to 30% are discussed.

  2. Controlling accumulation of fermentation inhibitors in biorefinery recycle water using microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnivetskaya Tatiana A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700 mW/m2 (356 W/m3 net anode volume and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by δ-Proteobacteria (50%, along with β-Proteobacteria (28%, α-Proteobacteria (14%, γ-Proteobacteria (6% and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20 mM with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusion Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1 enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2 improved water recycle and 3 electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

  3. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, L.; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in ea

  4. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  5. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  6. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  7. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  8. Public perception of desalinated versus recycled water in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolnicar, Sara; Schäfer, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Water resources are limited in both quantity and quality. The global water cycle is a closed system with water molecules being continuously taken in and excreted by living organisms. In this continuum of recycling takes place an interesting debate regarding the acceptance and suitability of water recycling. Water recycling is the treatment of municipal wastewater for the replenishment of available freshwater resources and consumption. Water recycling hence closes the water cycle o...

  9. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  10. Water Recycling in Schools & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeten, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Consider the waste streams generated in schools and universities. So what is in the typical used water generated in schools and universities? It is typically about 99 percent water, with the remaining 1 percent mainly made up of organic compounds. Used water contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When one judges it on its quality, it…

  11. Additional water use influencing strength and fluidity of recycled concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学兵; 方志; 邓寿昌; 成珂; 覃银辉

    2008-01-01

    Through adding different additional water use,the compressive strength,splitting tensile strength and fluidity of recycled concrete of three aggregate combination forms were studied by experiment respectively.The experimental results show that with the increase of adding additional water use,the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete decrease,but that of recycled fine aggregate concrete and recycled all aggregate concrete increase firstly then decrease.When additional water use is added more 15% or 20% than that of basic ordinary concrete,the recycled coarse aggregate concrete and fine one can get pretty good fluidity.When it is added more 30%,the recycled all aggregate concrete has fluidity that is just satisfied.

  12. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, J C

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options.

  13. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, J C

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options. PMID:20729580

  14. Footprint of recycled water subsidies downwind of Lake Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J Bowen; Kennedy, Casey D.; Henne, Paul Daniel; Zhang, Tonglin

    2012-01-01

    Continental evaporation is a significant and dynamic flux within the atmospheric water budget, but few methods provide robust observational constraints on the large-scale hydroclimatological and hydroecological impacts of this ‘recycled-water' flux. We demonstrate a geospatial analysis that provides such information, using stable isotope data to map the distribution of recycled water in shallow aquifers downwind from Lake Michigan. The δ2H and δ18O values of groundwater in the study region de...

  15. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  16. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

  17. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; William Johnson; Zia Bukhari; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and it...

  18. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Jjemba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Candidate Contaminant list (CCL as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants.

  19. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  20. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  1. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  2. Recycling of canteen waste water for irrigation purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of wastewater of a canteen was done at Attock refinery Limited, Rawalpindi during 2002. The wastewater of the refinery canteen was recycled after a long process and was reused for irrigation of nearby garden and other landscape plants. The average outflow of the wastewater from the canteen was calculated as 4000 liters/day. Laboratory analysis for the quality of wastewater was conducted and it was found that suspended solid. Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the wastewater were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) limits. Treatment system employed was composed of screening and settling tank for removing the suspended solids and aeration for decreasing the COD and BOD. It was a low cost system in which the materials used were mostly taken from the redundant stock. Air was given for aeration with the help of a compressor. The treated water was tested in the laboratory for the priority parameters i.e. temperature, pH, BOD, COD, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved (TDS), oil and grease and Phenols. These parameters were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Treated water was used for irrigation of the nearby garden and landscape. The recycling process was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was processes was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was recycled with a daily saving of Rs.100 at the rate of Rs.1/10 G water that was taken from market survey. (author)

  3. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. PMID:24874944

  4. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring.

  5. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  6. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  7. Catalytic Processes in Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Vitiello, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The biorefinery is a system that uses as feedstocks biomasses and recover from these energy, fuel and chemicals. There are many processes considered in the biorefinery system, but in this thesis the biorefinery that uses as feedstock oil, in particular dedicated crops and waste vegetable oils were considered. In the first part of this thesis the biodiesel production process was studied. One possible route to produce biodiesel from waste oils (carachetrized by high concentrations of Fr...

  8. Developing biorefinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min En-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Biorefinery based on biomass resources is an important approach for the oil refining and petrochemical industry to achieve sustainable development.Two types of biorefinery suitable for China's biomass resources are presented in this paper.With sorgo and cassava as raw material,an ethanol-biorefinery for the production of ethanol-gasoline and chemicals is explored,and with rape seed and cotton seed oil as raw material,a biodiesel-biorefinery for the production of biodiesel and chemicals is also explored.The associated problems and measures taken are discussed in the end.

  9. Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Minh, N; Khan, S J; Drewes, J E; Stuetz, R M

    2010-08-01

    Municipal water recycling processes are potential human and environmental exposure routes for low concentrations of persistent antibiotics. While the implications of such exposure scenarios are unknown, concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that continuous discharge of antibiotics to the environment may facilitate the development or proliferation of resistant strains of bacteria. As potable and non-potable water recycling schemes are continuously developed, it is imperative to improve our understanding of the fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes leading to high-quality water reclamation. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight to the influence of a wide range of treatment processes to the ultimate fate of antibiotics during conventional and advanced wastewater treatment. Although conventional biological wastewater treatment processes are effective for the removal of some antibiotics, many have been reported to occur at 10-1000 ng L(-1) concentrations in secondary treated effluents. These include beta-lactams, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Tertiary and advanced treatment processes may be required to fully manage environmental and human exposure to these contaminants in water recycling schemes. The effectiveness of a range of processes including tertiary media filtration, ozonation, chlorination, UV irradiation, activated carbon adsorption, and NF/RO filtration has been reviewed and, where possible, semi-quantitative estimations of antibiotics removals have been provided.

  10. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  11. Study of plutonium recycling physics in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stock of plutonium from the reprocessing of thermal neutron reactor fuel is likely to appear in the next few years. The use of this plutonium as fuel replacing 235U in thermal reactors is probably more interesting than simple stock-piling storage: immobilization of a capital which moreover would deteriorate by radioactive decay of isotope 241 also fissile and present to an appreciable extend in plutonium from reprocessing (half-life 15 years); recycling, on the other hand, will supply energy without complete degradation of the stock for fast neutron reactor loads, the burned matter having been partially renewed by conversion; furthermore the use of plutonium will meet the needs created by a temporary pressure on the naturel and/or enriched uranium market. For these two reasons the recycling of plutonium in thermal neutron reactors is being considered seriously today. The present work is confined to neutronic aspects and centres mainly on pressurized water-moderated reactors, the most highly developed at present in France. Four aspects of the problem are examined: 1. the physics of a plutonium-recycling reactor special features of neutronic phenomena with respect to the 'conventional' scheme of the 235U burning reactor; 2. calculation of a plutonium-recycling reactor: adaptation of standard methods; 3. qualification of these calculations from the viewpoint of both data and inevitable approximations; 4. the fuel cycle and particularly the equivalence of fissile matters

  12. Impact of Untreated Sedimentation Tank Sludge Water Recycle on Water Quality During Treatment of Low Turbidity Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronggang Xu; Yongpeng Xu; Fuyi Cui; Li He; Dong Wang; Qingfeng Su

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to examine the impact of untreated sedimentation tank sludge water ( USTSW) recycle on water quality during treatment of low turbidity water in coagulation—sedimentation processes. 950 mL of raw water and different concentrations of 50 mL USTSW are injected into six 1 000 mL beakers without coagulant.The results indicate that USTSW characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic matter has active ingredients, which possess the equivalent function of coagulant. The optimal blended water turbidity is in the range of 10-20 NTU, within which USTSW recycle achieves the highest save coagulant rate. The mechanism of strengthening coagulation effect when USTSW recycle mainly depends on the chemical effect and physical effect. What is more, through scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , it is found that the floc structures with USTSW recycle are more compact than those without USTSW recycle. Besides, the water quality parameters of color, NH3⁃N, CODMn , UV254 , total aluminum, total manganese when USTSW recycle is better than the raw water without recycle, indicating that USTSW recycle can improve water quality with strengthening coagulation effect.

  13. Biofilms and the survival of opportunistic pathogens in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M.; Ford, T.; Maki, J. S.; Mitchell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are likely to develop an organic film on pipes, water reservoirs and filters used for waste water reclamation during extended missions in space. These biofilms can serve to protect and concentrate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Our investigation has emphasized the survival strategy of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in distilled water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Cultures were incubated at 10 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. No viable Staphylococcus cells were detected after the first week of incubation. P. aeruginosa, however, survived in distilled water up to 5 months at all three temperatures tested. The starved cells were able to form a biofilm layer on stainless steel. The cells exhibited a negative surface charge. The charge may be involved in the adhesion of this bacterium to metal substrata. We are currently investigating the importance of adhesion in the survival of this and other potential human pathogens found in water recycling systems.

  14. Near-critical and supercritical water and their applications for biorefineries

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The book provides fundamental chemistry and properties of near-critical water (NCW) and supercritical water (SCW), criteria and challenges/solutions in reactor design for NCW and SCW processes, and up-to-date reviews and practice of a wide range of their applications in bio refineries including: production of hydrochars from biomass, SCW oxidation (SCWO) for waste treatment, SCW gasification (SCWG) of biomass and waste for hydrogen and methane production, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, production of chemicals and SCWO of biofuels for energy. It also presents techno-economic analysis of

  15. Recovery Act : Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Richard [Enerkem Mississippi Biofuels LLC, Pontotoc, MS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    To overcome the hurdles associated with introducing a new technology, Enerkem applied to the US DOE for grant assistance with its Pontotoc, Mississippi, biorefinery under the DOE’s Demonstration of Integrated Biorefinery Operations FOA. Consistent with Enerkem’s strategic approach, the project proposed uses post sorted municipal solid waste blended with other forest residue. The proposed biorefinery is to be located within the boundaries of a working landfill, thus simplifying many aspects of environmental permitting while also reducing feedstock acquisition and transportation costs. An economic impact analysis was conducted using an adaptation of the US Department of Energy’s JEDI (Jobs and Economic Development Impact) model for an ethanol-producing biorefinery. The JEDI model, which does not have a thermochemical processing option, had to be configured to reflect a biomass feedstock and was thus adapted by Enerkem to account for the unique feedstock requirements and operations of the Project. According to this model, development, construction, and 2 years of operation of the biorefinery require an investment of approximately $140 million. Also, a construction period of 18 months will create significant direct and indirect employment. Indirect employment includes steel manufacturers, construction materials manufacturers, material shipping, equipment manufacturers and fabrication, etc. During the construction phase of the Project, 210 total jobs are expected to be created, including 145 direct jobs and 72 indirect or induced jobs. During the operating period, 131 jobs would be created, 95 of which are direct. It is anticipated that the project will create at least 10 new jobs (included in the above figures and in addition to the JEDI data) in the sorting and recycling sector, since the project will require operations in sorting MSW since valuable ferrous, nonferrous and recyclable plastic materials will be sorted from MSW as part of the process that isolates

  16. Biorefineries: from concepts to reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The concept of biorefineries addresses the conversion of plant biomass to fuels, materials and chemicals, waste streams being minimized and used for the production of electricity and heat. Four different types are presently discussed: - Sugar-based biorefineries - Whole-crop biorefineries - Green biorefineries - Lignocellulose biorefineries Besides the lack of existing technical solutions and limited land resources, competition with food production and, as a consequence, rising raw material prices considered. (orig.)

  17. Production and recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulose hot water extracts in a pulp mill biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Tuomo; Kallioinen, Mari; Nakari, Olli; Mänttäri, Mika

    2013-05-01

    Processing of hemicelluloses obtained with pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) from Scots pine to monosaccharides and other chemicals was investigated experimentally. A process scheme consisting of ultrafiltration, acid hydrolysis, and chromatographic separation was proposed and evaluated. A two-stage ultrafiltration was found necessary for efficient fractionation of the wood extract. It was shown that the monosaccharides can be released from a concentrated hemicellulose fraction with sulfuric acid hydrolysis without a significant loss of yield due to decomposition of monosaccharides. Acid hydrolysate was successfully fractionated with ion exchange chromatography and the hydrolysis acid was recovered for reuse. The product fractions obtained include polyphenols and high molar mass hemicelluloses (from UF stage 1), arabinose (from UF stage 2), as well as acetic acid and a mixture of monosaccharides (xylose, galactose, mannose, glucose) from chromatography. PMID:23069608

  18. Gas and water recycling system for IOC vivarium experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.; Otsubo, K.

    1986-01-01

    Water and gas recycling units designed as one of the common experiment support system for the life science experiment facilities used in the Japanese Experiment Module are discussed. These units will save transportation and operation costs for the life science experiments in the space station. These units are also designed to have interfaces so simple that the connection to another life science experiment facilities such as the Research Animal Holding Facility developed by the Rockheed Missiles and Space Company can be easily done with small modification.

  19. EFFICACY OF NOVEL WATER DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES IN HORTICULTURAL NUTRIENT RECYCLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heungens, K; Clierinck, M; Inghelbrecht, S; Vissers, M

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponic systems used for growing potted ornamentals in greenhouses are commonly ebb-and-flow irrigation systems. The drainage water is usually recycled to save water and nutrients. To avoid the spread of pathogens in these closed irrigation systems, disinfection of the recycled water is standard practice. Growers can use slow sand filtration or UV-radiation techniques, but these methods are often either not sulted for specific problems or they require an excessively large investment. The objective of this study was to test less expensive but effective alternative disinfection systems. The efficacy of five disinfection systems against fungi and oomycetes was determined: Aqua-Hort (based on Cu-ions), Reciclean (performic acid), D1-OX Forte (CIO2), ECA (electrochemically activated water = anodic oxidation: hypochlorite and free radicals) and Newtec (also anodic oxidation). These five systems and a no-sterilization control were integrated in small closed ebb-and-flow circuits with nutrient solution reservoirs of 400 L each. Activity against Fusarium was excellent with ECA, good with Newtec and DI-OX Forte, moderate with high doses of Reciclean (250 ppm H2O2 and poor with the Aqua-Hort. There was no Pythium in the ECA and Newtec systems, while still so in the Aqua-Hort system, even at high doses (up to 7 ppm Cu++). Although the Reciclean (up to 100 ppm H2O2) and Aqua-Hort systems did not perform well against the pathogens, they did very well against algae; especially Reciclean was also useful against duckweed in water and liverwort on soil substrates. Concentrations of total Cl were elevated in water, substrate and plants after treatments with ECA and Newtec; other accumulations were Cu (Aqua-Hort), Na and SO4 (DI-OX Forte). However, only on a limited number of plant species these accumulations produced phytotoxic effects.

  20. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  1. A new optional recycled water pre-treatment system prior to use in the household laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; Miechel, Clayton; Halloran, Kelly O'; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel

    2014-04-01

    With a constantly growing population, water scarcity becomes the limiting factor for further social and economic growth. To achieve a partial reduction in current freshwater demands and lessen the environmental loadings, an increasing trend in the water market tends to adopt recycled water for household laundries as a new recycled water application. The installation of a small pre-treatment unit for water purification can not only further improve the recycled water quality, but also be viable to enhance the public confidence and acceptance level on recycled water consumption. Specifically, this paper describes column experiments conducted using a 550 mm length bed of zeolite media as a one-dimensional flow reactor. The results show that the zeolite filter system could be a simple low-cost pre-treatment option which is able to significantly reduce the total hardness level of recycled water via effective ion exchange. Additionally, depending on the quality of recycled water required by end users, a new by-pass controller using a three-level operation switching mechanism is introduced. This approach provides householders sufficient flexibility to respond to different levels of desired recycled water quality and increase the reliability of long-term system operation. These findings could be beneficial to the smooth implementation of new end uses and expansion of the potential recycled water market. The information could also offer sound suggestions for future research on sustainable water management and governance. PMID:24496024

  2. Storage and recycling of water in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfan-Casanova, N.

    2015-12-01

    Most natural samples originating from the mantle contain traces of water. It can be observed that water content varies laterally as a function of the geodynamic context, but also with depth in cratons. Basalts from mid-ocean ridges, which sample the convecting upper mantle, contain generally below 0.6 wt% H2O leading to 50-330 parts per million by weight in the source. Oceanic Islands Basalts are more hydrated with contents ranging from 0.6 to 1.1 wt%, leading to 350-1100 ppm wt H2O in the source. Arc basalts are even more hydrated with water contents ranging from 0.2 to 5-6 wt% H2O testifying of the recycling of water by subduction. Kimberlite magmas are also the proof that local saturation in volatiles is possible. Among xenoliths, the samples from cratons are very interesting because they may provide a depth profile of water. However, the variation of water content in olivine with depth differs from craton to craton, and is the result of a complex geological history. Also, olivine inclusions in diamond and olivine from peridotite xenoliths do not give the same message regarding to water activity. The water storage capacity of the mantle is defined as the maximum water or hydroxyl that can be incorporated in its constitutive minerals before a free fluid phase appears. It can be determined experimentally and confronted to geophysical observations, such as low seismic velocities, and electrical conductivity. In this talk we will review our current knowledge of water incorporation in NAMs as determined experimentally and compare it with available observations. New data concerning clinopyroxenes will be shown. The aim being to understand the deep water cycle.

  3. Water Innovations and Lessons Learned From Water Recycling in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This Presentation will cover technology and knowledge transfers from space exploration to earth and the tourism industry, for example, water and air preservation, green buildings and sustainable cities.

  4. Recycling of fresh concrete exceeding and wash water in concrete mixing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Férriz Papí, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The exceeding concrete and washing equipment water are a matter to solve in concrete production. This paper explains several possibilities for recycling and analyses the products obtained with one recycling equipment. The objective of this work is to study the possibility to increase the percentage of recycling in new mixes. The developed study relates wash water density and fine particles content. Besides, mortar and concrete samples were tested introducing different quantities of these fine...

  5. Water recycle treatment system for use in metal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, D.E.; Dando, T.J.

    1976-08-10

    A water recycle treatment system is described comprising two main treatment sub-systems for treatment of contaminated water from a plurality of concentrated solutions and rinse baths to separate out the impurities therein. A first sub-system treats less concentrated solutions used for the rinse baths by channeling the flow therefrom to a first neutralizing tank which provides for pH control to produce a mixed output solution having a substantially constant pH factor, which is filtered to remove gross particles, the filtered solution being cooled in a holding tank and passed through a reverse osmosis process and carbon bed to produce clean water. The second sub-system treats highly concentrated solutions obtained from a plurality of chemical processes, mixes them in a second neutralizing tank which is utilized to produce a substantially constant pH output, which is fed to an evaporator to precipitate the metals and salts in sludge and also forms a water vapor output. The reverse osmosis waste is fed back into the second neutralizing tank and processed as noted above.

  6. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  7. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  8. The psychology of recycled water: Factors predicting disgust and willingness to use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Julia; Timpano, Kiara R.; ćek, Demet; Broad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Water recycling is increasingly recognized as a critical strategy to maintain sustainable water supplies. Yet public acceptance of water recycling often lags behind. It is unclear the degree to which individuals are aware of the role of disgust in their decisions about recycled water, how important anticipated disgust is to willingness to use when controlling for other factors, and what the most effective method of presenting information about water recycling would be to decrease disgust reactions and increase willingness to use. We used a two-pronged approach, combining a survey with open-ended and psychometric measures with an experimental manipulation, in a U.S., web-based sample (N = 428). Only 2% of participants self-identified disgust as important to their decisions about recycled water. When measured directly using a Likert scale, however, anticipated disgust was the strongest predictor of willingness to use recycled water when controlling for individual differences that have been shown to impact willingness to use, including a subscale of individual pathogen disgust sensitivity. Finally, participants were exposed to an educational brochure about water reuse framed either affectively or cognitively or were shown a simple, neutral definition. Exposure to either the affectively or cognitively framed brochures lowered anticipated disgust, but did not significantly affect willingness to use recycled water compared to the neutral condition.

  9. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A WATER TANK WITH RECYCLABLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANE FARINASSO RODRIGUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric power became a factor of citizenship and quality of life, but most of this energy comes from energy sources that cause serious damage to the environment and its use depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. The cost of energy offered by the utilities is still significant, and equipment used to capture alternative sources are still expensive. Therefore, many studies are being conducted in this area, seeking new technologies and alternative ways to reduce those costs. From this need, we developed a reservoir for hot water by using recycled materials in order to preserve the temperature of water heated by solar collectors, in order to achieve efficiency similar to equipment found in the market, but with an affordable cost to lowincome. Manual method was used to construct the reservoir, using materials easily found in our market. The tests were performed by comparing the thermal inertia between the reservoirs and proposed commercial and the results were presented in graphical and tabular. Proposals submitted with thermal efficiency exceeding 20% over the proposal without thermal insulation. Regarding the financial part of the proposed system represents an investment of one tenth of the trading system and the rate of return of the complete system (plate + tank is around 11 months.

  10. Occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling systems and sludge in aggregate industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqua, Guillaume; Spinelli, Sylvie; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance having irritant and toxic properties as well as carcinogen, mutagen, and impaired fertility possible effects. Acrylamide might be found in the environment as a consequence of the use of polyacrylamides (PAMs) widely added as a flocculant for water treatment. Acrylamide is a monomer used to produce polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers. This reaction of polymerization can be incomplete, and acrylamide molecules can be present as traces in the commercial polymer. Thus, the use of PAMs may generate a release of acrylamide in the environment. In aggregate industries, PAM is widely involved in recycling process and water reuse (aggregate washing). Indeed, these industries consume large quantities of water. Thus, European and French regulations have favored loops of recycling of water in order to reduce water withdrawals. The main goal of this article is to study the occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling process as well as in the sludge produced by the flocculation treatment process in aggregate production plants. Moreover, to strengthen the relevance of this article, the objective is also to demonstrate if the recycling system leads to an accumulation effect in waters and sludge and if free acrylamide could be released by sludge during their storage. To reach this objective, water sampled at different steps of recycling water process has been analyzed as well as different sludge corresponding to various storage times. The obtained results reveal no accumulation effect in the water of the water-recycling system nor in the sludge.

  11. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  12. Sustainable and Efficient Pathways for Bioenergy Recovery from Low-Value Process Streams via Bioelectrochemical Systems in Biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet P. Borole

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in the production of biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives, such as bioelectrochemical systems, can minimize these impacts via production of hydrogen, electricity or other forms of energy from the low value streams and improve conservation of resources, such as water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency, while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  13. Influence of water absorption of coarse recycled concrete aggregates on the performance of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    The “ValReCon20 program” has proven the possibility to replace up to 100% of the coarse virgin aggregates by coarse recycled concrete aggregates (CRCA) in concrete of strength class C25/30. At this moment most uncertainties about recycled concrete concern durability in aggressive environments. This PHD researches destructive mechanisms that use water as transportation for harmful reagents. The physical phenomenon that describes water transportation is known as “Water Permeability” This is...

  14. Removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in a water recycling process using reverse osmosis systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H.; Khabbaz, Hadi; Schaefer, Andrea I.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence, persistence and fate of a range of micropollutants at different processing points at a full-scale water recycling plant (WRP) in Queensland, Australia. The WRP, which combines an advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), produces high quality recycled water for industrial users. The concentrations of 11 pharmaceuticals from various therapeutic categories and two endocrine disrupting chem...

  15. Removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in water recycling process using reverse osmosis systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H.; Khabbazb, Hadi; Schäfer, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A detailed investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence, persistence and fate of a range of micropollutants at different processing points at a full-scale water recycling plant (WRP) in Queensland, Australia. The WRP, which combines an advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), produces high quality recycled water for industrial users. The concentrations of 11 pharmaceuticals from various therapeutic categories and two endocrine dis...

  16. When water saving limits recycling: Modelling economy-wide linkages of wastewater use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Jonas; Grethe, Harald; McDonald, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation of wastewater is an increasingly important water source in parts of the world. It is claimed that wastewater recycling is a cheap and reliable form of water supply, which preserves water resources and is economically efficient. However, the quantity of reclaimed wastewater depends on water consumption by economic agents connected to a sewage system. This study uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyse such a cascading water system. A case study of Israel shows that failing to include this linkage can lead to an overestimation of the potential of wastewater recycling, especially when economic agents engage in water saving. PMID:26624230

  17. When water saving limits recycling: Modelling economy-wide linkages of wastewater use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Jonas; Grethe, Harald; McDonald, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation of wastewater is an increasingly important water source in parts of the world. It is claimed that wastewater recycling is a cheap and reliable form of water supply, which preserves water resources and is economically efficient. However, the quantity of reclaimed wastewater depends on water consumption by economic agents connected to a sewage system. This study uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyse such a cascading water system. A case study of Israel shows that failing to include this linkage can lead to an overestimation of the potential of wastewater recycling, especially when economic agents engage in water saving.

  18. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    dyehouse, Trevira Neckelmann A/S, has now for two consecutive years successfully implemented direct water recycling saving 40 % water. Mass Integration and water pinch techniques were used to identify the potentials and combined with textile intelligence to achieve the best system design for the reuse......As a result of a long term South African – Danish research co-operation on Cleaner Production in textile industry, a number of generic and widely applicable water recycle schemes for textile wet processing has been developed, and the first break-through of water recycling has been achieved. Textile...... conservatism and consideration for product quality in the industry have till recently prevented water reuse from breaking through in practice. A four year research program on industrial water reuse, however, recently resulted in the first break-through of water reuse in Danish textile industry: one polyester...

  19. Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A water recycling system (WRS) deployed at NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base (an energy efficient office building that integrates some novel...

  20. 小中水规模研究%Research on the Dimensions of Small Recycled Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 程莹莹

    2011-01-01

    针对目前国内水资源现状和中水回用及推广现状和问题,参考日本和北京市关于小中水规模规定的先例,总结国内、外的中水处理回用的特点和利用现状,分析了大、小中水回用的优劣及适用范围.根据中水回用的特点提出中水回用技术的发展还要从小到大,从微观到宏观,综合考虑城市规模、经济状况、城市规划及规范制定等因素,以中水的广泛应用为目标促使小中水规模合理划分,大、小中水达到最优平衡,才能更好推广中水利用,进而减弱我国城市化发展中的水资源短缺因素的限制.%For the current situation of domestic water resources and the status and problems in reuse and promotion of recycled water, the paper refered to the precedent about the provision of small-scale recycled water at Japan and Beijing, summed up the characteristics and utilization status of recycled water reuse at home and abroad, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of large and small recycled water reuse and application range.According to the characteristics of recycled water reuse, the paper proposed that the development of recycled water reuse should start from small to large,from micro to macro, consider the size of city, economic status, urban planning and norm-setting and other factors, take the extensive application of recycled water as the target to promote rational division of small-scale recycled water, achieve the optimal balance of the large and small recycled water,so that can promote the utilization of recycled water, and thus weaken the limits of water shortage in the development of urbanization.

  1. Recycle attuned catalytic exchange (RACE) for reliable and low inventory processing of highly tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detritiation of highly tritiated water by liquid phase catalytic exchange needs dilution of the feed with water to tritium concentrations suitable for catalyst and safety rules and to assure flow rates large enough for wetting the catalyst. Dilution by recycling detritiated water from within the exchange process has three advantages: the amount and concentration of the water for dilution is controlled within the exchange process, there is no additional water load to processes located downstream RACE, and the ratio of gas to liquid flow rates in the exchange column could be adjusted by using several recycles differing in amount and concentration to avoid an excessively large number of theoretical separation stages. In this paper, the flexibility of the recycle attuned catalytic exchange (RACE) and its effect on the cryogenic distillation are demonstrated for the detritiation of the highly tritiated water from a tritium breeding blanket

  2. Diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living amoebae are known to facilitate the growth of water associated pathogens. This study, for the first time, explored the diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system in Rouse Hill NSW, Australia. Water and biofilm samples w...

  3. Efficiency of recycled wool-based nonwoven material for the removal of oils from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radetic, M.; Ilic, V.; Radojevic, D.; Miladinovic, R.; Jocic, D.; Javancic, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the potential use of recycled wool-based nonwoven material for the removal of diesel fuel, crude, base, vegetable and motor oil from water. Sorption capacity of the material in water and in oil without water, oil retention, sorbent reusability and buoyancy in s

  4. Fungal Secretome for Biorefinery: Recent Advances in Proteomic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Siu Kwan Sze; Adav, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal biotechnology has been well established in food and healthcare sector, and now being explored for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their great potential to produce a wide array of extracellular enzymes for nutrient recycling. Due to global warming, environmental pollution, green house gases emission and depleting fossil fuel, fungal enzymes for lignocellulosic biomass refinery become a major focus for utilizing renewal bioresources. Proteomic technologies tender better biological und...

  5. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: (1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs; (2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs; (3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs; and (4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs

  6. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  7. Sustainable Utility of Magnetically Recyclable Nano-Catalysts in Water: Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj B. Gawande

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and it is possible to recover >95% of catalysts, which is again recyclable for subsequent use. Water is the ideal medium to perform the chemical reactions with magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts, as this combination adds tremendous value to the overall benign reaction process development. In this review, we highlight recent developments inthe use of water and magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts (W-MRNs for a variety of organic reactions namely hydrogenation, condensation, oxidation, and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, among others.

  8. Regrowth of enterococci indicator in an open recycled-water impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Chris; Attwater, Roger

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of the research was to assess the potential for enterococci faecal-indicator to regrow in recycled water while under environmentally-open storage. Regrowth would result in false-positive indicator results with possible downgrading, rejection or over-chlorination of recycled water. The research setting was the main 93-megalitre storage impoundment of the Hawkesbury Water Recycling Scheme in Sydney's North West, receiving tertiary treated (chlorinated) effluent from the Richmond sewage treatment plant. The water is used to irrigate horticultural food crops, pasture for dairy cattle, sheep, deer and horses, and for the maintenance of lawns and sports fields. Highly significant positive relationships were noted in multivariate analysis between indicator counts and the growth factors atmospheric temperature and UV254 unfiltered as proxy for total organic carbon (p=0.001 and 0.003 respectively). Nitrate and phosphate did not show significant relationships suggesting that these nutrients may not be growth-limiting at levels found in recycled water. Rainfall and wild duck presence did not appear to have an impact on enterococcal growth in the study. The overall predictive power of the regression model was shown to be highly significant (p=0.001). These findings will assist in recycled water monitoring and the revision of guidelines, with potential for the reduction of the chlorination by-product burden on the environment. A formula derived for the relationship between the indicator and atmospheric temperature could be used in food-production and climate-change modelling. PMID:24008073

  9. A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; O'Halloran, Kelly; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel; Miechel, Clayton

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study. PMID:24128817

  10. A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; O'Halloran, Kelly; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel; Miechel, Clayton

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.

  11. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2014-01-01

    addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...... straw was first liquefied in fresh distilled water with the presence of K2CO3 catalyst at 300 C as the reference run. Afterwards, the aqueous phase which is obtained from liquefaction process in the previous run was recycled and used as the reaction medium from the second to the fourth run. With the...

  12. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  13. Psychological aspects of the rejection of recycled water: Contamination, purification and disgust

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Brent Haddad; Carol Nemeroff; Paul Slovic

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide and increasing shortage of potable fresh water. Modern water reclamation technologies can alleviate much of the problem by converting wastewater directly into drinking water, but there is public resistance to these approaches that has its basis largely in psychology. A psychological problem is encapsulated in the saying of those opposing recycled water: ``toilet to tap.'' We report the results of two surveys, one on a sample of over 2,000 Americans f...

  14. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third annual progress report concerning the programme on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors (indirect action) of the Commission of the European Communities. It covers the year 1978 and follows the annual reports for 1977 (EUR 6002 EN) and 1976 (EUR 5780). The preliminary results obtained under the 1975-79 programme indicate that: (a) assuming that plutonium recycling in light-water reactors is industrially developed by the end of the century, the foreseeable radiological impact on both workers and the general public can be maintained within the limits of current radiation protection standards; (b) on the whole, there is a good knowledge and mastery of the specific aspects involved in the plutonium recycling in light-water reactors and in particular they indicate that plutonium fuels have a similar behaviour to uranium fuels

  15. Recycling of plutonium and uranium in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the meeting was to make a review of the present knowledge relevant to plutonium and uranium recycling, MOX fuel, on-going programmes, today's industrial capabilities and future plans for development. For countries with commitments to reprocessing, MOX fuel is attractive and will be more so as discharge burnups increase and as the time between discharge and reprocessing optimized. Fabrication experience on MOX fuel has accumulated for many years in several countries and one has been able to cope with the extension of capacities of the plants, as required by MOX fuel implementation, and with the requirements specific to massive use in power reactors. Standards fabrication processes have proven to be adaptable in large quantities and have yielded products satisfying all present specifications. A large body of irradiation experience for some time on various MOX and RepU materials. On the basis of a comparison with UO2, no adverse effect has been observed. Problems like isotopic homogeneity, solubility, alternative processes like gelation deserve further attention. It is encouraging to note that parameters linked to materials obtained by different fabrication routes can be taken into account by existing codes, to an extent similar to various UO2 fuels, provided an adequate data base is available. The fabrication capacities are the limiting factor for MOX penetration in reactors, where a 30 to 50% recycling rate is therefore sufficient. The use of plutonium in 100% MOX reactors or in more advanced reactors deserves more study. The increase of plutonium inventory may influence safety and licensing analysis, but all the safety criteria can be met. On the whole, the experience reported in this meeting pointed to a general consensus of the attractiveness of recycling and the already demonstrated ability of several countries to cope with all questions raised by MOX substitution of UO2 fuel. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete at Low and High Water/Binder Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Gai-Fei Peng; Yan-Zhu Huang; Hai-Sheng Wang; Jiu-Feng Zhang; Qi-Bing Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) at low and high water/binder (W/B) ratios. Concrete at two W/B ratios (0.255 and 0.586) was broken into recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). A type of thermal treatment was employed to remove mortar attached to RCA. The RAC at a certain (low or high) W/B ratio was prepared with RCA made from demolished concrete of the same W/B ratio. Tests were conducted on aggregate to measure water abso...

  17. Waste biorefinery in arid/semi-arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Fang, Chuanji; Almardeai, Saleha; Javid, Usama; Yousuf, Ahasa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-09-01

    The utilization of waste biorefineries in arid/semi-arid regions is advisable due to the reduced sustainable resources in arid/semi-arid regions, e.g. fresh water and biomass. This review focuses on biomass residues available in arid/semi-arid regions, palm trees residues, seawater biomass based residues (coastal arid/semi-arid regions), and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The present review aims to describe and discuss the availability of these waste biomasses, their conversion to value chemicals by waste biorefinery processes. For the case of seawater biomass based residues it was reviewed and advise the use of seawater in the biorefinery processes, in order to decrease the use of fresh water. PMID:27072789

  18. Wastewater treatment technologies and water recycling in mining and mineral extraction processes – a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kivi, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to consider the possibilities in reasonable and efficient water usage and high water recycling rate in mining and mineral processing industry. Wastewater treatment technologies for different mineral industry wastewaters are described and the basic chemistry behind the processes explained. The thesis also describes the reasons for water use in mineral extraction processes, the wastes formed in the processing of ore and minerals, the common reagents used in mineral proc...

  19. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  20. Copper on Chitosan: A Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate is immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with copper sulfate; the ensuing catalyst has been utilized for the azide-alkyne cycloaddition in aqueous media and it can be recycled and reused many time without loosing it...

  1. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  2. New performance and decesion for recycling technical water from tailing pond in the Bucim copper mine

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Aleksandar; Ivanov, Sasko; Zendelska, Afrodita

    2011-01-01

    The improvments and new decision of the pipeline of recycled water from the tailing pond to the flotation concentrator according to the increasing of the tailing dam height will be shown. All estimation of the pipeline calculation and equation present the appropriate sizes of the parameters which have ensured most acceptable conditions for flotation performance in Bucim copper mine.

  3. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Miechel, Clayton [Port Macquarie-Hastings Council, Port Macquarie, NSW 2444 (Australia); O' Halloran, Kelly [Gold Coast Water, Gold Coast, MC 9726 (Australia); Muthukaruppan, Muthu [City West Water, Sunshine, VIC 3020 (Australia); Listowski, Adnrzej [Sydney Olympic Park Authority, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW 2127 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ{sup 2} = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ{sup 2} = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water.

  4. Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n = 478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (χ2 = 527.40, df = 3; p = 0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r = 0.43, p = 0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (χ2 = 52.73, df = 6; p = 0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured. - Highlights: • Community perception of laundry as a new end use of recycled water is analysed. • Higher number of the respondents supported the new end use. • The perspective users of recycled water are more reserved towards the new end use. • The current users are very happy with the current recycled water

  5. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Julia García-González; Desirée Rodríguez-Robles; Andrés Juan-Valdés; Julia Mª Morán-del Pozo; M. Ignacio Guerra-Romero

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality co...

  6. The recycle of water and nitrogen from urine in bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengda; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The recycle of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), among which the treatment and recovery of the crew's urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Researchers have paid a lot of attention on the desalination of urine in the previous studies, however, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved more significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urine was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification method (HTAM) and immobilized urease catalysis method (IUCM) were investigated in the hydrolysis pretreatment of urine. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the hydrolysis efficiencies were compared. The results showed that the optimum treatment temperature and acidity for HTAM were 99 °C and [H+] =2 mol/L when the reaction time was 7 h, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency was 39.7%. While, the optimum treatment conditions for IUCM were 60 °C, pH=7.0 and 40 min, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency could reach 52.2%. Therefore, compared with HTAM, IUCM has higher hydrolysis efficiency with milder reaction temperature and pH and shorter reaction time which means it could adapt to the heavy urine treatment workload in BLSS. This investigation has provided a promising method to recycle the urine in BLSS, and all the results will contribute to the further BLSS experiments conducted in the stage II of the "Lunar Palace 1".

  7. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...... torrefaction benefits most from the integration of electrolysis....

  8. Calculation in Orifice Plate of CEFR Condensate Water Recycling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Yi-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to avoid condensation water pump occurring cavitation due to the flow is too small and affect the normal operation of pump when the startup or shutdown in the unit, low load or accident under empty load operation, recirculation loop should maintain a certain flow, to ensure that the shaft seal heater has enough cooling water, recirculation flow is not less than 20 t/h.

  9. Safe disposal and recycling of water disaster debris in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -metropolitan areas. Debris clearance should begin as soon as possible to ensure the public health and safety. All activities relating to debris management like clearance, removal, and recycling are vivid signs of recovering regularity and ensuring sustainable community. (author)

  10. Atmospheric water vapor transport and recycling in Equatorial Central Africa through NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djiotang, Lucie A.T.; Mkankam, Francois K. [University of Yaounde 1, Laboratory for Environmental Modelling and Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2012-05-15

    The characteristics of the main components of the water cycle over Equatorial Central Africa (ECA) were analysed using the 32-year period, spanning from 1968 to 2000, of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Censearch (NCEP-) reanalysis project database. A special emphasis was given to identifying the causes of annual and interannual variability of water vapor flux and precipitation recycling. The results suggest that the first maximum of moisture convergence, during the rainy season MAM, comes from upper level moisture flux, related to the north component of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ-N). The second, and greatest, maximum in SON is found to be a consequence of low level moisture advection from the Atlantic Ocean. AEJ-N also drive the seasonal spatial pattern of moisture flux. The interannual variability of moisture flux is contributed mainly by the low level moisture advected from the Atlantic Ocean, underlying its crucial role for the regional climate. Studying the recycling ratio in ECA as a whole shows a low annual cycle whereas subregional scale analysis reveals high amplitude of the seasonal variation. Seasonal variability of the spatial gradient of precipitation recycling is regulated by both moisture flux direction and strength. The annual cycles of recycling ratio in the North and the South of ECA are regulated by both moisture transport and evapotranspiration. (orig.)

  11. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V.L. Hunt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.

  12. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

  13. Engineering Cellulases for Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-27

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  14. Biological fouling of ethylene production water recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdish, I.K.; Khenkina, L.M.; Pavlenko, N.I.

    A study was made of biotic factors determining the intensity of biological overgrowth of ethylene as well as the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the system. The total quantity of microorganisms was determined by counting on membrane filters. The content of heterotrophic aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms was determined by inoculating specimens on meat-peptone agar and wort agar. The resistance of the microflora in the water supply system to high temperatures was studied by exposure of the specimens to various temperatures for one hour. The results indicated presence of large quantities of a number of biogenous substances in the water, including compounds of phosphorus and carbon. Large numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were present, consuming the oxygen absorbed by the water in the cooling tower, creating favorable conditions for development of both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The sulfate-reducing bacteria present caused accumulation of hydrogen sulfide in the system, increasing corrosion. One possible means of controlling the fouling organisms might be to heat the water. Heating to 60C for sixty minutes significantly reduces the microorganism population, while 70C results in almost total elimination. 8 references, 4 figures.

  15. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  17. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  18. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery. PMID:22468603

  19. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  20. Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2013-01-01

    A water recycling system (WRS) deployed at NASA Ames Research Center s Sustainability Base (an energy efficient office building that integrates some novel technologies developed for space applications) will serve as a testbed for long duration testing of next generation spacecraft water recycling systems for future human spaceflight missions. This system cleans graywater (waste water collected from sinks and showers) and recycles it into clean water. Like all engineered systems, the WRS is prone to standard degradation due to regular use, as well as other faults. Diagnostic and prognostic applications will be deployed on the WRS to ensure its safe, efficient, and correct operation. The diagnostic and prognostic results can be used to enable condition-based maintenance to avoid unplanned outages, and perhaps extend the useful life of the WRS. Diagnosis involves detecting when a fault occurs, isolating the root cause of the fault, and identifying the extent of damage. Prognosis involves predicting when the system will reach its end of life irrespective of whether an abnormal condition is present or not. In this paper, first, we develop a physics model of both nominal and faulty system behavior of the WRS. Then, we apply an integrated model-based diagnosis and prognosis framework to the simulation model of the WRS for several different fault scenarios to detect, isolate, and identify faults, and predict the end of life in each fault scenario, and present the experimental results.

  1. Leaching of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in turfgrass soils during recycled water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, S; Gan, J; Ernst, F; Green, R; Baird, J; McCullough, M

    2012-01-01

    An important beneficial reuse of treated wastewater (recycled water) in arid and semiarid regions is landscape irrigation. However, the environmental fate, especially groundwater contamination potential, of trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is a significant concern that can hinder the acceptance and adoption of such reuses. In this study, we irrigated mature turfgrass plots with nonspiked tertiary treated wastewater for over 6 mo at 100 or 130% of the reference evapotranspiration rate (ETo) and collected leachate water at the 90-cm depth on a weekly basis. In the recycled water, all 14 target PPCPs were consistently found, and the mean levels of atenolol, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, carbamazepine, and sulfamethoxazole were above 100 ng L. However, only five compounds were detected in the leachate at trace levels. Trimethoprim and primidone were frequently found, whereas the detection of sulfamethoxazole, meprobamate and carbamazepine was less frequent (meprobamate. The majority of the target PPCPs were completely removed. Given that the irrigation rates were higher than normal, this study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of turfgrass systems in attenuating PPCPs during recycled water irrigation. However, it is also apparent that some PPCPs are more susceptible to leaching than others, and these PPCPs thus merit further research attention. PMID:22751071

  2. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  3. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. PMID:27484462

  4. Potential Routes for Thermochemical Biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    García Haro, Pedro; Ollero de Castro, Pedro Antonio; Vidal-Barrero, José Fernando; Villanueva Perales, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    This critical review focuses on potential routes for the multi-production of chemicals and fuels in the framework of thermochemical biorefineries. The up-to-date research and development in this field has been limited to BTL/G (biomass-to-liquids/gases) studies, where biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas) is converted into a single product with/without the co-production of electricity and heat. Simultaneously, the interest on biorefineries is growing but mostly refers to the biochemical proc...

  5. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  6. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  7. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  8. Removal of hormones and pharmaceuticals in the Advanced Water Recycling Demonstration Plant in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S. J.; Wintgens, T.; Sherman, P; Zaricky, J.; Schaefer, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    An advanced water recycling demonstration plant was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a number of treatment technologies in the removal of some residuals of commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals as well as natural and synthetic hormones found in sewage. Analysis of targeted compounds was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initial tests were undertaken to determine the background concentrations of the analytes during various s...

  9. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  10. Design of an Optimal Biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  11. Design of an Optimal Biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John;

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  12. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günerken, E.; Hondt, d' E.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, L.; Elst, K.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of product

  13. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  14. A new method to determine the density and water absorption of fine recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry keeps on demanding huge quantities of natural resources, mainly minerals for mortars and concrete production. The depletion of many quarries and environmental concerns about reducing the dumping of construction and demolition waste in quarries have led to an increase in the procuring and use of recycled aggregates from this type of waste. If they are to be incorporated in concrete and mortars it is essential to know their properties to guarantee the adequate performance of the end products, in both mechanical and durability-related terms. Existing regulated tests were developed for natural aggregates, however, and several problems arise when they are applied to recycled aggregates, especially fine recycled aggregates (FRA. This paper describes the main problems encountered with these tests and proposes an alternative method to determine the density and water absorption of FRA that removes them. The use of sodium hexametaphosphate solutions in the water absorption test has proven to improve its efficiency, minimizing cohesion between particles and helping to release entrained air.

  15. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F

    2016-10-01

    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system. PMID:27028754

  16. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F

    2016-10-01

    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system.

  17. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  18. Kevlar based nanofibrous particles as robust, effective and recyclable absorbents for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chuanxiong; Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Cheng, Chong; Ma, Lang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-11-15

    Developing robust and recyclable absorbents for water purification is of great demand to control water pollution and to provide sustainable water resources. Herein, for the first time, we reported the fabrication of Kevlar nanofiber (KNF) based composite particles for water purification. Both the KNF and KNF-carbon nanotube composite particles can be produced in large-scale by automatic injection of casting solution into ethanol. The resulted nanofibrous particles showed high adsorption capacities towards various pollutants, including metal ions, phenylic compounds and various dyes. Meanwhile, the adsorption process towards dyes was found to fit well with the pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption speed was controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Furthermore, the adsorption capacities of the nanofibrous particles could be easily recovered by washing with ethanol. In general, the KNF based particles integrate the advantages of easy production, robust and effective adsorption performances, as well as good recyclability, which can be used as robust absorbents to remove toxic molecules and forward the application of absorbents in water purification.

  19. Simulation of Water Sources and Precipitation Recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model simulation for 1948-1997 of the water budgets for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River basins is presented. In addition to the water budget, we include passive tracers to identify the geographic sources of water for the basins, and the analysis focuses on the mechanisms contributing to precipitation recycling in each basin. While each basin s precipitation recycling has a strong dependency on evaporation during the mean annual cycle, the interannual variability of the recycling shows important relationships with the atmospheric circulation. The MacKenzie River basin has only a weak interannual dependency on evaporation, where the variations in zonal moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean can affect the basin water cycle. On the other hand, the Mississippi River basin has strong interannual dependencies on evaporation. While the precipitation recycling weakens with increased low level jet intensity, the evaporation variations exert stronger influence in providing water vapor for convective precipitation at the convective cloud base. High precipitation recycling is also found to be partly connected to warm SSTs in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The Amazon River basin evaporation exhibits small interannual variations, so that the interannual variations of precipitation recycling are related to atmospheric moisture transport from the tropical south Atlantic Ocean. Increasing SSTs over the 50-year period are causing increased easterly transport across the basin. As moisture transport increases, the Amazon precipitation recycling decreases (without real time varying vegetation changes). In addition, precipitation recycling from a bulk diagnostic method is compared to the passive tracer method used in the analysis. While the mean values are different, the interannual variations are comparable between each method. The methods also exhibit similar relationships to the terms of the basin scale water budgets.

  20. Advanced biofuels in a biorefinery approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The conference was organized by the University of Copenhagen and Bio4Bio, a centre for development and implementation of biotechnology for bioenergy consisting of 8 Danish universities and companies. The conference was also coordinated with the International Energy Agency's two networks: Bioenergy Task 39 (commercializing liquid biofuels from biomass) and Task 42 (biorefineries). The conference was organized in the following sessions: Biorefineries seen from an ecological, economical and industrial point of view; Plants and biomass - input for the biorefinery; Biomass processing and pretreatment; Enzymatic hydrolysis in biorefineries; Sustainability; Fermentation technologies and systems biology; Biomass recalcitrance and conversion; Biorefinery technologies and integration; IEA Bioenergy Task 42; IEA Bioenergy Task 39; New materials and chemicals from biomass; Deployment of biorefinery technologies. The present report contains oral and poster abstracts, and most of them are indexed separately. (Author)

  1. Recycling of fresh concrete exceeding and wash water in concrete mixing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Férriz Papí, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exceeding concrete and washing equipment water are a matter to solve in concrete production. This paper explains several possibilities for recycling and analyses the products obtained with one recycling equipment. The objective of this work is to study the possibility to increase the percentage of recycling in new mixes. The developed study relates wash water density and fine particles content. Besides, mortar and concrete samples were tested introducing different quantities of these fine particles, substituting cement, sand or only as an addition. Consistency, compressive strength, setting time, absorption, and capillarity were tested. The results indicated an improvement of the studied properties in some percentages when substituting sand. It confirms the possibility to introduce larger quantities of wash water in new concrete mixes, with corrections in sand quantity depending on water density.Los hormigones frescos sobrantes y aguas procedentes de la limpieza de equipos son un inconveniente a resolver en las plantas de hormigón. Este artículo explica varias posibilidades de reciclado y analiza los productos obtenidos en un equipo reciclador concreto, con el objetivo de estudiar el incremento del porcentaje de reciclaje en nuevas amasadas. El estudio realizado relaciona la densidad del agua de lavado y el contenido de partículas finas. Además, ensaya muestras de mortero y hormigón realizando sustituciones de estas partículas finas por cemento, arena o simplemente como adición. Determina consistencia, resistencia a compresión, principio y fin de fraguado, absorción y capilaridad. Los resultados indicaron un incremento general de las propiedades estudiadas en algunos porcentajes de sustitución por arena. Ello confirma la posibilidad de introducir mayores cantidades de agua de lavado en nuevas amasadas de hormigón, mediante correcciones en la dosificación de arena en función de la densidad del agua.

  2. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario;

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore......ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...

  3. Recycling of woven carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites using supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C; Zeng, Changchun; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been great deal of interest in recycling carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites. One method that has shown promising results involves the use of supercritical fluids to achieve separation between matrix and fibres by effectively degrading the resin into lower molecular weight compounds. In addition, the solvents used are environmentally benign and can also be recovered and reused. In this study, supercritical water with 0.05 M KOH as the catalyst was used for the recycling of an aerospace-grade high-performance epoxy carbon fibre composite (Hexcel 8552/IM7). The morphology of the reclaimed fibres was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the tensile properties of the fibres were measured by single filament testing. The effects of processing time on the resin elimination efficiency and fibre property retention were investigated. With the process developed in this research, as much as 99.2 wt% resin elimination was achieved, resulting in the recovery of clean, undamaged fibres. The reclaimed fibres retained the original tensile strength. The feasibility of recycling multiple layer composites was also explored.

  4. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  5. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  6. Study on recycle of materials and components from waste streams during decommissioning for heavy water research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycle of valuable materials from potential waste streams is one of important elements of waste minimization, and it can minimize the environment impact. The recycle of the arising was researched with taking the decommissioning of heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy as an example. By analyzing all the possible wastes that could generate during the decommissioning of HWRR, some amount of materials have potential values to recycle and may be used either directly or after appropriate treatment for other purposes. The research results show that in HWRR decommissioning at least tons of irons, 10 tons of aluminum and 5 tons of heavy water can be recycled by carrying out the waste minimization control measures (eg. waste classification and waste stream segregation), adopting appropriate decontamination technologies, and performing the requirements of clearance. (authors)

  7. Method to Choose the Users of Recycling Water on Urban Recycling Water Use Planning%城市再生水利用规划中再生水用户的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 莫罹

    2011-01-01

    Recycling water use planning plays important roles in guiding the construction of recycling water use system. Choosing the users of recycling water is a key link in recycling water use planning, which influences the scale and technology of water works, as well as the layout of distribution system. Low -quality water users such as landscape, industry and urban miscellaneous is primary to be con- sidered. The condition of water resources and economic development is also involved. Reasonable to determine the users is the basis of making a systematic, scientific and feasible recycling water use planning, and further more guide the construction of recycling water use system.%城市再生水利用规划对一个城市再生水系统的建设起着重要的引导作用。再生水用户的确定是再生水利用规划首要及关键的环节,涉及到再生水厂规模、工艺,同时也决定着整个再生水输配系统的布置。景观、工业、城市杂用等低质用水户是首要的考虑对象,同时各个城市还需要根据自身水资源供需及经济发展情况,合理地确定用户,以确保再生水利用规划的系统性、科学性和可行性,对城市的再生水系统建设真正起到引导作用。

  8. In situ combined chemical and biological assessment of estrogenic pollution in a water recycling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Huang, Qiansheng; Zhang, Huanteng; Chen, Yajie; Dong, Sijun

    2016-05-01

    Estrogenic pollution and its control in aquatic systems have drawn substantial attention around the world. The chemical and biological assessment approaches currently utilized in the laboratory or field cannot give an integrated assessment of the pollution when used separately. In this study, in situ chemical and biological methods were combined to detect pollution in a water recycling system. Data for the water quality index (WQI) demonstrated that the water treatment resulted in the decline of pollution from upstream to downstream. Wild male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was sampled in June and September. The concentrations of four common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were determined in the tilapia liver by chromatographic analysis methods. The level of 17β-estradiol (E2) declined from upstream to downstream in both months. In contrast, the levels of bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not display this declining tendency. The highest relative expression of vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) was observed in tilapia from upstream, then the level significantly decreased along the water system. The relative expression levels of CYP1A1 in the water system were also significantly higher than that of the control. However, no declining trend could be observed along the water system. The change of VTG1 expression corresponded well with that of E2 levels in the tilapia liver. Overall, our study assessed the pollution by endocrine disruptors using chemical and biological data with good correspondence. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the water recycling system in eliminating estrogen pollution in municipal sewage. PMID:27155427

  9. Sustainability considerations for integrated biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Integrated biorefineries have the potential to contribute towards sustainable production of transportation fuels, energy, and chemicals. However, because there are currently no commercial biorefining plants in operation, it is not clear how sustainable they really are. This paper sets out to examine key issues associated with biorefining that should be considered carefully along the whole supply chain to ensure sustainable development of the sector. PMID:24364880

  10. The removal characteristics of natural organic matter in the recycling of drinking water treatment sludge: Role of solubilized organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Ji, Siyang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Qingping; Han, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of solubilized organics derived from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the elimination of natural organic matter (NOM) in the DWTS recycling process, a probe sonoreactor at a frequency of 25 kHz was used to solubilize the organics at varied specific energies. The coagulation behavior related to NOM removal in recycling the sonicated DWTS with and without solubilized organics was evaluated, and the effect on organic fractionations in coagulated water was determined. The study results could provide useful implications in designing DWTS recycling processes that avoid the enrichment of organic matter. Our results indicate that DWTS was disrupted through a low release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and proteins, which could deteriorate the coagulated water quality under the specific energy of 37.87-1212.1 kW h/kg TS. The optimal coagulation behavior for NOM removal was achieved by recycling the sonicated DWTS without solubilized organics at 151.5 kW h/kg TS specific energy. Recycling the sonicated DWTS could increase the enrichment potential of weakly hydrophobic acid, hydrophilic matter, and recycling the sonicated DWTS without solubilized organics, the removal of humic-like substances was limited, whereas removal of protein-like substances was enhanced, lowering the enrichment potential of protein-like substances.

  11. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface. PMID:26092604

  12. Extensive Treatment System For Recycling Water For Flushing Fresh Manure And Recovering Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Escande, Aurélie; Picot, Bernadette; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Jiangping, Qiu; Yinsheng, Li; Hamon, Gwenn; Amblard, Charlotte; Luth, Fievet, Sébastien; Oudart, Didier; Le Quéré, Camille Pain; Cluzeau, Daniel; Landrain, Brigitte

    2010-11-01

    From preliminary researches on a pilot scale, a complete demonstration plant was built to treat the effluents of a 30 pregnant sow's piggery. It includes a screen, a vermifilter, a macrophyte lagooning, and a complementary water storage pond; the recycled water is used for flushing, and rainfall is collected to compensate for evapotranspiration. After functioning in 2008 and 2009, it was showed that, during the warm season, the whole plant produced an effluent suitable for flushing, where the concentration decrease was over 70% for the phosphorus and potassium, 95% for the COD and nitrogen, 99.8% for endocrine disruptors (estrogenic activity), and 99.99% for pathogenic micro-organisms. During the cold season, the dilution by the rain water and the treatment effect of the constructed wetlands lead to similar results. Nevertheless, for this season, suitable floating macrophytes that will cover the lagoons remain to be settled.

  13. Field-scale monitoring of pharmaceutical compounds applied to active golf courses by recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M H; Green, R L; Conkle, J L; McCullough, M; Devitt, D A; Wright, L; Vanderford, B J; Snyder, S A

    2014-03-01

    The scarcity of potable water in arid and semiarid environments has led to the wider use of recycled water for irrigating agricultural fields, parks, golf courses, and other areas. One concern using recycled water as a source of irrigation has been the presence, fate, and transport of pharmaceutical compounds in water that percolates below the root zone of plants; however, very few multiyear field studies have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we assessed compound mass flux of 13 pharmaceuticals in the fairways of four golf courses in the southwestern United States during a 2-yr field study. The sites varied by climate and soil type but were similar regarding turfgrass management. The results showed the presence of at least one pharmaceutical compound in nearly all samples collected, although concentrations were substantially lower after transport through the soil. Percent reduction in compound mass fluxes in drainage water was effectively 100% in 22 of 52 cases, 98 to 100% in 27 of 52 cases, and 73 to 94% in 3 of 52 cases (a case is defined as a specific compound measured at a specific site). Mass fluxes migrating below the root zone were calculated as 100 × 10 g ha in only two cases. For cases where the majority of the analyses were reportable, all fluxes were <8.80 × 10 g ha. Carbamazepine, meprobamate, and sulfamethoxazole were most commonly found in drainage water, representing nearly 80% of all reportable detections. This research demonstrates the potential of turfgrass/soil systems to reduce contaminant loading below the root zone and potentially toward groundwater. PMID:25602667

  14. Direct recycling of human hygiene water into hydroponic plant growth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, C A; Garland, J L; Levine, L H; Cook, K L; Mackowiak, C L; Vivenzio, H R

    1999-01-01

    Direct recycling of gray water (human hygiene water) through plant production systems would reduce the need for additional space, mass, and energy for water reclamation in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. A plant production system designed to produce 25% of crew food needs could theoretically purify enough water through transpiration for 100% of crew water requirements. This scenario was tested through additions of shower and laundry water to recirculating hydroponic systems containing either wheat or soybean. Surfactant (Igepon TC-42) did not accumulate in the systems, and both the rate of surfactant disappearance and the proportion of Igepon-degrading microorganisms on the plant roots increased with time. A mechanism of surfactant degradation via the microbially ally mediated hydrolysis of the amide linkage and subsequent breakdown of fatty acid components is proposed. Fecal coliforms present in the human gray water were not detectable on the plant roots, indicating that human-associated microorganisms do not grow in the system. Overall plant growth was unaffected by gray water additions, although preliminary evidence suggests that reproduction may be inhibited. PMID:11542241

  15. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  16. TRS: a tool for the evaluation of thermal recycling in Ground Water Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2015-04-01

    Ground Water Heat Pumps (GWHP) are based on the thermal exchange with groundwater, which is usually reinjected into the same aquifer. This often leads to the return of thermally altered water to the extraction well, the so-called thermal recycling, thus impairing the long-term efficiency of a GWHP. Some simplified mathematical models have been already developed to simulate this phenomenon, but they require an imposed injection temperature (constant or variable), which should be know a priori. This simplification is a bit crude for GWHP modelling, for which it is more realistic to impose a temperature difference between the extraction and the injection well. We have therefore developed the freely available software TRS (Thermal Recycling Simulator), that overcomes this limitation by taking into account the variation of the injection temperature due to the thermal short-circuit. The software is based on the finite-difference approximation of the potential flow theory and it has been validated through the comparison with flow and heat transport simulations with FEFLOW. We have also developed an explicit formula for the calculation of the thermal alteration in a well doublet aligned with the groundwater flow direction, which is the ideal well arrangement. The parameters of the formula have been calibrated by fitting the results of a large series of simulations with TRS. The mathematical tools we developed can be used for preliminary feasibility studies of GWHP, for fast sensitivity analyses and for the large-scale mapping of the thermal exchange capacity of an aquifer.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete at Low and High Water/Binder Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental research on mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC at low and high water/binder (W/B ratios. Concrete at two W/B ratios (0.255 and 0.586 was broken into recycled concrete aggregates (RCA. A type of thermal treatment was employed to remove mortar attached to RCA. The RAC at a certain (low or high W/B ratio was prepared with RCA made from demolished concrete of the same W/B ratio. Tests were conducted on aggregate to measure water absorption and crushing values and on both RAC and natural aggregate concrete (NAC to measure compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, and fracture energy. The mechanical properties of RAC were lower than those of NAC at an identical mix proportion. Moreover, the heating process caused a decrease in compressive strength and fracture energy in the case of low W/B ratio but caused an increase in those properties in the case of high W/B ratio. The main type of flaw in RCA from concrete at a low W/B ratio should be microcracks in gravel, and the main type of flaw in RCA from concrete at a high W/B ratio should be attached mortar.

  18. 75 FR 11840 - Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 70544). All loan guarantees will be made based upon the terms and conditions illustrated in... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Biorefinery Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative... is announcing a new application window to submit application for the Biorefinery Assistance...

  19. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    applicable for the planning and upgrading of intended biorefinery systems, and includes discussions on the operation of an existing lignocellulosic-based biorefinery platform. Furthermore, technical considerations and tools (i.e., process analytical tools) which could be applied to optimise the operations...

  20. Integrated Biorefineries: Biofuels, Biopower, and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-06

    This fact sheet describes integrated biorefineries and the Program's work with them. A crucial step in developing the U.S. bioindustry is to establish integrated biorefineries capable of efficiently converting a broad range of biomass feedstocks into affordable biofuels, biopower, and other bioproducts.

  1. Why do residential recycled water schemes fail? A comprehensive review of risk factors and impact on objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Camilla; Kenway, Steven; Hassall, Maureen; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    In Australia, recycled water schemes have been implemented in residential developments to contribute to sustainable urban development, improve water supply security and reduce pollutant discharges to the environment. A proportion of these schemes, however, have been decommissioned well before the end of their design life which raises questions about the adequacy of the risk assessment and management practices adopted for recycled water schemes. Through a detailed literature review, an investigation of 21 residential recycled water schemes and in-depth interviews with nine scheme stakeholders, we identified 34 risk factors arising from six sources which have the potential to impact the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes. Of the 34 risk factors identified, 17 were reported to have occurred during the development and implementation of the 21 schemes investigated. The overall risk rating of the 17 factors was qualitatively defined on the basis of the likelihood of occurrence and the impact of the risk factors on the scheme objectives. The outcomes of the assessment indicate that the critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes are 1. unanticipated operational costs, 2. legal and contractual arrangements, 3. regulatory requirements and approval process and 4. customer complaints and expectations not met. To date, public health risks associated with the provision of recycled water have been of primary concern, though the outcomes of this study indicate that the impact to public health has been low. Evidently there is a need for improved assessment and management practices which address the range of critical risk factors, in addition to the routine consideration of public health risks. PMID:27362447

  2. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  3. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  4. Recyclable Magnetite Nanoparticle Catalyst for One-Pot Conversion of Cellobiose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Bhalkikar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally benign and easily recoverable magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs were demonstrated to catalyze the one-pot conversion of cellobiose, a glucose disaccharide, to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF. The conversion was achieved in water under hydrothermal conditions. The catalytic activity of Fe3O4 NPs surpassed those of iron (II and iron (III chlorides in this reaction. Optimized cellobiose conversion reactions catalyzed with Fe3O4 NPs gave the highest 5-HMF yields of 23.4 ± 0.6% at 160°C for 24 hours. After three reuses, the Fe3O4 NP catalyst retained its catalytic activity with similar 5-HMF yields, demonstrating the recyclability of this eco-friendly catalyst in water.

  5. Aetervinning av faerg och ridaevatten med ultrafiltrering (recycling of paint and water curtains with ultrafiltration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortkamp, U.; Allard, A.S.; Ekengren, O.

    1997-12-01

    Painting in spray booths causes overspray that is collected by a water curtain. The mixture of water and paint is commonly treated by means of precipitation. By means of this method, water can be used again but a paint sludge is created. Within this project, it was investigated how the paint as well as the water can be recycled. Separation by membrane filtration was tested for different paints in laboratory scale (0.2 liter volume). It was possible to separate all tested paints from the water and to concentrate it. At large scale (15 to 75 liters volume), an emulsion paint and a dispersion paint were tested. Under the tested conditions, it was slightly easier to concentrate the emulsion paint than the dispersion paint. It was possible to concentrate the paints to the original dry substance percentage. An important aspect of membrane filtration is cleaning of the membrane when the performance decreases. It was possible to clean all the tested membranes, but in many cases it was difficult. A ceramic membrane and a membrane of polyaramide showed the best results with regard to flux and cleaning of the membrane under the tested conditions. During the performance of the project two new applications of membrane filtration of paint were found. The method can be used for waste minimization by only separating the paint in an easy way at low costs. A third application is treating cleaning water from paint manufacturing.

  6. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  7. Water reuse: >90% water yield in MBR/RO through concentrate recycling and CO2 addition as scaling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, Adriano; Baenninger, Claudia; Foa, Paolo; Koepke, Stephan; Krauss, Martin; McArdell, Christa S; Rottermann, Karin; Wei, Yuansong; Zapata, Ana; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2011-11-15

    Over 1.5 years continuous piloting of a municipal wastewater plant upgraded with a double membrane system (ca. 0.6 m(3) d(-1) of product water produced) have demonstrated the feasibility of achieving high water quality with a water yield of 90% by combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a submerged ultrafiltration membrane followed by a reverse osmosis membrane (RO). The novelty of the proposed treatment scheme consists of the appropriate conditioning of MBR effluent prior to the RO and in recycling the RO concentrates back to the biological unit. All the 15 pharmaceuticals measured in the influent municipal sewage were retained below 100 ng L(-1), a proposed quality parameter, and mostly below detection limits of 10 ng L(-1). The mass balance of the micropollutants shows that these are either degraded or discharged with the excess concentrate, while only minor quantities were found in the excess sludge. The micropollutant load in the concentrate can be significantly reduced by ozonation. A low treated water salinity (<10 mM inorganic salts; 280 ± 70 μS cm(-1)) also confirms that the resulting product has a high water quality. Solids precipitation and inorganic scaling are effectively mitigated by lowering the pH in the RO feed water with CO(2) conditioning, while the concentrate from the RO is recycled to the biological unit where CO(2) is stripped by aeration. This causes precipitation to occur in the bioreactor bulk, where it is much less of a process issue. SiO(2) is the sole exception. Equilibrium modeling of precipitation reactions confirms the effectiveness of this scaling-mitigation approach for CaCO(3) precipitation, calcium phosphate and sulfate minerals. PMID:21959090

  8. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  9. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Gao, Wei; Liang, Heng; Li, Guibai

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge, characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter, is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process. The proper disposal, regeneration or reuse of sludge is, therefore, a significant environmental issue. Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency. In the present study, the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency. We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L, effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU, and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0, respectively. Furthermore, by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge, we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 microm from 48.1 microm. Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal, and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure. Applied during the coagulation process, recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water. PMID:23505868

  10. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhou; Yanling Yang; Xing Li; Wei Gao; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge,characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter,is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process.The proper disposal,regeneration or reuse of sludge is,therefore,a significant environmental issue.Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency.In the present study,the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency.We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L,effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU,and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0,respectively.Furthermore,by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge,we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 μm from 48.1 μm.Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal,and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure.Applied during the coagulation process,recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water.

  11. Increasing the value of a biorefinery based on hot-water extraction:Lignin products%提升热水抽提法生物精炼木素产品的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明珠; 夏新兴

    2013-01-01

    In conventional pulping technologies, lignin is used mainly as a low-cost source of energy. Small quantities of industrially produced lignin are used for the production of chemicals and materials. Biorefinery technologies are emerging that have an ultimate goal of replacing fossil sources for the production of fuels and other products. To achieve this goal effectively, biorefinery technologies must take advantage of lignin as the most abundant natural aromatic polymer and use it to add higher-value products to product portfolios. Lignin has the potential to be used in making a broad range of high-quality products, including carbon fibers, thermoplastics, and oxygenated aromatic compounds. Existing processes focus primarily on the quality of cellulose and result in a severely modified and contaminated lignin of relatively low value. Lignin produced in more flexible biorefinery operations is more uniform and less contaminated than currently available industrial lignin, opening the door for broader applications of lignin and lignin products. The results of isolation and characterization of lignin dissolved during hot-water extraction and some potential applications of this lignin are discussed.%  在传统的制浆技术中,木素主要是用来作为一种廉价的能量来源。新兴的生物精炼技术的最终目的是代替化石资源来生产燃料和其他产品。为了有效地实现这一目标,生物精炼技术必须充分利用木素这一最丰富的天然芳香族聚合物,并且以此来增加高附加值产品的种类。木素具有用来生产大量高质量产品的潜能,包括碳纤维、热塑性塑料以及氧化芳香族化合物。现有的技术主要关注纤维素的质量,因此使木素受到严重的破坏和污染而具有较低的价值。通过生物精炼技术生产的木素与当今的工业木素相比,均一性更好,受到的污染更少,因此使木素和木素产品有了更加广泛的应用。本文

  12. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

  13. Recycling of plutonium and uranium in water reactor fuel. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Recycling of Plutonium and Uranium in Water Reactor Fuel was recommended by the International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). Its aim was to obtain an overall picture of MOX fabrication capacity and technology, actual performance of this kind of fuel, and ways explored to dispose of the weapons grade plutonium. The subject of this meeting had been reviewed by the International Atomic Energy Agency every 5 to 6 years and for the first time the problem of weapons grade plutonium disposal was included. The papers presented provide a summary of experience on MOX fuel and ongoing research in this field in the participating countries. The meeting was hosted by British Nuclear Fuels plc, at Newby Bridge, United Kingdom, from 3 to 7 July 1995. Fifty-six participants from twelve countries or international organizations took part. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Urban Australians using recycled water for domestic non-potable use--an evaluation of the attributes price, saltiness, colour and odour using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Anna; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Recycled water use in urban areas is viewed as one part of the solution to Australia's water shortage. The effectiveness of policies designed to promote recycled water systems depends on the acceptance by the community of the price, colour, odour and salt content of the recycled water. In Australia and other countries, limited research has been conducted that investigates community attitudes to and willingness to pay for recycled water, especially in urban settings. Community acceptance of recycled water and the economic feasibility of such projects have not been widely evaluated, even though the long-term feasibility of many projects is dependent on such information. This paper examines the attitudes of an urban Australian community living at Mawson Lakes in South Australia, to using recycled water for non-potable domestic purposes. Conjoint analysis (CA) was used to evaluate participant's (n=136) preferences for various attributes of recycled water (colour, odour, salt content and price) for various uses (garden watering, toilet flushing and clothes washing). The analysis was used to estimate the respondent's willingness to pay (WTP) for quality increases for each of the attributes. Differences in WTP were investigated according to various demographic variables including income and education. Results indicate that for garden watering having 'low salt levels' is the most important attribute of recycled water, for clothes washing 'colourless' is the most important attribute, and for toilet flushing a 'low price' was the most important attribute. Respondents were willing to pay for increases in the quality of recycled water. The amount they were willing to pay varied depending on applied use and the attribute in question. Respondents were most willing to pay for an increase in quality of recycled water when used for clothes washing (willing to pay Australian dollars (A$) 0.07/cubic meter (m(3)) for removal of colour, A$0.065 per cubic meter for an increase in

  15. Hydroxyapatite supported caesium carbonate as a new recyclable solid base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Knoevenagel condensation between aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate or malonic acid with hydroxyapatite supported caesium carbonate in water is described. HAP–Cs2CO3 was found to be a highly active, stable and recyclable catalyst under the reaction conditions.

  16. Hydroxyapatite supported caesium carbonate as a new recyclable solid base catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation in water

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Gupta; Rajive Gupta; Medha Anand

    2009-01-01

    The Knoevenagel condensation between aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate or malonic acid with hydroxyapatite supported caesium carbonate in water is described. HAP–Cs2CO3 was found to be a highly active, stable and recyclable catalyst under the reaction conditions.

  17. On-Farm Water Recycling as an Adaptation Strategy for Drained Agricultural Land in the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-farm water recycling is in agricultural landscapes today, and a few examples exist in the Great Lakes region. They have been implemented primarily where both irrigation is needed for high value crops and groundwater is inadequate to provide the rates needed. Crop yield benefits of irrigation fr...

  18. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. PMID:26948442

  19. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  20. A Study on the Waste Water Treatment Technology for Steel Industry: Recycle And Reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is one of the most important and vital Industry of the present and the future. It is the asset of a nation. Steel plants use a tremendous amount of water for waste transfer, cooling and dust control. The steel plants have sintering mills, coke plants, blast furnaces, chemical byproducts and chemical processes, water cooled rolls, pumps, extrusion experiment, transfer lines for sludges and slurries. All these plants use a tremendous amount of water to cool the products and flush the impurities away from the finished stock. Wastewater is generated in huge quantity in steel industries. It contains many dissolved, undisclosed substances and chemicals in the wastewater. The steel industries produce wastewater and sludge during different industrial processes. The development of innovative technologies for treatment of wastewaters from steel industries is a matter of alarming concern for us. Although many research papers have been reported on wastewater pollution control studies, but a very few research work is carried out for treatment of wastewater of steel industries, especially in reference to development of design of industrial effluent Treatment Plants (ETP system. Another beneficial aspect of this research work will be recycling, reuse of water and sludge from steel industry The whole technologies for treating industrial wastewater can be divided into four categories: - Chemical, Physical, Biological and mathematical approaches. Physical treatment methods include sedimentation, Floatation , filtering , stripping, ion – exchange, adsorption and other processes that accomplish removal of dissolved and undisclosed substances without necessarily changing their chemical structure. The mathematical approaches are very useful and more realistic for developing a well operating cost–effective treatment system for industrial wastewater treatment.

  1. Performance of recycling abrasives in rock cutting by abrasive water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokhan Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Rock cutting performance of recycling abrasives was investigated in terms of cutting depth, kerf width, kerf taper angle and surface roughness. Gravity separation technique was employed to separate the abrasives and the rock particles. The recycling abrasive particles were then dried and sieved for determination of their disintegration behaviors. Before each cutting with recycling abrasives, the abrasive particles less than 106mm were screened out. It is revealed that a considerable amount of used abrasives can be effectively reused in the rock cutting. The reusabilities of abrasives are determined as 81.77%, 57.50%, 34.37%and 17.72%after the first, second, third and fourth cuttings, respectively. Additionally, it is determined that recycling must be restricted three times due to the excessive disintegration of abrasives with further recycling. Moreover, it is concluded that cutting depth, kerf width and surface roughness decreases with recycling. No clear trend is found between the kerf taper angle and recycling. Particle size distribution is determined as an important parameter for improving the cutting performance of recycling abrasives.

  2. Bioanalytical tools for the evaluation of organic micropollutants during sewage treatment, water recycling and drinking water generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, Miroslava; Toze, Simon; Hodgers, Leonie; Mueller, Jochen F; Bartkow, Michael; Escher, Beate I

    2011-08-01

    performed that allows direct comparison of different treatment technologies and covers several orders of magnitude of TEQ from highly contaminated sewage to drinking water with TEQ close or below the limit of detection. Detection limits of the bioassays were decreased in comparison to earlier studies by optimizing sample preparation and test protocols, and were comparable to or lower than the quantification limits of the routine chemical analysis, which allowed monitoring of the presence and removal of micropollutants post Barrier 2 and in drinking water. The results obtained by bioanalytical tools were reproducible, robust and consistent with previous studies assessing the effectiveness of the wastewater and advanced water treatment plants. The results of this study indicate that bioanalytical results expressed as TEQ are useful to assess removal efficiency of micropollutants throughout all treatment steps of water recycling. PMID:21704353

  3. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Wellisch, M.; Wilke, T.; Skiadas, I.; Ree, van R.; Jong, de E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels

  4. Opportunities and prospects of biorefinery-based valorisation of pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Haigh, Kate; Collard, François-Xavier; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann

    2016-09-01

    The paper and pulp industry is one of the major industries that generate large amount of solid waste with high moisture content. Numerous opportunities exist for valorisation of waste paper sludge, although this review focuses on primary sludge with high cellulose content. The most mature options for paper sludge valorisation are fermentation, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. In this review, biochemical and thermal processes are considered individually and also as integrated biorefinery. The objective of integrated biorefinery is to reduce or avoid paper sludge disposal by landfilling, water reclamation and value addition. Assessment of selected processes for biorefinery varies from a detailed analysis of a single process to high level optimisation and integration of the processes, which allow the initial assessment and comparison of technologies. This data can be used to provide key stakeholders with a roadmap of technologies that can generate economic benefits, and reduce carbon wastage and pollution load. PMID:27080100

  5. Recycling of water from manufacturing of asbestos/cement panels and pipes. Monograph; Fabrication de panneaux et tuyaux en amiante-ciment avec recyclage des eaux de process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-15

    The company manufactures asbestos-cement panels and pipes and recycles the water used in the process. The asbestos and the cement are mixed in water. The resulting mixture is placed on a cloth rolling at high speed, is drained and forms a thin layer that serves as a base for the panels and pipes. The water drained off in both processes is decanted twice. The residue from the first decanting is recycled; that from the second is also recycled in the low pollution process, while it is discharged in the standard process.

  6. Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin into Dicarboxylic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several types of biorefinery lignin and model compounds under mild, environmentally friendly reaction conditions. The findings from this study paved a new avenue to biorefinery lignin conversions and applications.

  7. Enantioselective analysis and fate of polycyclic musks in a water recycling plant in Sydney (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Khan, S J

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic polycyclic musks (PCMs) Galaxolide (HHCB), Tonalide (AHTN), Phantolide (AHDI), Traseolide (ATII) and Cashmeran (DPMI) are chiral chemicals that are commonly used in washing product industries as racemic mixtures. The major source of PCMs in municipal wastewater is from personal care and household products. Recent studies have shown that PCMs may enhance the relative toxicity of other environmental chemicals by inhibiting cellular xenobiotic defence systems. High sensitivity enantioselective analysis of these compounds enables improved characterisation of the environmental persistence and fate of PCMs, distinguishing between individual enantiomers so that a more complete understanding of environmental risks tributed by individual enantiomers may be obtained. Concentrations of PCMs through the various treatment stages of an advanced water recycling plant in Sydney were investigated to assess the removal of these chemicals. Average concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, AHDI, ATII and DPMI in influent were: 2,545, 301, 2, 5 and 33 ng L(-1), respectively. In the final effluent, AHDI, ATII and DPMI were not detected, while HHCB and AHTN were still measured at concentrations of 21 and 2 ng L(-1). No significant enantioselective transformation was detected during biological or advanced treatment processes. PMID:24845313

  8. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    In addition to the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent fuel and their recycle as fuel to light water reactors (referred to in GESMO as the ''uranium and plutonium recycle'' option), two other major options exist for handling light water reactor spent fuel. In the ''uranium recycle'' option, only uranium would be recovered from spent fuel and recycled as fuel to LWR's. Plutonium and fission product wastes from the spent fuel would be converted into forms suitable for long term storage and disposal. In the ''no recycle'' option, considered in GESMO, no fissile materials would be recovered from spent fuel that would be the waste material requiring long term storage and disposal. This portion of the final GESMO analyzes the health, safety, and environmental impact costs and benefits of implementing any one of the three available options for the light water reactor fuel cycle: uranium and plutonium recycle, uranium recycle, and no recycle.

  9. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical and Water-Sorption Properties Coconut Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester from Recycled PET

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Munirah Abdullah; Ishak Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Coconut fibers were used as reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET that has been prepared using glycolysis and polyesterification reaction. Various concentrations of alkali, silane, and silane on alkalized fiber were applied and the optimum concentration of treatments was determined. Morphological and mechanical properties of the composite have also been investigated to study the effect of fiber surface treatment. The influence of water uptake on the sorption characte...

  10. Biorefineries – factories of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołtuniewicz Andrzej B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts were made to demonstrate that in biorefineries it is possible to manufacture all the commodities required for maintaining human civilisation on the current level. Biorefineries are based on processing biomass resulting from photosynthesis. From sugars, oils and proteins, a variety of food, feed, nutrients, pharmaceuticals, polymers, chemicals and fuels can further be produced. Production in biorefineries must be based on a few rules to fulfil sustainable development: all raw materials are derived from biomass, all products are biodegradable and production methods are in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry and Clean Technology. The paper presents a summary of state-of-the-art concerning biorefineries, production methods and product range of leading companies in the world that are already implemented. Potential risks caused by the development of biorefineries, such as: insecurities of food and feed production, uncontrolled changes in global production profiles, monocultures, eutrophication, etc., were also highlighted in this paper. It was stressed that the sustainable development is not only an alternative point of view but is our condition to survive.

  11. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental statement assesses the impacts of the implementation of plutonium recycle in the LWR industry. It is based on assumptions that are intended to reflect conservatively an acceptable level of the application of current technology. It is not intended to be a representation of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) philosophy. This generic environmental statement discusses the anticipated effects of recycling plutonium in light water nuclear power reactors. It is based on about 30 years of experience with the element in the context of a projected light water nuclear power industry that is already substantial. A background perspective on plutonium, its safety, and its recycling as a reactor fuel is presented

  12. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  13. Modelling of the biorefinery scenarios - Bioscen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: pertti.koukkari@vtt.fi; Alopaeus, V. (Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: ville.alopaeus@tkk.fi; Miettinen, K. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: kaisa.miettinen@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    Bioscen project develops methods for modeling of biorefinery concepts. The project covers a range of approaches starting from collecting and predicting minute details of molecular properties of biorefining chemicals to optimizing energy efficiency and estimating the life cycle analysis of a complete production plant. The unit operations that are in the focus of the project are condensation of pyrolysis oil, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation. The project develops surrogate-model based simulation and optimization of computationally demanding biorefinery scenarios. These metamodels are applied in flowsheet models of production plants in order to enable estimation of optimum for instance in terms of productivity, energy efficiency and running costs. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis for determining the most critical parameters in the process models is developed. As an example case of complete production process the project uses a concept of bark biorefinery to bioethanol and fine chemicals. (orig.)

  14. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  15. Atmospheric water vapor transport: Estimation of continental precipitation recycling and parameterization of a simple climate model. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    The advective transport of atmospheric water vapor and its role in global hydrology and the water balance of continental regions are discussed and explored. The data set consists of ten years of global wind and humidity observations interpolated onto a regular grid by objective analysis. Atmospheric water vapor fluxes across the boundaries of selected continental regions are displayed graphically. The water vapor flux data are used to investigate the sources of continental precipitation. The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from surrounding areas external to the region; and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. In a separate, but related, study estimates of ocean to land water vapor transport are used to parameterize an existing simple climate model, containing both land and ocean surfaces, that is intended to mimic the dynamics of continental climates.

  16. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water and identification of a novel fipronil transformation product in recycled wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; McMillan, Larry; DeRose, Eugene; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10-500ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered. PMID:27378152

  17. Removal and recycle of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with zirconium ferrite adsorbent by high gradient magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, D; Nishimura, K; Miura, O [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0397 (Japan)], E-mail: dai@eei.metro-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Zirconium ferrite particles are good adsorbent for phosphate ions. Magnetic separation characteristics for removal of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with the adsorbent have been studied to prevent eutrophication of semi-enclosed bay, e.g. the bay of Tokyo. Based on the adsorption for the phosphate ions and ferromagnetic properties of the zirconium ferrite adsorbent, high gradient magnetic separation characteristics with using superconducting magnet was discussed. Very rapid magnetic filtration velocity, i.e. 1m/s, and regeneration properties of the adsorbent indicate that the zirconium ferrite is the excellent adsorbent for phosphorus removal and recycle from treated water of large scale sewage plants.

  18. The Millennium Dome "Watercycle" experiment: to evaluate water efficiency and customer perception at a recycling scheme for 6 million visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, S; Birks, R; McKenzie, B

    2002-01-01

    Thames Water's "Watercycle" project at the Millennium Dome was one of the largest in-building recycling schemes in Europe, designed to supply up to 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. It catered for over 6 million visitors in the year 2000. Overall, 55% of the water demand at the Dome was met by reclaimed water. The site was also one of the most comprehensive studies ever carried out of water conservation in a public environment, evaluating a range of water efficient appliances and researching visitor perceptions of reclaimed water. Within the Dome there were six identical core buildings housing the washrooms, which were equipped with a variety of different water-efficient devices for comparison. Water usage by the different appliances was monitored using a sophisticated metering and telemetry system. The importance of correct installation and maintenance of "high tech" water efficient devices was highlighted during the research programme, as some water wastage occurred due to poor installation. The results prove that metering should complement any large-scale water efficient system, so that any faults with the appliances can be quickly identified. The visitor survey showed very positive attitudes to the use of reclaimed water for non-potable uses. PMID:12380996

  19. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  20. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 循环水排污水的回用处理%Waste Water Treatment and Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      结合循环水排污水回用处理的工程实例,针对电厂循环水排污水高浊度高盐量的水质特点,采用澄清+过滤+超滤+反渗透工艺进行处理,处理后水进行回用,实现电厂循环水排污水的零排放。%Combined with the engineering example of waste water treatment and recy-cling, in the light of water characteristics of the power plant’s waster water with high turbidi-ty and high salt, the clarification + filter + ultrafiltration + reverse osmosis process is adopt-ed. The treated water is reused to realize zero discharge of the waste water of the power plant.

  2. Efficient paper recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor-Svetec, Diana; Možina, Klemen; Blaznik, Barbara; Urbas, Raša; Vrabič Brodnjak, Urška; Golob, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Used paper and paper products are important raw material for paper and board industry. Paper recycling increases the material lifespan and is a key strategy that contributes to savings of primary raw material, reduction of energy and chemicals consumption, reduction of the impact on fresh water and improvement of waste management strategies. The paper recycling rate is still highly inhomogeneous among the countries of Central Europe. Since recovered paper is not only recycled in the country w...

  3. Realistic environmental mixtures of micropollutants in surface, drinking, and recycled water: herbicides dominate the mixture toxicity toward algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2014-06-01

    Mixture toxicity studies with herbicides have focused on a few priority components that are most likely to cause environmental impacts, and experimental mixtures were often designed as equipotent mixtures; however, real-world mixtures are made up of chemicals with different modes of toxic action at arbitrary concentration ratios. The toxicological significance of environmentally realistic mixtures has only been scarcely studied. Few studies have simultaneously compared the mixture effect of water samples with designed reference mixtures comprised of the ratios of analytically detected concentrations in toxicity tests. In the present study, the authors address the effect of herbicides and other chemicals on inhibition of photosynthesis and algal growth rate. The authors tested water samples including secondary treated wastewater effluent, recycled water, drinking water, and storm water in the combined algae assay. The detected chemicals were mixed in the concentration ratios detected, and the biological effects of the water samples were compared with the designed mixtures of individual detected chemicals to quantify the fraction of effect caused by unknown chemicals. The results showed that herbicides dominated the algal toxicity in these environmentally realistic mixtures, and the contribution by the non-herbicides was negligible. A 2-stage model, which used concentration addition within the groups of herbicides and non-herbicides followed by the model of independent action to predict the mixture effect of the two groups, could predict the experimental mixture toxicity effectively, but the concentration addition model for herbicides was robust and sufficient for complex mixtures. Therefore, the authors used the bioanalytical equivalency concept to derive effect-based trigger values for algal toxicity for monitoring water quality in recycled and surface water. All water samples tested would be compliant with the proposed trigger values associated with the

  4. Recycling Carbon Dioxide into Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels: Electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher Ronald

    Great quantities of hydrocarbon fuels will be needed for the foreseeable future, even if electricity based energy carriers begin to partially replace liquid hydrocarbons in the transportation sector. Fossil fuels and biomass are the most common feedstocks for production of hydrocarbon fuels. However, using renewable or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into sustainable hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. The purpose of this work was to develop critical components of a system that recycles CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The concept is examined at several scales, beginning with a broad scope analysis of large-scale sustainable energy systems and ultimately studying electrolysis of CO 2 and H2O in high temperature solid oxide cells as the heart of the energy conversion, in the form of three experimental studies. The contributions of these studies include discoveries about electrochemistry and materials that could significantly improve the overall energy use and economics of the CO2-to-fuels system. The broad scale study begins by assessing the sustainability and practicality of the various energy carriers that could replace petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuels, including other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and storage of electricity on-board vehicles in batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels. Any energy carrier can store the energy of any energy source. This sets the context for CO2 recycling -- sustainable energy sources like solar and wind power can be used to provide the most energy-dense, convenient fuels which can be readily used in the existing infrastructure. The many ways to recycle CO2 into hydrocarbons, based on thermolysis, thermochemical loops, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H 2O, are critically reviewed. A process based on high temperature co

  5. Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based industries (pulp and paper and biorefineries) produce > 50 Mt/yr of lignin that results from fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is world's second biopolymer and a major potential source for production of performance materials and aromatic chemicals. Lignin valorization is

  6. 2009 Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) platform review meeting, held on February 18–19, 2009, at the Westin National Harbor, National Harbor, Maryland.

  7. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  8. Biorefinery of proteins from rubber plantation residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber tree side streams could add economic value and income for farmers, who already grow the trees for latex production. The objective of this research was to design a process for the recovery of proteinaceous fractions from rubber tree. The aimed applications were expected to be su

  9. Biorefinery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Das; Thomas T. Adams; Mark A. Eiteman; John Stickney; Joy Doran Peterson; James R. Kastner; Sudhagar Mani; Ryan Adolphson

    2012-06-12

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [1] establishment of pyrolysis processing systems and characterization of the product oils for fuel applications, including engine testing of a preferred product and its pro forma economic analysis; [2] extraction of sugars through a novel hotwater extaction process, and the development of levoglucosan (a pyrolysis BioOil intermediate); [3] identification and testing of the use of biochar, the coproduct from pyrolysis, for soil applications; [4] developments in methods of atomic layer epitaxy (for efficient development of coatings as in fuel cells); [5] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics, [6] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery, and [7] development of catalysts from coproducts. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the pyrolysis biooil based diesel fuel supplement, sugar extraction from lignocelluose, use of biochar, production of algal biomass in wastewaters, and the development of catalysts. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The various coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  10. Sustainable utility of magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts in water: Applications in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and...

  11. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors; indirect nuclear action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the results obtained during the five-year programme 'Plutonium recycle in LWRs' (1975-79) which has been made possible after the completion of the synthesis studies on 'Control and Safety' and on the 'Environmental impact'. The work performed during the programme is reported; the contracts concluded and their main results and conclusions are summarized. The activity was devoted to studies of general interest and to R and D in order to improve the scientific and technical knowledge of plutonium recycling. General studies included an assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium recycling in the EC as well as research aimed at reducing this impact. Improvements were achieved on neutron-physics parameters of the actinides, on neutron computer codes for plutonium-fuelled LWRs, on control and safety and on the in-pile behaviour of mixed-oxide fuels. The conclusions state that, while fostering a fruitful exchange of information in the Community, the programme has contributed to demonstrating the feasibility of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  12. Particulate silica and Si recycling in the surface waters of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjou, Mohamed; Tréguer, Paul; Dumousseaud, Cynthia;

    2011-01-01

    SiO2) was generally material in the EEP. In spite of active upwelling of silicic acid...... biomass in the EEP. Net silica dissolution predominated in the lower euphotic layer (40-120 m), indicating active Si recycling which diminished the strength of the silica pump in this region....

  13. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the health, safety and environmental effects of the entire light water reactor fuel cycle, considering the comparative effects of three major alternatives: no recycle, recycle of uranium only, and recycle of both uranium and plutonium. The assessment covers the period from 1975 through the year 2000 and includes the cumulative effects for the entire period as well as projections for specific years. Topics discussed include: the light water reactor with plutonium recycle; mixed oxide fuel fabrication; reprocessing plant operations; supporting uranium fuel cycle; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management; storage of plutonium; radiological health assessment; extended spent fuel storage; and blending of plutonium and uranium at reprocessing plants

  14. 78 FR 60822 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Funding Availability for the Biorefinery Assistance Program... Biorefinery Assistance Program (the ``Program'') to provide guaranteed loans for the development and... Programs, Energy Division, Attention: Biorefinery Assistance Program, 1400 Independence Avenue SW.,...

  15. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial.

  16. Synthesis and Application of a New Acrylic Ester Resin for Recycling SIPA from its Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new acrylic ester polymer YWB-7 resin was prepared and characterized. The properties of YWB-7 resin were compared with those of the commercial Amberlite XAD-7, Diaion HP2MG and hypercrosslinked macroporous polymer NDA-150 resins. Both surface area and micropore area of YWB-7 resin were bigger than those of XAD-7 resin and HP2MG resin. The YWB-7 resin was successfully employed to recycle 5-sodiosulfoisophthalic acids (SIPA) from its solutions with and without methanol.

  17. 办公楼中水回用成本效益分析%Cost-benefit Analysis of Gray Water Recycling Utilized in Office Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左婷婷; 袁岩; 王利生

    2013-01-01

      中水回用系统节省淡水资源,缓解城市给排水压力,社会效益显著。但是在经济效益层面,中水回用系统存在争议。针对北京地区办公楼中水回用问题,采用动态投资回收期分析法,结合对未来水价、电价的走势和维保费的模拟,针对Matlab软件计算结果,分析并讨论了中水系统在办公楼中的成本效益。结果表明,目前办公楼中水系统不具备经济投资效益;水价以及运行、维保费的增长率是影响中水回用系统经济效益的主要因素。但随着中水回用系统投入使用的推移,动态投资回收期在减少。到2021年以后中水回用系统投入使用,开始具备经济投资效益。%Gray water recycling system reserves water resource and relieves pressure of municipal water and wastewater which has great potential social benefit. However,gray water recycling system rises controversy in terms of economic benefit. Focusing on gray water recycling system in a research office building located in Beijing,cost-benefit analysis of gray water recycling in the research office building is analyzed and discussed in terms of using dynamic investment pay-back period method solved by Matlab software which combines the simulation of future running water prices,electricity prices and operating& maintenance fees. At present, economic investment of gray water recycling system is turned out to be in vain. Running water prices and increasing rate of operating& maintenance fees are the key factors which have a serious influence on economic benefit of gray water recycling system. With delay of implementation of gray water recycling system,dynamic investment pay-back period is decreasing. Economic investment efficiency of gray water recycling system emerges when the system implements after 2021.

  18. Sustainability Assessment of a Biorefinery Complex in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pariyapat Nilsalab; Kritana Prueksakorn; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Sébastien Bonnet

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a biorefinery complex in Thailand was assessed vis-à-vis sustainability. The complex studied includes plantations of sugarcane and a biorefinery system composed of several units including, a sugar mill, power plant, ethanol factory and fertilizer plant. The assessment aimed at evaluating the environmental and socio-economic implications relating to molasses-based ethanol production and use, and maximized utilization of the biomass materials produced as part of the biorefinery c...

  19. 基于水资源再利用的自动蓄水循环系统%Automatic water storage and recycling system based on water reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    角文滨; 徐镇标; 林普靖; 严庆东; 温耀龙; 李克天

    2011-01-01

    Automatic water storage and recycling system for water reuse,as well as a new type of concept house were put forward.It was suggested to avoid rush hour of water use in summer,and make use of high water pressure at night to replenish the water tank automa%提出一种居民家庭自动蓄水循环系统和二次循环水利用及新型概念房的构想。通过错过夏天用水高峰时段,合理利用夜晚水压进行水箱日常用水的自动补给。中水回用和雨水收集使得在概念房的有限面积内达到最大的水循环利用效率。

  20. Aquifer residence times for recycled water estimated using chemical tracers and the propagation of temperature signals at a managed aquifer recharge site in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Patterson, Bradley; Toze, Simon; Furness, Andrew; Higginson, Simon; Shackleton, Mark

    2014-09-01

    A prerequisite for minimizing contamination risk whilst conducting managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water is estimating the residence time in the zone where pathogen inactivation and biodegradation processes occur. MAR in Western Australia's coastal aquifers is a potential major water source. As MAR with recycled water becomes increasingly considered in this region, better knowledge of applied and incidental tracer-based options from case studies is needed. Tracer data were collected at a MAR site in Floreat, Western Australia, under a controlled pumping regime over a distance of 50 m. Travel times for bromide-spiked groundwater were compared with two incidental tracers in recycled water: chloride and water temperature. The average travel time using bromide was 87 ± 6 days, whereas the estimates were longer based on water temperature (102 ± 17 days) and chloride (98 ± 60 days). The estimate of average flow velocity based on water temperature data was identical to the estimate based on bromide within a 25-m section of the aquifer (0.57 ± 0.04 m day-1). This case study offers insights into the advantages, challenges and limitations of using incidental tracers in recycled water as a supplement to a controlled tracer test for estimating aquifer residence times.

  1. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  2. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  3. Biorefinery: a design tool for molecular gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Shankar, Balachandran Vijai; Jadhav, Swapnil R; Vemula, Praveen Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Molecular gels, the macroscopic products of a nanoscale bottom-up strategy, have emerged as a promising functional soft material. The prospects of tailoring the architecture of gelator molecules have led to the formation of unique, highly tunable gels for a wide spectrum of applications from medicine to electronics. Biorefinery is a concept that integrates the processes of converting biomass/renewable feedstock and the associated infrastructure used to produce chemicals and materials, which is analogous to petroleum-based refinery. The current review assimilates the successful efforts to demonstrate the prospects of the biorefinery concept for developing new amphiphiles as molecular gelators. Amphiphiles based on naturally available raw materials such as amygdalin, vitamin C, cardanol, arjunolic acid, and trehalose that possess specific functionality were synthesized using biocatalysis and/or chemical synthesis. The hydrogels and organogels obtained from such amphiphiles were conceptually demonstrated for diverse applications including drug-delivery systems and the templated synthesis of hybrid materials. PMID:20465204

  4. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  5. Synthesis and Scheduling of Optimal Batch Water-recycle Networks%最佳间歇水循环网络的合成和时序安排

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Rabie; M.M.El-Halwagi

    2008-01-01

    This work develops an optimization-based methodology for the design and scheduling of batch water recycle networks. This task requires the identification of network configuration, fresh-water usage, recycle assignments from sources to sinks, wastewater discharge, and a scheduling scheme. A new source-tank-sink representation is developed to allow for storage and dispatch tanks. The problem is solved in stages by first eliminating scheduling constraints and determining minimum usage of fresh water and wastewater discharge. An iterative procedure is formulated to minimize the total annual cost of the system by trading off capital versus operating costs. The work overcomes limitations in previous literature work including restricted recycle within the same cycle, lumped balances that may not lead to feasible solutions, and unrealistic objective functions. A case study is solved to illustrate the usefulness of the devised procedure.

  6. Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomass pretreatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C.; Gírio, Francisco M.

    2008-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment (BP) plays a crucial role in a lignocellulose feedstock-based biorefinery (LCFBR) for processing of three major output streams (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) into chemicals and biofuels. BP includes processing of lignocellulosic material (LCM) under aqueous, dilute acid or alkaline media to obtain a cellulosic fraction, which is then fermented to produce bioethanol. Hemicellulose is usually treated as a secondary stream due to lack of efficient fermentation of hem...

  7. BIORAF – Biorefinery Research Centre of Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Topka, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The project, which started in 2012, creates an interdisciplinary center with high innovation potential for sustainable utilization of renewable sources, and will bring the Czech Republic to the leading position in next-generation biorefinery within next eight years. The project links the private sector with experts from different fields of science (e.g., biosciences, phycology, analytical chemistry, enzymology, microbiology, chemical and biochemical engineering, material engineering, etc.).

  8. Biorefineries. Prerequisite for the realization of a future bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagemann, K. [DECHEMA e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The current discussion on how to establish a bioeconomy aims in particular at a significant increase of the share of renewable raw materials in the feedstock pool for the production of chemicals and materials; this share currently is around 12%. Such products can be intermediate chemicals, presently already produced from petroleum. Other chemicals, which can be components of new value chains, are also being discussed. In addition materials like biopolymers are already used directly in consumer goods. These considerations imply a higher demand on renewable raw materials especially from plants. Biorefineries will play an important role in meeting this demand. The German Government has decided to draw up a roadmap being established by a group of independent experts from industry and academia. This roadmap describes in a systematic way status and perspectives of the different biorefinery concepts. It takes economic and ecological aspects into considerations and analyses the R and D demand. The following definition is taken as a basis for the analysis: 'A biorefinery is characterised by having a dedicated, integrative overall approach, using biomass as a versatile raw material source for the sustainable production of a spectrum of different intermediates and marketable products (chemicals, materials, bioenergy and food/feed co-products) by using the biomass components as complete as possible.' The analysis considers the following promising concepts: - Sugar biorefinery and Starch biorefinery; - Plant oil biorefinery including Algae lipid biorefinery; - Lignocellulose (Cellulose/Hemicellulose/Lignin) biorefinery including Green (green fibre/green juice) biorefinery; - Synthesis gas biorefinery; - Biogas biorefinery. The roadmap analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the different concepts. For several specific examples preliminary economical and ecological assessment were carried out. The lecture will also give examples how these

  9. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction. Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the evaluated processes were self-sufficient in energy demand, being able to sell the surplus electricity to the grid, and presented water intake inside the environmental limit for São Paulo State, Brazil. The processes that evaluated the use of the bagasse fine fraction presented higher economic results compared with the use of the entire bagasse. Even though, due to the high enzyme costs, the payback calculated for the biorefineries were higher than 8 years for all cases that considered second generation ethanol and the net present value for the investment was negative. The reduction on the enzyme load, in a way that the conversion rates could be maintained, is the limiting factor to make second generation ethanol competitive with the most immediate uses of bagasse: fuel for the cogeneration system to surplus electricity production.

  10. System visualization of integrated biofuels and high value chemicals developed within the MacroAlgaeBiorefinery (MAB3) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hasler, Berit; Bastianoni, Simone;

    growth in open seas absorbs considerable amount of nitrogen, phosphorus (limiting water eutrophication) and heavy metals. The modeled system aims to valorize all the biomass components produced in the biorefinery processes and internalize all positive and negative impacts of the services provided...

  11. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, L.; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; Spek, van der J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are recyc

  12. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green chemist

  13. Recycling of Oceanic Lithosphere: Water, fO2 and Fe-isotope Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizmis, M.; Peslier, A. H.; McCammon, C. A.; Keshav, S.; Williams, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Hawaii provide important clues about the composition of the oceanic lithosphere, and can be used to assess its contribution to mantle heterogeneity upon recycling. The peridotites have lower bulk H2O (approximately 70-114 ppm) than the MORB source, qualitatively consistent with melt depletion. The garnet pyroxenites (high pressure cumulates) have higher H2O (200-460 ppm, up to 550 ppm accounting for phlogopite) and low H2O/Ce ratios (less than 100). The peridotites have relatively light Fe-isotopes (delta Fe -57 = -0.34 to 0.13) that decrease with increasing depletion, while the pyroxenites are significantly heavier (delta Fe-57 up to 0.3). The observed xenolith, as well as MORB and OIB total Fe-isotope variability is larger that can be explained by existing melting models. The high H2O and low H2O/Ce ratios of pyroxenites are similar to estimates of EM-type OIB sources, while their heavy delta Fe-57 are similar to some Society and Cook-Austral basalts. Therefore, recycling of mineralogically enriched oceanic lithosphere (i.e. pyroxenites) may contribute to OIB sources and mantle heterogeneity. The Fe(3+)/Sigma? systematics of these xenoliths also suggest that there might be lateral redox gradients within the lithosphere, between juxtaposed oxidized spinel peridotites (deltaFMQ = -0.7 to 1.6, at 15 kb) and more reduced pyroxenites (deltaFMQ = -2 to -0.4, at 20-25kb). Such mineralogically and compositionally imposed fO2 gradients may generate local redox melting due to changes in fluid speciation (e.g. reduced fluids from pyroxenite encountering more oxidized peridotite). Formation of such incipient, small degree melts could further contribute to metasomatic features seen in peridotites, mantle heterogeneity, as well as the low velocity and high electrical conductivity structures near the base of the lithosphere and upper mantle.

  14. 77 FR 5232 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... Amount of payments. The Agency will determine the amount of payments to be made to a biorefinery by taking into consideration the percentage reduction in fossil fuel used by the biorefinery (including the... individual biorefinery can receive. The maximum amount an individual biorefinery can receive under...

  15. Diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks: enhanced formaldehyde-vapor adsorption capacity, superior recyclability and water resistibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, WenZhong; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Yali

    2016-07-28

    Capturing formaldehyde (HCHO) from indoor air with porous adsorbents still faces challenges due to their low uptake capacity, difficult regeneration, and especially, the sorption capacity reduction that is caused by the competitive adsorption of H2O when exposed to a humid atmosphere. In this work, MIL-101 is modified with ethylenediamine (ED) on its open-metal sites to substantially improve the HCHO adsorption properties. The HCHO uptake capacity of modified MIL-101 can be up to 5.49 mmol g(-1) in this study, which is among the highest-levels of various adsorbents reported thus far. Moreover, this modification both improved the material's recyclability and water resistibility, allowing for cyclic and selective tests with stable adsorption capacities, revealing the potential utility of amine-modified MOFs for indoor air purification. PMID:27338802

  16. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water. PMID:27438241

  17. Diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks: enhanced formaldehyde-vapor adsorption capacity, superior recyclability and water resistibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, WenZhong; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Yali

    2016-07-28

    Capturing formaldehyde (HCHO) from indoor air with porous adsorbents still faces challenges due to their low uptake capacity, difficult regeneration, and especially, the sorption capacity reduction that is caused by the competitive adsorption of H2O when exposed to a humid atmosphere. In this work, MIL-101 is modified with ethylenediamine (ED) on its open-metal sites to substantially improve the HCHO adsorption properties. The HCHO uptake capacity of modified MIL-101 can be up to 5.49 mmol g(-1) in this study, which is among the highest-levels of various adsorbents reported thus far. Moreover, this modification both improved the material's recyclability and water resistibility, allowing for cyclic and selective tests with stable adsorption capacities, revealing the potential utility of amine-modified MOFs for indoor air purification.

  18. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs.

  19. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality. PMID:26256625

  20. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality.

  1. Design of an integrated piggery system with recycled water, biomass production and water purification by vermiculture, macrophyte ponds and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Oudart, Didier; Fievet, Sebastien; Luth, Daniel; Cluzeau, Daniel; Picot, Bernadette; Landrain, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 the swine experimental station of Guernévez has studied biological treatment plants for nutrient recovery and water recycling, suited to the fresh liquid manure coming out of flushing systems. An integrated system with continuous recycling was set up in 2007, associated with a piggery of 30 pregnant sows. It includes a screen, a vermifilter, and macrophyte ponds alternating with constructed wetlands. The screen and the vermifilter had a lower removal efficiency than in previous studies on finishing pigs. A settling tank was then added between the vermifilter and the first lagoon to collect the worm casts. A second vermifilter was added to recover this particulate organic matter. A storage lagoon was added to compensate for evaporative losses and complete pollution abatement, with goldfish as a bioindicator of water quality. The removal efficiency of the whole system was over 90% for COD and nitrogen, over 70% for phosphorus and potassium, and more than 4 logarithmic units for pathogens (E. coli, enterococci, C perfringens). Plant production was about 20 T DM ha(-1) y(-1). Floating macrophytes (Azolla caroliniana, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrocotyle vulgaris) were more concentrated in nutrients than helophytes (Phragmites australis, Glyceria aquatica,…). Azolla caroliniana was successfully added to feed finishing pigs. PMID:21436573

  2. Earth Day 1990: Lesson Plan and Home Survey--7-12. Energy, Solid Waste/Recycling, Toxics, Transportation, and Water with Fact Sheets and Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Shuett, Amy; Shuett, Greg

    The purpose of this 7-12 curriculum is to provide teachers and other educators with classroom lessons and home surveys that are a starting point for understanding five significant environmental issues - water, toxics, energy, transportation, and solid waste/recycling. While each of these environmental issues is complex and has far-reaching…

  3. Nano -propylsulphonated -Fe2O3: A novel magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of bis(pyrazolyl)methanes in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sara Sobhani; Zahra Pakdin-Parizi; Razieh Nasseri

    2013-09-01

    Nano -propylsulphonated -Fe2O3 (NPS--Fe2O3) was applied as a new magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient one-pot synthesis of bis(pyrazolyl)methanes in water. The catalyst was easily isolated from the reaction mixture by a magnetic bar and reused at least five times without significant degradation in activity.

  4. 大豆黄浆水回收利用研究进展%Research and Progress on Recycling of Soybean Yellow Slurry Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉玺

    2015-01-01

    Soybean yellow slurry water is a kind of waste water that is produced in the process of bean products. Its recycling can both reduce environmental pollution and realize the recycling of resources. After summarizing characteristics of soybean yellow slurry water and its ways of recycling,this paper analyzes the possible problems and predicts the prospects of soybean yellow slurry water,so as to provide some theoretical reference to its recycling in the future.%大豆黄浆水是豆制品加工过程中所产生的废水,将其回收利用既减轻环境污染又能实现资源的循环利用。本文通过对大豆黄浆水的特点、回收利用途径研究现状进行了综述,分析了可能存在的问题,并预测其发展前景,以期为黄浆水的回收利用明确方向提供理论参考。

  5. Use of residual banana for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production: case of study in an integrated biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Javier M; Cardona, Carlos A; Higuita, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a type of biopolymer that can be produced from hydrolyzed polysaccharide materials and could eventually replace polypropylene and polyethylene, being biodegradable, biocompatible and produced from renewable carbon sources. However, polyhydroxybutyrate is not still competitive compared to petrochemical polymers due to their high production costs. The improvement of the production processes requires a search for new alternative raw materials, design of the pretreatment technique and improvement in the fermentation and separation steps. In addition, if the polyhydroxybutyrate production is coupled into a multiproduct biorefinery it could increase the economic and environmental availability of the process through energy and mass integration strategies. In this work alternatives of energy and mass integrations for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate into a biorefinery from residual banana (an agro-industrial waste) were analyzed. The results show that the energetic integration can reduce up to 30.6% the global energy requirements of the process and the mass integration allows a 35% in water savings. Thus, this work demonstrates that energy and mass integration in a biorefinery is a very important way for the optimal use of energy and water resources hence decreasing the production cost and the negative environmental impacts.

  6. Purification and recycling of the waste water of a paper mill using mechanical pulp; Mekaanista massaa kaeyttaevaen paperitehtaan jaeteveden puhdistus ja uudelleenkaeyttoe - EKY 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattelemaeki, R. [Enso Oyj, Imatra (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the project was to study which levels of organic and inorganic substances could be obtained by treatment of waste waters of mechanical pulper and paper machine biologically and after that with solid matter removal. Another target was also to test the utilisation of the purified water in pulp and paper manufacture, and to study the properties of purified water. The three months test runs with PK 4 and TMP plant clarified waters were carried out using a pilot-scale plant, which also consisted of two serial aerobic bioreactors and a parallel anaerobic line as a reference. The solid matter was removed by chemical flocculation, flotation and sand filtration. The purification efficiencies of both waters were similar both in aerobic and anaerobic lines. The reduction of soluble COD in biological stage was about 75 % and that of the whole line about 85 %. The solid matter reduction was 60-70 %. Solid fines, including bacteria, could not be removed sufficiently from the water by flotation and sand filtration so the water cannot be recommended to be used to replace fresh water. Circulating water sheets were produced, and pulp washing tests, retention tests and microbiological tests were carried out in order to estimate the recyclability of the water. Minor lowering of whiteness of the sheets were observed when a part of the fresh water was replaced with recycled water. Microscopic analysis shoved that after the sand filter there were a lot of free bacteria in the water. Further research will be concentrated to recycling of purified water, e.g. To research on how the colour of the water effects on the quality of the product. (orig.)

  7. Reduction of minor actinides for recycling in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of actinide transmutation from spent nuclear fuel is the reduction in mass of high-level waste which must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high-level waste; these two achievements will reduce the number of repositories needed, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is directed towards the evaluation of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle in which the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material; a reference of actinides production in standard nuclear fuel of uranium at the end of its burning in a BWR is first established, after a design of fuel rod containing 6% of minor actinides in a matrix of uranium from the enrichment lines is proposed, then 4 fuel rods of standard uranium are replaced by 4 actinides bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of them and finally the minor actinides reduction in the fuel is evaluated. In the development of this work the calculation tool are the codes: Intrepin-3, Casmo-4 and Simulate-3. (Author)

  8. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor in a closed fuel cycle with pressurized heavy-water reactor external feed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pandikumar; A John Arul; P Puthiyavinayagam; P Chellapandi

    2015-10-01

    A fast breeder reactor (FBR) closed fuel cycle involves recycling of the discharged fuel, after reprocessing and refabrication, in order to utilize the unburnt fuel and the bred fissile material. Our previous study in this regard for the prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) indicated the possibility of multiple recycling with self-sufficiency. It was found that the change in Pu composition becomes negligible (less than 1%) after a few cycles. The core-1 Pu increases by 3% from the beginning of cycle-0 to that of recycle-1, the Pu increase from the beginning of the 9th cycle to that of the 10th by only 0.3%. In this work, the possibility of multiple recycling of PFBR fuel with external plutonium feed from pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is examined. Modified in-core cooling and reprocessing periods are considered. The impact of multiple recycling on PFBR core physics parameters due to the changes in the fuel composition has been brought out. Instead of separate recovery considered for the core and axial blankets in the earlier studies, combined fuel recovery is considered in this study. With these modifications and also with PHWR Pu as external feed, the study on PFBR fuel recycling is repeated. It is observed that the core-1 initial Pu inventory increases by 3.5% from cycle-0 to that of recycle-1, the Pu increase from the beginning of the 9th cycle to that of the 10th is only 0.35%. A comparison of the studies done with different external plutonium options viz., PHWR and PFBR radial blanket has also been made.

  9. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gcina Mamba; Ajay Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalyst...

  10. Highly flexible binder-free core–shell nanofibrous electrode for lightweight electrochemical energy storage using recycled water bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-08-01

    The creation of a novel flexible nanocomposite fiber with conductive polymer polyaniline (PAni) coating on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate allowed for increased electrochemical performance while retaining ideal mechanical properties such as very high flexibility. Binder-free PAni-wrapped PET (PAni@PET) fiber with a core–shell structure was successfully fabricated through a novel technique. The PET nanofiber substrate was fabricated through an optimized electrospinning method, while the PAni shell was chemically polymerized onto the surface of the nanofibers. The PET substrate can be made directly from recycled PETE1 grade plastic water bottles. The resulting nanofiber with an average diameter of 121 nm ± 39 nm, with a specific surface area of 83.72 m2 g‑1, led to better ionic interactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The PAni active layer coating was found to be 69 nm in average thickness. The specific capacitance was found to have increased dramatically from pure PAni with carbon binders. The specific capacitance was found to be 347 F g‑1 at a relatively high scan rate of 10 mV s‑1. The PAni/PET fiber also experienced very little degradation (4.4%) in capacitance after 1500 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at a specific current of 1.2 A g‑1. The mesoporous structure of the PAni@PET fibrous mat also allowed for tunable capacitance by controlling the pore sizes. This novel fabrication method offers insights for the utilization of recycled PETE1 based bottles as a high performance, low cost, highly flexible supercapacitor device.

  11. Highly flexible binder-free core-shell nanofibrous electrode for lightweight electrochemical energy storage using recycled water bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-08-01

    The creation of a novel flexible nanocomposite fiber with conductive polymer polyaniline (PAni) coating on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate allowed for increased electrochemical performance while retaining ideal mechanical properties such as very high flexibility. Binder-free PAni-wrapped PET (PAni@PET) fiber with a core-shell structure was successfully fabricated through a novel technique. The PET nanofiber substrate was fabricated through an optimized electrospinning method, while the PAni shell was chemically polymerized onto the surface of the nanofibers. The PET substrate can be made directly from recycled PETE1 grade plastic water bottles. The resulting nanofiber with an average diameter of 121 nm ± 39 nm, with a specific surface area of 83.72 m2 g-1, led to better ionic interactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The PAni active layer coating was found to be 69 nm in average thickness. The specific capacitance was found to have increased dramatically from pure PAni with carbon binders. The specific capacitance was found to be 347 F g-1 at a relatively high scan rate of 10 mV s-1. The PAni/PET fiber also experienced very little degradation (4.4%) in capacitance after 1500 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at a specific current of 1.2 A g-1. The mesoporous structure of the PAni@PET fibrous mat also allowed for tunable capacitance by controlling the pore sizes. This novel fabrication method offers insights for the utilization of recycled PETE1 based bottles as a high performance, low cost, highly flexible supercapacitor device.

  12. Highly flexible binder-free core-shell nanofibrous electrode for lightweight electrochemical energy storage using recycled water bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H; Naguib, Hani E

    2016-08-12

    The creation of a novel flexible nanocomposite fiber with conductive polymer polyaniline (PAni) coating on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate allowed for increased electrochemical performance while retaining ideal mechanical properties such as very high flexibility. Binder-free PAni-wrapped PET (PAni@PET) fiber with a core-shell structure was successfully fabricated through a novel technique. The PET nanofiber substrate was fabricated through an optimized electrospinning method, while the PAni shell was chemically polymerized onto the surface of the nanofibers. The PET substrate can be made directly from recycled PETE1 grade plastic water bottles. The resulting nanofiber with an average diameter of 121 nm ± 39 nm, with a specific surface area of 83.72 m(2) g(-1), led to better ionic interactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The PAni active layer coating was found to be 69 nm in average thickness. The specific capacitance was found to have increased dramatically from pure PAni with carbon binders. The specific capacitance was found to be 347 F g(-1) at a relatively high scan rate of 10 mV s(-1). The PAni/PET fiber also experienced very little degradation (4.4%) in capacitance after 1500 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at a specific current of 1.2 A g(-1). The mesoporous structure of the PAni@PET fibrous mat also allowed for tunable capacitance by controlling the pore sizes. This novel fabrication method offers insights for the utilization of recycled PETE1 based bottles as a high performance, low cost, highly flexible supercapacitor device. PMID:27354434

  13. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  14. Improvement of the Quality of Water Purification from Hydrocarbons Using the Fibers from Recycled Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, O. V.; Bordunov, S. V.; Natalinova, N. M.; Mazikov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption properties of the polymer fibers are studied. It is shown that polypropylene fiber can be successfully applied for oil spill response for filtration purification of water from hydrocarbons. Polypropylene fibers from waste polymers have higher characteristics of adsorption capacity and degree of purification of water than commercially available fiber sipron.

  15. SIMULTANEOUS WATER CONSERVATION/RECYCLING/REUSE AND WASTE REDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project was devoted to two separate arms of research.  The overall goals of this research was to reduce the water use in the semi-conductor industry through a comprehensive program to reduce water usage in manufacturing processes, to investigate opportunitie...

  16. 浅谈空调冷凝水的回收和利用%Discusses Air-conditioning of Condensed Water and Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海云

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the conditioning of condensed water and recycling the benefits and method,and how to Recovery and utilization conditioning of condensed water put forward some beneficial suggestions.%论述了空调冷凝水特点及其回收、利用的好处和方法,并对如何回收、利用空调冷凝水提出一些有益建议。

  17. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  18. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-11-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass.

  19. Round table part 3 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for water recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    The first metabolic needs in terms of mass is water. Among the years a large number of studies have been performed to recover condensate as well as from urine. Production of water is as well considered and demonstrated via Sabatier reactor. Within this part 3 of the roundtable it is proposed to perform a state of the art of the main activities in the world and to identify overlap and synergies. Recommendation for potential collaboration or exchanges will be discussed.

  20. Biomonitoring recycled water in the Santa Ana River Basin in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Carney, Michael; Hinton, David E; Lyon, Stephen; Woodside, Greg; Duong, Cuong N; Kim, Sang-Don; Schlenk, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) is the primary source of groundwater recharge for the Orange County Groundwater Basin in coastal southern California. Approximately 85% base flow in the SAR originates from wastewater treatment plants operated by three dischargers. An on-line, flow-through bioassay using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a means of judging potential public health impacts was employed to evaluate the water quality of the surface water and shallow groundwater originating from the SAR. Three chronic (3-4.5 mo) exposures using orange-red (outbred, OR) and see-through (color mutant, ST-II) Japanese medaka as bioindicators were conducted to evaluate endocrinologic, reproductive, and morphologic endpoints. No statistically significant differences in gross morphological endpoints, mortality, gender ratios, and vitellogenin induction were observed in fish from SAR groundwater treatment compared to the group tested in solute reconstituted reverse osmosis-treated or granular activated carbon (GAC)-treated control waters. Significant differences were observed in egg reproduction and the time to hatch in SAR groundwater; however, total hatchability was not significantly lower. To evaluate the estrogenic activity of the surfacewater source of the groundwater, SAR surface water was evaluated for vitellogenin and gonadal histopathology in juvenile medaka with no effects observed. These results demonstrate that OR Japanese medaka may be a sensitive strain as an on-line monitor to predict potential impacts of water quality, but further studies are needed to elicit causative agents within the water mixture. PMID:18080901

  1. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must...

  2. Utilization of Ionic Liquids in Lignocellulose Biorefineries as Agents for Separation, Derivatization, Fractionation, or Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Rivas, Sandra; Alonso, José L; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan C

    2015-09-23

    Ionic liquids (ILs) can play multiple roles in lignocellulose biorefineries, including utilization as agents for the separation of selected compounds or as reaction media for processing lignocellulosic materials (LCM). Imidazolium-based ILs have been proposed for separating target components from LCM biorefinery streams, for example, the dehydration of ethanol-water mixtures or the extractive separation of biofuels (ethanol, butanol) or lactic acid from the respective fermentation broths. As in other industries, ILs are potentially suitable for removing volatile organic compounds or carbon dioxide from gaseous biorefinery effluents. On the other hand, cellulose dissolution in ILs allows homogeneous derivatization reactions to be carried out, opening new ways for product design or for improving the quality of the products. Imidazolium-based ILs are also suitable for processing native LCM, allowing the integral benefit of the feedstocks via separation of polysaccharides and lignin. Even strongly lignified materials can yield cellulose-enriched substrates highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis upon ILs processing. Recent developments in enzymatic hydrolysis include the identification of ILs causing limited enzyme inhibition and the utilization of enzymes with improved performance in the presence of ILs.

  3. 反渗透系统浓水回收利用方案介绍%Introduction of Concentrated Water Recycling Scheme in Reverse Osmosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华全

    2012-01-01

    The application of reverse osmosis system in painting industry and several condense water treatment of reverse osmosis system technology which used broadly in home and abroad were briefly introduced. The recycling using situation of the condense water in reverse osmosis system was introduced, the status was analyzed and the recycling using of the condense water was proposed too.%简要介绍反渗透技术在涂装行业的应用及国内外目前使用较多的几种反渗透系统浓水处置方法,说明当前反渗透系统浓水回收利用情况,分析并提出浓水回收利用方案。

  4. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  5. Effects of inorganic nutrients in recycled water on freshwater phytoplankton biomass and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhid, Priyanesh; Davis, Timothy W; Bunn, Stuart E; Burford, Michele A

    2013-01-01

    Planned indirect potable reuse water treated with advanced wastewater technologies (AWWT) to remove pollutants is increasingly being used to augment drinking water and groundwater supplies. While the treatment process substantially reduces the high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations typically of wastewater, both nutrients can remain at concentrations and in biologically available forms that may stimulate phytoplankton growth in nutrient-deficient systems. This study examined the short-term effect of N plus P additions, at a range of concentrations, on phytoplankton growth and species composition in mesocosm experiments in a subtropical reservoir. Nitrate (NO(3)) plus orthophosphate (PO(4)) concentrations as low as 50 and 5 μg L(-1), respectively, resulted in significant increases in phytoplankton biomass, with a 3.99 μg L(-1) increase in chlorophyll a concentration with every 10 μg L(-1) increase in N plus 1 μg L(-1) in P. The system was likely to be co-limited because the addition of N or P alone did not result in increased chlorophyll a concentrations compared with the control. However, the toxic cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, had higher growth rates with P addition alone. This study has shown that inputs of AWWT water have the potential to increase the phytoplankton biomass in this subtropical reservoir, at least in the short term. Therefore, the effect of AWWT water on water quality in reservoirs should be further investigated before widespread application occurs.

  6. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  8. Recycling of water of high pressure cleaning of pipes. Phase 1. Quality demands and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the regulation 6.1 in the current licence Surface Water Pollution Law (WVO, abbreviated in Dutch) of October 10, 1997, ECN carried out the first phase of a study on the title subject with respect to pipes applied in oil and gas exploration. In the present situation water of the so-called pipe-cleaner is transported via a seapipe after precipitation and membrane filtration. Next to the quality demands and economical aspects attention is paid to a number of environmental aspects

  9. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  10. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristic evolutions of drinking water treatment sludge and its impact on coagulation property of sludge recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) are produced during the flocculation or flotation process. The recycling of DWTS is important for reducing and reclaiming the waste residues from drinking water treatment. To improve the coagulation step of the DWTS recycling process, power ultrasound was used as a pretreatment to disintegrate the DWTS and degrade or inactivate the constituents that are difficult to remove by coagulation. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the characteristics of DWTS, including the extent of disintegration, variation in DWTS floc characteristics, and DWTS dewaterability, were investigated. The capacity of the recycling process to remove particulates and organic matter from low-turbidity surface water compared to a control treatment process without DWTS was subsequently evaluated. The coagulation mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the formation, breakage, and re-growth of re-coagulated flocs. Our results indicated that under the low energy density applied (0.03-0.033 W/mL) for less than 15 min at a frequency of 160 kHz, the level of organic solubilization was less elevated, which was evidenced by the lower release of proteins and polysaccharides and lower fluorescence intensities of humic- and protein-like substances. The applied ultrasound conditions had an adverse effect on the dewaterability of the DWTS. Ultrasound pretreatment had no significant impact on the pH or surface charge of the DWTS flocs, whereas particle size decreased slightly and the specific surface area was moderately increased. The pollution removal capacity decreased somewhat for the recycled sonicated DWTS treatment, which was primarily ascribed to organic solubilization rather than variability in the floc characteristics of sonicated DWTS. The main coagulation mechanism was floc sweeping and physical adsorption. The breakage process of the flocs formed by the recycling process displayed distinct irreversibility, and the flocs were

  11. Reducing the Need for Accurate Stream Flow Forecasting for Water Supply Planning by Augmenting Reservoir Operations with Seawater Desalination and Wastewater Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate stream flow forecasts are critical for reservoir operations for water supply planning. As the world urban population increases, the demand for water in cities is also increasing, making accurate forecasts even more important. However, accurate forecasting of stream flows is difficult owing to short- and long-term weather variations. We propose to reduce this need for accurate stream flow forecasts by augmenting reservoir operations with seawater desalination and wastewater recycling. We develop a robust operating policy for the joint operation of the three sources. With the joint model, we tap into the unlimited reserve of seawater through desalination, and make use of local supplies of wastewater through recycling. However, both seawater desalination and recycling are energy intensive and relatively expensive. Reservoir water on the other hand, is generally cheaper but is limited and variable in its availability, increasing the risk of water shortage during extreme climate events. We operate the joint system by optimizing it using a genetic algorithm to maximize water supply reliability and resilience while minimizing vulnerability subject to a budget constraint and for a given stream flow forecast. To compute the total cost of the system, we take into account the pumping cost of transporting reservoir water to its final destination, and the capital and operating costs of desalinating seawater and recycling wastewater. We produce results for different hydro climatic regions based on artificial stream flows we generate using a simple hydrological model and an autoregressive time series model. The artificial flows are generated from precipitation and temperature data from the Canadian Regional Climate model for present and future scenarios. We observe that the joint operation is able to effectively minimize the negative effects of stream flow forecast uncertainty on system performance at an overall cost that is not significantly greater than the cost of a

  12. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-06-01

    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayache, C; Manes, C; Pidou, M; Croué, J P; Gernjak, W

    2013-06-15

    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal.

  14. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials......, different products and different available technologies and proposes a conceptual (early stage) biorefinery network. This network can then be the basis for further detailed and rigorous model-based studies. In this talk, we demonstrate the application of the tool for generating an early stage optimal...

  15. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  16. To The Biorefinery: Delivered Forestland and Agricultural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging and costly to transport biomass feedstock supplies from the roadside, or farmgate, to a biorefinery. Given the geographic dispersion and lowbulk density of cellulosic feedstocks, cost effective scaling of commercial biorefinery operations requires overcoming many challenges. The Biomass Research and Development Board’s Feedstock Logistics Interagency Working Group identified four primary barriers related to biorefinery commercialization: • Capacity and efficiency of harvest and collection equipment • High-moisture content leading to degradation of biomass • Variable biomass quality upon arrival at the biorefinery • Costly transportation options.1 Further, feedstock supply systems do not currently mitigate risks such as low crop yield, fire, or competition for resource use. Delivery and preprocessing improvements will allow for the development of a commercial-scale bioenergy industry that achieves national production and cost targets.

  17. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further.

  18. Acid chromic recycling from rinse water in galvanic plants by electro-electrodialysis (RECY-CHROM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquinez, R.; Ochoa, J. R.; Calleja, I.; Pourcelly, G.; Bauer, B.; Lopez, R.; Viala, S.; Mahiout, A.; Istvan, G. [LEIA, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de Alava, Minano (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    This project, sponsored by the European Union, proposes to develop and validate a new process for the recovery of chromic acid from the rinse water used by the chromic surface coating industry by: (1) developing anion exchange membranes with high fluxes of chromate ions rather than high proton leakage, (2) selecting cation exchange membranes which allow the transfer of metallic cation impurities, (3) redefining the rinsing process which would allow the introduction of the newly formulated membranes, (4) developing new ways to re-use rinsing water, and (5) testing and proving the system in three different plating companies and with different types of plating processes. It is suggested that the new process will recover 90 per cent of the sludge from the typical rinsing bath before 2007. It will also recover up to 95 per cent of the raw chromic acid wasted by the industry.

  19. Palladium-Zeolite nanofiber as an effective recyclable catalyst membrane for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungsu; Chan, Sophia; Yip, Garriott; Joo, Hyunjong; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank K

    2016-09-15

    Zeolite is an exciting natural material due to its unique capability of ammonium nitrogen (NH3N) adsorption in water. In this study, multifunctional hybrid composites of zeolite/palladium (Ze/Pd) on polymer nanofiber membranes were fabricated and explored for sustainable contaminant removal. SEM and XRD demonstrated that zeolite and palladium nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and deposited on the nanofibers. NH3N recovery rate was increased from 23 to 92% when palladium coated zeolite was embedded on the nanofiber. Multifunctional nanofibers of Ze/Pd membranes were able to adsorb NH3N on the zeolites placed on the surface of fibers and palladium catalysts were capable of selective oxidation of NH3N to N2 gas. The cycling of NH3N adsorption-oxidation, high flux, hydrophilicity, and flexibility of the membrane makes it a strong candidate for water treatment. PMID:27253639

  20. Benthic nutrient recycling in shallow coastal waters of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sumei; ZHANG Jing; CHEN Hongtao; T. Raabe

    2004-01-01

    Sediment-water fluxes of N and P species in the Bohai Sea were investigated in September-October 1998 and April-May 1999. The benthic fluxes of nutrient species were determined by incubating sediment core samples with bottom seawater bubbled with air or nitrogen.NO2-,NH4+,dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP), and showed a net exchange flux from seawater to sediment, while , dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and were released from sediment to seawater in the Bohai Sea. Sediment-water nutrient exchange increases DIN and reduces the phosphorus load in the Bohai Sea. The release of silicate from sediment to overlying seawater reduces potential silicate limitation of primary production resulted from decrease of riverine discharge. The exchange flux of nutrients showed no obvious seasonal variation. The present study showed that the concentrations and composition of nutrients in the water column were affected by suspended sediment, and that not all the exchangeable phosphate in sediment could be released via sediment resuspension.

  1. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  2. Intermediate water's recycling and water supply security in architecture section%建筑小区中水回用及供水安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司文曦; 张建锋

    2012-01-01

    指出建筑中水回用技术是解决当前某些缺水城市水资源危机的重要途径,在简要介绍建筑中水概念的基础上,分析了建筑中水回用常用工艺以及中水回用的经济可行性,同时指出供水安全性问题并提出相应的对策。%This study point out that intermediate water' s recycling is an important way to solve water resources crisis of urban. This article briefly introduced the conception of architectural intermediate water, analyzes recycling architectural intermediate water treatment process in common use, and economic feasibility of intermediate water's recycling, problems arose in the security of water supply is also put forward, the article puts forward some countermeasures to solve these problems.

  3. Effects of Recycled Water on Flotation of a Complex Sulphide Ore%循环用水对复杂硫化矿浮选的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏以和; 周高云; Roelf F. Sandenbergh

    2006-01-01

    研究循环水对某复杂矿化矿浮选的影响,同时对利用两种重金属吸附剂减轻循环水不利影响的效果进行试验评价.结果表明,循环水的使用降低了浮铅的选择性.重金属吸附剂的使用可基本恢复浮选选择性至使用新鲜水的水平.%The effects of recycled water on the flotation of a complex Pb/Zn ore are investigated.Two types of heavy metal ion (HMI) absorbents are adopted to evaluate them as a means of mitigating the negative effect of recycled water on flotation. It is found that the flotation selectivity of galena against sphalerite is reduced by the use of recycled water. The flotation selectivity is partially restored to the level obtained with fresh water by the use of HMI absorbent.

  4. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, José A.; Fontecha, Javier; SIJTSMA Lolke; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green chemistry, it will end-up with sustainable processes. In the present study, a downstream processing platform has been developed to extract bioactive compounds from the microalga Isochrysis galbana using v...

  6. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  7. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water. PMID:26164269

  8. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  9. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  10. Characterization of secondary treated effluents for tertiary membrane filtration and water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of water quality from three different secondary effluents on low pressure membrane fouling. Effluent organic matter (EfOM) has been reported by previous studies as responsible for membrane fouling. However, the contribution of the different components of EfOM to membrane fouling is still not well understood. In order to improve and optimize treatment processes, characterization and quantification of the organic matter are important. The characterization methods used in this study are liquid chromatography coupled with an organic detector (LC-OCD) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM). A bench-scale hollow fibre membrane system was used to identify the type of fouling depending on the feed water quality. Results showed no measurable dissolved organic carbon removal by the membranes for the three secondary effluents. Biopolymers and humic-like substances found in different proportions in the three effluents were partially retained by the membranes and were identified to contribute significantly to the flux decline of the low pressure membranes. The observed fouling was determined to be reversible by hydraulic backwashing for two effluents and only by chemical cleaning for the third effluent. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  11. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  12. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  13. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information concerning the use of plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors is presented under the following chapter headings: probable adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; means for mitigating adverse environmental effects; alternative dispositions of plutonium; relationship between local short term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and economic analysis and cost-benefit balancing

  14. Recyclability of water-soluble ruthenium–phosphine complex catalysts in multiphase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde using toluene and pressurized carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Shin-ichiro; Akihara, Shuji; Arai, Masahiko

    2006-01-01

    The recyclability of water-soluble ruthenium–phosphine complex catalysts was investigated in water–toluene and in water–pressurized carbon dioxide systems for selective hydrogenation of trans-cinnamaldehyde (CAL). For the first hydrogenation run, the selectivity for cinnamyl alcohol (COL) is high for both toluene and dense CO2, because of interfacial catalysis in which the reaction mainly occurs at the interface between the aqueous phase and the other toluene or dense CO2 phase. The total CAL...

  15. Unassisted photoelectrochemical water splitting exceeding 7% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency using photon recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinjian; Jeong, Hokyeong; Oh, Seung Jae; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Kan; Kwon, Jeong; Choi, In Taek; Choi, Il Yong; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Jong Kyu; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2016-06-01

    Various tandem cell configurations have been reported for highly efficient and spontaneous hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical solar water splitting. However, there is a contradiction between two main requirements of a front photoelectrode in a tandem cell configuration, namely, high transparency and high photocurrent density. Here we demonstrate a simple yet highly effective method to overcome this contradiction by incorporating a hybrid conductive distributed Bragg reflector on the back side of the transparent conducting substrate for the front photoelectrochemical electrode, which functions as both an optical filter and a conductive counter-electrode of the rear dye-sensitized solar cell. The hybrid conductive distributed Bragg reflectors were designed to be transparent to the long-wavelength part of the incident solar spectrum (λ>500 nm) for the rear solar cell, while reflecting the short-wavelength photons (λ<500 nm) which can then be absorbed by the front photoelectrochemical electrode for enhanced photocurrent generation.

  16. Unassisted photoelectrochemical water splitting exceeding 7% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency using photon recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinjian; Jeong, Hokyeong; Oh, Seung Jae; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Kan; Kwon, Jeong; Choi, In Taek; Choi, Il Yong; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Jong Kyu; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Various tandem cell configurations have been reported for highly efficient and spontaneous hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical solar water splitting. However, there is a contradiction between two main requirements of a front photoelectrode in a tandem cell configuration, namely, high transparency and high photocurrent density. Here we demonstrate a simple yet highly effective method to overcome this contradiction by incorporating a hybrid conductive distributed Bragg reflector on the back side of the transparent conducting substrate for the front photoelectrochemical electrode, which functions as both an optical filter and a conductive counter-electrode of the rear dye-sensitized solar cell. The hybrid conductive distributed Bragg reflectors were designed to be transparent to the long-wavelength part of the incident solar spectrum (λ>500 nm) for the rear solar cell, while reflecting the short-wavelength photons (λ<500 nm) which can then be absorbed by the front photoelectrochemical electrode for enhanced photocurrent generation. PMID:27324578

  17. Ceramic membrane in production of recycled water; Keraamikalvo uusioveden valmistuksessa - EKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, N.; Luonsi, A.; Levaenen, E.; Maentylae, T.; Vilen, J. [Haemeen ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Applicability of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane modifications were studied with laboratory units to purify clear filtrate and biologically treated combined wastewater from high quality board manufacturing process for reuse. Also performance of polymeric membrane and ceramic membrane was compared. The performance of the membrane filtration cell, developed according to requirements of the fixed dimensions of ceramic membrane was compared with the performance of the cross-rotational commercial test unit (CR-filter) of polymeric membranes. The quality of ultrafiltration permeate, namely suspended solids, turbidity and colour, was better than the quality of lake water used in the mill. The permeate fluxes were in the range of 60-75 l/m{sup 2}h. The fouling layer primarily controlled the flux and the retention, leaving the effects of surface modifications as the secondary function. The flux was slightly higher with the biologically treated wastewater. Differences in membrane material and pore size had an effect on the cleaning ability of the membranes. The polymeric membrane and the membrane with smaller pore size were easier to clean. Tests with the CR-filter showed that the rotor increases shear forces, reduces the filtration resistance and thus increases the flux compared to the cell for ceramic membranes where the increase of shear forces can be done by increasing the flow velocities. (orig.)

  18. Recycle of LWR [Light Water Reactor] actinides to an IFR [Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large quantity of actinide elements is present in irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel that is stored throughout the world. Because of the high fission-to-capture ratio for the transuranium (TRU) elements with the high-energy neutrons in the metal-fueled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), that reactor can consume these elements effectively. The stored fuel represents a valuable resource for an expanding application of fast power reactors. In addition, removal of the TRU elements from the spent LWR fuel has the potential for increasing the capacity of a high-level waste facility by reducing the heat loads and increasing the margin of safety in meeting licensing requirements. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a pyrochemical process, which is compatible with the IFR fuel cycle, for the recovery of TRU elements from LWR fuel. The proposed product is a metallic actinide ingot, which can be introduced into the electrorefining step of the IFR process. The major objective of the LWR fuel recovery process is high TRU element recovery, with decontamination a secondary issue, because fission product removal is accomplished in the IFR process. The extensive pyrochemical processing studies of the 1960s and 1970s provide a basis for the design of possible processes. Two processes were selected for laboratory-scale investigation. One is based on the Salt Transport Process studied at ANL for mixed-oxide fast reactor fuel, and the other is based on the blanket processing studies done for ANL's second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-2). This paper discusses the two processes and is a status report on the experimental studies. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, A E; Kamal, M; Mahmoud, N S

    2005-01-01

    Five plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater and suitability as fish feed: alfalfa, white clover, oat, fall rye, barley. The seeds were first germinated in water in a hydroponic system, and the plants were fed wastewater from Tilapia production facility. Clover and alfalfa seeds were infected with fungus shortly after germination, and their roots were completely destroyed by day 14. Oat, rye and barley had the fastest growth and showed greater tolerance to fungal disease compared with alfalfa and clover. Although substantial amounts of soluble and insoluble substances were released by the seeds during the germination period, the plants were able to remove all the pollutants in wastewater and significant portions of those released substances. The total reductions in total solids, COD, NO3-N, NO2-N, phosphate and potassium ranged from 54.7% to 91.0%, 56.0% to 91.5%, 82.9% to 98.1%, 95.9% to 99.5%, 54.5% to 93.6% and 99.6% to 99.8%, respectively. Oat, barley and rye grow well in this type of hydroponic system and can be used as a fish feed after being supplemented with fat, Ca, Na, Mn and Fe. Oil seeds and the chlorides of these elements could be added to these plants when formulating the fish feed. For a continuous operation, a two-unit system could be configured to allow for one week germination and one week cleaning and startup in one unit while the other unit is in operation. PMID:15607774

  20. Virus fate and transport during recharge using recycled water at a research field site in the Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles County, California, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Yanko, William A.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Jackson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria distributions in subsurface water samples collected at a research field site in Los Angeles County were found to increase from nondetectable levels immediately before artificial recharge using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater (recycled water). This rapid increase indicates that bacteria can move through the soil with the percolating recycled water over intervals of a few days and vertical and horizontal distances of about 3 meters. This conclusion formed the basis for three field-scale experiments using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) MS2 and PRD1 as surrogates for human enteric viruses and bromide as a conservative tracer to determine the fate and transport of viruses in recycled water during subsurface transport under actual recharge conditions. The research field site consists of a test basin constructed adjacent to a large recharge facility (spreading grounds) located in the Montebello Forebay of Los Angeles County, California. The soil beneath the test basin is predominantly medium to coarse, moderately sorted, grayish-brown sand. The three tracer experiments were conducted during August 1997, August-September 1998, and August 2000. For each experiment, prepared solutions of bacteriophage and bromide were sprayed on the surface of the water in the test basin and injected, using peristaltic pumps, directly into the feed pipe delivering the recycled water to the test basin. Extensive data were obtained for water samples collected from the test basin itself and from depths of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.6 meters below the bottom of the test basin. The rate of bacteriophage inactivation in the recycled water, independent of any processes occurring in the subsurface, was determined from measurements on water samples from the test basin. Regression analysis of the ratios of bacteriophage to bromide was used to determine the attenuation rates for MS2 and PRD1, defined as the logarithmic reduction in the ratio during each

  1. Recycling's technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zajdel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Environmental problems have been considered as serious situation in the construction. Waste management is pressing harder with alarming signal warning the industry. This paper discusses the potential impact of biodegradable materials on waste management in terms of landfill, incineration, recycle/reuse composting.Design/methodology/approach: This article reviewed the implementation of strategies of WEEE treatment and the recovery technologies of WEEE. It presented the current status of WEEE and corresponding responses adopted.Findings: The possibility of managing the growing amount of waste and used appliances and equipment according to the accessible literature was shown and the importance of one of the most popular method of waste neutralization (recycling was underlined.Practical implications: The recycling of WEEE is important to introduce and develop cost-effective and environmentally friendly WEEE recycling technologies. it is also necessary to arouse and enhance public awareness regarding environmental protection by publicity, education and so forth, in order to change their traditional viewpoint on the end-of-life electric appliances or cars.Originality/value: This article discusses how environmental science and technology can be applied to hazardous waste management to develop measures by which chemical wastes can be minimized, recycled, treated and disposed.

  2. Study to Urban Wastewater Reuse and Water Resources Recycling%城市污水资源化与水资源循环利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪彪; 武伟亚

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present situation of water resources shortage, and puts forward the concept of urban wastewater reuse strategies. For the purpose of effectively recycling water resources, the paper suggests a more concrete realization of wastewater reuse policy.%  分析了我国水资源匮乏的现状,提出了城市污水资源化的策略理念。为了实现水资源有效循环利用,提出了较为具体的实现污水资源化的政策路径与方法。

  3. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering

  4. 76 FR 13349 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... payments to be made to a biorefinery taking into consideration the percentage reduction in fossil fuel used by the biorefinery (including the quantity of fossil fuels a renewable biomass system is replacing... no minimum payment amount that an individual biorefinery can receive. The maximum amount...

  5. 76 FR 13351 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Applications for the Biorefinery Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural... acceptance of applications for funds available under the Biorefinery Assistance Program (the ``Program'') to..., Washington, DC 20250-3225. Agency Web site: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/BCP_Biorefinery.html ....

  6. The thermo-mechano-chemical fractionation of sunflower whole plant in twin-screw extruder, an opportunity for its biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Evon, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves; Rigal, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Biorefinery of sunflower whole plant is conducted according to an aqueous process using a twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction of oil is looked upon as an environmentally cleaner alternative technology to solvent extraction. Twin-screw extruder carries out three unit operations continuously: conditioning and grinding of whole plant, liquid/solid extraction and liquid/solid separation. Extraction efficiency depends on screw speed, and input flow rates of whole plant and water. In best condi...

  7. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  8. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Kapil

    in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of alpha-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of alpha-tocopherol.

  9. Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Kapil [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    in microalgae biorefinery. Two different integrated biorefinery systems are highlighted. (i) OM-MSNs are used to harvest microalgae and selectively sequester free fatty acids (FFAs). (ii) OM-MSNs are shown to selectively sequester FFAs and convert them into diesel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels. A similar MSN supported metal nanoparticle catalyst is demonstrated to transform FFAs into green diesel with even greater activity and selectivity. The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of α-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of {alpha}-tocopherol.

  10. The realm of cellulases in biorefinery development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Chandrasekhar, G; Silva, Messias Borges; Silvério da Silva, Silvio

    2012-09-01

    Geopolitical concerns (unstable supply of gasoline, environmental pollution, and regular price hikes), economic, and employment concerns have been prompting researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers to focus on harnessing the potential of lignocellulosic feedstock for fuel ethanol production and its commercialization. The carbohydrate skeleton of plant cell walls needs to be depolymerised into simpler sugars for their application in fermentation reactions as a chief carbon source of suitable ethnologic strains for ethanol production. The role of cellulolytic enzymes in the degradation of structural carbohydrates of the plant cell wall into ready-to-fermentable sugar stream is inevitable. Cellulase synergistically acts upon plant cell wall polysaccharides to release glucose into the liquid media. Cellulase predominantly dominates all the plant cell wall degrading enzymes due to their vast and diverse range of applications. Apart from the major applications of cellulases such as in detergent formulations, textile desizing, and development of monogastric feed for ruminants, their role in biorefinery is truly remarkable. This is a major area where new research tools based upon fermentation based formulations, biochemistry, and system biology to expedite the structure-function relationships of cellulases including cellulosomes and new designer enzymatic cocktails are required. In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research work has been performed on cellulases and their application in biomass saccharification. However, there are still technical and economic impediments to the development of an inexpensive commercial cellulase production process. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, manipulation of novel cellulase encoding traits, site-specific mutagenesis, and modifications to the fermentation process could enhance the production of cellulases. Commercially, cheaper sources of carbohydrates and modified fermentation

  11. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    Energy security and environmental concerns have been the main drivers for a historic shift to biofuel production in transportation fuel industry. Biofuels should not only offer environmental advantages over the petroleum fuels they replace but also should be economically sustainable and viable. The so-called second generation biofuels such as ethanol which is the most produced biofuel are mostly derived from lignocellulosic biomasses. These biofuels are more difficult to produce than the first generation ones mainly due to recalcitrance of the feedstocks in extracting their sugar contents. Costly pre-treatment and fractionation stages are required to break down lignocellulosic feedstocks into their constituent elements. On the other hand the mixture produced in fermentation step in a biorefinery contains very low amount of product which makes the subsequent separation step more difficult and more energy consuming. In an ethanol biorefinery, the dilute fermentation broth requires huge operating cost in downstream separation for recovery of the product in a conventional distillation technique. Moreover, the non-ideal nature of ethanol-water mixture which forms an iseotrope at almost 95 wt%, hinders the attainment of the fuel grade ethanol (99.5 wt%). Therefore, an additional dehydration stage is necessary to purify the ethanol from its azeotropic composition to fuel-grade purity. In order to overcome the constraint pertaining to vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol-water separation, several techniques have been investigated and proposed in the industry. These techniques such as membrane-based technologies, extraction and etc. have not only sought to produce a pure fuel-grade ethanol but have also aimed at decreasing the energy consumption of this energy-intensive separation. Decreasing the energy consumption of an ethanol biorefinery is of paramount importance in improving its overall economics and in facilitating the way to displacing petroleum transportation fuel

  12. Assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokka, L.; Soimakallio, S.

    2009-12-15

    During the next decades there will be a growing demand for new land for food production due to population and economic growth. Simultaneously, global warming has been recognised as one of the most severe environmental problems of our time, and industrialised countries are negotiating on considerable emission cuts for the next decades. Biorefineries are considered by many as one solution for mitigation of climate change and improvement of the future security of food, chemical, forest and energy industries. Since increased use of biomass in biorefineries also implies increased use of land and auxiliary inputs, many have proposed to use by-products of food and forest industries in biorefineries. When assessing the global warming impacts of biorefineries, the setting of the spatial system boundary to include or exclude indirect impacts may significantly affect the results. In this paper, we discuss the life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of a hypothetical forest-based biorefinery by using two different approaches - attributional and consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) - to set the system boundary. The results imply that for those bio-based side-streams for which there presently exists use, the environmental benefits of diverting them to new uses as bio-fuel or bio-material are not straightforward and should be carefully and comprehensively studied before making decisions. (orig.)

  13. Sustainability Assessment of a Biorefinery Complex in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariyapat Nilsalab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a biorefinery complex in Thailand was assessed vis-à-vis sustainability. The complex studied includes plantations of sugarcane and a biorefinery system composed of several units including, a sugar mill, power plant, ethanol factory and fertilizer plant. The assessment aimed at evaluating the environmental and socio-economic implications relating to molasses-based ethanol production and use, and maximized utilization of the biomass materials produced as part of the biorefinery complex. Global warming potential, human development index and total value added are the three indicators that were selected to perform the assessment. The results obtained revealed that the maximization of biomass utilization at the level of the biorefinery complex provide greenhouse gases emissions reduction benefits, enhanced living conditions for sugarcane farmers and employees of the biorefinery, and economic benefits, particularly with regard to profit and income generation. These results could serve as a first step to further improve and design indicators for sustainability assessment of biomass utilization.

  14. Research on the potential health risks of recycled water reuse and their countermeasures%再生水回用的潜在健康风险及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国; 牛志广; 王晨晨; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    随着水资源短缺的日益加剧,再生水作为城市第二水源在一定程度上缓解了水资源的供需矛盾.阐述了国内外再生水回用情况,并分析了再生水回用过程中对人体健康的潜在风险,在此基础上对再生水安全回用的对策与建议进行了总结.最后,对再生水回用在今后的发展方向进行了展望.%With the increasing shortage of water resources, recycled water, as the second source of water, has alleviated the shortage of water supply to some extent. The current situation of recycled water reuse in China and abroad is expounded. Then, potential health risks produced in the process of recycled water reuse are analyzed. And, based on this, corresponding countermeasures for safe utilization of recycled water are summarized. At the end, the development of recycled water reuse is predicted.

  15. Modelling of the biorefinery scenarios - Bioscen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkanen, J.-P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: juha-pekka.pitkanen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the BioScen project was to develop quantitative modelling approaches for the future biomass based processes producing fuels and chemicals. The aim of the project was in developing methods to estimate the necessary material properties for phase and reaction equilibria, for the calculation of unit processes and their integration to biorefining production plant simulations. Additional focus was laid on model optimisation and product life cycle analysis. As the biorefining technologies possess an extensive range from thermal pyrolysis to biochemical processing at ambient temperatures, a most generic thermodynamically based approach was selected to enable usage of the methods to the wide variety of possible applications. The methods were then applied to a number of case studies including modelling of flash condensation of pyrolysis oil, hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass and its product recovery and the subsequent fermentation processes for bioethanol and biobutanol, for which also a comparative life cycle analysis was performed. Flowsheet process simulation was applied to a conceptual wood bark biorefinery. Metamodelling techniques were used for both model and parameter optimisation, including their sensitivity analysis.

  16. Tinplate recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linley, B.D.

    1977-05-01

    Present activities in the recycling of industrial tinplate waste, including melting and current practices in electrolytic and alkaline detinning, are reviewed. Present development work taking place in the fields of extraction of used tin cans from domestic refuse, and the preparation of those cans prior to detinning is described. The effect of advancing canmaking technology on the detinning industry are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of sub-critical water as an extraction fluid for model contaminants from recycled PET for reuse as food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Amélia S F; Agnelli, José A M; Manrich, Sati

    2010-04-01

    Recycling of plastics for food-contact packaging is an important issue and research into meaningful and cost-effective solutions is in progress. In this paper, the use of sub-critical water was evaluated as an alternative way of purifying poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes for direct food contact applications. The effects of temperature, pressure and flow rate were assessed on the extraction efficiency of two of the most challenging classes of contaminants (toluene and benzophenone) from PET by sub-critical water using a first-order fractional experimental design. Extraction yield was quantified using GC/FID. The most important parameter was flow rate, indicating that the decrease in sub-critical water polarity with temperature was insufficient to eliminate partition effects. Temperature was also important, but only for the optimization of toluene extraction. These results may be explained by the poor solubility of higher molar mass compounds in sub-critical water compared to lower molar mass compounds under the same conditions, and the small decrease in dielectric constant with temperature under the experimental conditions evaluated. As cleaning efficiency is low and PET is very susceptible to hydrolysis, which limits the use of higher temperatures vis-à-vis physical recycling, the proposed extraction is unsuitable for a standalone super-clean process but may be a step in the process. PMID:20063227

  18. 染整加工的水热循环利用%Recycle and reuse of water and heat in textile wet processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永彬; 张建祥; 陈明; 吕文泉

    2011-01-01

    Innovative techniques of source reduction, procedure control and recycling are used to realize water and heat balance instead of the backward conventional end-of-pipe treatment of pollution, including PVA recovery in desizing machine, alkali recovery in mercerizing machine, heat reuse in washing machine, heat reuse of high temperature exhausted gas in stenter and conduction oil furnace, and reuse of cooling, condensate and reclaimed water.With this reformation, 17 288 tons of steam,300 thousands m3 water and 180 thousand m3 natural gas can be saved per year, recycling utilization ratio of water can reach more than 80%.%采用以源头消减、过程控制和回收利用的技术方法,改变传统被动落后的末端治理污染控制手段.即退浆机回收PVA、丝光机回收液碱、水洗机回收余热、定形机和导热油炉高温烟气余热回收利用,以及冷却水、冷凝水回收和中水回用等.改造完成后可节约蒸汽17 288 t/年,节约用水30万m/年,节约天然气18万m/年,水的循环利用率80%以上.

  19. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  20. Synthesis of biorefinery networks using a superstructure optimization based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Maria Teresa;

    industrial system based on biomass, an inexpensive, abundant and renewable raw material, is being established with sustainability as the main driving force [1]. The processing facilities for the production of multiple products (including biofuels and chemicals) from biomass are referred as biorefineries [2......]. The optimal synthesis of biorefinery networks problem is defined as: given a set of biomass derived feedstock and a set of desired final products and specifications, determine a flexible, sustainable and innovative processing network with the targets of minimum cost and sustainable development taking...... into account the available technologies, geographical location, future technological developments and global market changes. The problem of optimal design of biorefinery networks is solved in this work through three different stages: (i) synthesis stage, (ii) design stage, and (iii) innovation stage...

  1. Superstructure-based optimization of biorefinery networks: Production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Orsi, Albert; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    industrial system based on biomass, an inexpensive, abundant and renewable raw material, is being established with sustainability as the main driving force [1]. The processing facilities for the production of multiple products (including biofuels and chemicals) from biomass are referred as biorefineries [2......]. The optimal synthesis of biorefinery networks problem is defined as: given a set of biomass derived feedstock and a set of desired final products and specifications, determine a flexible, sustainable and innovative processing network with the targets of minimum cost and sustainable development taking...... into account the available technologies, geographical location, future technological developments and global market changes. The problem of optimal design of biorefinery networks is solved in this work through three different stages: (i) synthesis stage, (ii) design stage, and (iii) innovation stage...

  2. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  3. Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpanalan, Özge; Reisinger, Michael; Huber, Florian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Novalin, Senad

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a side product of the milling industry, can be considered as a feedstock for biorefineries. Unlike other lignocellulosic feedstock, wheat bran contains a reasonable amount of starch, which is not of recalcitrant nature. Therefore, it can be extracted without a costly pretreatment process. The present work evaluates the extraction of starch derived glucose in relation to a wheat bran biorefinery. The purity of free glucose extracted quantitatively was 44%. The extract was concentrated by threefold via nanofiltration, thereby reaching a glucose concentration of 49 g/L. Hydrothermal treatment (180°C - 20 min) of the starch-free bran did not induce the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. Interestingly, the furfural level increased compared to the process, in which bran was treated hydrothermally without a preceding starch extraction. By separation of water-extractables prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the free glucose purity was increased to 58%, however the yield of glucose decreased to 61%. PMID:24835741

  4. Thermochemical Biorefineries with multiproduction using a platform chemical

    OpenAIRE

    García Haro, Pedro; Villanueva Perales, Ángel Luis; Arjona, Ricardo; Ollero de Castro, Pedro Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This critical review focuses on potential routes for the multi-production of chemicals and fuels in the framework of thermochemical biorefineries. The up-to-date research and development in this field has been limited to BTL/G (biomass-to-liquids/gases) studies, where biomass-derived -synthesis gas (syngas) is converted into a single product with/without the co-production of -electricity and heat. Simultaneously, the interest on biorefineries is growing but mostly refers to the biochemical pr...

  5. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Jungmeier, Gerfried; Wellisch, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    until 2020 is based on their characteristics to be mixed with gasoline, diesel and natural gas, reflecting the main advantage of using the already-existing infrastructure for easier market introduction. This classification approach relies on four main features: (1) platforms; (2) products; (3) feedstock......This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels...

  6. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  7. Research on Water Recycling and Utilization System at the Construction Field%施工现场水资源回收利用循环系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄潮松; 汪盛; 焦峰; 曹举胜

    2014-01-01

    The temporary water of water recycling system of a large high-rise building construction site has been introduced. The system includes the water supply of construction, wastewater recycling, other on-site water recycling, reuse of wastewater sedimentation, the combination system of water recycling and fire protection and so on. Through the description of project overview, the importance of water conservation, analysis of on-site water, composition of the water recycling system, the analysis of site water amount, economic evaluation, etc, this article describes a method for recycling construction site water, targeted analyzes the project site, develops a effective solution of local conditions.%对大型高层建筑工程施工现场水资源回收利用的临水系统进行了介绍,系统包括施工用水供水、废水回收、现场其他水资源回收、废水沉淀再利用、水资源回收与临水消防的组合系统等。通过工程概况、水资源节约的重要性、施工现场水资源分析、现场水资源回收利用临水系统的组成、施工现场用水量分析、经济效益评价等环节阐述施工现场水资源回收利用的方法,有针对性地重点分析了工程现场,制定出因地制宜,行之有效的解决方案。

  8. Magnetically Separable and Recyclable Fe3O4-Supported Ag Nanocatalysts for Reduction of Nitro Compounds and Selective Hydration of Nitriles to Amides in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunje Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As hybrid nanostructures have become more important in many fields of chemistry, Ag nanoparticles (NPs are being increasingly immobilized onto Fe3O4 microspheres in situ. Structural characterization reveals that the Ag NPs are uniformly immobilized in the Fe3O4 microsphere-based supports. Moreover, Ag NPs are more stable in the hybrid structure than in the naked state and show high catalytic activity for the reduction of nitro compounds and hydration of nitriles to amides in water. The Fe3O4 microspheres were recycled several times using an external magnet.

  9. Research and the Application of Water Reuse Recycle Cooling Water System%中水回用循环冷却水系统研究及现场应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少松; 曹培宽; 白小明

    2012-01-01

    The paper studied the water treatment chemicals that were successfully used in the cycle cooling water system. Recycled water was used in the cycle cooling water system as supplement water in this system, and examined the site operation in a thermo electron corporation of Tianjin economic development zone. In addition, the performance factors were analyzed of cycle cooling water system. Practice had proved that recycled water as supplement water for the circulating water system was successful about 5 years.%针对滨海新区中水水质,研究了适应天津经济技术开发区某热电公司应用的中水水质、系统材质和工况条件的水处理药剂及其配套高浓缩倍率水处理技术,并应用于现场运行控制。通过对近五年现场应用结果进行深入总结分析,说明中水回用于循环水系统处理技术是成功的,取得明显的经济效益和社会效益。

  10. Analysis of Influence of Urban Water Recycle on Urban Water Supply Quantity%城市水循环对城市供水量的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志民; 李析男

    2012-01-01

    Water is the source of life. The city is a complex system, in which the activities of nature and human influence each other. Urban water recycle is important for the development and utilization of urban water source. The frame of ;urban water recycle is de- scribed and the available water supply quantity is confirmed in this paper. Taking Xinzheng city as an example, according to its cur- rent situation, the measurement of effectively using local water source and transferring guest water resources are proposed on the ba- sis of the urban water recycle frame. The result shows that good framework is good for the development and utilization of water re- sources, which is important to urban development.%水是生命之源,是人类赖以生存和发展的物质基础。城市是自然界与人类活动相互作用、相互影响的复杂系统。城市水循环对城市水源的开发和利用具有重要意义。描述了城市水循环的基本框架,并根据其框架确定城市可供水量,以新郑市为例,针对新郑市现状,以城市水循环框架为基础,有效利用当地水源、外调客水水源,合理开发当地可利用水源。结果证明,良好的城市水循环框架有利于城市水源的开发和利用,对城市发展具有重要意义。

  11. 单组分再生循环水系统各优化参数间关系分析%Analysis on the Interaction of Parameters of Single-contaminant Regeneration Recycling Water Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 冯霄

    2008-01-01

    Method for constructing the optimal water supply line and formulas for calculating the targets for single-contaminant regeneration recycling water systems are improved to apply to the situation of variational pa-rameters in this article. Based on these extending methods, the effect of varying freshwater consumption and regen-erated water flow rate on the optimizing results are investigated. The interactions of parameters of regeneration re-cycling systems are summarized. Finally, all the conclusions are illustrated from the results of mathematical pro-gramming through an example.

  12. Biomass Program 2007 Peer Review - Integrated Biorefinery Platform Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Integrated Biorefinery Platform Review held on August 13-15, 2007 in Golden, Colorado.

  13. Optimal design of a multi-product biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondervan, E.; Nawaz, Mehboob; de Haan, André B.;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  14. 75 FR 20073 - Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ..., infrastructure, venture capital, and technical support that can support rural communities, helping them to... likely to be whether the biorefinery has the capital, or access to the capital, for the repowering... private sector to generate the capital needed. This ] program provides incentives for more...

  15. 76 FR 7915 - Repowering Assistance Payments to Eligible Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... improve the quality of life in rural communities by providing leadership, infrastructure, venture capital... program is likely to be whether the biorefinery has the capital, or access to the capital, for the..., 2010 (75 FR 20073), the Agency published a proposed rule for Repowering Assistance Payments to...

  16. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components

  17. Early-Stage Design and Analysis of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina;

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework with a superstructure-based optimization approach was presented for the early-stage design and analysis of biorefinery alternatives. This chapter presents a generic process modeling approach together with data collection and management for the multidisciplinary and multidim...

  18. The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

  19. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  20. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    , good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...... and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of plastic recycling....

  1. Magnetic TiO{sub 2}-graphene composite as a high-performance and recyclable platform for efficient photocatalytic removal of herbicides from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanhong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Xiangli; Chen, Liang; Wang, Bogu [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: A new magnetic TiO{sub 2}-graphene hybrid photocatalyst is prepared and acts as a high-performance and recyclable platform for efficient photocatalytic removal of herbicides from water. Highlights: ► A magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}-graphene photocatalyst is carefully designed. ► The catalyst exhibited almost 100% photocatalytic removal of 2,4-D from water. ► The photocatalyst is easily recovered with excellent reusability. ► After being laid aside for one year the catalyst still kept 95.6% removal of 2,4-D. ► 2,4-D in real wastewater could be efficiently removed. -- Abstract: A new photocatalyst, magnetic TiO{sub 2}-graphene, was designed and facilely produced by combining sol–gel and assembling processes. Taking advantages of graphene and TiO{sub 2}, the catalyst exhibited strong light absorption in the visible region and high adsorption capacity to organic pollutants, resulting in almost 100% photocatalytic removal efficiency of typical herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from water under simulated solar light irradiation, far higher than 33% on commercial P25. Toxicity assessment indicates the total decomposition of the original substrate. Furthermore, the catalyst can be rapidly recovered with highly stable photocatalytic performance. After 8 successive cycles, the removal efficiency of 2,4-D maintained 97.7%, and particularly, 99.1% 2,4-D removal efficiency came back at the ninth recycle when the catalyst was re-treated by ultrasonication. Moreover, even after being laid aside for one year the catalyst still kept the 2,4-D removal efficiency as high as 95.6%. For practical application, the photocatalytic also demonstrated high removal efficiencies of herbicide 2,4-D. The photocatalyst is a promising platform for removing herbicide pollutants from water.

  2. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  3. [Removal and Recycle of Phosphor from Water Using Magnetic Core/Shell Structured Fe₃O₄ @ SiO₂Nanoparticles Functionalized with Hydrous Aluminum Oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li; Xie, Qiang; Fang, Wen-kan; Xing, Ming-chao; Wu, De-yi

    2016-04-15

    A novel magnetic core/shell structured nano-particle Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂phosphor-removal ahsorbent functionalized with hydrous aluminum oxides (Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O) was synthesized. Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O was characterized by XRD, TEM, VSM and BET nitrogen adsorption experiment. The XRD and TEM results demonstrated the presence of the core/shell structure, with saturated magnetization and specific surface area of 56.00 emu · g⁻¹ and 47.27 m² · g⁻¹, respectively. In batch phosphor adsorption experiment, the Langmuir adsorption maximum capacity was 12.90 mg · g⁻¹ and nearly 96% phosphor could be rapidly removed within a contact time of 40 mm. Adsorption of phosphor on Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃ · nH₂O was highly dependent on pH condition, and the favored pH range was 5-9 in which the phosphor removal rate was above 90%. In the treatment of sewage water, the recommended dosage was 1.25 kg · t⁻¹. In 5 cycles of adsorption-regeneration-desorption experiment, over 90% of the adsorbed phosphor could be desorbed with 1 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH, and Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O could be reused after regeneration by pH adjustment with slightly decreased phosphor removal rate with increasing recycling number, which proved the recyclability of Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O and thereby its potential in recycling of phosphor resources. PMID:27548967

  4. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  5. Improvement of Bearing Capacity in Recycled Aggregates Suitable for Use as Unbound Road Sub-Base

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Garach; Mónica López; Francisco Agrela; Javier Ordóñez; Javier Alegre; José Antonio Moya

    2015-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new ceme...

  6. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  7. Integración Óptima en el Sistema de Reciclado de Aguas en Procesos Papeleros Optimal Integration of Water Recycling Systems in Paper Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un novedoso modelo de programación no lineal que resuelve el problema de minimizar el consumo de agua fresca utilizada en el proceso papelero, obteniendo considerables reducciones del agua consumida y de los residuos vertidos. Se determina el grado de contaminación de los flujos a ser reciclados, así como la máxima composición de contaminante que pueden aceptar los diferentes equipos y en base a esto se identifica la máxima posibilidad de reciclado de flujo de residuales al proceso. Se modela matemáticamente el problema y se obtienen como respuesta el mínimo consumo de agua fresca, el caudal máximo de residual vertido, la masa de fibra en suspensión que puede ser recuperada y la cantidad de contaminante a ser removida en el proceso. Se concluye que el modelo utilizado, es una herramienta sistemática, potente y genérica y puede ser utilizada en cualquier proceso de reducción de residuosThis work proposes a novel non-linear programming model that solves the problem of minimizing fresh water consumption in the paper manufacturing process, as well as reducing waste release. The degree of pollution of the flows to be recycled and the maximum contaminant composition treatable by different equipment units are determined; on the basis of this data, the maximum amount of recycleable residual flow is determined. The problem is modeled mathematically, determining the minimum consumption of fresh water, the maximum flow of waste water, the mass of fiber in suspension which can be recuperated, and the amount of pollutant to be removed in the process. It is concluded that the model used is a powerful generic systematic tool which can be used in any process for the reduction of residues

  8. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  9. Membrane fouling and anti-fouling strategies using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant as the feed for osmotic power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Amy, Gary L; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant is considered as a potential feed stream for osmotic power generation in this paper. The feasibility of using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant was examined from two aspects: (a) the membrane fouling propensity of RO retentate, and (b) the efficacy of anti-fouling strategies. The membranes used in this study were the inner selective thin film composite polyethersulfone (TFC/PES) hollow fiber membranes, which possessed a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Scaling by phosphate salts was found to be one possible inorganic fouling on the innermost layer of the PES membrane, whereas silica fouling was observed to be the governing fouling on the outmost surface of the PES membrane. Two anti-fouling pretreatments, i.e., pH adjustment and anti-scalant pre-treatment for the feed stream, were studied and found to be straightforward and effective. Using RO retentate at pH 7.2 as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution, the average power density was 7.3 W/m(2) at 20 bar. The average power density increased to 12.6 W/m(2) by modifying RO retentate with an initial pH value of 5.5 using HCl and to 13.4 W/m(2) by adding 1.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the flux recovery of the fouled membranes, without the indicated pretreatments, reached 84.9% using deionized (DI) water flushing and 95.0% using air bubbling under a high crossflow velocity of 23.3 cm/s (Re = 2497) for 30 min. After pretreatment by pH adjustment, the flux recovery increased to 94.6% by DI water flushing and 100.0% by air bubbling. After pretreatment by adding 1.1 mM EDTA into RO retentate, flux was almost fully restored by physical cleaning by DI water flushing and air bubbling. These results provide insight into developing an effective pretreatment by either pH adjustment or EDTA addition before PRO and physical cleaning methods by DI water flushing and air bubbling for membrane used in

  10. Membrane fouling and anti-fouling strategies using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant as the feed for osmotic power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Amy, Gary L; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant is considered as a potential feed stream for osmotic power generation in this paper. The feasibility of using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant was examined from two aspects: (a) the membrane fouling propensity of RO retentate, and (b) the efficacy of anti-fouling strategies. The membranes used in this study were the inner selective thin film composite polyethersulfone (TFC/PES) hollow fiber membranes, which possessed a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Scaling by phosphate salts was found to be one possible inorganic fouling on the innermost layer of the PES membrane, whereas silica fouling was observed to be the governing fouling on the outmost surface of the PES membrane. Two anti-fouling pretreatments, i.e., pH adjustment and anti-scalant pre-treatment for the feed stream, were studied and found to be straightforward and effective. Using RO retentate at pH 7.2 as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution, the average power density was 7.3 W/m(2) at 20 bar. The average power density increased to 12.6 W/m(2) by modifying RO retentate with an initial pH value of 5.5 using HCl and to 13.4 W/m(2) by adding 1.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the flux recovery of the fouled membranes, without the indicated pretreatments, reached 84.9% using deionized (DI) water flushing and 95.0% using air bubbling under a high crossflow velocity of 23.3 cm/s (Re = 2497) for 30 min. After pretreatment by pH adjustment, the flux recovery increased to 94.6% by DI water flushing and 100.0% by air bubbling. After pretreatment by adding 1.1 mM EDTA into RO retentate, flux was almost fully restored by physical cleaning by DI water flushing and air bubbling. These results provide insight into developing an effective pretreatment by either pH adjustment or EDTA addition before PRO and physical cleaning methods by DI water flushing and air bubbling for membrane used in

  11. Discussion on the Feasibility and Key Problems of Recycled Water Utilization in Southern China%南方地区再生水利用可行性及关键问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 崔树彬; 胡惠方; 左其亭

    2011-01-01

    After briefly introducing the concept, usage, utilization form and system composition of recycled water, this paper analyzed the necessity and significance of recycled water utilization in southern China.Also, it examined the feasibility of recycled water utilization in terms of advantages, technical feasibility, economic feasibility and efficiency of wastewater reclamation and reuse Last, it discussed the key problems and countermeasures of usage, utilization form, water quality standard, treatment process and non-engineering supporting measures of recycled water.%在简要介绍再生水的概念、用途、利用形式、系统组成的基础上,分析了我国南方地区再生水利用的必要性及意义,并从污水再生利用的优势、技术可行性、经济可行性和效益等方面对南方地区的再生水利用可行性进行分析,最后对再生水利用用途、形式、水质标准及处理工艺、配套非工程措施等关键问题及对策等进行了探讨.

  12. 中水回用对石化循环冷却水系统的危害及对策%The Harm and Countermeasure of Recycled Water Reused into Circulating Cooling Water System in Petrochemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 魏志朝

    2011-01-01

    The source,category and disposing process of waste water in oil refining industry were stated.The characteristics of recycled water and influencing factors as make-up water into circulating cooling water system were analyzed,and the processes of reducing%阐述了炼化污水的主要来源、分类和处理过程的差别。分析了中水的主要特点及作为循环冷却水系统补水的危害和主要影响因素。概括了优化循环水系统操作管理以降低中水对系统危害的方法。

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ABSORPTION OF KENAF POWDER FILLED RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/NATURAL RUBBER BIOCOMPOSITES USING MAPE AS A COMPATIBILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura A. Rashid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of kenaf powder (KP filled recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE /natural rubber (NR blends with and without a compatibilizer, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE, were investigated. The composites with different filler loading (0 to 40 phr were prepared with a Haake internal mixer. Increasing the KP loading in rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites reduced the tensile strength and the elongation at break but increased the stabilization torque and the tensile modulus. The addition of MAPE as a compatibilizer increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and modulus of the composites. This might be attributed to the enhanced adhesion between the filler and polymer matrix, as evidenced from the morphology, using scanning electron microscopy. The incorporation of compatibilizer also reduced the water absorption of the composites.

  14. Energy and environmental analysis of a rapeseed biorefinery conversion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Balzan, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms determining the fate of products, lost opportunities and marginal productions. The results show that introduction of enzymatic transesterification and improved oil extraction procedure result in environmental benefits compared to a traditional process. Utilization of rapeseed straw seems to have......)-based environmental assessment of a Danish biorefinery system was carried out to thoroughly analyze and optimize the concept and address future research. The LCA study was based on case-specific mass and energy balances and inventory data, and was conducted using consequential LCA approach to take into account market...... positive effects on the greenhouse gases (GHG) footprint of the biorefinery system, with improvements in the range of 9 % to 29 %, depending on the considered alternative. The mass and energy balances showed the potential for improvement of straw treatment processes (hydrothermal pre-treatment and dark...

  15. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov;

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......% in the conventional biodiesel process to 60% in the biorefinery concept, by utilization of the whole rapeseed plant for biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and methane production....... peroxide and stream pretreatment. The byproducts (rapeseed cake, glycerol, hydrolysate and stillage) were evaluated for hydrogen and methane production. In batch experiments, the energy yields from each feedstock for, either methane production alone or for both hydrogen and methane, were similar. However...

  16. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  17. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  18. 谈临汾市再生水资源的发展与利用%Views on the development and utilization of recycled water source in Linfen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴秋菊

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the water resource issue in Linfen city,points out that promoting recycled water reuse in the city is an effective way to solve water resource lack and is a significant decision implemented in water-shortage city,and then discusses the feasibility and implementation scheme of recycled water reuse,and finally puts forward rational suggestions.%对临汾市面临的水资源问题进行了分析,指出在城市中推行再生水利用是一个很有效的途径,是解决水资源短缺的好方法,是缺水城市势在必行的重大决策,论述了再生水利用的可行性及实施方案,并提出了合理化建议。

  19. Cascade processing of wheat bran through a biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 98% of total sugars were successfully converted and recovered from wheat bran. • LHW and effective enzyme-assisted extraction method is used to obtain total sugar. • Sequential treatment of various materials can be a great value to the industry. • High pressure and LHW can be a valuable treatment for the lignocellulosic materials. • Protein separation can be done with LHW. - Abstract: Structural characteristics of wheat bran such as surface area, crystallinity, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content significantly affect the yield of biorefinery products such as protein, fermentable sugar and lignin. The aim of the study was to use a sequence of high pressure extraction and hydrolysis processes in a cascade to create high potential value added products, namely, proteins, fermentable sugars and lignin. In the present study, four different sets of experiments were carried out step by step in a cascade sequence. The main experiments were the sequential extraction and hydrolysis which were optimized using design of experiments. Protein extraction from wheat bran was performed in a fixed bed reactor and was maximized to 1.976 g/L at the elicited optimum conditions which were 80 °C, pH 9.3 for a duration of 30 min. In the sequential experiment, process parameters such as temperature, flow rate and duration were optimized for liquid hot water (LHW) hydrolysis. The maximum reducing sugar concentration was 200 g/kg which corresponded to 34% per dry biomass obtained at a flow rate of 5 ml/min, temperature of 210 °C during a 45 min treatment. The following step was enzymatic hydrolysis to saccharify the cellulose under high pressure, where the independent variables were pressure, temperature and process time in order to ascertain the process conditions maximizing the reducing sugar content, where a positive correlation was observed between the solid–liquid loading ratio and reducing sugar yield. In the final step, the lignin content of

  20. Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether as intermediate: Technoeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A thermochemical biorefinery based on bio-DME as intermediate is studied. ► The assessed concepts (12) lead to multi-product generation (polygeneration). ► In all concepts DME is converted by carbonylation or hydrocarbonylation. ► Rates of return are similar to or higher than plants producing a single product. -- Abstract: Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether (DME) as an intermediate is studied. DME is converted into methyl acetate, which can either be hydrogenated to ethanol or sold as a co-product. Considering this option together with a variety of technologies for syngas upgrading, 12 different process concepts are analyzed. The considered products are ethanol, methyl acetate, H2, DME and electricity. The assessment of each alternative includes biomass pretreatment, gasification, syngas clean-up and conditioning, DME synthesis and conversion, product separation, and heat and power integration. A plant size of 500 MWth processing poplar chips is taken as a basis. The resulting energy efficiency to products ranges from 34.9% to 50.2%. The largest internal rate of return (28.74%) corresponds to a concept which produces methyl acetate, DME and electricity (exported to grid). A sensitivity analysis with respect to total plant investment (TPI), total operation costs (TOC) and market price of products was carried out. The overall conclusion is that, despite its greater complexity, this kind of thermochemical biorefinery is more profitable than thermochemical bioprocesses oriented to a single product.

  1. Biowaste biorefinery in Europe: opportunities and research & development needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Totaro, Grazia; Diels, Ludo; Reis, Maria; Duarte, Jose; Carioca, Osvaldo Beserra; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ferreira, Bruno Sommer

    2015-01-25

    This review aims to explore the needs and opportunities of research & development in the field of biowaste biorefinery in Europe. Modern industry in recent years is giving its close attention on organic waste as a new precious bioresource. Specific biowaste valorisation pathways are focusing on food processing waste, being food sector the first manufacture in Europe. Anyway they need to be further tested and validated and then transferred at the larger scale. In particular, they also need to become integrated, combining biomass pretreatments and recovery of biogenic chemicals with bioconversion processes in order to obtain a large class of chemicals. This will help to (a) use the whole biowaste, by avoiding producing residues and providing to the approach the required environmental sustainability, and (b) producing different biobased products that enter different markets, to get the possible economical sustainability of the whole biorefinery. However, the costs of the developed integrated processes might be high, mostly for the fact that the industry dealing with such issues is still underdeveloped and therefore dominated by high processing costs. Such costs can be significantly reduced by intensifying research & development on process integration and intensification. The low or no cost of starting material along with the environmental benefits coming from the concomitant biowaste disposal would offset the high capital costs for initiating such a biorefinery. As long as the oil prices tend to increase (and they will) this strategy will become even more attractive. PMID:24284045

  2. Recycled water technological design of a cement plant in Shanxi Province%山西省某水泥厂中水回用工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤伟静; 邓先涛; 杨亮

    2014-01-01

    The combined process,full automatic purifier+ultra-filtration,has been used for the pretreatment of dis-charged wastewater from a cement plant in Shanxi Province. Then the subsequent reverse osmosis process has been used for realizing recycled water reuse. Its treatment capacity of water is 28 t/h. The quality of the final effluent is favorable. For example,the turbidity drops from 34.1 NTU to 0,and total hardness drops from 3 160 mg/L to 40 mg/L. Therefore,it can directly be reused as make-up water for the excess heat power circulating water in the cement plant. The water yield is 20 t/h,and the rate of reuse up to 75%. It has been proved by practical application that the com-bined process could guarantee that the advanced treatment of discharge wastewater from cement plants is stable and its recycle quality is high.%采用全自动净水器+超滤组合工艺,对山西省某水泥厂排放废水进行预处理,联合后续反渗透工艺以实现中水回用,处理水量为28 t/h。经该工艺处理后,最终出水水质良好,浊度由34.1 NTU降至0,总硬度由3160 mg/L降至40 mg/L,可直接回用于该水泥厂余热发电循环水补充用水,出水量为20 t/h,回用率达75%。工程实践表明,该联合工艺可实现对水泥厂排放废水的深度处理和高质回用。

  3. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  4. Recyclability of PET from virgin resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Sandro Donnini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle grade virgin PET (polyethylene terephthalate resin was investigated through five consecutive injection molding steps to simulate recycling cycles. Tests were carried out after each recycling to evaluate degradation, crystallinity (by density and Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC measurements, hardness, and tensile and flexural properties. Consecutive recycling resulted in cumulative chain breaks caused by the material's contact with degrading agents such as temperature, oxygen, mechanical stresses, light, and water. In the fifth recycling step, for example, the number of carboxylic end groups, an indicator of the extent of chain-break, tripled in comparison to the initial molecule. The smaller chains that were formed fit more easily among the larger ones, thus increasing the percentage of crystalline phase in the structure. These two changes in the polymer's structure explained the recycled products' final properties, i.e., the injected samples became progressively harder and more fragile in each recycling step.

  5. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design. PMID:16784165

  6. Carbon recovery by fermentation of CO-rich off gases - Turning steel mills into biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Bastian; Richter, Hanno; Martin, Michael E; Jensen, Rasmus O; Juminaga, Alex; Mihalcea, Christophe; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-09-01

    Technological solutions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic sources are required. Heavy industrial processes, such as steel making, contribute considerably to GHG emissions. Fermentation of carbon monoxide (CO)-rich off gases with wild-type acetogenic bacteria can be used to produce ethanol, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol, thereby, reducing the carbon footprint of heavy industries. Here, the processes for the production of ethanol from CO-rich off gases are discussed and a perspective on further routes towards an integrated biorefinery at a steel mill is given. Recent achievements in genetic engineering as well as integration of other biotechnology platforms to increase the product portfolio are summarized. Already, yields have been increased and the portfolio of products broadened. To develop a commercially viable process, however, the extraction from dilute product streams is a critical step and alternatives to distillation are discussed. Finally, another critical step is waste(water) treatment with the possibility to recover resources. PMID:27095410

  7. Ideas of Utilization of City Water Recycling and Planning of Water Supply and Drainage%城市水资源循环利用和给排水规划体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭广田

    2014-01-01

    中共中央提出了“建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会”的号召。本文通过城市水资源循环利用和给排水规划意义及现状、水循环利用及给排水规划的体会,提出了一些水资源循环利用的理念和措施,希望可以用于城市建设发展。%The CPC Central Commit ee put forward the“buil-ding a resource-saving, environment-friendly society” appeal. In this paper, through the significance and the status of the uti-lization of city water recycling and water supply planning and the author’s ideas of the issues, puts forward some concepts and measures of water resource recycling, hoping they can be used for city construction and development.

  8. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  9. Comparative economic and environmental assessment of four beech wood based biorefinery concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Maik; Nitzsche, Roy

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze four conceptual beech wood based biorefineries generated during process design in terms of environmental and economic criteria. Biorefinery 1 annually converts 400,000 dry metric tons of beech wood into the primary products 41,600t/yr polymer-grade ethylene and 58,520tDM/yr organosolv lignin and the fuels 90,800tDM/yr hydrolysis lignin and 38,400t/yr biomethane. Biorefinery 2 is extended by the product of 58,400t/yr liquid "food-grade" carbon dioxide. Biorefinery 3 produces 69,600t/yr anhydrous ethanol instead of ethylene. Compared to biorefinery 3, biorefinery 4 additionally provides carbon dioxide as product. Biorefinery 3 and 4 seem most promising, since under basic assumptions both criteria, (i) economic effectiveness and (ii) reduction of potential environmental impacts, can be fulfilled. All four alternatives may reduce potential environmental impacts compared to reference systems using the ReCiPe methodology. Economic feasibilities of the analyzed biorefineries are highly sensitive. PMID:27285577

  10. 77 FR 4276 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Biorefinery Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural Utilities Service, USDA... for the Biorefinery Assistance Program for FY 2012. Applications will not be accepted under this program until further notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kelley Oehler, Energy Branch,...

  11. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  12. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  13. Waste water from petrochemical plants and refineries. Treatment and recycling; Abwasser aus Petrochemie- und Raffineriebetrieben. Behandlung und Wiedernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzke, Bernd [WEHRLE Umwelt GmbH, Emmendingen (Germany); Wienands, Hubert

    2008-07-01

    The high demand for fossil fuels and products of the petrochemical industry leads to a strong growth in this sector of the economy. This also is connected with a production of large amounts of waste water. With the industrial processing of waste water, increasingly membrane procedures are used as an alternative for conventional procedures. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities of waste water treatment on the basis of case studies from the petrochemical industry. It is shown that the membrane technology also in the future plays a large role in the industrial waste water purification. So, the membrane individually is applicable to waste water being not accessible to a conventional biological treatment.

  14. Reúso de água em indústria de reciclagem de plástico tipo PEAD Water reuse on HDPE plastics recycling pack industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Orsi Bordonalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussão acerca da viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do reúso da água em processos industriais tem sido uma preocupação constante. Neste trabalho propõe-se uma alternativa simplificada para o tratamento de efluentes com vistas ao seu reúso em uma indústria de reciclagem de plásticos. A água, no presente caso, é componente fundamental para o processo, já que participa como elemento de remoção de detritos e impurezas que contaminam a matriz da matéria-prima utilizada, proveniente, principalmente, de aterros sanitários e lixões. As embalagens plásticas recicladas pela indústria em questão são, em sua grande maioria, de uso doméstico e, em menor escala, frascos contaminados com óleos lubrificantes. Os resultados demonstraram a viabilidade do tratamento através de processo físico-químico por coagulação, floculação, decantação e filtração em manta geotêxtil, com o uso do hidroxicloreto de alumínio (PAC como coagulante, soda cáustica (50% como alcalinizante e polieletrólito como auxiliar de floculação e desidratação do lodo, bem como a exequibilidade do reúso dos efluentes em circuito fechado.The discussion about technical, economical and environmental feasibility of water reuse in industrial process has been a constant concern. This paper purposes a simplified choice for waste water treatment seeking reuse in a plastic recycle industry. The water, in this case, is a prime component because it is the main element for the debris and impurities removal that contaminates the matrix of plastic raw material, which comes, mostly, from landfill and waste disposals. The recycled plastic packages, from the company that had been used for this research, come mostly from domestic use and, in a minor scale, the plastic package contaminated by lubricant oil. The final results show feasible for the treatment through physical-chemical process by coagulation, flocculation, decantation and filtration on geotextile

  15. 锻造芯棒冷却水循环利用装置的设计研发%Design and research of recycle unit for mandrel cooling water in forging process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹英强

    2012-01-01

    设计了使用芯棒锻造时芯棒所用冷却水的循环利用装置.该装置包括水箱、供水装置、收集装置、冷却循环过滤装置以及相应的电控系统.通过对芯棒冷却水的回收、过滤再利用,避免了冷却水的浪费,有利于保护环境,降低生产成本.%The recycling unit for cooling water used by mandrel during forging process has been designed in the text.The system includes water tank,water supply system,receiving system,filter system for cooling recycle and related electric control system.With recycle,filtering and reuse of mandrel cooling water,the system can avoid wasting cooling water.By promoting the system,the water needed in the forging machine has been saved in large quantity,which can protect environment and reduce producing cost.

  16. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  17. Eutrophication of water body by using recycled water and its landscape restoration measures%再生水回用于水体的富营养化及其景观修复措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚瑶; 赖龙隆

    2012-01-01

    随着北京、天津等中国大城市淡水资源的紧缺加剧,再生水已成为城市景观用水的重要的水源之一.以再生水为补水水源的城市水体比天然河流、湖泊更容易发生富营养化问题.因此,保障水体水质达到相应的功能要求,研究水质净化与维持的方法和技术具有十分重要的现实意义.采用景观修复手段防治水体富营养化具有生态可持续性的优点,而且维护成本较低,并能创造充满野趣的生态景观,越来越得到人们的重视.本文探讨了人工湿地技术、水体系统优化设计、水生生物调控技术等景观修复措施的应用,从源头补水处理,景观水体系统合理设计,景观水质、效果控制和维护三个方面入手,改善再生水回用的富营养化状况,重塑自然生态的水体环境.%As Beijing, Tianjin and other Chinese big cities are short of fresh water, the recycled water has become an important water source for the city landscape. Eutrophication is more likely to happen in landscape using recycled water than in the natural rivers and lakes. Therefore, it is significant to study the methods and technologies of water purification and maintenance to guarantee water quality meeting the corresponding functional requirements. Using the landscape restoration measures for preventing and controlling eutrophication has gained popularity since it has the advantages of ecological sustainability, low maintenance cost, and can create the ecological landscape filled with delight. This paper discussed the application of constructed wetlands, water system design and biomanipulation from the aspects of source water disposal, water system design and water quality control and maintenance, preventing the eutrophication and rebuilding natural and ecological water environment.

  18. Potential for Recycling Nutrients from Biosolids Amended with Clay and Lime in Coarse-Textured Water Repellence, Acidic Soils of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjutha Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biosolids in soils is an efficient method of recycling nutrients from biosolids and it is considered even safer when it is modified after mixing and diluting with other suitable soil organic amendments. A variety of soil organic amendments, such as green manures and composts, are used for modifying and co-composting with biosolids. However, these may not be considered as appropriate biosolids disposal and remedial measures for soils with unique problems such as low soil pH, water repellence nature, and poor water and nutrient retention capacities due to soil textural issues. Historically, soil amendments such as lime, clay, and recently biochar are being applied for such problematic soils at Western Australia and these researches focused mostly on improvement in soil physical and chemical properties. However, studies with potential for applying modified biosolids with these amendments are not complete yet. This review focused on identifying such gaps in these studies from over 170 peer-reviewed key research and review articles published over decades to latest in these areas.

  19. Fast microwave-assisted preparation of a low-cost and recyclable carboxyl modified lignocellulose-biomass jute fiber for enhanced heavy metal removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaolin; Zheng, Tong; Wang, Peng; Hao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxia

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and recyclable biosorbent derived from jute fiber was developed for high efficient adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from water. The jute fiber was rapidly pretreated and grafted with metal binding groups (COOH) under microwave heating (MH). The adsorption behavior of carboxyl-modified jute fiber under MH treatment (CMJFMH) toward heavy metal ions followed Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)>0.99) with remarkably high adsorption capacity (157.21, 88.98 and 43.98mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively). Also, CMJFMH showed fast removal ability for heavy metals in a highly significant correlation with pseudo second-order kinetics model. Besides, CMJFMH can be easily regenerated with EDTA-2Na solution and reused up to at least four times with equivalent high adsorption capacity. Overall, cheap and abundant production, rapid and facile preparation, fast and efficient adsorption of heavy metals and high regeneration ability can make the CMJFMH a preferred biosorbent for heavy metal removal from water.

  20. Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M.; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B.; Sivakumar, I. K. Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in t...

  1. Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Boyd W.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

  2. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  3. Recycle with Heating: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, A.; Mason, G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an apparatus (built from domestic plumbing pipes and fittings) that uses only water and electricity (as consumables) to investigate basic mass and heat balances in a system with recycle. Also describes experiments using the apparatus. (JN)

  4. Recyclable magnetic photocatalysts of Fe{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture with effective removal of Cr(VI) under UV light from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.C.; Zhang, Y.X.; Pan, S.S.; Ding, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Lab of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, G.H., E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Lab of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst has a three-level hierarchical architecture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With a removal effectiveness of 99.3% at Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-step reduction: TiO{sub 2} photoreduces Fe{sup 2+} to Fe and Fe reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical architecture serves as both photocatalytic reactor and absorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst can be magnetically separated from wastewater and recycled. - Abstract: We report the synthesis and photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) from water of hierarchical micro/nanostructured Fe{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} tubes. The TiO{sub 2} tubes fabricated by a facile solvothermal approach show a three-level hierarchical architecture assembled from dense nanosheets nearly vertically standing on the surface of TiO{sub 2} microtube. The nanosheets with a thickness of about 20 nm are composed of numerous TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with size in the range of 15-20 nm. Ferrous ions are doped into the hierarchical architecture by a reduction route. The Fe{sup 2+}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst demonstrates an effective removal of Cr(VI) from water under UV light and the removal effectiveness reaches 99.3% at the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L{sup -1}. The ferrous ion in the catalyst serves not as the photo-electron trap but as an intermedium of a two-step reduction. The TiO{sub 2} photoreduces the Fe{sup 2+} ions to Fe atoms firstly, then the Fe atoms reduce the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and the later is removed by adsorption. The hierarchical architecture of the catalyst serves as a reactor for the photocatalytic reaction of Cr(VI) ions and an effective absorbent for the removal of Cr(III) ions. The catalyst can be easily magnetically separated from the wastewater after photocatalytic reaction and recycled after acid treatment.

  5. The influence of recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) on concrete properties: Influence on flexural strength, water absorption and shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalah, Jamaleddin; Al-Sahli, Yosra; Akish, Ahmed; Saad, Omar; Hakemi, Abdurrahman

    2013-12-01

    Expanded polystyrene waste in a granular form was used as a lightweight aggregate in order to produce lightweight concretë Lightweight EPS concrete composites were produced by replacing the coarse aggregate, either partially or fully with equal volume of EPS aggregates. The coarse aggregate replacements levels used were 25, 50, 75, and 100%, which corresponded to (9.20, 18.40, 27.60, and 36.8%) from total volume. The investigation is directed towards the development and performance evaluation of the concrete composites containing EPS aggregates, without addition of either bonding additives, or super-plasticizers on some concrete properties such as flexure strength, water absorption and change in length (or shrinkage). Experimental results showed that a density reduction of 12% caused flexure strength to decrease by 25.3% at a replacement level of 25% EPS. However, the reduction percentage strongly depends upon the replacement level of EPS granules. Moreover, the lower strength concretes showed a higher water absorption values compared to higher strength concrete, i.e., increasing the volume percentage of EPS increases the water absorption as well as the negative strain (shrinkage). The negative strain was higher at concretes of lower density (containing a high amount of EPS aggregate). The water to cement ratio of EPS aggregate concrete is found to be slightly lower than that of conventional concrete.

  6. Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

  7. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  8. Economic risk analysis and critical comparison of optimal biorefinery concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2016-01-01

    value-added chemicals (diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene), provides an improved resilience and robustness against market price fluctuations by reducing economic loss by 140 MM$/a (17% IRR); (iii) the economic analysis favors biochemical conversion technologies for a small production/processing capacity...... recommend that a comprehensive economic risk analysis, using for example the MonteCarlo technique, should be an integral part of the conceptual design, development, and optimization of biorefineries to help improve their economic robustness in view of the competitive market forchemicals and fuels....

  9. Improvement of Bearing Capacity in Recycled Aggregates Suitable for Use as Unbound Road Sub-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new cement hydrated particles was observed, and pozzolanic reactions were discovered by electronon microscopy in these novel materials. The properties of recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates suggest that these recycled materials can be used in unbound road layers to improve their mechanical behaviour in the long term.

  10. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... of recycling in the modern quest for a sustainable global society is performed, clearly showing that without intensified focus on recycling, the global community cannot hope to reach even the most modest goals for sustainability in resource use. A general method for finding new recycling alternatives...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  11. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  12. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  13. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: A mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Mitsch, W.J.; Wolfe, W.E.

    2001-07-01

    This paper investigates the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms.

  14. Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palladium nanoparticles have been electrochemically supported on zirconium oxide nanostructured powders and all the nanomaterials have been characterized by several analytical techniques. The Pd/ZrO2 nanocatalyst is demonstrated to be a very efficient catalyst in Heck, Ullmann, and Suzuki reactions of aryl halides in water. The catalyst efficiency is attributed to the stabilization of Pd nanophases provided by tetra(alkyl- ammonium hydroxide, which behaves both as base and PTC (phase transfer catalyst agent.

  15. Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Monopoli; Angelo Nacci; Vincenzo Calò; Francesco Ciminale; Pietro Cotugno; Annarosa Mangone; Lorena Carla Giannossa; Pietro Azzone; Nicola Cioffi

    2010-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles have been electrochemically supported on zirconium oxide nanostructured powders and all the nanomaterials have been characterized by several analytical techniques. The Pd/ZrO2 nanocatalyst is demonstrated to be a very efficient catalyst in Heck, Ullmann, and Suzuki reactions of aryl halides in water. The catalyst efficiency is attributed to the stabilization of Pd nanophases provided by tetra(alkyl)- ammonium hydroxide, which behaves both as base and PTC (phase transfe...

  16. An Investigation of the Use of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Transuranic Waste Recycling in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey J [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of TRistructural- ISOtropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles for the burning of plutonium/neptunium (Pu/Np) isotopes in typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors is presented. Though numerous studies have evaluated the burning of transuranic isotopes in light water reactors (LWRs), this work differentiates itself by employing Pu/Np-loaded TRISO particles embedded within a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and formed into pellets, constituting the fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel concept that can be loaded into standard LWR fuel element cladding. This approach provides the capability of Pu/Np burning and, by virtue of the multibarrier TRISO particle design and SiC matrix properties, will allow for greater burnup of Pu/Np material, plus improved fuel reliability and thermal performance. In this study, a variety of heterogeneous assembly layouts, which utilize a mix of FCM rods and typical UO2 rods, and core loading patterns were analyzed to demonstrate the neutronic feasibility of Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel. The assembly and core designs herein reported are not fully optimized and require fine-tuning to flatten power peaks; however, the progress achieved thus far strongly supports the conclusion that with further rod/assembly/core loading and placement optimization, Pu/Np-loaded TRISO fuel and core designs that are capable of balancing Pu/Np production and destruction can be designed within the standard constraints for thermal and reactivity performance in pressurized water reactors.

  17. 水灰比对再生混凝土抗压强度影响的研究%Study of Water Cement Ratios on Compressive Strength of Recycled Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席鹏

    2014-01-01

    指出了再生混凝土是将废弃混凝土经过清洗、破碎、分级,并按一定比例相互配合后得到的,是将再生骨料作为部分或者全部骨料配置的混凝土。水灰比是影响混凝土的抗压强度的主要因素。不同的水灰比对混凝土的其它方面的性能也有一定的影响。在相同的水灰比下,普通混凝土的性能与再生混凝土的性能又是否存在着差异,是试验研究的问题。试验采用不同的水灰比,将再生混凝土与普通混凝土的强度进行了比较,分析了不同水灰比对再生混凝土强度的影响。%Recycled concrete is made of waste concrete by cleaning ,crushing ,grading and under a certain proportion of mutual cooperation ,and is configured by concrete recycled aggregate as part of or all of the aggregate .The water cement ratio influences the strength of concrete ,and different water cement ratios also influence concrete′s other properties .This test focuses on the problems of whether there are some influences on the recycled concrete performance and whether there are differences between the performance of ordinary concrete and recycled concrete performance in the same water cement ratio .By adopting different water -cement ratios to the recycled concrete and normal concrete strength ,it compares their durability ,carbonation resistance .Finally ,it analyzes the influences of different water cement ratios on the properties of recycled concrete .

  18. 梧州年产30万吨再生铜循环水系统%The water reuse system of engineering of an anural output of 300000 tons recycled copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏隶

    2012-01-01

    Water recycling can greatly reduce the pressure on water shortage, and it is also the most active protection of the water environment, or the best way to solve the contradiction of ecological and environmental. This paper discusses the Water cycle process of engineering of an anural output of 300000 tons recycled copper, Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Recycling Co., Ltd. Fully reflects the company concern about environment protection and the social responsibility.%水的循环利用不仅可以大大减轻水资源短缺的压力,也是最积极主动地保护水环境,还是解决生态用水和环境用水的最佳途径;文章介绍了广西有色再生金属有限公司年产30万吨再生铜项目的水循环工艺,体现广西有色重视环境保护,充分考虑采用减少“三废”污染的工艺和设施,为保护好山川秀美、生态梧州尽企业最大的社会责任。

  19. 深度脱氮技术在电厂中水回用中的应用%Application of advanced denitrogenation technology of urban recycled water in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海滨; 张东明; 常燕

    2011-01-01

    The back ground, feasibility analysis process and treatment technology of the 30 000 t/d multi-purpose project of urban recycled water at Zheneng Changxing Power Plant are introduced. Based on the actual running situation of the system, the project benefit and treatment effect are analyzed. The practice shows that the aeration biological fluidized tank (ABFT) technology is suitable for the advanced treatment of urban recycled water containing low NH3-N and part of COD can be removed. It is feasible that the urban recycled water can be reused as circulating cooling water, after it has been subjected to the advanced denitrogenation treatment.%介绍了浙能长兴电厂3万t/d城市中水综合利用工程的项目背景、可行性分析过程及处理工艺,结合系统的实际运行情况分析了项目的效益、处理效果.实践表明,采用曝气生物流化池(ABFT)工艺处理含低浓度氨氮的城市中水,脱氮效果良好,同时可去除部分COD.城市中水经深度脱氮处理后回用作电厂循环冷却水补水是可行的.

  20. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  1. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties. PMID:26162903

  2. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  3. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L H; Kagie, H R; Garland, J L

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  5. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties.

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  7. 重庆地区再生水回用模式及环境经济效益研究%Benefits of Recycled Water for Environment and Economics of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国友; 谭灵芝

    2012-01-01

    水资源短缺使得各国对再生水回用日益重视。通过回顾国内外对再生水利用的研究结论和实践,阐释了再生水回用对水资源循环利用的重要意义。构建了费用效益计算公式,并分析了再生水回用环境经济效益。以重庆市为例,利用构建的公式,结合重庆市的实际分析了该市再生水回用环境经济效益。结果表明,重庆市大部分行业再生水利用率极低,有一定的提高潜力,需从水价调整,转变经济发展方式等方面入手,全面提高再生水利用效益。%The reclaimed water is becoming more and more important in the most countries owing to the in creasingly urgent water crisis. This study addressed the important significance of the reclaimed water and de- veloped an environmental-economic benefit formula on the reclaimed water based on critical reviews on do- mestic and international theories and practices of water recycling. Exampled by Chongqing City, we calculat- ed the concerned indices according to the statistical data. We also analyzed the environmental economic bene- fits of recycled water reuse. The results show that the recycled water reuse rate was extremely low and had great potentials to improve. We should improve water use efficiency in practices, such as adjusting the price of water, and converting the patterns of economic growth.

  8. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  9. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  10. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C; Mitsch, W J; Wolfe, W E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms although lower average stem lengths and fewer stems bearing flowers were observed in mesocosms with FGD liners. Potentially phytotoxic boron was significantly higher in the belowground biomass of plants grown in lined mesocosms with low phosphorus loading. A larger-scale, long-term wetland experiment close to full scale is recommended from this two-year mesocosm study to better predict the potentially positive and negative effects of using FGD by-products in constructed wetlands.

  11. 造纸工业中水回用的中试研究%Research on the pilot scale recycled water reuse applied to paper-making industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 朱华静; 聂云

    2014-01-01

    采用叠片过滤+超滤(UF)+反渗透(RO)系统对某造纸厂二级处理后的废水进行了中试规模的深度处理研究,试验结果表明:其出水平均COD为4.44 mg/L,SS<1 mg/L,COD、SS去除率分别为96.1%、97.9%,电导率为19.39μS/cm,平均脱盐率为99.5%,平均浊度降为0.06 NTU,出水优良,各项指标均满足回用水水质标准。该工艺能连续稳定运行,在技术上可行、可靠。%The research on the pilot scale advanced treatment has been accomplished for the wastewater after secondary treatment by laminated filter+UF+RO system in a paper mill. The results show that when its average COD is 4.44 mg/L,and SS less than 1 mg/L,the removing rates of COD and SS are 96.1%and 97.9%respectively,condu-ctivity 19.39 μS/cm,average desalination rate as high as 99.5%,and average turbidity dropped to 0.06 NTU, excellent effluent can be obtained. In general ,the water treated by this technology can completely meet the require-ments of the recycled water quality standards. This process has the advantages of continuous and stable operation , and feasible and reliable techniques.

  12. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  13. Uncertainty analysis in raw material and utility cost of biorefinery synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist;

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the impact of uncertain data on the solution obtained by using a superstructure-based optimization approach in synthesis and design of biorefinery processing networks. In the early stages of biorefinery design, many of the data required for the formulation of the design problem...... material price and utility cost) on the design of a biorefinery process network....... are characterized by considerable uncertainty. These uncertainties might have significant impact on the results of the design problem, and therefore need to be carefully evaluated and managed, in order to generate candidates for robust design. In this contribution, we study the effect of data uncertainty (raw...

  14. Study on effect of carbonation and reinforcement protection ability of recycled aggregate concrete with water cement ratio%水灰比对再生混凝土碳化和护筋能力影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚丽

    2013-01-01

    试验配制水灰比为0.60、0.55、0.50、0.45、0.40的普通混凝土以及相同水灰比掺50%再生粗骨料的再生混凝土,测试混凝土碳化深度并研究其护筋能力.试验结果表明,相同条件下,再生混凝土的碳化深度大于普通混凝土.水灰比越大,再生混凝土与普通混凝土护筋能力均越小;水灰比相同时,再生混凝土护筋能力小于普通混凝土.%Test to prepare normal concrete with water cement ratio of 0.60,0.55,0.50,0.45,0.40 respectively,and recycled aggregate concrete with the same water cement ratio plus 50% regenerated aggregate,test concrete carbonation depth and study its reinforcement protection ability.The test results show that:in the same condition,the recycled concrete carbonation depth is greater than normal concrete.The bigger water cement ratio,the smaller recycled concrete and normal concrete reinforcement protection ability is;If the water cement ratio is the same,the reinforcement protection ability of the recycled concrete protection is smaller than that of the normal concrete.

  15. 再生水中硫酸盐还原菌对铜合金的腐蚀%Effect of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria on Corrosion of Copper Alloy HSn701-AB in Recycled Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 李进; 焦迪

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and growth characters of sulfate reducing bacteria, which were separated from recycled water, and its effect on corrosion of copper alloy HSn701-AB in recycled water were investigated by means of microbiological technology, surface analysis technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the growth of SRB had 2 d~3 d's lag phase in recycled water. After immersed in recycled water with SRB for 3 days, the copper alloy HSn701-AB showed features of barrier diffusion impedance, and with the immersion time increased, the corrosion of HSn701-AB became severe in company with formation of a dense SRB bio-film.%采用微生物技术、表面分析技术以及电化学测量技术,研究了从再生水环境中分离提纯得到的硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)的形态、生长规律,以及SRB对铜合金HSn701-AB在再生水环境中腐蚀的影响.结果表明,在再生水环境中SRB的生长曲线存在2 d~3 d的停滞期;铜合金HSn701~AB在接种SRB的再生水环境中浸泡3 d时,出现阻挡层扩散阻抗,随着浸泡时间的增长,腐蚀加重,20 d时其表而生成致密的SRB生物膜.

  16. Study on Marginal Opportunity Cost Pricing of Urban Recycled water%城市再生水的边际机会成本定价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段涛

    2013-01-01

    分析了边际机会成本定价法的特点,指出了该方法应用于城市再生水定价时的作用,给出了边际机会成本定价的一般公式.通过分析得出再生水边际成本定价时需用平均增量成本代替边际机会成本,并给出了平均增量成本的计算公式.最后提出了城市再生水边际机会成本定价的具体步骤.采用边际机会成本定价法可使再生水生产企业获得足够的收入去扩容并实现可持续发展,还有可能实现资源的高效分配,因此可作为判断再生水价格是否合理的一个主要依据.%In this paper,the features of marginal opportunity pricing are analyzed,the impacts of the marginal opportunity cost pricing (MOC) of urban recycled water are put forward and the general formula of MOC pricing is provided.Marginal opportunity cost needs to be substituted by average increment cost in MOC pricing process,and the formula of average increment cost is deduced.In the end,the concrete steps of MOC pricing of urban recycled water are provided.The MOC pricing is benefit for recycled water plants to get enough income to expand production and achieve sustainable development.Moreover,it will result in efficient allocation of resources.Therefore,the MOC pricing can be regarded as one of the main bases in judgment on reasonability of recycled water price.

  17. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  18. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  19. Influence of water-cement ratio upon mechanical property of recycled concrete%水灰比对再生混凝土力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽

    2012-01-01

    以普通混凝土为参照,研究了水灰比对再生骨料混凝土力学性能的影响,介绍了试验材料及方法并得出实验结果,结果表明再生混凝土强度与水灰比密切相关,其与基准混凝土对水灰比的响应不同,从而为再生混凝土的生产实践奠定基础。%Taking common concrete as the reference, the paper studies the influence of water-cement ratio upon mechanical property of recycled concrete, introduces experimental materials and methods, and obtains experimental results. Results show that: recycled concrete strength is closely related to water-cement ratio, its response is different from that of standard concrete upon water-cement ratio, so as to lay a foundation for the production of recycled concrete.

  20. 二氧化氯在循环水杀菌灭藻中出现的问题及解决措施%PROBLEMS AND .RESOLUTIONS IN STERILIZATION OF RECYCLED WATER WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊梦辉; 覃华锋

    2012-01-01

    The necessity in using chlorine dioxide to replace liquid chlorine as antiseptic for recycled water system is analyzed based upon both the mechanism and safety,the application of chlorine dioxide to ammonia recycled water system is introduced and the problem therefrom analyzed and resolutions put forward for improvement, the obvious effect shows that the application of chlorine dioxide to replace liquid chlorine as antiseptic in recycled water system is successful.%从杀菌机理和安全性分析循环水系统用二氧化氯替代液氯作为杀菌灭藻剂的必要性,介绍二氧化氯在合成氨循环水系统的应用情况,对出现的问题进行分析并提出相应措施进行改进,取得了明显的效果,应用二氧化氯替代液氯在循环水系统中作为杀菌剂是成功的。

  1. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  2. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... based more on experimental findings, and less to literature review. In Chapter 1, the problem context and background theory for biorefineries is presented. Finally, latest developments of upscaled biorefineries in Europe are summarized. In Chapter 2, a scenario about upgrading and expanding a typical...

  3. Application of CAPEC Lipid Property Databases in the Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Cunico, Larissa; Gani, Rafiqul

    industrial system based on biomass, an inexpensive, abundant and renewable raw material, is being established with sustainability as the main driving force [1]. The processing facilities for the production of multiple products (including biofuels and chemicals) from biomass are referred as biorefineries [2......]. The wide variety and complex nature of components in biorefineries poses a challenge with respect to the synthesis and design of these types of processes. Whereas physical and thermodynamic property data or models for petroleum-based processes are widely available, most data and models for biobased...... processes are not. Lipids are present in biorefinery processes: they represent feedstock (vegetable oil, waste cooking oil, microalgal oil), intermediate products (fatty acids, glycerol) and final products in biorefineries, thus the prediction of their properties is of relevance for the synthesis and design...

  4. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels, NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility and its availability to biofuels' industry partners who want to operate, test, and develop biorefining technology and equipment.

  5. Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Processing Networks with Uncertainty and Sustainability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    -criteria assessment including technical, economics and sustainability. The expanded database and superstructure with uncertainty and sustainability analysis form a powerful process synthesis toolbox to be used in design of future biorefineries with multi-criteria evaluation (technical and economic feasibility...... for processing renewable feedstocks, with the aim of bridging the gap for fuel, chemical and material production. This project is focusing on biorefinery network design, in particular for early stage design and development studies. Optimal biorefinery design is a challenging problem. It is a multi...... to support the evaluation of processes and the generation of sustainable alternatives for identifying the optimal processing routes. One particular challenge here is to include proactively sustainability analysis as part of the synthesis of biorefinery networks. Another challenge is the handling of several...

  6. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    production mainly due to their high carbohydrate content. A case study of a proposed macroalgae biorefinery concept highlighted the potential of post hydrolysis solid residue (PHSR) for the production of numerous additional products such as ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, biodiesel, protein, feed, biogas......Biorefinery has the potential of displacing fossil fuels and oil-refinery based products. Within the biorefinery a palette of marketable commodities can be produced from biomass, including food, feed, biochemicals and biofuels. Which bioproducts are produced is largely dependent on the chemical....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...

  7. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  8. Innovative comprehensive utilization of municipal recycled water based on green cyclic economy%基于绿色循环经济创新实施城市中水综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永坤

    2016-01-01

    矿产资源的开发需要消耗大量的水资源,妥善解决生产水源和水资源再利用问题,一直是矿业界研究的主要课题。中国黄金集团内蒙古矿业有限公司通过城市中水利用试验研究,较好地解决了矿产资源开发中环境保护与矿山生产用水之间的问题,探索出了基于绿色循环经济发展为导向、创新利用城市中水之路。该文城市中水的利用避免了从有限的环境水域取水,解决了每年近550万m3的城市生活污水排放带来的污染问题,切实起到了绿色环保作用;同时,该项目的运行每年可为该地区带来700万元的经济效益,显现了良好的经济效益和社会效益。%In view of the large amount of water required in the process of mineral resources exploitation, proper policy applied in water source and recycling solutions has attracted attention in mining industry for a long time.Inner Mongolia Mining Co.,Ltd.of China National Gold Group Corporation has conducted the experimental research on the utilization of municipal recycled water which reasonably balanced the problem between environmental protection and water consumption for mining operations in the process of mineral resources exploitation.Thus, a path, oriented by green cyclic economy and characterized by innovative municipal recycled water utilization,is fumbled.As pointed out in the paper,the utilization of municipal recycled water avoided water extraction from limited reserves of environment water,and also mitigated pollutions brought about by municipal life wastewater which amounts to 5.5 million cubic me-ters annually,contributing a great deal to environmental protection.At the same time,the project creates 7 million yuan profits for the region every year,showing good social and economic benefits.

  9. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-01

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  10. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  11. Valorization of Sargassum muticum Biomass According to the Biorefinery Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa, Elena M; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia

    2015-06-01

    The biorefinery concept integrates processes and technologies for an efficient biomass conversion using all components of a feedstock. Sargassum muticum is an invasive brown algae which could be regarded as a renewable resource susceptible of individual valorization of the constituent fractions into high added-value compounds. Microwave drying technology can be proposed before conventional ethanol extraction of algal biomass, and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 was useful to extract fucoxanthin and for the fractionation of crude ethanol extracts. Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions. Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions. Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26110896

  12. Dynamic Modeling, Optimization, and Advanced Control for Large Scale Biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail

    of the L1 adaptive output feedback controller [10] are developed: one for biomass pretreatment temperature [11] and another one for pH in enzymatic hydrolysis [12]. Biomass conversion is highly sensitive to these process parameters, which exhibit nonlinear behavior and can change nominal values...... years PhD project that was run by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with the largest Danish energy company DONG Energy A/S between 2012 and 2015. The company owns a demonstration scale second generation biorefinery in Kalundborg, Denmark, also known as the Inbicon demonstration...... plant [3]. The goal of the project is to utilize realtime data extracted from the large scale facility to formulate and validate first principle dynamic models of the plant. These models are then further exploited to derive model-based tools for process optimization, advanced control and real...

  13. Amyris, Inc. Integrated Biorefinery Project Summary Final Report - Public Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, David; Sato, Suzanne; Garcia, Fernando; Eppler, Ross; Cherry, Joel

    2014-03-12

    The Amyris pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) leveraged Amyris synthetic biology and process technology experience to upgrade Amyris’s existing Emeryville, California pilot plant and fermentation labs to enable development of US-based production capabilities for renewable diesel fuel and alternative chemical products. These products were derived semi-synthetically from high-impact biomass feedstocks via microbial fermentation to the 15-carbon intermediate farnesene, with subsequent chemical finishing to farnesane. The Amyris IBR team tested and provided methods for production of diesel and alternative chemical products from sweet sorghum, and other high-impact lignocellulosic feedstocks, at pilot scale. This enabled robust techno-economic analysis (TEA), regulatory approvals, and a basis for full-scale manufacturing processes and facility design.

  14. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  15. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  16. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  17. Waste Water Recycling and Reuse Treatment Technology Practice of Gold Smelting%黄金冶炼废水回收及回用处理技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安理; 李建政; 刘晓勃

    2016-01-01

    黄金冶炼废水主要由酸性废水和含氰废水组成,按照废水“回收+回用处理”的处理原则,采用3项专利技术,废水处理回收了氰化钠和硫氰化亚铜,实现了废水100%回用。%Waste water of gold smelting mainly consists of acid waste water and cyanide-containing waste. In accordance with the principle of " recycling and reuse treatment" for waste water, three patent technologies are adopted. The waste water treatment recovers sodium cyanide and cuprous rhodanide, achieving the goal that waste water is 100% reused.

  18. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  19. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  20. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  1. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  2. Biorefinery of bacterial cellulose from rice straw: enhanced enzymatic saccharification by ionic liquid pretreatment%Biorefinery of bacterial cellulose from rice straw: enhanced enzymatic saccharification by ionic liquid pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Feng; Han Shifen

    2011-01-01

    The pretreatment of rice straw is often used to enhance the hydrolysis. 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ( [ AMIM ] C1) is a kind of low viscous, nontoxic and recyclable ionic liquid. It was used to treat rice straw and improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw in this study. The factors influencing the pretreatment were as follows: the dosage of rice straw in [ AMIM ] Cl, crush mesh of rice straw, pretreatment temperature and time. After the pretreatment with a 3 % (the weight ratio of rice straw to ionic liquid) rice straw dosage in [AMIM]Cl at 110 ℃ for 1 h, the yield of reducing sugar of regenerated rice straw by 33 U/mL cellulase hydrolysis was 53.3 %, which was two times higher than that of un-treated rice straw (23.7 % ). More researches regarding straw biorefinery to bacterial cellulose are being performed in the lab and prospective results will be published in near future.

  3. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  4. Research progress in the removal of trace organic pollutants from recycled water%再生水中微量有机污染物去除的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔芳; 袁博

    2012-01-01

    随着饮用水和非饮用水再生利用计划的不断发展,市政再生水利用过程中潜在的微量有机污染物对水生态和人类健康形成威胁.国内外研究者就微量有机污染物的来源、种类、检测方法、去除技术开展了一系列的研究.在传统的生化工艺基础上进行了改进和创新,同时研发了包括膜技术、吸附技术和高级氧化技术在内的新技术.分析和介绍了目前国内外在污水及再生水中微量有机污染物去除方面的研究,并对今后的研究方向进行了展望.%With the continuously developed schemes on potable and non-potable water recycling,trace organic pollutants in municipal water recycling processes are potential harms to water ecosystem and human health. The source, category, detection, and removing technology of trace organic pollutants have been studied by researchers in China and abroad. Improvements and innovations are carried out,based on traditional biochemical process. Meanwhile, new processes including membrane technology,adsorption,and advanced oxidation techniques are researched and developed. Researches on the removal of trace organic pollutants from wastewater and recycled water are introduced and analyzed, and their future research directions are looked forward.

  5. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  6. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  7. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  8. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  9. 沉淀池污泥回流工艺强化低浊水处理效能研究%Study on effects of enhanced treatment of low turbidity water with technical of potassium permanganate, PAM and recycled sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽华; 李圭白; 李星; 杨艳玲

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of enhancing treatment of water with low turbidity through combined effects of potassium permanganate oxidation, PAM aiding coagulation and sludge recycling was investigated through continuous bench scale studies. Additionally, the mechanism of pollutant removal was discussed. Comparing with ferric chloride coagulation,only recycling sedimentation sludge was ineffective in enhancing treatment of water with low turbidity. PAM with recycled sludge showed positive effects, and the additional potassium permanganate dosing exhibited the best potential of favoring coagulation. It was observed that the optimal potassium permanganate dosage was 0. 4 mg/L. SEM analysis indicated that the floes were loosely formed and the particle diameter was critically low for ferric chloride coagulation process. Comparatively, the addition of PAM and potassium permanganate with recycled sludge facilitated the aggregation of tinny particles onto compact PAM polymer chains, therefore contributing to the formation of compact floes with high particle diameter. The combined employment of recycled sludge, PAM and potassium permanganate showed the best potential of favoring coagulation, mainly through synergistic effects between seeding, polymer bridging and increasing effective collision in mechanism.%通过动态试验考察了高锰酸钾、PAM、回流污泥组合应用强化低浊水处理的效能,并探讨了组合工艺对水中污染物的的去除机制.与投加三氯化铁相比,单纯将沉淀污泥回流不能有效改善低浊水处理效果;将回流污泥和PAM同时投加可以改善处理效果;在投加回流污泥和PAM时,投加KMnO4 可进一步改善混凝效果,KMnO4最佳投加量为0.4 mg/L.电镜扫描结果显示单纯三氯化铁絮凝所形成的絮体粒径小且结合松散,而PAM、KMnO4、回流污泥组合应用可以使许多细小颗粒彼此聚合,絮体粒径增大并且结合致密.从理论上论证了回流污泥、PAM、KMnO4组

  10. Effect of Recycled Water Quality on the Dyeing Property of Cotton Fabric%回用水水质对棉织物染色性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡惠媛; 朱虹; 张绍栋; 邓丽君

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effluent that meets the national emission standards after treatment is reused for dyeing process. Meanwhile, the simulated recycled water with different composition is applied to dyeing cotton fab-ric, and its effect on fastness, color shade, dye up-take, dye fixing percentage are tested and analyzed. The results show that the different composition recycled water have no effect on the fastness, excepting on fastness to perspira-tion of solid colored cotton fabric; the inorganic salt of recycled water has lager effect on color shade of solid col-ored cotton fabric; any larger value of COD, electric conductivity and ammonia-nitrogen will affect color shade of combined colored cotton fabric; the different composition recycled water has little effect on dye up-take and dye fixing percentage.%将模拟回用水代替经过处理后达到国家排放标准的废水回用于染色工艺中,分别配制不同组成的模拟回用水对棉织物进行染色,测试并分析了其对棉织物染色的各项染色牢度、色光、上染率和固色率的影响。结果表明,采取不同组成的回用水对棉染色的各项牢度基本没有影响,仅对单色棉织物的耐汗渍牢度有一定影响;但回用水中的无机盐浓度对染单色的棉织物色光影响较大;COD、电导率和氨氮任意一个因素处于较大值时,均会对拼色棉织物的色光造成影响;采用不同组成的回用水对棉织物染色时的上染率和固色率影响不大。

  11. Households' recycling efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Halvorsen, Bente [Research Department, Statistics Norway, 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Nyborg, Karine [The Ragnar Frisch Centre of Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    Households' recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households' use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting at source involves significant extra use of time and energy in the households. On average, each of those asked reported that they use close to half an hour a week for cleaning, sorting and transporting recyclable waste. On average, 185 h is used per tonne of waste. Four out of ten reported that they use warm or hot water to clean the materials. When investigating the motives for sorting waste, we find that many perceive sorting as mandatory, while some in fact find it a pleasant activity in itself. Moral motives for sorting at source are also widespread. A majority would prefer that a company took over the sorting if this were possible, and on average, the respondents are willing to pay US$ 20/year for this service.

  12. Influence of mixed recycled aggregate on the physical e mechanical properties of recycled concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Martínez, César; Zhu, Wenzhong; Howind, Torsten; Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías Rojas, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of a feasibility study on the partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate with a poor quality recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste in the manufacture of concrete of 30 MPa strength grade. The mixed recycled aggregate used had a high asphalt and floating material content. Workability, density, compressive and tensile strength, water absorption and sorptivity were studied in a series of concretes containing 25 or 50% of th...

  13. Sugarcane biorefineries: Case studies applied to the Brazilian sugar–alcohol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advanced system of co-generation improves the energy performance of biorefineries. • Sugarcane straw as additional source of fuel in the biorefinery resulted positive. • The farming and transport of sugarcane cause the main environmental impacts. - Abstract: The use of biomasses is becoming increasingly appealing alternative, to give an partial solution lack of energy, with an ecofriendly approach, having on sugarcane a solid fundament; that receives the new and valuable complement of the innovative concept of the biorefineries it is productive installations, that can be summarized as to reach the higher overall yield from the raw materials, with the lowest environmental impact, at minimum energy input and giving the maximum of the energy output. The biorefinery is the true valuable option of a wide diversification, with by-products like the single cell protein and biogas from the distillery vinasse, new oxidants like methanol, second generation biofuels, biobutanol, etc. In this context this paper presents a study of five different configurations of biorefineries. Each case study being a system based on an autonomous distillery or sugar mill with an annexed distillery and coproduction of methanol from bagasse. The paper includes the use of sugarcane harvest residues (mainly straw) and a BIG–GT plant (Biomass Integrated Gasification–Gas Turbine) as alternatives to fulfill the energy demands of the complex

  14. Discussion on the preparation water permeability of construction waste recycled mix aggregate%谈建筑垃圾再生混合骨料配制透水性混凝土

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 徐学庆; 谭凯; 张国莲

    2014-01-01

    针对我国城市建筑垃圾处理及城市地表硬化后透水性差的问题,提出用建筑垃圾再生混合骨料配制透水性混凝土的方案,并从强度和透水性两个方面对配制的透水性混凝土进行了试验研究,得出了一些有价值的结论。%According to low water permeability of our city construction waste treatment and after city surface hardening problems,this paper pro-posed the scheme using construction waste recycled mix aggregate to prepare water permeability concrete,and made experimental research on prepared water permeability concrete from strength and permeability two aspects,gained some valuable conclusions.

  15. Collection of information on biorefinery research funding and research organisations (projects). Task 2.3.2 Outside Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an outlook on research into biorefineries in the US, Canada, Australia, China, India, Japan and Brazil. The results will be used for benchmarking or to indicate new opportunities. The most recent EU-funded Specific Support Action projects (Bioref-Integ, Biorefinery Euroview, Bio

  16. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  17. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  18. 泥渣回流对慢速脱碳处理城市中水的影响研究%The Study on the Effect of Recycling Activated Sludge Used to Slow Decarburization Treatment Process for City Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳; 尹萍; 程勇明; 魏强

    2014-01-01

    The effect using recycling activated sludge in slow decarburization treatment process is studied for city water .The results show that the right amount of recycling activated sludge can effectively improve the slow decarburization processing ef-ficiency .When the sludge reflux ratio is 10% ,the total alkalinity removal rate increases by 10% ,the hardness removal rate increases by 17% ,the COD removal rate increases by 11% compared with no recycling activated sludge .After treatment ,the water sample turbidity is 0 .76 NTU ,hardness is 3 .36 mmol/L ,alkalinity is 1 .55 mmol/L ,total phosphorus is 0 .07 mg/L and COD is 20 mg/L .%以城市中水作为试验水源,通过分析试验结果,研究了泥渣回流对慢速脱碳处理工艺的影响。结果表明,适量的泥渣回流能够有效提高慢速脱碳处理效率,在泥渣回流比为10%时,相比无泥渣回流,总碱度去除率提高10%,硬度去除率提高17%,COD去除率提高11%,处理后水样浊度为0.76NTU ,硬度为3.36 mmol/L ,碱度为1.55 mmol/L ,总磷为0.07 mg/L ,COD为20 mg/L。

  19. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  20. Ionizing radiation and a wood-based biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Stipanovic, Arthur J.; Cheng, Kun; Barber, Vincent A.; Manning, Mellony; Smith, Jennifer L.; Sundar, Smith

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass is widely available around the world. Cellulose is the major structural component of woody biomass and is the most abundant polymer synthesized by nature, with hemicellulose and lignin being second and third. Despite this great abundance, woody biomass has seen limited application outside of the paper and lumber industries. Its use as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals has been limited because of its highly crystalline structure, inaccessible morphology, and limited solubility (recalcitrance). Any economic use of woody biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals requires a "pretreatment" process to enhance the accessibility of the biomass to enzymes and/or chemical reagents. Electron beams (EB), X-rays, and gamma rays produce ions in a material which can then initiate chemical reactions and cleavage of chemical bonds. Such ionizing radiation predominantly scissions and degrades or depolymerizes both cellulose and hemicelluloses, less is known about its effects on lignin. This paper discusses how ionizing radiation can be used to make a wood-based biorefinery more environmentally friendly and profitable for its operators.

  1. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  2. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  3. Zymomonas mobilis: a novel platform for future biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Xiong; Wu, Bo; Qin, Han; Ruan, Zhi Yong; Tan, Fu Rong; Wang, Jing Li; Shui, Zong Xia; Dai, Li Chun; Zhu, Qi Li; Pan, Ke; Tang, Xiao Yu; Wang, Wen Guo; Hu, Qi Chun

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of liquid fuels and biomass-based building block chemicals from microorganisms have been regarded as a competitive alternative route to traditional. Zymomonas mobilis possesses a number of desirable characteristics for its special Entner-Doudoroff pathway, which makes it an ideal platform for both metabolic engineering and commercial-scale production of desirable bio-products as the same as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on consideration of future biomass biorefinery. Z. mobilis has been studied extensively on both fundamental and applied level, which will provide a basis for industrial biotechnology in the future. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of Z. mobilis for enhancing bio-ethanol production from biomass resources has been significantly promoted by different methods (i.e. mutagenesis, adaptive laboratory evolution, specific gene knock-out, and metabolic engineering). In addition, the feasibility of representative metabolites, i.e. sorbitol, bionic acid, levan, succinic acid, isobutanol, and isobutanol produced by Z. mobilis and the strategies for strain improvements are also discussed or highlighted in this paper. Moreover, this review will present some guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using Z. mobilis as a novel industrial platform for future biofineries. PMID:25024744

  4. Effects of Disruption Risks on Biorefinery Location Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While ever-growing bio-ethanol production poses considerable challenges to the bioenergy supply chain, the risk of refinery operation disruptions further compromises the efficiency and reliability of the energy supply system. This paper applies discrete and continuous reliable facility location models to the design of reliable bio-ethanol supply chains so that the system can hedge against potential operational disruptions. The discrete model is shown to be suitable for obtaining the exact optimality for small or moderate instances, while the continuous model has superior computational tractability for large-scale applications. The impacts of both site-independent and dependent disruptions (i.e., due to flooding are analyzed in empirical case study for the State of Illinois (one of the main biomass supply states in the U.S.. The reliable solution is compared with a deterministic solution under the same setting. It is found that refinery disruptions, especially those site-dependent ones, affect both optimal refinery deployment and the supply chain cost. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted to show how refinery failure probability and fixed cost (for building biorefineries affect optimal supply chain configuration and the total expected system cost.

  5. Zymomonas mobilis: a novel platform for future biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming Xiong; Wu, Bo; Qin, Han; Ruan, Zhi Yong; Tan, Fu Rong; Wang, Jing Li; Shui, Zong Xia; Dai, Li Chun; Zhu, Qi Li; Pan, Ke; Tang, Xiao Yu; Wang, Wen Guo; Hu, Qi Chun

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of liquid fuels and biomass-based building block chemicals from microorganisms have been regarded as a competitive alternative route to traditional. Zymomonas mobilis possesses a number of desirable characteristics for its special Entner-Doudoroff pathway, which makes it an ideal platform for both metabolic engineering and commercial-scale production of desirable bio-products as the same as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on consideration of future biomass biorefinery. Z. mobilis has been studied extensively on both fundamental and applied level, which will provide a basis for industrial biotechnology in the future. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of Z. mobilis for enhancing bio-ethanol production from biomass resources has been significantly promoted by different methods (i.e. mutagenesis, adaptive laboratory evolution, specific gene knock-out, and metabolic engineering). In addition, the feasibility of representative metabolites, i.e. sorbitol, bionic acid, levan, succinic acid, isobutanol, and isobutanol produced by Z. mobilis and the strategies for strain improvements are also discussed or highlighted in this paper. Moreover, this review will present some guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using Z. mobilis as a novel industrial platform for future biofineries.

  6. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  7. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  8. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann;

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  9. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  10. Recycling glass packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Delia DOMNICA; Leila BARDAªUC

    2015-01-01

    From the specialized literature it follows that glass packaging is not as used as other packages, but in some industries are highly needed. Following, two features of glass packaging will become important until 2017: the shape of the glass packaging and glass recycling prospects in Romania. The recycling of glass is referred to the fact that it saves energy, but also to be in compliance with the provisions indicating the allowable limit values for the quantities of lead and cadmium.

  11. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870

  12. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. PMID:27039354

  13. Techno-economic risk analysis of glycerol biorefinery concepts against market price fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gargalo, Carina L.; Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist;

    A biorefinery integrates biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from bio-based feedstock. Through the synthesis of several products, a biorefinery can benefit from the differences in biomass composition and make the most of the value derived from the biomass feedstock...... sustainable design framework developed earlier [16] [1] [17] [10]. The economic risk analysis enables the user to perform a comprehensive assessment of alternatives using a probabilistic framework which helps to design a robust and competitive glycerol biorefinery....... glycerol prices. Therefore, in order to increase the economic competitiveness of the biodiesel industry, there is an increasing interest in adding value using the glycerol waste stream as feedstock for the synthesis of bio-derived building block compounds and polymers [5] [6] [7] [8] [4] [9]. Moreover...

  14. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, several strategies to upgrade lignocellulosic biorefineries for production of value-added chemicals are systematically generated and evaluated with respect to economic and sustainability objectives. A superstructure-based process synthesis approach under uncertainty integrated...... with a sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade...... of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...

  15. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  16. Design of a Household Car-washing Set for Dedusting with Recycling Water%一种家用循环用水除尘洗车器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹青; 李建昌

    2013-01-01

    To save water resources, household car -washing set was designed for dust clean by using recycling water. The system comprised of suction sink, pipe and dry/wet alternate motor to filter and reuse the waste water. The nozzle consisted of water outlet pipe, suction pipe, suction sink, soft brush and outer rubber ring. The set has functions of high - pressure water spray, dust clean and water recycling. The filtering system was composed with a drum and two layers of screen mesh, which can rapidly filter the waste water. The car - washing set also has ability to clean the floor of both car and room. The set realizes gas - liquid mix - spray and tyre inflation through the air pump and water pump. An AT89S52 single - chip was used to control the system to ensure appropriate water temperature for winter washing. When the water level is lower than the preset scale, the water pump will be automatically shut off with the alarming circuit. The as - designed set can effectively reduce the pollution and consumption.%为节约水资源,设计出一种家用循环用水除尘洗车器,它采用吸水腔、吸水管及干湿两用电机等回收污水并过滤循环使用.喷头包含出水管、吸水管、吸水腔、软毛刷及密封外圈,可高压喷水、清洗及吸水.过滤系统由转鼓和两层筛网组成,能迅速滤清污水.该洗车器还具有吸尘功能,且通过气泵及水泵可实现水气混合喷射和轮胎充气.控制系统以AT89S52单片机为核心,温度控制保证冬天洗车水温适宜,液位控制电路在水箱水位低于设定值时自动关闭水泵并报警.该循环用水洗车器可有效降低洗车耗水量.

  17. Study on Recycle of Materials and Components From Waste Streams During Decommissioning for Heavy Water Research Reactor%重水研究堆退役废物再利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳维宏; 逄锦鑫

    2013-01-01

    实现废物再利用是废物最小化的重要措施之一,从废物流中将有潜在利用价值的物料分离出来实现再利用可大幅减少对环境的影响。本文以中国原子能科学研究院重水研究堆退役为实例研究了放射性废物再利用问题。通过全面分析和计算重水研究堆在退役期间产生的各类废物,得出具有一定数量的物料有潜在的利用价值,可直接或经适当处理后再利用在其他行业领域中。研究表明,通过采取废物最小化控制措施(如废物分类和废物流分离等),采用适当的去污技术和执行清洁解控要求,至少可使重水研究堆退役过程中产生的几十吨钢铁、10 t铝材和5 t重水实现再利用。%The recycle of valuable materials from potential waste streams is one of important elements of waste minimization ,and it can minimize the environment impact . The recycle of the arising was researched with taking the decommissioning of heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy as an example .By analyzing all the possible wastes that could generate during the decommissioning of HWRR ,some amount of materials have potential values to recycle and may be used either directly or after appropriate treatment for other purposes .The research results show that in HWRR decommissioning at least tons of irons ,10 tons of aluminum and 5 tons of heavy water can be recycled by carrying out the waste minimization control measures (eg .waste classification and waste stream segregation) ,adopting appropriate decontamination technologies ,and performing the requirements of clearance .

  18. Construction and performance experiment of integrated water and fertilization irrigation recycling system%日光温室水肥一体灌溉循环系统构建及性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洪波; 程曼; 庞树杰; 李莉; 王海华; N.A.Sigrims

    2014-01-01

    isolated from the outside soil, the substrate was packed by bags. There were some holes (2 cm, dia.) on the bags so that crops can be planted into the substrate though these holes. There was a soft tube with PVC or PP (2 cm dia.) at the bottom of bags, also it had some other holes (0.2 cm in diameter) through which excess water or nutrient solution can penetrated into the substrate. All of these tubes were connected to a recycle pipe, which led to a drainage tank. The drainage tank was a container which store water or nutrient solution from the recycle pipe, and the horizontal position of drainage tank should be lower than recycle pipe. In order to achieve the recycling, the recycling system of water and nutrient were constructed, a tube of 2 cm diameter with PVC or PP material laying the bottom of substrate bag. A pump was placed in the drainage tank, and the pump was drawn water into a mixing tank until the water level of the drainage tank reaches the set position. The mixing tank contained nutrient solution that was used for irrigation. The water and fertilizers can be mixed according to the desired ratio. The nutrient solution can be adjusted in real time and it was transferred to the crop to provide water and nutrients through irrigation pipes using drip irrigation. An experiment was design to verify the effectiveness of this system. The system was compared with traditional ridge soil planting under the same conditions. The result showed that water consumption of the newly designed recycling system was 69.4%of that in the traditional soil planting pattern. The water use efficiency of the system was 1.92 times higher than that in the traditional soil planting pattern.

  19. Planning and implementation of recycled water use in construction of Tongzhou New Town in Beijing%北京通州新城建设中再生水利用规划及其实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦艳平

    2012-01-01

    Tongzhou New Town is one of 11 new urban areas planned in Beijing, and it is the key node in the eastern development zone of the city. As the sewage pipeline networks are not completed yet and a part of untreated sewage is directly discharged into rivers directly, the water environment therein is heavily polluted; which becomes an important barrage to obstruct the local health economic development and the enhancement of the people' s living standard. In accordance with the general urban planning concerned, a completed drainage system must be formed in the new town, i. e. diverting the sewage into recycled water plant for treatment and re-use through the layout of sewage pipeline system and the construction of recycled water plant- The planning and implementation of the sewage treatment for Tongzhou New Town is introduced herein, and then the more advanced MBB treatment technology of Hedong Water Recycling Plant under construction is described as welL%通州新城是北京市规划的11个新城之一,是东部发展带的重要节点.由于该地城区范围内污水管网尚未完善,部分污水未经处理直接排入河内,严重污染了本地区的水环境,环境质量问题已成为当地经济健康发展和人民生活水平提高的重要障碍.根据城市总体规划,在新城区内应形成完善的排水系统,通过污水管道的布置和再生水厂的建设,将污水引入再生水厂进行处理及再利用.本文介绍了通州新城污水治理的规划及实施情况,并对在建的河东再生水厂的较为先进的MBR处理工艺进行了介绍说明.

  20. Recirculação de água de lavagem de filtros e perigos associados a protozoários Filter backwash water recycling and protozoan-related hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiéliton Galvão de Freitas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se, neste trabalho, os resultados (i da caracterização da água de lavagem de filtros (ALF da estação de tratamento de água da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (ETA- UFV; (ii de ensaios de clarificação da ALF em colunas de sedimentação, com e sem uso de polímeros; (iii de ensaios de recirculação de ALF em ETA piloto (EP, sob condições variadas de razão de recirculação (5 a 20% de incremento de vazão e de turbidez da mistura de água bruta (AB com ALF (12,1 a 257,3 uT. Na ALF foram encontradas concentrações em ordem de grandeza de 10¹ cistos de Giardia spp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. por litro. Os resultados dos ensaios em coluna de sedimentação e de recirculação na EP demonstraram que a clarificação da ALF com uso de polímeros contribui para a minimização de perigos associados à introdução de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium.This paper presents the results of (i the characterization of the filter backwash water (FBW of Viçosa University water treatment plant; (ii trials of FBW clarification in sedimentation columns, with and without polymer application; (iii trials of FBW recycling in a pilot plant, under variable conditions of recycling flow rates (5 to 20% of the raw water flow - RW and of the influent water (RW + FBW turbidity (12.1 to 257.3 uT. Around 10¹ Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per liter were found in the FBW. The results of sedimentation columns and recycling trials demonstrated that FBW clarification using polymers contributes to minimize hazards related to the introduction of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts.

  1. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  2. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y. W.; Sanders, J. P. M.; Bruins, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components, such as carbohydrates and protein, may lead to the sustainable and economical microalgae-based fuels. This paper discusses two relatively mild conditions for microalgal protein extraction, based on alkali and enzymes. Green microalgae (Chlorella fusca) with and without prior lipid removal were used as feedstocks. Under mild conditions, more protein could be extracted using proteases, with the highest yields for microalgae meal (without lipids). The data on protein extraction yields were used to calculate the costs for producing 1 ton of microalgal protein. The processing cost for the alkaline method was € 2448 /ton protein. Enzymatic method performed better from an economic point of view with € 1367 /ton protein on processing costs. However, this is still far from industrially feasible. For both extraction methods, biomass cost per ton of produced product were high. A higher protein extraction yield can partially solve this problem, lowering processing cost to €620 and 1180 /ton protein product, using alkali and enzyme, respectively. Although alkaline method has lower processing cost, optimization appears to be better achievable using enzymes. If the enzymatic method can be optimized by lowering the amount of alkali added, leading to processing cost of € 633/ton protein product. Higher revenue can be generated when the residue after protein extraction can be sold as fuel, or better as a highly digestible feed for cattle.

  3. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  4. Preparation and properties of high-strength recycled concrete in cold areas

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao, Y.; Shizhu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Concrete waste was processed into recycled coarse aggregate (RCA), subsequently used to prepare high-strength (> 50 MPa) recycled concrete. The resulting material was tested for mechanical performance (ULS). The recycled concrete was prepared to the required design strength by adjusting the water/cement ratio. Concrete containing 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% recycled aggregate was prepared and studied for workability, deformability and durability. The ultimate aim of the study was to prepare high-s...

  5. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong

    2015-09-01

    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  6. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%–75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  7. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  8. Surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate: stable recyclable magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Yoon, Minyoung

    2015-11-14

    Mercury is considered one of the most notorious global pollutants due to its high toxicity and widespread use in industry. Although many materials have been developed for the removal of mercury for water purification, most of these materials are difficult to reuse, which may lead to an increase in the mercury handling expense. Therefore, new sustainable materials that can be easily recycled and are highly efficient for the removal of mercury are required. Herein, we report the surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind extract. The Fe3O4 MNPs were further functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate (DHPCT) and applied to the removal of Hg(ii). Evaluation of the mercury removal efficiency and the amount adsorbed by DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs demonstrated a high Hg(ii) removal efficiency (98%) with a maximum Hg(ii) adsorption capacity of 52.1 mg g(-1). Systematic studies of the adsorption mechanism and selectivity suggest that the soft ligand (DHPCT) can preferentially coordinate with the soft metal ion (Hg(ii)) resulting in selective mercury removal. The developed DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs were readily recycled several times using an external magnet by exploiting their ferromagnetic character, without a significant decline in the Hg(ii) removal efficiency. This study provides a new insight into the preparation of a highly efficient adsorbent for Hg(ii) removal by an eco-friendly method. PMID:26436867

  9. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. PMID:27178917

  10. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  11. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  12. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles. PMID:18338188

  13. Synthesis and design of optimal biorefinery using an expanded network with thermochemical and biochemical biomass conversion platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the development of an expanded biorefinery processing network for producing biofuels that combines biochemical and thermochemical conversion platforms. The expanded network is coupled to a framework that uses a superstructure based optimization approach to generate and compare...... of 72 processing intervals . This superstructure was integrated with an earlier developed superstructure for biochemical conversion routes thereby forming a formidable number of biorefinery alternatives. The expanded network was demonstrated to be versatile and useful as a decision support tool...... for identifying at early stage optimal biorefinery concept with respect to technical, economic and environmental criteria....

  14. Toward a Computer-Aided Synthesis and Design of Biorefinery Networks: Data Collection and Management Using a Generic Modeling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    Recent research into biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable biobased feedstock into an array of promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The topic of this study is collection and management of the complex biorefinery data...... parameters includes reaction yield, utility consumption, and separation efficiency among others, which are identified on the basis of input−output data (generated from rigorous models) collected from detailed biorefinery case studies reported in the open literature. The outcome is a verified database...

  15. Sweet sorghum biorefinery for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated process has been developed for a sweet-sorghum biorefinery in which all carbohydrate components of the feedstock were used for production of fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals. In the first step, the juice was extracted from the stalks. The resulted straw (bagasse) then was pretreat...

  16. 76 FR 32355 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Biorefinery Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Assistance program (the ``Program'') in the Federal Register (76 FR 13351) announcing the availability of... February 14, 2011 (76 FR 8404). As there was some confusion about the information to be provided, the... Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Biorefinery Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural...

  17. Sustainable multipurpose biorefineries for third-generation biofuels and value-added co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern biorefinery facilities conduct many types of processes, including those producing advanced biofuels, commodity chemicals, biodiesel, and value-added co-products such as sweeteners and bioinsecticides, with many more co-products, chemicals and biofuels on the horizon. Most of these processes ...

  18. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, Moreno L.; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Rossum, van G.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Kersten, S.R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the pro

  19. Implications of silica on biorefineries – interactions with organic material and mineral elements in grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2015-01-01

    Biorefineries aim to convert low value biomasses into high value products. The feedstock biomasses are often high-silica agricultural waste products such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, or empty fruit bunches. This causes challenges, since silica is problematic...

  20. Alternative use of grassland biomass for biorefinery in Ireland: a scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.

    2010-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependency on fossil fuels has been one of the main driving forces to use renewable resources for energy and chemicals. The integrated use of grassland biomass for the production of chemicals and energy, also known as Green Biorefinery (GBR), has recei

  1. Optimal processing pathway selection for microalgae-based biorefinery under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.;

    2015-01-01

    and shortage in the available technical information. A stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (sMINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery configurations based on a superstructure model where parameter uncertainties are modeled and included as sampled scenarios. The solution...

  2. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from hemicellulose-de

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of biofuels: A wiki-based platform for lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Simmons, Blake A.;

    2010-01-01

    We present a process model for a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery that is open to the biofuels academic community. Beyond providing a series of static results, the wiki-based platform provides a dynamic and transparent tool for analyzing, exploring, and communicating the impact of process...

  4. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  5. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  6. 当今制浆造纸业生物质精炼技术的新发展%New development of present biorefinery technologies in paper industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆蔚

    2013-01-01

    It implies paper industry as the inherent nature of biorefinery that paper industry is regarded as a large scale processing industry of recycled substances raw materials. The paper industry is itself green, environment friendly, recycled and sustainable. In the retracking, productive capacity expansion and the products update, the biorefinery in paper industry can supplement and provide the heat energy and power, can produce the market-meeting profitable biochemical products, to provide the living and vigor in the difficult period of paper industry. In this paper the technological and economical refinery projects, or projects to begin with commercial operation and putting into commercial operation were introduced as the reference for the industry.%  中国造纸协会关于造纸工业是采用可再生物质为原料、规模最大的加工业的提法,指出了造纸业本来就具备生物质精炼业的本质。可以说制浆造纸本身就是绿色的、亲环境的、可循环利用的、持续发展的,制浆造纸业的生物质精炼化可为企业在转型、扩容和产品更新换代时补充和增加所急需的热能、动能供应,可生产出市场需要的、产值利润高的生物质化学制品,为经济困难时期的造纸业提供生命力和活力。本文主要介绍了一些技术上成熟、经济上可行、已商业化或开始商业化的生物质精炼项目,供造纸同仁参考。

  7. Sustainable Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, P

    2012-01-01

    Concretes produced with recycled aggregates are the subject of several papers recently published in the technical literature. Substitution of natural aggregates can be one of possibilities to take care of landfills and increase of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere in Latvia. Recycled aggregate is a valuable resource; value-added consumption of recycled aggregate, as replacement for virgin aggregate in concrete, can yield significant energy and environmental benefits. In present study recycled...

  8. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis;

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  9. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data

  10. 液体二氧化碳在黄金冶炼废水循环利用工艺中的应用%Application of Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Recycled Technology of Gold Smelting Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永胜; 陈鹏; 杨俊杰; 何少杰

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide was used to reduce neutralized acid waste water hardness in gold smelting enterprises, when the neutralization pH is 11,reaction time of carbon dioxide is 1.5 h,the total hardness of waste water is re⁃duced to 330 mg/L with the a reducing rate of 68.8%. It’s the first time for gold smelting industry to use liquid carbon dioxide in removing calcium and magnesium. After two years of industrial application,the technology is stabilizing,the waste water hardness is less than 350 mg/L,the recycled utilization rate of waste water is 100%.%对某黄金冶炼企业中和后的酸性废水采用二氧化碳降低废水硬度,当中和pH11、二氧化碳反应时间为1.5h,废水总硬度降到330mg/L,降低了68.8%。首次在黄金冶炼行业采用液体二氧化碳去除钙镁工艺,经两年的工业实践,工艺运行稳定,废水硬度小于350mg/L,废水循环利用率达100%。

  11. Application of Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Recycled Technology of Gold Smelting Waste Water%液体二氧化碳在黄金冶炼废水循环利用工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永胜; 陈鹏; 杨俊杰; 何少杰

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide was used to reduce neutralized acid waste water hardness in gold smelting enterprises, when the neutralization pH is 11,reaction time of carbon dioxide is 1.5 h,the total hardness of waste water is re⁃duced to 330 mg/L with the a reducing rate of 68.8%. It’s the first time for gold smelting industry to use liquid carbon dioxide in removing calcium and magnesium. After two years of industrial application,the technology is stabilizing,the waste water hardness is less than 350 mg/L,the recycled utilization rate of waste water is 100%.%对某黄金冶炼企业中和后的酸性废水采用二氧化碳降低废水硬度,当中和pH11、二氧化碳反应时间为1.5h,废水总硬度降到330mg/L,降低了68.8%。首次在黄金冶炼行业采用液体二氧化碳去除钙镁工艺,经两年的工业实践,工艺运行稳定,废水硬度小于350mg/L,废水循环利用率达100%。

  12. 废纸制浆造纸封闭循环用水技术路线研究%Technology of Water Closed Cycle in the Recycled Fiber Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡宝林; 马志华; 张利辉; 李巍; 平贵忠

    2011-01-01

    以废纸为原料,对生产过程中各用水单元对水质的要求进行分析,通过几种不同废水处理技术对处理后水质变化的影响,采取多种水处理技术相结合,利用适当的分阶段回用水技术手段,设计出废纸制浆造纸封闭循环用水技术路线,在满足企业正常生产对水质需求的前提下,实现废水"零排放"目标.%The main factor affecting papermaking wastewater reuse is its high concentration of total suspended solids which causes plug up ofthe water jet equipment and fell, affecting the production. Because of the high cost of wastewater deep filtration, and increase of productioncosts, most companies are reluctant to construct wastewaler deep filtration facilities, it causes low water reuse rate. Combining usingwastewater deep filtration and optimization of reuse pipe network layout, the waster water quality can meet the requirement of the productionunits, and also can lower the cost of the water deep filtration, it is the effective way to reduce the wastewaler discharge in the recycled fibermills.

  13. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  14. Systematic photovoltaic waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitzsch, Wolfram; Loser, Ulrich [Loser Chemie GmbH, Langenweissbach (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Indium, selenium, tellurium, gallium, molybdenum, cadmium and silicon are some of the major elements used in photovoltaic cells. Fully aware of the limited availability of these metals in future, recycling has been recognized as the most advisable end-of-life strategy to save these raw materials from turning into production wastes. On the other hand, statutory measures such as 'Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz' (the German law encouraging closed-loop economy) aim to achieve a maximum quota of recycling and a minimum use of resources such as energy and raw materials. By the year of 2050, end-of-life photovoltaic panels are anticipated to amount to 9.57 million tons. Although we are not there yet, discussions on recycling have already started. We have to prepare for higher waste volumes expected in the coming years. But already today we need to solve some environmental problems like loss of conventional resources (e.g., glass) and rare metals. All of the known approaches for recycling photovoltaic semiconductor material seem economically and environmentally inefficient. In this paper, we report about reclaiming metals from scrap of thin film systems and associated photovoltaic manufacturing wastes like sandblasting dust and overspray. We also report one universal wet-chemical treatment for reclaiming the metals from CIS, CIGS or CdTe photovoltaic waste. Further, we discuss the application of our method to new PV systems, such as substrates other than glass (stainless steel, aluminum or plastic foil sheets) and alternative semiconductor alloys such as GaAs. (orig.)

  15. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  16. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  17. Recycling of typical supercapacitor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Giannouri, Maria; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Lekakou, Constantina; Trapalis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    A simple, facile and low-cost method for recycling of supercapacitor materials is proposed. This process aims to recover some fundamental components of a used supercapacitor, namely the electrolyte salt tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) dissolved in an aprotic organic solvent such as acetonitrile (ACN), the carbonaceous material (activated charcoal, carbon nanotubes) purified, the current collector (aluminium foil) and the separator (paper) for further utilization. The method includes mechanical shredding of the supercapacitor in order to reduce its size, and separation of aluminium foil and paper from the carbonaceous resources containing TEABF4 by sieving. The extraction of TEABF4 from the carbonaceous material was based on its solubility in water and subsequent separation through filtering and distillation. A cyclic voltammetry curve of the recycled carbonaceous material revealed supercapacitor behaviour allowing a potential reutilization. Furthermore, as BF4(-) stemming from TEABF4 can be slowly hydrolysed in an aqueous environment, thus releasing F(-) anions, which are hazardous, we went on to their gradual trapping with calcium acetate and conversion to non-hazardous CaF2. PMID:26862148

  18. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made. (author)

  19. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  20. Recycling of the #5 polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Marino

    2012-08-10

    Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates. PMID:22879510