Sample records for biomonitoring technique enaa

  1. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R


    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  2. Biomonitoring of nitrogen pollution. Possibilities and limitations of bioindication techniques; Biomonitoring von Stickstoffimmissionen. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen von Bioindikationsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K. [Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Oldenburg (Germany)


    Background and aim. Air pollution caused by oxidized and reduced nitrogen is distributed over wide areas of Europe at a high level. As an alternative or complement to physical measurements and modelling calculations, biomonitoring with plants provides techniques to assess amounts and effects of pollution from oxidized and reduced nitrogen compounds (depositions and concentrations). Many of the previously implemented techniques are based on well-proven standardised methods, e.g. documented in VDI guidelines, modified more or less for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution. This paper gives a review of the techniques for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution, their possibilities as well as their limitations. Main features - diversity of the ground vegetation - nitrogen accumulation in vascular plants - exposure of vascular plants - mapping of epiphytic lichens, bryophytes and algae - nitrogen accumulation in lichens and bryophytes - exposure of lichens and bryophytes. Results and Discussion. Important response parameters are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissue (shoot, needle, leave) and biodiversity of plant species. These responses of vascular plants in many cases are influenced by other local varying conditions, in particular the soil. The exposure of vascular plants over a short period provides a standardised quantification of the total atmospheric nitrogen input in a model ecosystem. The enrichment of nitrogen in the plant tissue of bryophytes and lichens from the ground vegetation is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen deposition. The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the response of exposed Hypogymnia physodes is more sensitive to ammonia than to nitrous oxide, whereas with the diversity of epiphytic bryophytes or the abundance of algae no significant correlation with atmospheric N pollution were found. Conclusions. Some bioindication techniques provide a cause-effect related, partly standardised biomonitoring of nitrogen

  3. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E


    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  4. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E


    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T


    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  6. ENA-A actimineral resource A extends lifespan associated with antioxidant mechanism in SMP30 knockout mice. (United States)

    Han, Jung-Youn; Hwang, Meeyul; Hwa, Sung-Yong; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Joo; Min, Chang-Woo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Sung, Soo-Eun; Jeong, Kyu-Shik


    ENA-actimineral resource A (ENA-A) is an alkaline mineral water and has a few biological activities such as antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ENA-A on lifespan in mice using senescence marker protein-30 knockout mice. The present study had groups of 18-week-old mice (n = 24), 26-week-old mice (n = 12), and 46-week-old mice (n = 20). Each differently aged mice group was divided into three subgroups: a control group, a 5 % ENA-A-treated group, and a 10 % ENA-A-treated group. Mice in the 18-week-old group were treated with vitamin C drinking water 1.5 g/L. However, the mice in the 26-week-old and 46-week-old groups were not treated with vitamin C. The experiments were done for 18 weeks. All vitamin C-treated mice were alive at week 18 (100% survival rate). In the non-vitamin C group, the 10% ENA-A-treated mice were alive at week 18. The control and 5% ENA-A-treated mice died by week 15. As expected, vitamin C was not detected in the non-vitamin C-treated group. However, vitamin C levels were increased in an ENA-A dose-dependent manner in the vitamin C-treated group. In the TUNEL assay, a number of positive hepatocytes significantly decreased in an ENA-A dose-dependent manner. Periodic acid Schiff positive hepatocytes were significantly increased in an ENA-A dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression level of CuZnSOD was increased by the ENA-A treatment. These data suggest that the intake of ENA-A has a critical role in the anti-aging mechanism and could be applied toward the lifespans of humans.

  7. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N


    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  8. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features. (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W


    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  9. Non-destructive techniques for biomonitoring of spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and maternal transfer in turtles. (United States)

    Hopkins, Brittney C; Hepner, Mark J; Hopkins, William A


    Mercury (Hg) is a globally ubiquitous pollutant that has received much attention due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-destructive sampling techniques is a critical step for sustainable monitoring of Hg accumulation. We evaluated the efficacy of non-destructive sampling techniques and assessed spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that influence Hg bioaccumulation in turtles. We collected muscle, blood, nail, and eggs from snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) inhabiting an Hg contaminated river. As predicted, all Hg tissue concentrations strongly and positively correlated with each other. Additionally, we validated our mathematical models against two additional Hg contaminated locations and found that tissue relationships developed from the validation sites did not significantly differ from those generated from the original sampling site. The models provided herein will be useful for a wide array of systems where biomonitoring of Hg in turtles needs to be accomplished in a conservation-minded fashion.


    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  11. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology. (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V


    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  12. Biomonitoring and assessment of monomethylmercury exposure in aqueous systems using the DGT technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, O., E-mail: [Trent University, Chemistry Department, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Universite de Moncton, Departement de Chimie et de Biochimie, Moncton, New Brunswick E1A 3E9 (Canada); Lotufo, G.R. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 (United States); Hintelmann, H. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Best, E.P.H. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 (United States); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Boulevard, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)


    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted under realistic environmental conditions to test the ability of the Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) technique to mimic monomethylmercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation by a clam (Macoma balthica, Baltic clam). Using isotope enriched MMHg as tracers, bioavailability was determined by comparing the rate of MMHg uptake by novel DGT devices and sentinel organism over time. Experiments were conducted under varying conditions of salinity and MMHg speciation. Depending on MMHg level and speciation in the dissolved phase, MMHg uptake rates by the sentinel organism varied greatly from 0.4 to 2.4 L g{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Reproducibilities of MMHg uptakes by DGT and clams were estimated at 7 and 38%, respectively. A significant linear relationship (log basis) between MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams was observed (r{sup 2} = 0.89). The study demonstrates that DGT results reasonably predict MMHg uptake by clams from the aqueous phase and provide the basis for application of the DGT device as a surrogate for sentinel organism for monitoring bioavailable MMHg. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the potential of DGT devices to act as surrogates for sentinel organism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare monomethylmercury accumulation in DGT devices and in clams from the dissolved phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the effects of salinity and MMHg speciation on MMHg accumulation by DGT and clams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For all laboratory experiments, a strong overall correlation between MMHg accumulations in clams and DGTs is observed.

  13. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition. (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F


    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions.

  14. The efficiency of tobacco Bel-W3 and native species for ozone biomonitoring in subtropical climate, as revealed by histo-cytochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Edenise S., E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moura, Barbara B., E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedroso, Andrea N.V., E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tresmondi, Fernanda, E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    We aimed to verify whether hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) accumulation and cell death are detected early in three bioindicators of ozone (O{sub 3}), Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3', Ipomoea nil 'Scarlet O'Hara' and Psidium guajava 'Paluma', and whether environmental factors also affect those microscopic markers. The three species were exposed to chronic levels of O{sub 3} in a subtropical area and a histo-cytochemical technique that combines 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) with Evans blue staining was used in the assessments. The three species accumulated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but a positive correlation with O{sub 3} concentration was only observed in N. tabacum. A positive correlation between O{sub 3} and cellular death was also observed in N. tabacum. In I. nil and P. guajava, environmental factors were responsible for symptoms at the microscopic level, especially in P. guajava. We conclude that the most appropriate and least appropriate bioindicator plant for O{sub 3} monitoring in the subtropics are N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' and P. guajava 'Paluma', respectively. - Highlights: > H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and cell death occur in response to O{sub 3} and other stressful factors. > H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can be detected by DAB and cell death by Evans blue staining. > These techniques contribute for analysis of susceptible bioindicator species. > H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and cell death were explained by high levels of O{sub 3} in N. tabacum 'Bel-W3'. > N. tabacum is the most appropriate plant for monitoring in subtropics. - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is better than native species for O{sub 3} biomonitoring in the subtropics, as revealed by histo-cytochemical techniques.

  15. Integration of biomonitoring and instrumental techniques to assess the air quality in an industrial area located in the coastal of central Asturias, Spain. (United States)

    Almeida, Susana Marta; Lage, Joana; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Pedro, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Tiago; Silva, Alexandra Viana; Canha, Nuno; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Sitoe, Timóteo; Dionisio, Isabel; Garcia, Sílvia; Domingues, Gonçalo; de Faria, Julia Perim; Fernández, Beatriz González; Ciaparra, Diane; Wolterbeek, Hubert T


    Throughout the world, epidemiological studies were established to examine the relationship between air pollution and mortality rates and adverse respiratory health effects. However, despite the years of discussion the correlation between adverse health effects and atmospheric pollution remains controversial, partly because these studies are frequently restricted to small and well-monitored areas. Monitoring air pollution is complex due to the large spatial and temporal variations of pollution phenomena, the high costs of recording instruments, and the low sampling density of a purely instrumental approach. Therefore, together with the traditional instrumental monitoring, bioindication techniques allow for the mapping of pollution effects over wide areas with a high sampling density. In this study, instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated to support an epidemiological study that will be developed in an industrial area located in Gijon in the coastal of central Asturias, Spain. Three main objectives were proposed to (i) analyze temporal patterns of PM₁₀ concentrations in order to apportion emissions sources, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity to identify the impact of the studied industrial area in air quality, and (iii) establish relationships amongst lichen conductivity with some site-specific characteristics. Samples of the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata were transplanted in a grid of 18 by 20 km with an industrial area in the center. Lichens were exposed for a 5-mo period starting in April 2010. After exposure, lichen samples were soaked in 18-MΩ water aimed at determination of water electrical conductivity and, consequently, lichen vitality and cell damage. A marked decreasing gradient of lichens conductivity relative to distance from the emitting sources was observed. Transplants from a sampling site proximal to the industrial area reached values 10-fold higher than levels far from it. This finding showed that

  16. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors. (United States)

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa


    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  17. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses]. (United States)

    Cuny, D


    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  18. Biomonitoring plan for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposed biomonitoring plan is for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge in Sweetwater county, Wyoming. Biomonitoring is needed for the refuge especially due to...

  19. Assessment of spatial variability of heavy metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, using the biomonitoring technique in mosses and TXRF analysis. (United States)

    Zarazúa-Ortega, Graciela; Poblano-Bata, Josefina; Tejeda-Vega, Samuel; Ávila-Pérez, Pedro; Zepeda-Gómez, Carmen; Ortiz-Oliveros, Huemantzin; Macedo-Miranda, Guadalupe


    This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg) > Ca (7315 mg/Kg) > K (3842 mg/Kg) > Ti (387 mg/Kg) > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg) > Sr (71 mg/Kg) > Pb (59 mg/Kg) > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg) > Cr (24 mg/Kg) > Rb (13 mg/Kg) > Ni (10 mg/Kg). Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  20. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis (United States)

    Zarazúa-Ortega, Graciela; Poblano-Bata, Josefina; Tejeda-Vega, Samuel; Ávila-Pérez, Pedro; Zepeda-Gómez, Carmen; Ortiz-Oliveros, Huemantzin; Macedo-Miranda, Guadalupe


    This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg) > Ca (7315 mg/Kg) > K (3842 mg/Kg) > Ti (387 mg/Kg) > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg) > Sr (71 mg/Kg) > Pb (59 mg/Kg) > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg) > Cr (24 mg/Kg) > Rb (13 mg/Kg) > Ni (10 mg/Kg). Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution. PMID:23853536

  1. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

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    Graciela Zarazúa-Ortega


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg > Ca (7315 mg/Kg > K (3842 mg/Kg > Ti (387 mg/Kg > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg > Sr (71 mg/Kg > Pb (59 mg/Kg > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg > Cr (24 mg/Kg > Rb (13 mg/Kg > Ni (10 mg/Kg. Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  2. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.


    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  3. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;


    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...

  4. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review. (United States)

    Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia


    Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.

  5. Concept of the Flemish human biomonitoring programme. (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Colles, Ann; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; Keune, Hans; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Sioen, Isabelle; De Coster, Sam; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Vrijens, Jan; Croes, Kim; Goeyens, Karen; Baeyens, Willy


    Since 2002 a human biomonitoring network has been established in Flanders (Belgium) as part of a programme on environmental health surveillance. The human biomonitoring network should support environmental health policy by identifying priorities for further action. The first cycle of the programme (2002-2006) confirmed the hypotheses that living in areas with different environmental pressure is reflected in different loads of environmental chemicals in the residents. In the second cycle of the programme (2007-2011) the number of environmental chemicals for which human biomonitoring data were obtained was expanded substantially. The goal of the Flemish programme is to use and translate the scientific results into policy actions. Its further orientation in the second cycle to human biomonitoring in hot spots and sensitive age groups or susceptible persons with underlying complications (e.g. persons with diabetes) are linked to these goals. Interaction with stakeholders is embedded in the programme emphasizing transparency of the choices that are made and direct communication. The Flemish human biomonitoring programme is organized centrally with major involvement of research partners from different disciplines which allows engrafting environmental health research on the programme. One of the major focuses is the question whether combinations of pollutants in the general population are associated with biological effects. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the options that were taken in the human biomonitoring programme in order to achieve its goals.

  6. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context. (United States)

    Wolterbeek, Bert; Sarmento, Susana; Verburg, Tona

    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today's availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new "easy-to-sample" biomonitor organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens. This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their

  7. Optimal wavelet denoising for smart biomonitor systems (United States)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek


    Future smart-systems promise many benefits for biomedical diagnostics. The ideal is for simple portable systems that display and interpret information from smart integrated probes or MEMS-based devices. In this paper, we will discuss a step towards this vision with a heart bio-monitor case study. An electronic stethoscope is used to record heart sounds and the problem of extracting noise from the signal is addressed via the use of wavelets and averaging. In our example of heartbeat analysis, phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages in that they may be replayed and analysed for spectral and frequency information. Many sources of noise may pollute a PCG including foetal breath sounds if the subject is pregnant, lung and breath sounds, environmental noise and noise from contact between the recording device and the skin. Wavelets can be employed to denoise the PCG. The signal is decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform. Due to the efficient decomposition of heart signals, their wavelet coefficients tend to be much larger than those due to noise. Thus, coefficients below a certain level are regarded as noise and are thresholded out. The signal can then be reconstructed without significant loss of information in the signal. The questions that this study attempts to answer are which wavelet families, levels of decomposition, and thresholding techniques best remove the noise in a PCG. The use of averaging in combination with wavelet denoising is also addressed. Possible applications of the Hilbert Transform to heart sound analysis are discussed.

  8. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  9. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, Neutron Activation Analysis and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R


    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-17 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 31 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals characteristic of emissions from this kind industry. The observed data for Pb, As, Cu, and Cd are all high compared with those observed in other regions of Europe with similar industries, but the concentrations in moss approach regional background levels at a distance of about 8 km from the main source area. Factor analysis of the data distinguishes two industrial components, one characterized by Pb, Cu, As, and Sb, and another one by Zn and Cd...

  10. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron


    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  11. Human biomonitoring activities--programmes by industry. (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J


    Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals has been practiced for over half a century on a regular basis. During the last decade, however, the focus changed from occupational to environmental settings, requiring a different interpretative framework. Under the auspices of the European Centre for Ecology and Ecotoxicology (ECETOC) a framework was developed that allows to assess the relevance of any biomonitoring result to be interpreted reliably. If biomonitoring data is to be used for the evaluation of health risks of a substance, information is required on the analytical integrity of the data, the toxicokinetics of this substance, and its health effects in relation to (low) exposures. In addition, a weight-of-evidence needs to be used. The framework also identifies a number of data-gaps, several of which are addressed through the Long-range Research Initiative (LRI), an initiative of the global chemical industries (EU, USA, and Japan), which aims to help answering important questions in the application of biomonitoring data in human health risk assessment.

  12. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron


    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  13. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.


    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  14. Human biomonitoring in civil defense; Humanbiomonitoring im Bevoelkerungsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen (Germany). Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin


    The booklet on human biomonitoring (HBM) in civil defense covers the following issues within two sections: (1) general part: definition and importance of human biomonitoring; application in civil defense; practice in a CBRN (chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear) scenario; sampling following a CBRN assignment; HBM for antidote administration; peculiarities of sampling in case of biological agents; microbiological detection procedure; human biomonitoring of radioactive metal isotopes. (2) Special part: substance profiles; list of HBM laboratories; list of poison information centers; questionnaire for exposure assessment in case of dangerous substance accidents; agreement for human biomonitoring examination.

  15. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.


    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Development of a feeding behavioural bioassay using the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex and the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Lange, de H.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.


    The present study reports the development of a feeding behavioural bioassay using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). This device is based on the quadruple impedance conversion technique to record online different behaviours of animals. Animal movements in the water generate specific frequ

  17. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources. (United States)

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko


    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies.

  18. The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative-FNBI. (United States)

    La Corte, Elsa; Wuttke, Stuart


    The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) pilot study was implemented in the winter 2010/2011, sampling 252 First Nations people on reserve in Canada for a suite of chemical contaminants following Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Results will be sent confidentially to participants and a community report will be presented after the analysis of results, expected to be completed by fall of 2011. The national scale of the study will take place during the summer 2011/2012 and aims to sample thirteen communities with a participation of 42 First Nations people per community. Results are expected for spring 2012/2013.

  19. Tributyltin biomonitoring using prosobranchs as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlmann, J. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Stroben, E. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schulte-Oehlmann, U. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Bauer, B. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Fioroni, P. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Markert, B. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)


    Tributyltin (TBT) compounds, some of the most toxic xenobiotics, produce a variety of pathological reactions in animals. A reliable biomonitoring method to assess the degree of environmental TBT pollution has been described based on investigations of virilization phenomena in prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Examples are the imposex phenomenon in marine and freshwater species, the intersex reaction in littorinids and the reduction of female sexual glands and offspring numbers in further species resulting mainly in a sterilization of females. The degree of imposex or intersex in populations is determined by different biomonitoring indices which allow to assess the TBT pollution of the environment at low costs with high precision. The effectiveness of TBT legislations is analysed by extensive surveys in France and Ireland indicating that there is still a continuing threat to sensitive marine organisms. TBT disturbs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones on the level of estrogen biosynthesis. The observed virilization phenomena seem due to an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase by this organotin compound. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  20. Biomonitoring program for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides information on historical and present biomonitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, and discusses the creation of the...

  1. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data. (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Money, Chris D


    Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data. The framework that was developed evaluates biomonitoring data based on their analytical integrity, their ability to describe dose (toxicokinetics), their ability to relate to effects, and an overall evaluation and weight of evidence analysis. This framework was subsequently evaluated with a number of case studies and was shown to provide a rational basis to advance discussions on human biomonitoring allowing better use and application of this type of data in human health risk assessment.

  2. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boogaard Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data. The framework that was developed evaluates biomonitoring data based on their analytical integrity, their ability to describe dose (toxicokinetics, their ability to relate to effects, and an overall evaluation and weight of evidence analysis. This framework was subsequently evaluated with a number of case studies and was shown to provide a rational basis to advance discussions on human biomonitoring allowing better use and application of this type of data in human health risk assessment.

  3. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum. (United States)

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo


    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas.

  4. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.


    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  5. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe: a comparison of large-scale programs. (United States)

    Buss, Daniel F; Carlisle, Daren M; Chon, Tae-Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S; Keizer-Vlek, Hanneke E; Robinson, Wayne A; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M


    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the globe. Despite the spatially diverse range of countries assessed, many aspects of bioassessment structure and protocols were similar, thereby providing evidence of key characteristics that might be incorporated in a global sampling methodology. Similarities were found regarding sampler type, mesh size, sampling period, subsampling methods, and taxonomic resolution. Consistent field and laboratory methods are essential for merging data sets collected by multiple institutions to enable large-scale comparisons. We discuss the similarities and differences among protocols and present current trends and future recommendations for monitoring programs, especially for regions where large-scale protocols do not yet exist. We summarize the current state in one of these regions, Latin America, and comment on the possible development path for these techniques in this region. We conclude that several aspects of stream biomonitoring need additional performance evaluation (accuracy, precision, discriminatory power, relative costs), particularly when comparing targeted habitat (only the commonest habitat type) versus site-wide sampling (multiple habitat types), appropriate levels of sampling and processing effort, and standardized indicators to resolve dissimilarities among biomonitoring methods. Global issues such as climate change are creating an environment where there is an increasing need to have universally consistent data collection, processing and storage to enable large-scale trend analysis. Biomonitoring programs following standardized methods could aid international data sharing and interpretation.

  6. Novel Technique of Active Biomonitoring Introduced in the Czech Republic: Bioaccumulation of Atmospheric Trace Metals in two moss species / Nová Metoda Aktivního Biomonitoringu Zavedená V České Republice: Bioakumulace Stopových Kovů V Atmosféře U Dvou Druhů Mechů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyka Oldřich


    Full Text Available Za účelem validace byla pro biomonitoring v průmyslem ovlivněném regionu Ostravska použita metoda, která dosud v České republice nebyla aplikována. Transplantáty dvou druhů mechů Hylocomium splendens a Pleurozium schreberi byly vystaveny atmosférickému znečištění pomocí metody “irrigated moss bag” ve výšce jak 1 m, tak 2 m nad zemí. Vzorky byly poté analyzovány za účelem zjištění koncentrace stopových prvků Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, V a Zn. Celkový průběh bioakumulace ukazuje, že je Hylocomium splendens pro biomonitoring vhodnější, stejně tak jako výška 2 m nad zemí.

  7. Traffic contribution to air pollution in urban street canyons: Integrated application of the OSPM, moss biomonitoring and spectral analysis (United States)

    Lazić, Lazar; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Mijić, Zoran; Vuković, Gordana; Ilić, Luka


    To investigate the air pollutant distribution within the ambient of urban street canyon, Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) was used to predict hourly content of NOX, NO, NO2, O3, CO, BNZ and PM10. The study was performed in five street canyons in Belgrade (Serbia) during 10-week summer period. The model receptors were located on each side of street canyons at 4 m, 8 m and 16 m height. To monitor airborne trace element content, the moss bag biomonitors were simultaneously exposed with the model receptors at two heights-4 m and 16 m. The results of both methods, modelling and biomonitoring, showed significantly decreasing trend of the air pollutants with height. The results indirectly demonstrate that biomonitoring, i.e., moss bag technique could be a valuable tool to verify model performance. In addition, spectral analysis was applied to investigate weekly variation of the daily background and modelled data set. Typical periodicities and weekend effect, caused by anthropogenic influences, have been identified.

  8. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.


    -off and the recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related...

  9. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth; Vorkamp, Katrin


    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need...

  10. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded (United States)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.


    its chemical composition is controlled by the soft parts and that a robust interpretation of the shell record requires a detailed understanding of bivalve physiology, behavior and ecology. This review attempts to bring together the Mussel Watch and sclerochronology communities and lay the foundation of a new subdiscipline of the Mussel Watch: retrospective environmental biomonitoring. For this purpose, we provide an overview of seminal work from both fields and outline potential future research directions.

  11. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail:; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)


    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  12. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.


    cells (PMBC) obtained from donor blood. Measurements of DNA-repair, mutant frequency, and subcell content were included. Samples for large biomonitoring studies are usually taken from study groups within a short time period of days/weeks and storing of study material for later analysis can be necessary......This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B...

  13. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  14. Environmental bioindication, biomonitoring, and bioremediation of organometal(loid)s. (United States)

    Thayer, John S


    Environmentally occurring organometal(loid)s have generated some severe health and safety problems. Consequently, scientists have been investigating various organisms to show the presence of such compounds (bioindicators), to follow their movement through the environment (biomonitors), and to remove them (bioremediators). Examples of such organisms and the mechanisms of their action(s) are discussed. Also mentioned are those organisms that form organometal(loid)s as a way of removing toxic inorganic species.

  15. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data


    Boogaard Peter; Money Chris


    Abstract Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the ...

  16. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre


    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...... policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have...

  17. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals in Morocco (United States)

    Gaudry, A.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Elyahyaoui, A.; El Khoukhi, T.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Ayrault, S.; Moskura, M.


    In this study, the accumulation sensitivities of trace elements in six types of air pollution biomonitors (lichens, tree barks and a moss) are compared. Three analytical methods were used:14MeV neutron activation analysis, thermal neutron activation analysis method and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Studies of the local concentration variations versus the sizes of lichen and of their altitude of collection from grounds, revealed that a standardisation of the procedures for collecting samples was necessary.

  18. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huifeng; JI Chenglong; WANG Qing; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; FENG Jianghua


    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology.Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however,little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees.In this study,we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology.Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities.In addition,we found that hypotaurine,malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills,while alanine,arginine,glutamate,succinate,4-aminobutyrate,taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills.Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn,as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles,but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn.Therefore,we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution,whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  19. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D


    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize...

  20. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring using lichens at urban and rural primary schools. (United States)

    Canha, N; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H T


    Monitoring particulate matter (PM) and its chemical constituents in classrooms is a subject of special concern within the scientific community in order to control and minimize child exposure. Regulatory sampling methods have presented several limitations in their application to larger number of classrooms due to operational and financial constraints. Consequently, passive sampling methodologies using filters were developed for indoor sampling. However, such methodologies could not provide parallel information for outdoors, which is important to identify pollution sources and assess outdoor contribution to the indoors. Therefore, biomonitoring with transplanted lichens, a technique usually applied for outdoor studies, was used both indoor and outdoor of classrooms. Three main objectives were proposed, to (i) characterize simultaneously indoor and outdoor of classrooms regarding inorganic air pollutants, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity, and (iii) assess pollution sources that contribute to a poor indoor air quality in schools. Lichens Flavoparmelia caperata were transplanted to indoor and outdoor of classrooms for 59 d. After exposure, electric conductivity of lichens leachate was measured to evaluate lichen vitality and cell damage. Outdoors lichen conductivity was higher near the main highways, and indoors there was great variability in levels, which indicates different emissions sources and different ventilation patterns. Chemical content of lichens was assessed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zn were determined. Element accumulation, crustal enrichment factors, and spatial variability of elements were analyzed and contaminants from anthropogenic sources, such as traffic (As, Sb, and Zn) and indoor chalk (Ca) found. Classrooms with potential indoor air quality problems were identified by presenting higher accumulations of

  1. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). (United States)

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C


    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst von Muehlendahl


    Full Text Available Kinderumwelt – an agency of the German pediatricians concerned with environmental medicine – has developed an e-learning module about human-biomonitoring. It allows active learning because the user can study interactively with the help of a model. The HBM module is part of (the internet portal „Allergy, Environment, Health” and is available in German and English. Since the module works mainly with images, it is also accessible to users with incomplete command of the English or German languages.

  3. INAA as tool for environment biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Avelar, Artur C.; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail:;; Veado, Julio Cesar Cambraia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Setor de Radioquimica; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Miguel, Ronaldo Araujo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria


    The k{sub 0} parametric technique of Neutron Activation was used to determine elements in sediment, soil, forage, cattle feces and milk samples collected in a cattle breeding and agricultural zone in Curvelo city, Minas Gerais state, in Brazil. The samples were collected on the farms close to the banks of the Das Velhas River where there is periodic flood during reasonable rains. Clinic veterinary studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, that suggest intoxication. These pathologies are mostly registered after floods. In this paper, the elements As, Cr, Co and Zn, among others were analyzed. The results obtained in different samples of cattle urine and milk as well as in forage samples suggest that there is an influence of metals that are carried by the Das Velhas River basin upstream water. (author)

  4. Phtalates in Lithuanian environment and needs for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Balčius


    Full Text Available Controlling chemical substances and correct evaluation of danger and risk caused by them, based on scientific research are necessary in order to keep environment and public health safe. Regulation signed by European Parliament and Council to control registration, evaluation, authorization and limitation of chemical substances (REACH is the main juridical act from the new European Union‘s policy regarding regulation of chemical substances. Objective of this research was to gather and analyze data regarding phthalates used in Lithuania‘s industry, to present data on its environmental levels in surface water, sediments, sewage treatment plant effluents, and to discuss the needs for the human biomonitoring in Lithuania. The amount of diethylhexyl phthalate yielded to Lithuania‘s industry and market, incresed 65 times from 3,7t in 2003 to 240,81t in 2007. DEHP concentrations in Lithuania in wastewater exceeded regulated annual average maximum allowable concentrations up to 27 times and maximum allowable concentrations up to 13 times. High environmental concentrations of phthalates pointed out to the needs of establishment of permanent human biomonitoring in Lithuania.DOI:

  5. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach. (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas


    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  6. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring. (United States)

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana


    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  7. Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:; Antognoni, Fabiana [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:; Pari, Elena [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail:; Fonti, Paolo [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail:; Gnes, Antonio [ARPA - Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambientale, Sez. Provinciale di Ravenna, via Alberoni 17, Ravenna (Italy)], E-mail:; Speranza, Anna [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:


    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. - Rosa rugosa leaves and pollen are - to different extents - suitable monitoring tools for heavy metal pollution.

  8. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences. (United States)

    Williams, Bryan L; Barr, Dana B; Wright, J Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S


    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  9. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E


    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  10. A new way to contemplate Darwin's tangled bank: how DNA barcodes are reconnecting biodiversity science and biomonitoring (United States)

    Baird, Donald J.; Fahner, Nicole A.; Beiko, Robert; Golding, G. Brian


    Encompassing the breadth of biodiversity in biomonitoring programmes has been frustrated by an inability to simultaneously identify large numbers of species accurately and in a timely fashion. Biomonitoring infers the state of an ecosystem from samples collected and identified using the best available taxonomic knowledge. The advent of DNA barcoding has now given way to the extraction of bulk DNA from mixed samples of organisms in environmental samples through the development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This DNA metabarcoding approach allows an unprecedented view of the true breadth and depth of biodiversity, but its adoption poses two important challenges. First, bioinformatics techniques must simultaneously perform complex analyses of large datasets and translate the results of these analyses to a range of users. Second, the insights gained from HTS need to be amalgamated with concepts such as Linnaean taxonomy and indicator species, which are less comprehensive but more intuitive. It is clear that we are moving beyond proof-of-concept studies to address the challenge of implementation of this new approach for environmental monitoring and regulation. Interpreting Darwin's ‘tangled bank’ through a DNA lens is now a reality, but the question remains: how can this information be generated and used reliably, and how does it relate to accepted norms in ecosystem study? This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481782

  11. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.


    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  12. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions. (United States)

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques


    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  13. Epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution in Slovenian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeran, Z. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail:; Mrak, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Batic, F. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kastelec, D. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mavsar, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Two country-wide surveys using epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution carried out during 2000 and 2001 in Slovenia were compared with surveys in 1991 and 1992. In the first survey, epiphytic lichen cover was studied in more than 500 plots of the 4 x 4 km national grid carried out within the framework of forest decline inventories. In the second survey, the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., was collected on a 16 x 16 km bioindication grid and analysed for S, N, As, Br, Ce, Cd, Cr, K, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Th, U and Zn contents. Only 'forested area' sampling points were included in the present study. Lichen cover was low, with about 70% of plots with less than 10% foliose lichen cover. No relationship was found between Hypogymnia trace element, N and S concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover. - No relationship between Hypogymnia element concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover was found.

  14. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring. (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A


    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  15. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  16. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.


    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  17. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.


    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  18. Quality control in bio-monitoring networks, Spanish Aerobiology Network. (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio


    Several of the airborne biological particles, such as pollen grains and fungal spores, are known to generate human health problems including allergies and infections. A number of aerobiologists have focused their research on these airborne particles. The Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) was set up in 1992, and since then dozens of research groups have worked on a range of related topics, including the standardization of study methods and the quality control of data generated by this network. In 2010, the REA started work on an inter-laboratory survey for proficiency testing purposes. The main goal of the study reported in the present paper was to determine the performance of technicians in the REA network using an analytical method that could be implemented by other bio-monitoring networks worldwide. The results recorded by each technician were compared with the scores obtained for a bounded mean of all results. The performance of each technician was expressed in terms of the relative error made in counting each of several pollen types. The method developed and implemented here proved appropriate for proficiency testing in interlaboratory studies involving bio-monitoring networks, and enabled the source of data quality problems to be pinpointed. The test revealed a variation coefficient of 10%. The relative error was significant for 3.5% of observations. In overall terms, the REA staff performed well, in accordance with the REA Management and Quality Manual. These findings serve to guarantee the quality of the data obtained, which can reliably be used for research purposes and published in the media in order to help prevent pollen-related health problems.

  19. Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds. (United States)

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Bond, J A


    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. Butadiene is metabolized to DNA-reactive metabolites, including 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and diepoxybutane. These epoxides are thought to play a critical role in butadiene carcinogenicity. Butadiene and some of its metabolites (e.g., epoxybutene) are volatile. Exhalation of unchanged butadiene and excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine represent major routes of elimination. Therefore, biomonitoring of butadiene exposure could be based on chemical analysis of butadiene in exhaled breath, blood levels of butadiene epoxides, excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine, or adducts of butadiene epoxides with DNA or blood proteins. Mutation induction in specific genes (e.g., HPRT) following butadiene exposure can be potentially used as a biomarker. Excretion of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)butane or the product of epoxybutene with N-7 in guanine in urine, epoxybutene-hemoglobin adducts, and HPRT mutation have been used as biomarkers in recent studies of occupational exposure to butadiene. Data in laboratory animals suggest that diepoxybutane may be a more important genotoxic metabolite than epoxybutene. Biomonitoring methods need to be developed for

  20. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo


    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  1. Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring (United States)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Senhou, A.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Chakir, M.


    The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method (INAA-k0) was used for its adequate characteristics to analyze accurately a wide number of elements. Reference materials were analyzed to check the reliability and the accuracy of this technique. The results obtained for all these bioaccumulators lead to the following conclusions. For the major elements, leaves and needles are more accumulating than tree barks and lichens. While for the intermediate and trace elements, there is an obvious accumulation in lichens in comparison with tree barks, leaves and needles. This work shows the possibility to use these four bioaccumulators according to their availability in an area. It will be useful however to set up an inter calibration between these bioaccumulators.

  2. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition (United States)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.


    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive biomonitor to evaluate local

  3. DBS-platform for biomonitoring and toxicokinetics of toxicants: proof of concept using LC-MS/MS analysis of fipronil and its metabolites in blood (United States)

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Rashid, Mamunur; Sonkar, Ashish Kumar; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap


    A simple, sensitive and high throughput LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantification of fipronil, fipronil sulfone and fipronil desulfinyl in rat and human dried blood spots (DBS). DBS samples were prepared by spiking 10 μl blood on DMPK-C cards followed by drying at room temperature. The whole blood spots were then punched from the card and extracted using acetonitrile. The total chromatographic run time of the method was only 2 min. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ng/ml for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to determine fipronil desulfinyl in DBS samples obtained from its toxicokinetic study in rats following intravenous dose (1 mg/kg). In conclusion, the proposed DBS methodology has significant potential in toxicokinetics and biomonitoring studies of environmental toxicants. This microvolume DBS technique will be an ideal tool for biomonitoring studies, particularly in paediatric population. Small volume requirements, minimally invasive blood sampling method, easier storage and shipping procedure make DBS a suitable technique for such studies. Further, DBS technique contributes towards the principles of 3Rs resulting in significant reduction in the number of rodents used and refinement in sample collection for toxicokinetic studies.

  4. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mattos, Silvania V. de M. [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Toxicologia; S. Filho, Serafim [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Saude do Trabalhador; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: menezes at

  5. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca


    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  6. Biomonitoring tools and risk assessment in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway); Univercity Centre at Svalbard, (Norway); Nahrgang, J.; Olsen, G.H. [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway)


    With the expansion of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic, there is a need for reliable risk assessment and environmental monitoring tools adapted for the Arctic environment. Probabilistic approaches for risk assessment are used by offshore operators in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. However, these methods are based on toxicity data on temperate species because there is insufficient data to run these models on Arctic species. Therefore, this study was conducted to perform toxicity tests with Arctic species and calculate their sensitivity distribution curve. The study was based on the Norwegian Water Column Monitoring programme. It involved a 3 year project to characterize the biological response of polar cold to oil exposure. Waterborne and dietary exposure to crude oil in polar cod collected in Svalbard was monitored. Many biological indexes ranging from molecular to biochemical, cellular and physiological levels were measured at various time points for biomonitoring the impact of oil in pack ice ecosystems. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete


    Full Text Available Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  8. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan


    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  9. Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos. (United States)

    Rainbow, Philip S; Hildrew, Alan G; Smith, Brian D; Geatches, Tim; Luoma, Samuel N


    It has been proposed that bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic metals in tolerant biomonitors be used as indicators of metal bioavailability that could be calibrated against the ecological response to metals of sensitive biotic assemblages. Our hypothesis was that metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and Plectrocnemia conspersa, as tolerant biomonitors, indicate metal bioavailability in contaminated streams, and can be calibrated against metal-specific ecological responses of mayflies. Bioaccumulated concentrations of Cu, As, Zn and Pb in H. siltalai from SW English streams were related to the mayfly assemblage. Mayflies were always sparse where bioavailabilities were high and were abundant and diverse where bioavailabilities of all metals were low, a pattern particularly evident when the combined abundance of heptageniid and ephemerellid mayflies was the response variable. The results offer promise that bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in tolerant biomonitors can be used to diagnose ecological impacts on stream benthos from metal stressors.

  10. Saliva as an analytical matrix: state of the art and application for biomonitoring. (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Santoro, Alessia; Papaleo, Bruno


    Analytical tests to measure chemicals in saliva can be employed for numerous analytes, endogenous compounds or xenobiotics. The objective was to determine which chemicals can be analysed with this matrix, which analytical methods are applicable, and what application is possible for biomonitoring. We reviewed the literature using three databases, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, collecting articles on different kinds of analysis in saliva. Studies were principally about molecules of clinical interest, xenobiotics, especially drugs of abuse, and chemicals used at workplaces; some substances show no relevant correlation with exposure data while others seems to be of particular interest for systematic use for biomonitoring. Currently, saliva is used far less than other biological fluids but its use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals might open up new areas for research and would certainly simplify the collection of biological samples.

  11. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.


    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  12. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review. (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina


    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  13. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D


    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize....... It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological...

  14. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda;


    Within the European Environment and Health Action Plan an initiative to establish a coherent human biomonitoring approach in Europe was started. The project COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale ) developed recommendations for a harmonized conduct of a human......, in autumn/winter 2011/2012. Based on the countries' experiences of conducting the pilot study, following lessons learnt were compiled: the harmonized fieldwork instruments (basic questionnaire, urine and hair sampling) turned out to be very valuable for future HBM surveys on the European scale. A school...

  15. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.


    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  16. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc (United States)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.


    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  17. Molecular biomonitoring during rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, M.


    Rhizoremediation is the use of microbial populations present in the rhizosphere of plants for environmental cleanup. The idea of this work was that bacteria living in the rhizosphere of a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant, goat's rue (Galega orientalis), could take part in the degradation of harmful monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX), from oil-contaminated soils. In addition to chemical (e.g. pollutant concentration) and physical (e.g. soil structure) information, the knowledge of biological aspects (e.g. bacteria and their catabolic genes) is essential when developing the rhizoremediation into controlled and effective bioremediation practice. Therefore, the need for reliable biomonitoring methods is obvious. The main aims of this thesis were to evaluate the symbiotic G. orientalis - Rhizobium galegae system for rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soils, to develop molecular methods for biomonitoring, and to apply these methods for studying the microbiology of rhizoremediation. In vitro, Galega plants and rhizobia remained viable in m-toluate concentrations up to 3000 mg/l. Plant growth and nodulation were inhibited in 500 mg/l m-toluate, but were restored when plants were transferred to clean medium. In the greenhouse, Galega showed good growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and developed a strong rhizosphere in soils contaminated with oil or spiked with 2000 mg/l m-toluate. The high aromatic tolerance of R. galegae and the viability of Galega plants in oil-polluted soils proved this legume system to be a promising method for the rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soils. Molecular biomonitoring methods were designed and/or developed further for bacteria and their degradation genes. A combination of genomic fingerprinting ((GTG)5-PCR), taxonomic ribotyping of 16S rRNA genes and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing were chosen for molecular grouping of culturable, heterogeneous rhizosphere bacteria. PCR primers specific for

  18. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Fetri, E-mail:; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. 43000 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  19. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A. (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C


    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

  20. Genes and environment - striking the fine balance between sophisticated biomonitoring and true functional environmental genomics. (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian E W; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Menzel, Ralph


    This article provides an overview how the application of the gene profiling (mainly via microarray technology) can be used in different organisms to address issues of environmental importance. Only recently, environmental sciences, including ecotoxicology, and molecular biology have started to mutually fertilize each other. This conceptual blend has enabled the identification of the interaction between molecular events and whole animal and population responses. Likewise, striking the fine balance between biomonitoring and functional environmental genomics will allow legislative and administrative measures to be based on a more robust platform. The application of DNA microarrays to ecotoxicogenomics links ecotoxicological effects of exposure with expression profiles of several thousand genes. The gene expression profiles are altered during toxicity, as either a direct or indirect result of toxicant exposure and the comparison of numerous specific expression profiles facilitates the differentiation between intoxication and true responses to environmental stressors. Furthermore, the application of microarrays provides the means to identify complex pathways and strategies that an exposed organism applies in response to environmental stressors. This review will present evidence that the widespread phenomenon of hormesis has a genetic basis that goes beyond an adaptive response. Some more practical advantages emerge: the toxicological assessment of complex mixtures, such as effluents or sediments, as well as drugs seems feasible, especially when classical ecotoxicological tests have failed. The review of available information demonstrates the advantages of microarray application to environmental issues spanning from bacteria, over algae and spermatophytes, to invertebrates (nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, crustacea Daphnia spp., earthworms), and various fish species. Microarrays have also highlighted why populations of a given species respond differently to similar

  1. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals. (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D


    Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed. It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological studies so far have been cross-sectional.

  2. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized Human Biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K


    study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context...

  3. Analysis of environmental quality by means of bioindication and biomonitoring studies on plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manes, F.; Capogna, F.; Giannini, M.A.; Silli, V. [Univ. degli Studi ' ' La Sapienza' ' di Roma, Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Vegetale


    In the present work, bioindication and biomonitoring studies, carried out in both natural area and those subjected to high anthropogenic activity, are described. Some indicators developed are discussed and their integration is presented as a useful tool to define and manage environmental quality. (orig.)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@An internal standard, composed of untreated an ethy1 methane sulfonate treated K562 cells was validated for its application in comet analysis of human biomonitoring samples. Firstly, the different levels of variability which may influence the damage levels of the internal standards were assessed. Three experimenters performed the comet assay with cells coming from the same set of untreated

  5. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources (United States)

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  6. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers. (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna


    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George


    Full Text Available The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almendares -Vento Basin in San Juan Havana and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, respectively. The description of the characteristics of the referred species considered whether they met seven criteria for biomonitoring: 1 cosmopolitan distribution, 2 easy taxonomic identification, 3 appropriate size, 4 limited mobility and relatively long life cycle, 5 tolerant to contamination, 6 easy handling in laboratory studies, and 7 correlation between the contaminant of interest and other environmental matrices. The characteristics were met for each of the seven criteria, and thus have conditional use as biomonitors in ecotoxicology studies and for the ecosystem at San Juan Almendares, Cuba.

  8. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population]. (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran


    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  9. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  10. Multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective-international networking on the example of bioindication and biomonitoring (B&B technologies). (United States)

    Markert, Bernd; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Chudzińska, Ewa; De Marco, Silvia; Diatta, Jean; Ghaffari, Zahra; Gorelova, Svetlana; Marcovecchio, Jorge; Tabors, Guntis; Wang, Meie; Yousef, Naglaa; Fraenzle, Stefan; Wuenschmann, Simone


    Living or formerly living organisms are being used to obtain information on the quality of the general health status of our environment by bioindication and biomonitoring methods for many decades. Thus, different roads toward this common scientific goal were developed by a lot of different international research groups. Global cooperation in between various scientific teams throughout the world has produced common ideas, scientific definitions, and highly innovative results of this extremely attractive working field. The transdisciplinary approach of different and multifaceted scientific areas-starting from biology, analytical chemistry, via health physics, up to social and economic issues-have surpassed mental barriers of individual scientists, so that "production" of straightforward common results related to the influence of material and immaterial environmental factors to the well-being of organisms and human life has now reached the forefront of international thinking. For the further sustainable development of our common scientific "hobby" of bioindication and biomonitoring, highest personal energy has to be given by us, being teachers to our students and to convince strategically decision makers as politicians to invest (financially) into the development of education and research of this innovative technique. Young people have to be intensively convinced on the "meaning" of our scientific doing, e.g., by extended forms of education. One example of multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective is given here, which we started about 3 years ago.

  11. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  12. Tradescantia as a biomonitor for pesticide genotoxicity evaluation of iprodione, carbaryl, dimethoate and 4,4'-DDE. (United States)

    Fadic, Ximena; Placencia, Fabián; Domínguez, Ana María; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco


    There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays. Biomonitor exposures were performed by capillary absorption for each individual pesticide over a wide range of concentrations, from maximum residue limits (trace levels) up to the application dose in agricultural fields. In addition, the organochloride 4,4'-DDE was included but only in the concentration range from 0.01mgL(-1) to 1mgL(-1), mimicking residue concentrations since it is not a commercial product but, rather, the main breakdown product of the persistent organochloride pesticide 4,4-DDT, whose use was discontinued in Chile in the 1980s. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed a significant increase in micronucleus frequency at the early tetrads of meiotic pollen mother cells of the biomonitor Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea, induced by 4,4'-DDE (for 1mgL(-1)), dimethoate (for 40mgL(-1), 200mgL(-1), 400mg/L(-1)) and carbaryl (for 889mgL(-1)). Iprodione did not generate any significant change at the tested concentration. Meanwhile, the Trad-SH bioassay was carried out by analysis of the phenotype variations of the stamen hair cells of the Tradescantia clone KU-20 for the same pesticides and doses. This bioassay was not sufficiently sensitive for toxicity evaluation of most of the pesticides tested, with exception of dimethoate in low doses (2 and 5mg

  13. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  14. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeters G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that

  15. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.


    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  16. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd


    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  17. Quantified Bodies in the Checking Loop: Analyzing the Choreographies of Biomonitoring and Generating Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Parviainen


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring digital devices have become popular in physical activities and are receiving intensive focus as motivational and support vehicles for health. The aim of this article is to develop a new theoretical framework to analyze biomonitoring from the two perspectives constituting the opposite ends of the big data spectrum: individual (micro and institutional (macro. In applying phenomenology of the body, discussions of choreography, and Latour’s actor–network theory, I seek to evolve a choreography-based approach that can outline feedback systems between embodied practices and the macrolevel choreography of big data. Health informatics data as economic and political assets are illustrated based on netnography. Netnographic methodology pays close attention to online fieldwork and media texts. Emphasizing the lived body in the analysis of knowledge infrastructure, I aim to contribute to the theoretical discussion of human–data interaction. The findings suggest that highly intimate, personal technology can distance people from their lived bodies.

  18. Human biomonitoring for metals in Italian urban adolescents: data from Latium Region. (United States)

    Pino, Anna; Amato, Antonio; Alimonti, Alessandro; Mattei, Daniela; Bocca, Beatrice


    As a part of the activities of the first Italian human biomonitoring survey (PROBE - PROgramme for Biomonitoring general population Exposure), a reference population of adolescents, aged 13-15 years, was examined for their exposure to metals. The study included 252 adolescents living in urban areas, representative of Latium Region (Italy) and blood specimens were analyzed for metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, U, V and W) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results obtained will improve the knowledge about the body burden in adolescents and are tentative reference values for Italian young people as a basis for risk evaluation deriving from urban/environmental exposure to metals.

  19. Towards improved biomonitoring tools for an intensified sustainable multi-use environment. (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan Roelof


    The increasing use of our environment for multiple contrasting activities (e.g. fisheries, tourism) will have to be accompanied by improved monitoring of environmental quality, to avoid transboundary conflicts and ensure long-term sustainable intensified usage. Biomonitoring approaches are appropriate for this, since they can integrate biological effects of environmental exposure rather than measure individual compound concentrations. Recent advances in biomonitoring concepts and tools focus on single-cell assays and purified biological components that can be miniaturized and integrated in automated systems. Despite these advances, we are still very far from being able to deploy bioassays routinely in environmental monitoring, mostly because of lack of experience in interpreting responses and insufficient robustness of the biosensors for their environmental application. Further future challenges include broadening the spectrum of detectable compounds by biosensors, accelerate response times and combining sample pretreatment strategies with bioassays.

  20. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements. (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro


    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution.

  1. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for identifying the important heavy metals present in the road dust and at the same time biomonitor them using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo leaves. The study clearly indicated that both the plants can be used as biomonitor for As, Pb, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The heavy metals were estimated using AAS-7000 (Shimadzu. Reason for selecting the plants were their abundance in the area and high air pollution indices. Presence of these heavy metals in the road dust can be attributed to the red soil and more importantly thermal power plants operating in the study area. Since plants are able to capture the road dust, they can also prevent the particulate pollution which is having adverse health impacts for humans.

  2. Testing benthic foraminiferal distributions as a contemporary quantitative approach to biomonitoring estuarine heavy metal pollution. (United States)

    Foster, William J; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric; Rogerson, Mike


    Biomonitoring of estuarine pollution is the subject of active research, and benthic foraminifera are an attractive group to use for these purposes due to their ubiquitous presence in saline water and wide diversity. Here, we describe a case study of biomonitoring using benthic foraminifera in the French Mediterranean lagoon, Bages-Sigean lagoon. In this case, the major pollutants of interest are heavy metals in the sediment, particularly contaminated by Cu and Cd derived from industrial and agricultural sources. The foraminiferal assemblages of the Bages-Sigean lagoon are typical of normal paralic environments, but unusually almost completely lack agglutinated forms. The density of benthic foraminifera was shown to be more influenced by the sediment characteristics rather than heavy metal pollution. However, the relative abundance of Quinqueloculina bicostata was shown to increase in the most polluted areas and we propose that this taxon may be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution.

  3. The use of conifer needles as biomonitor candidates for the study of temporal air pollution variation in the Strasbourg region. (United States)

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Fajloun, Ziad; Chbani, Asma; Millet, Maurice


    The continuous emission of polluting chemicals into the atmosphere requires the implementation of monitoring of ambient air quality. The use of vegetation for environmental monitoring can be considered as a simple monitoring technique by providing a cheap and accessible matrix. In this study, needles of two conifers (Pinus nigra and Cedrus atlantica), were used for the consecutive biomonitoring of multipollutants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area in Strasbourg (France). The extraction was performed by accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction, and solid-phase microextraction and was followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The results obtained for conifer samples collected in 5 successive weeks (April 09-May 07, 2015) show a similar variation of the different types of pollutants. A pollution peak was observed during the second week of analysis, and the concentration of all pollutants then decreased to complete disappearance at the end of the sampling period. PAHs were the most concentrated with a total concentration of about 35.87 ng g(-1), and naphthalene was, among these pollutants, the most concentrated with a total concentration of about 15.1 ng g(-1). The analysis of meteorological data during this period suggests that the results correlated with climatic conditions that widely vary during this period of the year. The results show that the concentration peak was obtained when no precipitation was detected.

  4. Using shark biomarkers as tools for biomonitoring the health of atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel Fonseca Alves


    The results obtained in this first biomarkers screening are promising as it allowed for a better understanding on how blue sharks deal with the intake and accumulation of different xenobiotics and which are the most suitable tissues for specific biomarker testing and more efficient biomonitoring. Lastly, this approach presents a potential to be adapted to other species which are also on top of food chains, providing an even more robust insight on the oceanic deep waters health status.

  5. Environmental barcoding: a next-generation sequencing approach for biomonitoring applications using river benthos. (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Shokralla, Shadi; Zhou, Xin; Singer, Gregory A C; Baird, Donald J


    Timely and accurate biodiversity analysis poses an ongoing challenge for the success of biomonitoring programs. Morphology-based identification of bioindicator taxa is time consuming, and rarely supports species-level resolution especially for immature life stages. Much work has been done in the past decade to develop alternative approaches for biodiversity analysis using DNA sequence-based approaches such as molecular phylogenetics and DNA barcoding. On-going assembly of DNA barcode reference libraries will provide the basis for a DNA-based identification system. The use of recently introduced next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches in biodiversity science has the potential to further extend the application of DNA information for routine biomonitoring applications to an unprecedented scale. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using 454 massively parallel pyrosequencing for species-level analysis of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate taxa commonly used for biomonitoring. We designed our experiments in order to directly compare morphology-based, Sanger sequencing DNA barcoding, and next-generation environmental barcoding approaches. Our results show the ability of 454 pyrosequencing of mini-barcodes to accurately identify all species with more than 1% abundance in the pooled mixture. Although the approach failed to identify 6 rare species in the mixture, the presence of sequences from 9 species that were not represented by individuals in the mixture provides evidence that DNA based analysis may yet provide a valuable approach in finding rare species in bulk environmental samples. We further demonstrate the application of the environmental barcoding approach by comparing benthic macroinvertebrates from an urban region to those obtained from a conservation area. Although considerable effort will be required to robustly optimize NGS tools to identify species from bulk environmental samples, our results indicate the potential of an environmental barcoding

  6. Native legumes from the Atlantic Rainforest and their potential for biomonitoring urban air pollution


    Andrade, Guilherme Carvalho


    In Southeastern Brazil, the city of Ipatinga is inserted in the Steel Valley Metropolitan Region, which is characterized by the predominance of steel industry, and also by the presence of one of the largest vehicle fleets in the country. Developing standardized biomonitoring methods with native plant species may be an economically viable option for assessing air quality across extensive urban areas, which usually cannot be achieved by instrumental monitoring due to cost issues. In this sense,...

  7. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike


    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of th......, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES....

  8. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail:


    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  9. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel. (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya


    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  10. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. (United States)

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence


    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  11. The comet assay as a tool for human biomonitoring studies: the ComNet project. (United States)

    Collins, Andrew; Koppen, Gudrun; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Dusinska, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin; Møller, Peter; Rojas, Emilio; Dhawan, Alok; Benzie, Iris; Coskun, Erdem; Moretti, Massimo; Speit, Günter; Bonassi, Stefano


    The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents or to investigate genoprotective effects. Studies often involve small numbers of subjects, and design may be sub-optimal in other respects. In addition, comet assay protocols in use in different laboratories vary significantly. In spite of these difficulties, it is appropriate to carry out a pooled analysis of all available comet assay biomonitoring data, in order to establish baseline parameters of DNA damage, and to investigate associations between comet assay measurements and factors such as sex, age, smoking status, nutrition, lifestyle, etc. With this as its major objective, the ComNet project has recruited almost 100 research groups willing to share datasets. Here we provide a background to this project, discussing the history of the comet assay and practical issues that can critically affect its performance. We survey its diverse applications in biomonitoring studies, including environmental and occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, genoprotection by dietary and other factors, DNA damage associated with various diseases, and intrinsic factors that affect DNA damage levels in humans. We examine in depth the quality of data from a random selection of studies, from an epidemiological and statistical point of view.

  12. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment. (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E


    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies.

  13. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science


    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  14. Active biomonitoring of palladium, platinum, and rhodium emissions from road traffic using transplanted moss. (United States)

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Meisel, Thomas; Perämäki, Paavo


    The use of transplanted moss (Pleurozium schreberi) in active biomonitoring of traffic-related emissions of Pd, Pt, and Rh was studied. Moss mats were transplanted to three locations along highway E75 (in Oulu, Finland) at three different distances from the highway. Five samples were collected from a background site after the same exposure period. Mass fractions of Pd, Pt, and Rh as well as mass fractions of 18 other elements were determined in these samples. The results indicated that P. schreberi is well suited for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Mass fractions above the background values were observed in the samples exposed to traffic-related emissions. When the results were compared with those of the other elements, high correlations of Pd, Pt, and Rh with commonly traffic-related elements (e.g., Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn, etc.) were found. It was also found that the amounts of Pd, Pt, and Rh in moss samples decreased when the distance to the highway increased. This trend gives evidence for the suitability of P. schreberi for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the mass fractions determined in this study provide valuable evidence about the current state of Pd, Pt, and Rh emissions in Oulu, Finland.

  15. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research. (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N


    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  16. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, B.; Sarmento, S.; Verburg, T.


    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchang

  17. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre;


    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  18. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network. (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne


    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI


    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  20. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field. (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit


    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  1. A System for Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication of Long-Term Bio-Monitoring



    A system for wireless power transfer and data communication of implantable bio-monitoring systems is presented. The proposed solution uses a servo-controlled power transmitter moved under the animal moving space. An x-y movable magnetic coil transmits the required power with a level able to keep constant the received energy by the bio-sensor system. The power is transferred via the optimized remote powering link at 13.56 MHz. The received AC signal is converted to DC voltage with a passive fu...

  2. Mapping elements distribution in carapace of Caretta caretta: A strategy for biomonitoring contamination in sea turtles? (United States)

    Mattei, D; Veschetti, E; D'Ilio, S; Blasi, M F


    This study analyzed the carapace distribution of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn by GF-AAS and ICP-AES in one specimen of Caretta caretta from Mediterranean Sea. Calcium, Mg, Mn, Pb, U, Zn were mainly distributed in the central area while Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, V in lateral areas. Cadmium, Cr, Mg, Mn, Sb, U and V were different between lateral areas. The different distribution may be related to several exposures during lifetime and/or the shell ossification during growth. Carapace may be a suitable matrix for metal biomonitoring, however, further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  3. Air pollution biomonitoring survey in Morocco using k0-INAA (United States)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui, R. M.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chakir, E.


    Environmental monitoring is an essential step in any economical and social development policy. The atmospheric pollution study is a principal task due to the importance of atmospheric transfer of pollutants. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by different micro-climates influencing, on one hand, the transfer range of trace elements and, on the other hand, the availability of biological organisms that can be used in trace element air pollution biodetection study. Tree-barks, lichens and mosses were used in this study to evaluate trace elements bioavailability in different regions of Morocco. Those organisms were analyzed using the multi-elemental k0-INAA technique. The quality control of the results was performed by the analysis of reference materials. The analysis results were interpreted in the form of enrichment factors reflecting the atmospheric availability of anthropogenic pollutant elements such as Cl, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se and Sr.

  4. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study; Emprego das aberracoes cromossomicas instaveis e micronucleos no biomonitoramento individual: estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e


    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  5. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z. [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)


    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  6. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, Y. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada)], E-mail:; Grapentine, L.C.; Borgmann, U. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Doyle, P. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Masson, S. [Parc Aquarium du Quebec, 1675 avenue des Hotels, Quebec, Quebec, Canada G1W 4S3 (Canada)


    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi - James Bay region, northwestern Quebec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents. - Hyalella azteca accumulates dissolved metals in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining. (United States)

    Couillard, Y; Grapentine, L C; Borgmann, U; Doyle, P; Masson, S


    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO4(2-) modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents.

  8. Feasibility of poplar foliages as bio-monitors for organochlorine pesticides in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; WANG Wei; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; LI FaSheng; YANG YongLiang; LIU Feng


    The feasibility of poplar (P. tomentosa) foliages as passive biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides In air was explored. The accumulation patterns of poplar foliages for HCHs, DDTs and HCB were similar, the amount of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring, and decreased thereafter. There was no obvious distinction in the accumulation styles between the adult leaf and the leaf-litter. This accumulation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the poplar foliage, and was ob-served for the first time in our work, giving an evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. The tech-nical HCH and DDT were used largely in history and not used in recent years, but there was a little usage of lindane and new input of o,p'DDT in recent years, and dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in poplar foliages were similar to those in pine needles at the corresponding period, and there is a positive strong correlation between OCP concen-tration data of two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the poplar foliage reflected the pollution status of OCPs in air. The result of this work showed that the poplar foliage can be used as the bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  9. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  10. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates. (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M


    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  11. Italian network for human biomonitoring of metals: preliminary results from two regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bocca


    Full Text Available The Italian program for human biomonitoring (HBM of chemical elements, PROgram for Biomonitoring of the Exposure (PROBE, started in 2008 with the aim to provide the knowledge about risk assessment of the Italian population following the environmental exposure to metals. The project is implemented through a HBM campaign for the production of data on 19 metals in the blood and serum of subjects living in different Italian Regions. The metals studied are: antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, iridium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, thallium, tin, tungsten, uranium and vanadium. The first phase of the project has included the development and validation of laboratory protocols for the collection of fluids and quantification of metals. The second phase provides the HBM data expressed as the reference values (RVs for the Italian population, i.e., as the level of metals in the general population not occupationally exposed. In this paper, the experimental protocols used for the maintenance of high standards of analysis and the RVs for metals in serum of inhabitants of two Italian Regions (Calabria and Umbria are described.

  12. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study. (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite


    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  13. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Venier


    Full Text Available The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  14. A biomonitor for tracking changes in the availability of lakewater cadmium over space and time (United States)

    Hare, L.; Tessier, A.; Croteau, M.-N.


    Determining the exposure of organisms to contaminants is a key component of Ecological Risk Assessments (ERAs). Effective estimates of exposure consider not only the total concentrations of contaminants in an organism's surroundings but also the availability of the contaminants to organisms. Contaminant availability can be inferred from mechanistic models and verified by measurements of contaminant concentrations in organisms. We evaluated the widespread lake-dwelling insect Chaoborus as a potential biomonitor for use in exposure assessments for three metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). We show that larvae of this midge maintain constant their concentrations of the essential metals Cu and Zn and thus cannot be used to monitor them. In contrast, larval Cd concentrations varied widely both among lakes and in a given lake over time. We were able to relate these variations in biomonitor Cd to changes in lakewater Cd and pH using the Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM). Our results suggest that Chaoborus larvae could be used as an effective tool for estimating the Cd exposure of organisms in lakes for the purposes of ERAs.

  15. Wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) used as biomonitors in contaminated mining sites. (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus


    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.

  16. The role of native lichens in the biomonitoring of gaseous mercury at contaminated sites. (United States)

    López Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Borreguero, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel


    Contamination by atmospheric mercury has been assessed in two different areas from Spain (Las Cuevas, Ciudad Real and Flix, Tarragona) using lichens as biomonitors. The relationship established between mercury contents in the soils and the gaseous mercury (GM) was also observed. It was found that the GM is highest in the vicinity of the source and it is dispersed depending on of the distance to the source and the wind directions. The mercury concentration in the gas phase in Flix was higher than that found in Las Cuevas and also higher than the value that the US EPA recommended. The mercury bioaccumulation in the native lichens from genders Ramalina and Xanthoria were used as biomonitors for absorbing mercury in Las Cuevas and Flix, respectively. The mercury uptake by Ramalina was higher than the amount accumulated by Xanthoria, a difference that was mainly due to the lichen characteristics. The content of mercury in lichens in relation to the mercury in gas was fitted by a Freundlich type equation, indicating that the equilibrium between both phases was established. Besides, transplanted Ramalina lichen in Las Cuevas allowed to obtain the kinetic of mercury uptake. A kinetic model of first order based on the equilibrium was proposed and the mass transfer constants for each sampling station were estimated. As it was expected, these values increased with the predominant wind flow direction.

  17. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Spenkelink, A.; Murk, A.J.


    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from

  18. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Rebecca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  19. Considerations for estimating daily intake values of non-persistent environmental endocrine disruptors based on urinary biomonitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria


    IntroductionHuman exposure to chemicals may be estimated by back-calculating urinary concentrations resulting from biomonitoring studies if knowledge of the chemical's toxicokinetic properties is available.AimTo review available toxicokinetic data for back-calculating urinary concentrations into ...

  20. The Application of Internal Dose Measures, Biokinetics, and Biomonitoring Data in the Risk Assessment of Dioxin-Like Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aylward, L.L.


    This thesis presents a series of investigations into the biokinetic behavior of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds and the application of biokinetic modeling and biomonitoring data in quantitative risk assessment for these compounds. The biokinetic properties of TCDD an

  1. Physical and digital design of the BlueBio biomonitoring system prototype, to be used in emergency medical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, M; Pedersen, J.F.


    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. Handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel on work a...

  2. Physical and Digital Design of the BlueBio Biomonitoring System Prototype, to be used in Emergency Medical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, Margit; Pedersen, Jacob Frølund


    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. The handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel at wo...

  3. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries. (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair


    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  4. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loots Ilse


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. Methods In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public. Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. Results The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. Conclusion With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring

  5. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment. (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M


    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques in environmental studies. (United States)

    Jervis, R E


    Nuclear analytical techniques are particularly suitable for measuring trace components in a wide variety of environmental samples, and for that reason, the techniques have made a significant contribution to environmental research. Presently, at a time when biosphere contamination and threats of global change in the atmosphere are of widespread concern, there exist an impressive array of specialized instrumental methods available to life scientists engaged in environmental studies; however, the nuclear techniques will probably continue to play a useful role in the future, notwithstanding the decreasing availability of necessary facilities, such as research reactors and accelerators. Reasons for the particular suitability of radionanalytical techniques are reviewed and illustrated by examples of recent applications to solid wastes, biomonitoring, and urban aerosol source identification in this laboratory.

  7. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN) (United States)

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  8. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)


    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  10. Biomonitoring of benzene and toluene in human blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimming, E.; Levsen, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany); Koehme, C.; Schuermann, W. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Pneumologie


    A simple and rapid method for the determination of benzene and toluene in whole blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is described. Using SPME fibres coated with 65 {mu}m carboxene/polydimethylsiloxane, limits of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ng/L for benzene and 25 ng/L for toluene are achieved. As a result of its large linear range (i.e. 5-5000 ng/L for benzene) the method is suitable for biomonitoring of both occupationally and environmentally exposed people. The reproducibility of the determination of benzene is {<=} 8%. An interlaboratory comparison demonstrated that the method proposed here compares favorably with existing methods (dynamic headspace, purge and trap). (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  11. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program. (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi


    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

  12. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys. (United States)

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona


    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  13. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. (United States)

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar


    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  14. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda)-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lis Bach; Laura Ferguson; Vilhelm Feltelius; Jens Sondergaard


    Objective:To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis), for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods:A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) associated to the mining industry in Greenland using:1) a 5-day water-only bioassay;2) a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period;and finally 3) a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results:LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  15. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  16. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Bach


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis, for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods: A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb associated to the mining industry in Greenland using: 1 a 5-day water-only bioassay; 2 a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period; and finally 3 a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results: LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  17. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.A


    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O{sub 3}-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O{sub 3} (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O{sub 3}. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  18. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; WANG Wei; LI FaSheng; LIU Feng; YANG YongLiang; WU DaNian


    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980's, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p'-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  19. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants. (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin


    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (phair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes.

  20. Assessment of Anodonta cygnea as a Biomonitor Agent for Copper and Zinc in Anzali Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali


    Full Text Available Background: Anzali wetland has been subjected to high levels of pollution due to contamination from several industrial sites in addition to agricultural chemicals. Mussels have been widely used for monitoring pollution in aquatic ecosystems, because they, as filter feeders, bioaccumulate pollutants. Therefore we decided to evaluate Anodonta cygnea for its application as a bio-monitor for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. Methods: A. cygnea specimens and their surface sediments were gathered from three locations in Anzali wetland. Afterwards, the collected samples (the soft tissues and shells of A. cygnea as well as surface sediments were analyzed for Cu and Zn by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model 670G. Results: The Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediments obtained from Anzali wetland were in the range of 21.05 to 25.53 for copper and 37.84 to 82.26 μg g-1 dw for zinc. The Cu and Zn levels in the soft tissue were 1.09-1.5 times and 5-7.3 times, respectively, higher than those of the shells. The CV values (% in the soft tissues and shells were 36 and 53 for Cu, and 53.5 and 150.3 for Zn respectively. Conclusions: The lower Zn variability (CV in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and significant correlation between Zn levels in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and the surface sediments indicated that the soft tissues of A. cygnea are more appropriate for bio-monitoring of Zn. Cu concentration in the sediment and Zn levels in the soft tissues were found to be comparatively higher than some of the international standards of reference.

  1. The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs. (United States)

    Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Fillol, Clémence; Charles, Marie-Aline; Denys, Sébastien


    This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban). The aim of this manuscript is to present highlights of the French human biomonitoring program with particular focus on the prioritization of biomarkers to be analyzed in the program and the selection of biomarkers applied to both program components. The Delphi method was used to establish a consensual list of prioritized biomarkers in 2011. First results of the perinatal component of the French HBM program have shown that the biomarkers prioritized were relevant, as almost all pregnant women were exposed to them. However, for some biomarkers, levels' decreases have been observed which may partly be explained by measures taken to prohibit some of these chemicals (e.g. atrazine) and by industrial processes evolutions leading to the substitution of others (e.g. bisphenol A, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate/DEHP, dialkyl phosphates). Therefore, the list of biomarkers to be monitored in the French HBM program has been implemented to include some substitutes of biomarkers prioritized in the first instance (e.g. bisphenol S, F). Finally, this method combines rigor and flexibility and helped us to build a prioritized list that will be shared and supported by many if not all actors.

  2. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran. (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil


    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych


    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  4. Taxonomy-free molecular diatom index for high-throughput eDNA biomonitoring. (United States)

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Cordonier, Arielle; Straub, François; Iseli, Jennifer; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan


    Current biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring are largely based on the morphological identification of selected bioindicator taxa. Recently, several attempts have been made to use eDNA metabarcoding as an alternative tool. However, until now, most applied metabarcoding studies have been based on the taxonomic assignment of sequences that provides reference to morphospecies ecology. Usually, only a small portion of metabarcoding data can be used due to a limited reference database and a lack of phylogenetic resolution. Here, we investigate the possibility to overcome these limitations using a taxonomy-free approach that allows the computing of a molecular index directly from eDNA data without any reference to morphotaxonomy. As a case study, we use the benthic diatoms index, commonly used for monitoring the biological quality of rivers and streams. We analysed 87 epilithic samples from Swiss rivers, the ecological status of which was established based on the microscopic identification of diatom species. We compared the diatom index derived from eDNA data obtained with or without taxonomic assignment. Our taxonomy-free approach yields promising results by providing a correct assessment for 77% of examined sites. The main advantage of this method is that almost 95% of OTUs could be used for index calculation, compared to 35% in the case of the taxonomic assignment approach. Its main limitations are under-sampling and the need to calibrate the index based on the microscopic assessment of diatoms communities. However, once calibrated, the taxonomy-free molecular index can be easily standardized and applied in routine biomonitoring, as a complementary tool allowing fast and cost-effective assessment of the biological quality of watercourses.

  5. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium). (United States)

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen


    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  6. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteleyn, L., E-mail: [KU Leuven (Belgium); Dumez, B. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G. [VITO (Belgium); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Ruhr Universität Bochum (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Exley, K.; Sepai, O. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [Kobenhavns Universitet (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [Federal Public Service Health, Food chain safety and Environment (Belgium); Koppen, G. [VITO (Belgium); Dewolf, M-C. [Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire (HVS) and Hygiene Publique in Hainaut (HPH) (Belgium); and others


    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  7. Use of the induced gene-expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a biomonitor; Nutzung der induzierbaren Genexpression des Nematoden Caenorhabditis elegans als Biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, R.; Reichert, K.; Achazi, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Biologie - Oekotoxikologie und Biochemie


    The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the simplest animals having the status of a laboratory model. Its already completely sequenced genome contains the remarkable number of 80 cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and many further genes coding for enzymes involved in biotransformation. In order to study xenobiotically induced gene expression in C. elegans, liquid cultures were exposed to different, well-known xenobiotic inducers. The mRNA expression was detected by two different types of DNA arrays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. {beta}-naphthoflavone, PCB52 and lansoprazol were the most active and, in particular, induced almost all CYP35 isoforms strongly. In conclusion, the xenobiotic dependent gene expression of C. elegans is a useful tool to reveal defense mechanisms against potential damaging substances as well as for developing a biomonitoring system. (orig.) [German] Der Bodennematode Caenorhabditis elegans gilt als das einfachste mehrzellige Tier mit dem Status eines Labormodels. Basierend auf seinem entschluesselten Genom konnte die bemerkenswerte Zahl von 80 Cytochrom P450 Genen (CYP) und eine Vielzahl weiterer Gene, welche fuer Enzyme der Biotransformation kodieren, identifiziert werden. Die differentielle Genexpression von C. elegans nach Schadstoffzugabe wurde in Fluessigkulturen mit 18 Xenobiotika aus unterschiedlichen Schadstoffgruppen untersucht. Anschliessend wurde die mRNA Expression mit DNA Arrays und semi-quantitativer RT-PCR bestimmt. {beta}-Naphthoflavone, PCB52 and Lansoprazol erwiesen sich dabei als die wirksamsten Induktoren und konnten unter anderen alle CYP 35 Isoformen stark induzieren. Mit diesen Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die schadstoffinduzierte Genexpression in C. elegans ein adaequates System ist, um sowohl Detoxifikationsmechanismen zu untersuchen als auch ein Biomonitorscreening aufzubauen. (orig.)

  8. Biomonitoring of Occupational Exposure to Total Arsenic and Total Mercury in Urine of Goldmine Workers in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Gyeabour Abrefah


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of total arsenic and total mercury in the urine of goldmine workers in south-western Ghana due to occupational exposure was conducted to determine whether occupational exposure substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic and mercury. The urine was collected after 2-day abstinence from sea foods by the workers and from those with no dental amalgam fillings. Total arsenic and total mercury were simultaneously determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. After 1-hour irradiation of the urine in Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor (GHARR-1 to induce 76As and 197Hg radionuclides through nuclear reactions 75As(n, γ76As, and 196Hg(n, γ197Hg, the γ-radiation intensity of the induced 76As and 197Hg radionuclides were measured by γ-spectrometry. The validity of the INAA technique for As and Hg determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 3103a (As standard solution and NIST SRM 3133 (Hg standard solution, respectively. The mean mass fractions of arsenic in the urine are 6.76 µg/L ± 1.43, 7.78 µg/L ± 1.33, 8.03 µg/L ± 1.75, 10.44 µg/L ± 1.88, and 14.75 µg/L ± 1.62 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The levels of arsenic in the urine are all within the 5 to 40 µg As L-1 day-1 normal range for excretion of arsenic. The observed mass fraction of As was higher in high exposure workers. The mean mass fraction of Hg in the urine are 0.36 µg/L ± 0.11, 0.47 µg/L ± 0.12, 0.51 µg/L ± 0.16, 0.57 µg/L ± 0.14, and 0.56 µg/L ± 0.21 for workers in offices 10 km from the mine, 2 km from the mine, 0.5 km from the mine, casual mine workers, and gold ore processing workers, respectively. The high Hg exposed workers engage in small scale gold mining using mercury. The exposure of the different categories of workers to both total arsenic and total mercury are safe.

  9. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  10. Miniaturized video-microscopy system for near real-time water quality biomonitoring using microfluidic chip-based devices (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nigam, Abhimanyu; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald


    Biomonitoring studies apply biological responses of sensitive biomonitor organisms to rapidly detect adverse environmental changes such as presence of physic-chemical stressors and toxins. Behavioral responses such as changes in swimming patterns of small aquatic invertebrates are emerging as sensitive endpoints to monitor aquatic pollution. Although behavioral responses do not deliver information on an exact type or the intensity of toxicants present in water samples, they could provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than lethal endpoints such as mortality. Despite the advantages of behavioral biotests performed on sentinel organisms, their wider application in real-time and near realtime biomonitoring of water quality is limited by the lack of dedicated and automated video-microscopy systems. Current behavioral analysis systems rely mostly on static test conditions and manual procedures that are time-consuming and labor intensive. Tracking and precise quantification of locomotory activities of multiple small aquatic organisms requires high-resolution optical data recording. This is often problematic due to small size of fast moving animals and limitations of culture vessels that are not specially designed for video data recording. In this work, we capitalized on recent advances in miniaturized CMOS cameras, high resolution optics and biomicrofluidic technologies to develop near real-time water quality sensing using locomotory activities of small marine invertebrates. We present proof-of-concept integration of high-resolution time-resolved video recording system and high-throughput miniaturized perfusion biomicrofluidic platform for optical tracking of nauplii of marine crustacean Artemia franciscana. Preliminary data demonstrate that Artemia sp. exhibits rapid alterations of swimming patterns in response to toxicant exposure. The combination of video-microscopy and biomicrofluidic platform facilitated straightforward recording of fast moving objects. We

  11. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins (United States)


    11.11.2. The samples resulting from the various treatments were tested in the competitive ELISA . Treatment Vih alkli Single-stranded calf-thymus DNA...exposure, Biomonitoring, Verification, Immunochemical detection, Competitive ELISA , Interstrand DNA crossslinking, Alkaline elution. Monoclonal antibodies...material at 50 ng per well. A competitive ELISA was developed in which mustard gas adducts to DNA could be detected with a minimum detectable amount of a few

  12. AQB - air quality biomonitoring an innovative and standardized approach for the evaluation of traffic pollutant diffusion in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virano, M. [SITAF Spa, Susa (Italy); Orsi, M. [Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy); Badino, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo; Ostacoli, G.; Zelano, V.; Gastaldi, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Analitica; Parodi, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo]|[Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy)


    AQB - Air Quality Biomonitoring - is a wide scale, effective and valid biorecording system at both a scientific and an economic level. It enables a detailed evaluation of pollutant diffusion in space, as well as their accumulation over time. The data relate to the diffusion of pollutants (PAH and heavy metals) due to traffic emissions on the A32 Turin-Bardonecchia motorway. Results were obtained using aeroponic culture biostations equipped with vegetal biosensors: Brassica oleracea and Holcus lanatus. (orig.)

  13. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study


    Sanders, Alison P.; Miller, Sloane K.; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C.


    Background In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in...

  14. Anwendung des Comet Assay (Einzelzell-Gelelektrophorese) an Zellen von Fischen zum Nachweis gentoxischer Wirkungen im aquatischen Biomonitoring



    Gewässer sind Lebensgrundlage, jedoch gleichzeitig Schadstoffsenken für eine Vielzahl von Kontaminanten. Biologische Wirkungstests und das Biomonitoring aquatischer Proben sind daher besonders wichtig, um Umwelt-Gefahrenpotenziale erkennen zu können. Der "Comet Assay" (Einzelzell-Gelelektrophorese) ist ein Indikator von DNA-Strangbrüchen und wurde hier als Test auf gentoxische Wirkungen erprobt und angewandt. Mit bekannten, gentoxischen Substanzen wurden Nachweisgrenzen und Dosis-Wirkungs-Be...

  15. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant. (United States)

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna


    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  16. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county



    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  17. The skin of Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) as a biomonitor of mercury and selenium in Subantarctic waters. (United States)

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Goodall, R Natalie P; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Cappozzo, H Luis; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio


    The skin of bycaught Commerson's dolphins was tested for mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomonitoring in Subantarctic environments. The correlation of levels detected in the skin with those found in internal tissues - lung, liver, kidney and muscle - was assessed to evaluate how skin represents internal Hg and Se distribution for monitoring purposes. Mercury in skin had a concentration range of 0.68-3.11 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), while Se had a higher concentration range of 74.3-124.5 μg g(-1) DW. There was no significant correlation between selenium levels in any of the analyzed tissues. Thus, the skin selenium concentration did not reflect the tissular Se levels and did not provide information for biomonitoring. The lack of correlation is explained by the biological role of Se, provided that each tissue regulates Se levels according to physiological needs. However, the skin Hg level had significant positive correlation with the levels in internal tissues (ANOVA pbioindication using skin biopsies is a non-lethal approach that allows screening of a large number of specimens with little disturbance and makes possible an adequate sampling strategy that produces statistically valid results in populations and study areas. The correlation between Hg levels in the skin and internal tissues supports the use of the epidermis of Commerson's dolphins for Hg biomonitoring in the waters of the Subantarctic, which is a poorly studied region regarding Hg levels, sources and processes.

  18. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail:; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  19. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard


    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  20. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children]. (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U


    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  1. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)


    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  2. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige


    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  3. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution. (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad


    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  4. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.


    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  5. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring. (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar


    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development.

  6. Large-Scale Biomonitoring of Remote and Threatened Ecosystems via High-Throughput Sequencing (United States)

    Gibson, Joel F.; Shokralla, Shadi; Curry, Colin; Baird, Donald J.; Monk, Wendy A.; King, Ian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad


    Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness, estimation of proportional abundance, and calculation of biodiversity metrics using a set of 24 benthic samples collected in the Peace-Athabasca Delta region of Canada. The high-throughput sequencing approach was able to recover all metrics with a higher degree of taxonomic resolution than morphological analysis. The reduced cost and increased capacity of DNA sequence-based approaches will finally allow environmental monitoring programs to operate at the geographical and temporal scale required by industrial and regulatory end-users. PMID:26488407

  7. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail:; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)


    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  8. Terrestrial gastropods (Helix spp) as sentinels of primary DNA damage for biomonitoring purposes: a validation study. (United States)

    Angeletti, Dario; Sebbio, Claudia; Carere, Claudio; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Pepe, Gaetano; Mosesso, Pasquale


    We validated the alkaline comet assay in two species of land snail (Helix aspersa and Helix vermiculata) to test their suitability as sentinels for primary DNA damage in polluted environments. The study was conducted under the framework of a biomonitoring program for a power station in Central Italy that had recently been converted from oil to coal-fired plant. After optimizing test conditions, the comet assay was used to measure the % Tail DNA induced by in vitro exposure of hemocytes to different concentrations of a reactive oxygen species (H2 O2 ). The treatment induced significant increases in this parameter with a concentration effect, indicating the effectiveness of the assay in snail hemocytes. After evaluating possible differences between the two species, we sampled them in three field sites at different distances from the power station, and in two reference sites assumed to have low or no levels of pollution. No species differences emerged. Percent Tail DNA values in snails from the sites near the power station were higher than those from control sites. An inverse correlation emerged between % Tail DNA and distance from the power station, suggesting that the primary DNA damage decreased as distance increased away from the pollution source. Detection of a gradient of heavy metal concentration in snail tissues suggests that these pollutants are a potential cause of the observed pattern. The comet assay appears to be a suitable assay and Helix spp. populations suitable sentinels to detect the genotoxic impact of pollutants.

  9. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman


    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  10. Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products. (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L


    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

  11. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten


    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively.

  12. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs. (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert


    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  13. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.


    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach. (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F


    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  15. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis. (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René


    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map.

  16. Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as passive biomonitors and as bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals. (United States)

    Ukpebor, Emmanuel Ehiabhi; Ukpebor, Justina Ebehirieme; Aigbokhan, Emmanuel; Goji, Idris; Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Okonkwo, Anthony Chinedum


    The suitability of two common and ubiquitously distributed and exotic ornamental plant species in Nigeria-Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as biomonitors and as effective bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) has been evaluated. Bark and leaf samples from these plant species were collected in June and July 2006 at five locations in Benin City. Four of the sampling sites were in areas of high traffic density and commercial activities, the fifth site is a remote site, selected to act as a control and also to provide background information for the metals. The plant samples were collected and processed using standard procedures and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The bark of the plants was able to bioaccumulate the trace metals, especially Pb which originates from anthropogenic contributions in the city. The Pb range of 20.00-70.00 microg/g measured for the bark samples of D. regia, exceeded the normal plant Pb concentration of 0.2-20.0 microg/g and most Pb data available in literature. The bark of the plants was observed to accumulate more metals compared to the leave, while D. regia was found to be slightly better than C. equisetifolia in trace metal uptake efficiency. Spatial variations in the distributions of Pb and Zn were significant (p < 0.05), and the continuous use of leaded fuel in Nigeria was identified as the predominant source of Pb in the atmosphere.

  17. Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia. (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris


    The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution.

  18. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.n [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J., E-mail: Juha.Piispanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Alber, R., E-mail: [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Aleksiayenak, Y., E-mail: [International Sakharov Environmental University, Minsk (Belarus); Blum, O., E-mail: blum@nbg.kiev.u [National Botanical Garden, Academy of Science of Ukraine, Timiryazevs' ka St. 1, 01014 Kyiv (Ukraine); Coskun, M., E-mail: [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dam, M., E-mail: mariad@us.f [Environment Agency, Traoagota 38, FO-165 Argir (Faroe Islands); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Fernandez, J.A., E-mail: jangel.fernandez@usc.e [University of Santiago de Compestela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frolova, M., E-mail: [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Maskavas Str. 165, Riga LV 1019 (Latvia); Frontasyeva, M., E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.e [University of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)


    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. - Since 1990, heavy metal concentrations in mosses have declined in Europe for most metals.

  19. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Mytilus galloprovincialis in Safi coastal waters, Morocco. (United States)

    Maanan, Mohamed


    Heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated to provide information on pollution of Safi coastal area, since these metals have the highest toxic potential. The concentration of Hg and Pb was determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni) were quantified by AAS. High lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury levels were registered in tissue samples collected from two stations near the Jorf Lihoudi and Safi city, while elevated concentration of manganese and zinc (14.70-25.30 mg kg(-1) and 570-650 mg kg(-1) dry wt, respectively) were found in mussel specimens from Cap Cantin. The high levels of nickel found respectively in the areas near the industrial area being of concern in terms of environmental health need frequent monitoring. The metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations may be considered as useful background levels to which to refer for comparison within the Atlantic coast. M. galloprovincialis are suitable biomonitors to investigate the contamination levels of heavy metals pollution face a different human activity in this coastal area of the Atlantic coast.

  20. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N


    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  1. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McNally


    Full Text Available There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  2. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation. (United States)

    McNally, Kevin; Cotton, Richard; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Bartels, Mike; Rick, David; Price, Paul; Loizou, George


    There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  3. Application of Biomonitoring in Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards%生物监测任化学危害物风险评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春峰; Richard A.KREUTZER; 刘弘


    Risk assessment was widely used as a scientific tool around the world to evaluate the probability of human health effects resulting from chemical hazards exposure. However, limited resources increased the uncertainties in most risk assessments such as lack of human exposure and dose data. Biomonitoring was a direct way to provide human data on internal exposure and early effects for a more precise and realistic risk assessment. Many developed countries and international institutes had established biomonitoring progtams and encourage applying biomonitoring data in the risk assessment process. This article addressed the definition and development of biomonitoring, depicts the use of biomonitoring in chemical risk assessment and exposure assessment,illustrates the interpretation of biomonitoring data for risk assessment, and illuminates the limitations of integration of biomonitoring data in risk assessment. In conclusion, biomonitoring has the potential to greatly improve chemical risk assessment with the accumulation of relevant data.%风险评估,是目前国际上推崇的评估暴露于环境化学危害物导致不良人体健康效应概率的科学方法,己在世界各国广泛使用.然而,在大部分的风险评估中,因缺乏人群暴露和剂量的数据而增加了评估的不确定性.生物监测能提高风险评估的准确性和真实性,直接提供人体内暴露和早期效应的信息.目前,许多国际组织和发达国家已建立生物监测项目,并鼓励将生物监测数据应用干风险评估之中.本文将阐述生物监测的定义和发展,详细描述化学危害物风险评估和暴露评估中生物监测的作用,举例说明风险评估中生物监测数据的解释,以及整合生物监测的局限性.总之,随着各类数据的积累,生物监测有能力使化学危害物风险评估更完善.

  4. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  5. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae: implications for biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Sáez

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast, concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  6. Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data. (United States)

    Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang


    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae): implications for biomonitoring. (United States)

    Sáez, Claudio A; Lobos, M Gabriela; Macaya, Erasmo C; Oliva, Doris; Quiroz, Waldo; Brown, Murray T


    Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps) is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast), concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al) were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  8. Caddisflies Hydropsyche spp. as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailability thresholds causing disturbance in freshwater stream benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awrahman, Zmnako; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D;


    systems. Use of a combined toxic unit approach, relying on independent data sets, suggested that copper and probably also arsenic are the drivers of mayfly ecotoxicity in the River Hayle and the Red River in Cornwall, while cadmium, lead and zinc are the toxic agents in the Biala Przemsza River in Poland....... This approach has great potential as a simple tool to detect the more subtle effects of mixed trace metal contamination in freshwater systems. An informed choice of suitable biomonitor extends the principle to different freshwater habitats over different ranges of severity of trace metal contamination....

  9. The use of moss as biomonitors of atmospherical deposition in Romania. An example from the Eastern Carpathian mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, A. [' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)


    In the last thirty years, the use of naturally growing mosses as biomonitors in the study of atmospheric deposition of the heavy metals became a common method for monitoring air pollution. Naturally growing mosses have a primitive structure with no specialization of cells within the tissue. Mosses are able to concentrate and to solubilize some chemical species of environmental pollutants. Because the contact between the moss and the soil (or rock) is very weak, it is possible that the moss can not absorb notable quantities of metal ions from the soil. (orig.)

  10. Biomonitoring of air pollution by organic compounds in the city of Graz and the industrial area of Leoben-Donawitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Stuttgart (Germany). Bau und Betrieb Umwelt Service; Pirker, D.; Pongratz, T.; Schopper, A. [Amt der Steiermaerkischen Landesregierung, Graz (Austria). Fachabteilung 1a; Waikinat, I. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Bau und Betrieb


    The air pollution of some persistent organic compounds (PAH, PCB, PCDD/F) was measured in two regions of Styria/Austria, Graz and Leoben, by biomonitoring methods. These measurements were carried out in addition to the air quality monitoring network, the monitoring of airborne dust, contaminated with dioxines and furanes and the contamination of soil. Urban emissions (traffic, domestic heating) of air pollutants dominate the pollution level in Graz. Emissions of iron and steel industry are responsible for problems in air quality in Leoben-Donawitz. (orig.)

  11. Biomonitoring of ozone: a tool to initiate the young people into the scientific method and air pollution impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, J.F. [INA PG /INRA - Unite Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval Grignon (France); Maronnier, D. [ALOISE, Les Mureaux (France). Site de l' Oseraie


    An operation of air quality biomonitoring is proposed collectively by an agricultural research centre (INRA) and an association of scientific leisure activities (ALOISE) in the region of Paris. The operation consists in realizing a map of ozone impacts on tobacco Bel-W3 plants using observations made by school pupils. The main objectives are to introduce the young people to the scientific method by an experimental approach, to incite them to work on the air quality problems, and to allow them to meet researchers. The first educational results are encouraging. However, the standardization of the observations should be improved to allow the realization of reliable maps. (orig.)

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring (United States)

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.


    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton acts as a primary producer and biological filter of aquatic ecosystem. Jute retting during monsoon is a common anthropological activity in the rural Bengal. Quantitative seasonal bio-monitoring of phytoplankton community composition with relative abundance and its diversity indices was carried out in this study from April 2013 to March 2014 to assess water quality and the impact of jute retting on phytoplankton diversity of a tropical fresh water oxbow lake in Nadia district of India. We recorded a total of 34 genera of 5 distinct classes, Chlorophyceae (15, Bacillariophyceae (13, Cyanophyceae (4, Dinophyceae (1 and Euglenophyceae (1. Members of Chlorophyceae dominated throughout the year. Unlike Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae was found to be significantly increased during monsoon when compared to the rest of the year. Average phytoplankton density was highest in post-monsoon (8760/L followed by monsoon (4680/L and pre-monsoon (3650/L. Owing to the dominance of class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae we found this lake to be oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Indices values of genera richness, Shannon-Wiener, evenness and Simpson’s diversity reached their lowest 14, 1.61, 0.61 and 0.68 in monsoon and highest 23, 2.42, 0.77 and 0.86 in post monsoon respectively. The lowest diversity values during monsoon clearly suggested that the selected lake has highest anthropogenic pollution due to jute retting which impacted significantly on phytoplankton diversity. Therefore, the lake is not conducive for fish growth especially during monsoon and we opine that there is a need to regulate jute retting process, intensity and its density in the lake during the monsoon to ensure enhanced biodiversity for sustainable management and conservation of aquatic environment of this Oxbow lake.

  14. The effects of exposure duration and feeding status on fish bile metabolites: implications for biomonitoring. (United States)

    Brumley, C M; Haritos, V S; Ahokas, J T; Holdway, D A


    Biliary metabolites of 2-chlorosyringaldehyde (2-CSA), the major chlorinated phenol found in chlorine dioxide bleached eucalypt pulp effluent, have been found to be sensitive biomarkers of effluent exposure in the sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis). Before this method of biomonitoring can be applied in the field, the influences of exposure duration, depuration time, and fish feeding status on the level of this metabolite should be determined. In this study, sand flathead were exposed to a measured concentration of 0.3 microgram/1 of 2-CSA for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16 days. Fish previously exposed to 2-CSA were then held in sea-water alone for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 days. Fish were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment, and the fullness of the fish's stomach at the time of sampling was noted. There were no effects of exposure on biotransformation enzyme activities, either between exposure times or between the exposure and depuration periods. The major metabolite of 2-CSA, 2-chloro-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylalcohol (2-CB-OH), was first detected in the bile of some fish sampled after 24 h of exposure, and the mean concentration of 2-CB-OH in the bile increased over the exposure period. The mean concentration (+/- SE) of 2-CB-OH in the bile was strongly influenced by fish feeding status, being 94 +/- 18 ng/ml bile in fish with empty stomachs and undetectable in fish with full stomachs. Bile volume was also influenced by fish feeding status, being greatest in fish with empty stomachs at the time of sampling. Results indicate that the feeding status of fish should be taken into consideration when using biliary metabolites as biomarkers of effluent exposure in the field, and methods to establish this are discussed.

  15. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures. (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre


    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; van der Steen, Josef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio


    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.

  17. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures (United States)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  18. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors. (United States)

    El-Khatib, A A


    Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  19. Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers. (United States)

    Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing


    Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 α-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 β-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs.

  20. Biomonitoring and hormone-disrupting effect biomarkers of persistent organic pollutants in vitro and ex vivo. (United States)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Ghisari, Mandana; Wielsøe, Maria; Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Kjeldsen, Lisbeth S; Long, Manhai


    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and human beings. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo. Human beings are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in human beings. Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data.

  1. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects and elemental accumulation derived from air pollution in community urban gardens. (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais


    Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN.

  2. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas. (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano


    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  3. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta). (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka


    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  4. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)


    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  5. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution. (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei


    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  6. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail:; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)


    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases.

  7. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratola


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs, particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  8. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as a biomonitor of trace elements along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan. (United States)

    Shoults-Wilson, W Aaron; Elsayed, Norhan; Leckrone, Kristen; Unrine, Jason


    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has become an accepted biomonitor organism for trace elements, but it has yet to be studied along the Lake Michigan shoreline. Likewise, the relationships between tissue concentrations of elements, organism size, and sediment concentrations of elements have not been fully explained. The present study found that a variety of allometric variables such as length, dry tissue mass, shell mass, organism condition indices, and shell thickness index were useful in explaining intrasite variability in elemental concentrations. The flesh condition index (grams of tissue dry mass per gram of shell mass) explained variability at the most sites for most elements. Once allometric intrasite variability was taken into account, additional significant differences were found between sites, although the net effect was small. Significant positive relationships between sediment and tissue concentrations were found for Pb and Zn, with a significant negative relationship for Cd. It was also found that Cu and Zn concentrations in tissues increased significantly along the shoreline in the southeasterly direction, whereas Hg increased in a northwesterly direction. Opportunistic sampling found that zebra mussels accumulate significantly higher concentrations of nearly all elements analyzed compared to Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) at the same site. The present study demonstrates the need to fully explain natural sources of variability before using biomonitors to explain spatial distributions of trace elements.

  9. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study. (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A


    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  10. A biogeochemical approach to understanding the accumulation patterns of trace elements in three species of dragonfly larvae: evaluation as biomonitors. (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Rodríguez-Liñares, Genma; Garrido, Josefina; Bendicho, Carlos


    The accumulation patterns of different trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were studied in three species of dragonfly larvae (Cordulegaster boltoni, Boyeria irene and Onychogomphus uncatus). Additionally these species were assessed as potential biomonitors in a lotic ecosystem (Louro River, Spain). Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in both dragonfly larvae and river sediments. The surface of the larvae was observed and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A desorption test was used to establish the percentage of element adsorbed into the exoskeleton. Field biomonitoring studies were made considering the first part of the river as a control area in relation to the second part, which was severely polluted by industrial and domestic activities. Upon application of principal component analysis (PCA), two different element groups were found in relation to element bioaccumulation. Cu, Cd and Zn were mainly associated with the inner part of the larvae. As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were found on the outer body parts, related with deposition of oxyhydroxides in the hydrocycle. SEM revealed a layer of inorganic particles, similar in composition to fine bed sediments. Significant relations between the element content of this group and that of sediments at the sampling site were found. Differences in bioaccumulation for each of the three species, except for As, were observed. Dragonfly larvae revealed their ability to reflect environmental concentrations of As in freshwater media.

  11. The comet assay as a rapid test in biomonitoring occupational exposure to DNA-damaging agents and effect of confounding factors. (United States)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, L E; Loft, S; Wallin, H


    Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. The assay is easily performed on WBCs and has been included in a wide range of biomonitoring studies of occupational exposures encompassing styrene, vinyl chloride, 1,3-butadiene, pesticides, hair dyes, antineoplastic agents, organic solvents, sewage and waste materials, wood dust, and ionizing radiation. Eleven of the occupational studies were positive, whereas seven were negative. Notably, the negative studies appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue that none of the confounding factors are unequivocally positive in the majority of the studies. We recommend that age, gender, and smoking status be used as criteria for the selection of populations and that data on exercise, diet, and recent infections be registered before blood sampling. Samples from exposed and unexposed populations should be collected at the same time to avoid seasonal variation. In general, the comet assay is considered a suitable and fast test for DNA-damaging potential in biomonitoring studies.

  12. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral response following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Hoorn, van M.K.; Faassen, E.J.; Dam, van J.W.; Murk, A.J.


    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Human biomonitoring of early genetic effects requires accurate, sensitive and, if possible, easy and not too time-consuming methodologies to assess mutations. One of the most promising methodologies today is the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay, which detects both chromosome breakage and chromosome loss in once-divided

  14. Biomonitoring of urinary metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) following human consumption of cooked chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz


    Human risk assessment of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through the diet may be improved by conducting biomonitoring studies comparing metabolism in humans and rodents. Eleven volunteers ingested a meal of cooked chicken containing 4-OH-PhIP and PhIP in amounts...

  15. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR


    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  16. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies. (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A


    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  17. Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ® (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.


    sensitive effect analysis of water contaminants in respective environments. AquaHab ® is currently under development to an early warning biomonitoring system using genetically modified fish and green algae. The implementation of biosensors/biochip in addition is also discussed.

  18. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results. (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen


    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  19. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L


    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  20. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study). (United States)

    De Felip, Elena; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bove, Crescenzo; Cori, Liliana; D'Argenzio, Angelo; D'Orsi, Giancarlo; Fusco, Mario; Miniero, Roberto; Ortolani, Rosanna; Palombino, Raffaele; Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena; Piscopo, Giovanni; Pizzuti, Renato; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Protano, Domenico; Senofonte, Oreste; Spena, Silvana Russo; Simonetti, Andrea; di Domenico, Alessandro


    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20-64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD+PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26-23.1 (12.4), 3.42-31.7 (11.5), 10.0-52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5-647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99-8.77, 4.02-6.15, 10.0-14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7-74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34-13.4 (5.83), 0.180-0.930 (0.475), 1.09-7.60 (2.60), 10.2-55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78-5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965-6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs+PCDFs), and Qualiano-Villaricca (As, Hg). The analysis of samples


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.


    This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active

  2. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan. (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib


    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively.

  3. Biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in child populations living near contaminated sites in Mexico. (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Van Brussel, E; Cubillas-Tejeda, A C; Carrizales-Yáñez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F


    The aim of this study was to conduct a POP biomonitoring programme for children in high-risk areas. We evaluated 247 serum samples from children between the ages of 6 and 12years old from two zones in Mexico: (1) indigenous zones, which included Cuatlamayan (CUA), Tocoy (TOC), and Santa Maria Picula (SAM); and (2) industrial zones, which included Tercera Chica (TC), Industrial San Luis (IND) and Rincon de San Jose (SJR); Mundo Nuevo (MN); and Alpuyeca (ALP). Our results showed that α-endosulfan was similar to CUA, TOC, SAM, TC and MN (178.6-306.9ng/g lipid). β-Endosulfan levels were higher in ALP (901.5ng/g lipid), followed by CUA (139.9ng/g lipid) and TOC, SAM, TC and MN, which had similar levels (55.4-64.5ng/g lipid). For endosulfan sulfate, the ALP community had the highest concentration levels (1096.4ng/g lipid), whereas CUA and TOC (212.3 and 289ng/g lipid, respectively) had concentrations similar to those found in SAM and TC (99.5 and 119.1ng/g lipid, respectively). DDE levels were found in malaria-endemic areas of SAM, CUA and TOC (1782.2, 1358.3 and 57.0ng/g lipid), followed by MN (35.1ng/g lipid). HCB concentration levels were found to be higher in MN and SJR (691.8 and 575.4ng/g lipid, respectively), followed by CUA and TC (363.9 and 269.1ng/g lipid, respectively), with levels similar to those found in TOC and SAM (191.8 and 181.9ng/g lipid, respectively). Finally, PCB 101 concentration levels were found to be the highest in ALP (1032.7ng/g lipid), followed by similar levels of SJR and IND (567.5 and 327.3ng/g lipid, respectively) and TC and MN, with 109.1 and 144.5ng/g lipid, respectively. The evidence provided by this exploratory study indicates that the evaluation of the health risks posed to children living in contaminated areas is a high priority health issue.

  4. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

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    Arendt Maryse


    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  5. Influência de poluentes atmosféricos em Belo Jardim (PE utilizando Cladonia verticillaris (líquen como biomonitor Influence of atmospheric pollutants in Belo Jardim (PE using Cladonia verticillaris (lichen as biomonitor

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    Fernando de Oliveira Mota Filho


    Full Text Available Cladonia verticillaris used in this study was collected in the cerrado vegetation of Saloá (PE, Brazil and transplanted in plastic containers on soil from the collection place to Belo Jardim (PE that possesses lead smelters and battery industries. The experiments were disposed at eleven different places for evaluating the dispersion of pollutants and their effects on the biomonitor. The exposed lichens were collected over eight months and submitted to thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographies, and scanning electron microscopy. C. verticillaris placed in the vicinity of the emission sources demonstrated alteration in its metabolism, decreasing the production of its major compound, fumarprotocetraric acid, and deterioration of its external and internal surfaces.


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    Graziela Consentini das Chagas


    Full Text Available Determinations of Al and Mn concentrations in the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas and muscle of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis and water samples, both collected from sites on tributaries of the Corumbataí River (São Paulo, Brazil were performed. The Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF, calculated for different sites with respect to the water concentration, ranged from 173-555 for Al and from 636 - 921 for Mn. Dissolved concentrations of Al and Mn in water samples (collected in different sites were related to the accumulation of these metals in crabs, suggesting that T. fluviatilis is good biomonitor for Al and Mn pollution in aquatic ecosystem. = Foram determinadas as concentrações de Al e Mn nos tecidos (brânquias, hepatopancreas e músculos do caranguejo de água doce Trichodactylus fluviatilis e em amostras de água, ambos coletados em afluentes do Rio Corumbataí (São Paulo, Brasil. O Fator de Bioacumulação (BAF, calculado para os diferentes sítios de coletas em relação às respectivas concentrações nas amostras de água, encontrou-se entre 173 e 555 para Al e entre 636 e 921 para Mn. As concentrações de Al e Mn dissolvidos nas amostras de água (coletados nos diferentes sítios foram relacionadas à acumulação desses metais nos caranguejos, sugerindo que T. fluviatilis é um bom biomonitor da poluição de Al e Mn em ecossistemas aquáticos.

  7. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

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    Michał Olenycz


    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  8. Lichen Usnea barbata as biomonitor of airborne elements deposition in the Province of Tierra del Fuego (southern Patagonia, Argentina). (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Pino, Anna; Botrè, Francesco; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro


    Lichen Usnea barbata was tested as a possible biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in a supposedly pristine environment Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Lichen samples were collected in 2005 and again in 2006 in 71 sites covering almost the entire region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to define the background levels in the region. The quantification was carried out by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No relevant temporal accumulation patterns between 2005 and 2006 sampling campaigns were observed. Then, the results were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster and principal component analyses). Cluster analysis produced a dendrogram where the 71 sites were divided into four clusters at (Dlink/Dmax)100Fuego is not a relatively pristine environment as occasionally supposed. However, when comparing our results with other countries, Tierra del Fuego lichens have a very low content of the measured elements.

  9. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags. (United States)

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E


    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  10. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.


    This project examined and analyzed 560 fish representing eight species from 16 sites in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998. Ten of the 16 sampling locations were historical National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) sites where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. Five sites were co-located at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations at which water quality is monitored. The sampling location at Marine Park in Vancouver, Washington did not correspond to either of the established monitoring programs. Eight of the sampling locations were located on the Columbia River; three were on the Snake River; two were on the Willamette River, and one site was on each of the Yakima, Salmon and Flathead Rivers.

  11. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

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    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia


    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  12. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira


    The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a

  13. Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva

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    Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.


    Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

  14. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

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    Bouchard Michèle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  15. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.


    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  16. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study)

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    De Felip, Elena, E-mail: [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Bianchi, Fabrizio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); Bove, Crescenzo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Cori, Liliana [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); D' Argenzio, Angelo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); D' Orsi, Giancarlo [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Fusco, Mario [Registro Tumori della Regione Campania, ASL NA3 Sud, Naples (Italy); Miniero, Roberto [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Ortolani, Rosanna [ASL NA1 Centro, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Palombino, Raffaele [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Piscopo, Giovanni [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Pizzuti, Renato [Regione Campania, Assessorato alla Sanità, Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Naples (Italy); Porpora, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ginecologiche, Perinatologia, e Puericultura, Policlinico Umberto I, Università “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Protano, Domenico [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Senofonte, Oreste [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); and others


    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20–64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ{sub 6}PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ{sub 9}PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD + PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQ{sub TOT}, and Σ{sub 6}PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26–23.1 (12.4), 3.42–31.7 (11.5), 10.0–52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 55.5–647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99–8.77, 4.02–6.15, 10.0–14.2 pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 48.7–74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34–13.4 (5.83), 0.180–0.930 (0.475), 1.09–7.60 (2.60), 10.2–55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78–5.99 μg/L). Σ{sub 9}PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965–6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura

  17. Biomonitoring of essential and toxic metals in single hair using on-line solution-based calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Dressler, Valderi L; Pozebon, Dirce; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Matusch, Andreas; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, B; Sabine Becker, J


    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful and sensitive surface analytical technique for the determination of concentration and distribution of trace metals within biological systems at micrometer spatial resolution. LA-ICP-MS allows easy quantification procedures if suitable standard references materials (SRM) are available. In this work a new SRM-free approach of solution-based calibration method in LA-ICP-MS for element quantification in hair is described. A dual argon flow of the carrier gas and nebulizer gas is used. A dry aerosol produced by laser ablation (LA) of biological sample and a desolvated aerosol generated by pneumatic nebulization (PN) of standard solutions are carried by two different flows of argon as carrier or nebulizer gas, respectively and introduced separately in the injector tube of a special ICP torch, through two separated apertures. Both argon flows are mixed directly in the ICP torch. External calibration via defined standard solutions before analysis of single hair was employed as calibration strategy. A correction factor, calculated using hair with known analyte concentration (measured by ICP-MS), is applied to correct the different elemental sensitivities of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS. Calibration curves are obtained by plotting the ratio of analyte ion M(+)/(34)S(+) ion intensities measured using LA-ICP-MS in dependence of analyte concentration in calibration solutions. Matrix-matched on-line calibration in LA-ICP-MS is carried out by ablating of human hair strands (mounted on a sticky tape in the LA chamber) using a focused laser beam in parallel with conventional nebulization of calibration solutions. Calibrations curves of Li, Na, Mg, Al, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Tl, Bi and U are presented. The linear correlation coefficients (R) of calibration curves for analytes were typically between 0.97 and 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of

  18. Analysis of epiphytic lichen species for atmospheric pollutant biomonitoring use; Analise de especies de liquens epifiticos para uso na biomonitoracao de poluentes atmosfericos

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    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcelos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Honda, Neil K.; Siqueira, Onofre S. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Lichens are recognized as potential indicators of air pollution and they have been widely studied to be used as biomonitor of heavy metals. In this work, neutron activation analysis method was applied in the analysis of epiphytic lichen species Usnea meridionalis, Parmotrema tinctorum and Parmotrema dilatatum, collected in Vila Piraputanga, MS, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined at the levels of {mu}g g{sup -1} and As, Cs, Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and lanthanide elements at ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained showed that these three lichen species could be used in the environmental biomonitoring purposes. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA 336 Lichen and 1547 NIST Peach Leaves. (author)

  19. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.


    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  20. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchara Ivan


    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  1. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)


    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  2. Metal accumulation in mosses: local and regional boundary conditions of biomonitoring air pollution; Metallakkumulation in Moosen: Standoertliche und regionale Randbedingungen des Biomonitoring von Luftverunreinigung. T. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W.; Englert, C.; Pesch, R. [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Zechmeister, H.G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Conservation Biology, Vegetation- and Landscape Ecology; Thoeni, L. [FUB - Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Suchara, I. [Silva Tarouca Research Inst. for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Mankovska, B. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Landscape Ecology; Jeran, Z. [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Harmens, H. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Grodzinska, K. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). W. Szafer Inst. of Botany; Alber, R. [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, Laives (Italy)


    Several studies show that the concentration of metals in mosses depends not only on metal deposition but also on factors such as moss species, canopy drip, precipitation, altitude, distance to the sea and the analytical technique used. However, contrasting results have been reported and the interpretation of the spatial variability of the metal accumulation in mosses remains difficult. In the presented study existing monitoring data from the European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys together with surface data on precipitation, elevation and land use are statistically analysed to assess factors other than emissions that have an influence on the metal accumulation in the mosses. Main Features. Inference statistics and Spearman correlation analysis were applied to examine the association of the metal accumulation and the distance of the monitoring sites to the sea as well as the altitude. Whether or not significant differences of the metal loads in the mosses exist at national borders was examined with help of the U-test after Mann and Whitney. In order to identify and rank the factors that are assumed to have an influence on the metal uptake of the mosses Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were applied. Results. No clear tendency could be derived from the results of the inference statistical calculations and the correlation analyses with regard to the distance of the monitoring site to the sea and the altitude. According to the results of the CART-analyses mainly the moss species, potential emission sources around the monitoring sites, canopy drip and precipitation have an effect on the metal bioaccumulation. Assuming that each participating country followed strictly the manual for sampling and sample preparation the results of the inference statistical calculations furthermore suggest that in most cases different techniques for digestion and analysis bias the measurements significantly. Discussion. For the first time a national monitoring data base consisting

  3. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn


    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  4. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants (United States)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  5. Statistical significance of biomonitoring of marine algae for trace metal levels in a coral environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinath, A.; Muraleedharan, N.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    the ability of algae to accumulate a particular metal from among the metals studied. To show the similarity between species and metal uptake, a group linkage clustering technique was used and the results were depicted using dendrogram. The marked similarities...

  6. Importance of soil contamination in Hylocomium Splendens used as biomonitor of atmospheric trace element deposition in remote areas; Importanza della contaminazione da suolo in Hylocmium Splendens utilizzato come biomonitor della deposizione atmosferica di elementi in traccia in zone remote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spazzano, P.; Bari, A.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Saluggia, VC (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente, Sez. Componente Biotica degli Ecosistemi


    In the framework of a monitoring programme in rural areas using Hylocomium Splendens as biomonitor, several mass and soil samples were collected in different sampling stations. The soil content of analysed moss samples ranged from 1.7 to 7.7% on a dry mass basis as evaluated using aluminium as an indicator of soil retention. Soil particles entrapped by mosses affect the contamination levels of trace elements contributing to the variability of element concentrations. The normalisation of mass concentrations to the element concentrations in surface soils by calculating enrichment factor (EF) does not seem to be able to discriminate between soil-derived and anthropogenic contribution of trace elements. [Italian] Nell'ambito di un progetto di monitoraggio della deposizione atmosferica di metalli pesanti in zone rurali sono stati raccolti in differenti stazioni campioni di muschio e di suolo superficiale. L'articolo analizza i risultati ottenuti: le particelle di suolo ritenute nei muschi condizionano notevolmente i livelli di metalli in traccia di interesse ambientale e contribuiscono alla variabilita' delle concentrazioni. La normalizzazione rispetto alle concetrazioni presenti nel suolo e calcolata mediante il fattore di arricchimento (FA) non sembra in grado di differenziare tra contributo di origine terrigena ed eventuale contributo antropico.

  7. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Malekei-Ravasan


    Full Text Available Background: Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures.Methods: In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method. Results: Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abun­dant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality. Conclusion: From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  8. Testing a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators. (United States)

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Fustinoni, Silvia; Moretto, Angelo; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Riso, Patrizia; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Hetmanski, Michel T; Fussell, Richard J; van Klaveren, Jacob D


    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a Cumulative Action Group, considering dietary and non-dietary sources and multiple exposure routes. To test the model a field study was carried out in Italy with operators applying tebuconazole fungicides, with measurements of dermal exposure collected. Whole urine samples were collected and analysed to provide values for the absorbed dose of tebuconazole, with duplicate diet samples collected and analysed as a measure of dietary exposures. The model provided predicted values of exposure for combined dietary and non-dietary routes of exposures which were compared to the measured absorbed dose values based on urinary analysis. The model outputs provided mean daily exposure values of 1.77 (± 1.96) µg a.s./kg BW which are comparable to measured mean values from the biomonitoring field study of 1.73 (± 1.31) µg a.s./kg BW. To supplement the limited measurement data available, comparisons against other models were also made and found to be comparable.

  9. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity. (United States)

    Legler, J; Leonards, P; Spenkelink, A; Murk, A J


    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from these solid phase matrices do not contain the well-known estrogenic compounds such as hormones, alkylphenols and phthalates. An in vitro 'estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression' (ER-CALUX) assay was applied to samples from various locations in the Netherlands. Estrogenic activity measured in polar fractions of particulate matter and sediment extracts ranged from below detection limit to up to 4.5 pmol estradiol equivalents (EEQ)/g dry weight. Estrogenic activity in freshwater river sediments was up to five times higher compared to sediments from large lakes and coastal locations. Tissue extracts EEQs were determined in bream (Abramis brama), flounder (Platichthysflesus), freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis). The highest biota EEQ levels were found in the freshwater zebra mussel (30 pmol EEQ/g lipid). One sample site showed greatly elevated EEQs in sediment and biota, which correlated with effects found in the wild populations of bream. The EEQ activity of the unknown compounds in the polar fraction mostly was much higher than the calculated EEQ levels based on known estrogens in the non-polar fraction (previously published data).

  10. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment. (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H


    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  11. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  12. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels. (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa


    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  13. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet A. Renieri


    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy being the most popular. Most of the literature reviewed is focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. Results from the studies indicate that metals mostly accumulate in liver, followed by muscle. Although there are few studies reporting metal levels in fish exceeding the maximum residue levels (MRLs, the bulk of the studies cite levels below the MRLs. The hazard index (HI of fish consumption, namely the ratio of estimated weekly intake to provisional tolerable weekly intake (EWI/PTWI was estimated for adult consumers and no risk emerged. The EWI/PTWI ratios of lead and mercury for Italy (0.14 and 0.22 respectively represent the highest HI levels estimated. In view of maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks of fish consumption, a more detailed fish-specific database on intakes for consumers is required and extended bimonitoring in as many regions as possible.

  14. Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) biomonitoring of trace element contamination and air quality assessment in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scerbo, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Via S. Lorenzo 26, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Possenti, L.; Barale, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Via Volta, Pisa (Italy); Lampugnani, L. [CNR Istituto di Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Via Risorgimento, Pisa (Italy)


    This paper deals with the biomonitoring of air in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy) using lichens for both quantitative monitoring of airborne metals and air quality assessment. On the basis of the possible sources of metal pollution in the study area, the following elements were analyzed: As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn and Hg. The small number of lichen species, the often stunted appearance of the specimens, and metal analysis revealed widespread atmospheric pollution in the study area. The results indicate extensive anthropic impact. The highest levels of contamination were recorded for Hg, Cd, Pb, and V concentrations. Good agreement was found between bioindication and metal concentrations in lichens. The impact of anthropic activities is particularly due to steelworks and chemical plants, combustion processes related to energy production and vehicle emissions. In addition to air pollution, some natural factors, such as climate, rocky shores or ozone, were assumed to affect lichen occurrence. Comparison with the Lake Orta area in northern Italy showed Livorno Province was more contaminated by trace elements. Similar contamination levels were found in another area of Tuscany, probably due to the geological characteristics of this region.

  15. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part I: magnetic properties (United States)

    Urbat, M.; Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    High resolution temporal and spatial control of atmospheric pollutants is of crucial importance for environmental health monitoring. Passive sampling using natural vegetation biomonitoring allows acquisition of well-defined samples at affordable costs. We here present results from a study conducted in the conurbation of Cologne, Germany, based on airborne pollutants accumulated on pine needles. This integrated study includes (i) the microscopic analysis of pine needles and analysis of their magnetic properties, (ii) PAH, and (iii) selected trace elements (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu). A major proportion of atmospheric pollutants is bound to particles, for which in part I of the study we present data on magnetic susceptibility, remanence measurements (IRM, ARM) and total Fe content. SEM-analysis indicates that particles accumulated on needles are mostly brake-wear and from railroad and tram traffic preferentially due to material wear. Parks, forests and agricultural areas show the lowest levels of pollution by magnetic particles, followed by residential areas. This implies that traffic emissions with short transportation distances (<1.0 km) are dominant in the Cologne conurbation, whereas the contribution from power plants is negligible.

  16. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)


    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  17. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia. (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel


    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  18. A Sensor Array Using Multi-functional Field-effect Transistors with Ultrahigh Sensitivity and Precision for Bio-monitoring (United States)

    Kim, Do-Il; Quang Trung, Tran; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Jin-Su; Jeon, Sanghun; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jong-Jin; Lee, Nae-Eung


    Mechanically adaptive electronic skins (e-skins) emulate tactition and thermoception by cutaneous mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors in human skin, respectively. When exposed to multiple stimuli including mechanical and thermal stimuli, discerning and quantifying precise sensing signals from sensors embedded in e-skins are critical. In addition, different detection modes for mechanical stimuli, rapidly adapting (RA) and slowly adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors in human skin are simultaneously required. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of a highly sensitive, pressure-responsive organic field-effect transistor (OFET) array enabling both RA- and SA- mode detection by adopting easily deformable, mechano-electrically coupled, microstructured ferroelectric gate dielectrics and an organic semiconductor channel. We also demonstrate that the OFET array can separate out thermal stimuli for thermoreception during quantification of SA-type static pressure, by decoupling the input signals of pressure and temperature. Specifically, we adopt piezoelectric-pyroelectric coupling of highly crystalline, microstructured poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) gate dielectric in OFETs with stimuli to allow monitoring of RA- and SA-mode responses to dynamic and static forcing conditions, respectively. This approach enables us to apply the sensor array to e-skins for bio-monitoring of humans and robotics.

  19. Use of native mosses as biomonitors of heavy metals and nitrogen deposition in the surroundings of two steel works. (United States)

    González-Miqueo, L; Elustondo, D; Lasheras, E; Santamaría, J M


    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere.

  20. Chemical element accumulation in tree bark grown in volcanic soils of Cape Verde-a first biomonitoring of Fogo Island. (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Dias, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando


    Barks from Prosopis juliflora (acacia) were collected in 12 sites of different geological contexts over the volcanic Fogo Island (Cape Verde). Elemental contents of Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Zn and some rare earth elements (REE)-La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu, were obtained for biological samples and topsoils by using k 0-standardized and comparative method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), aiming the evaluation of chemical elements uptake by acacia bark. This first biomonitoring study of Fogo Island showed that, in general, significant accumulations of trace elements present in high amounts in these soils occur. This can be partially explained by the semi-arid climate with a consequent bioavailability of chemical elements when rain drops fall in this non-polluted environment. REE enrichment factors (EFs) increase with the decrease of ionic radius. Heavy REE (HREE) are significantly enriched in bark, which agrees with their release after the primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds than the other REE, and uptake by plants. Among the potential harmful chemical elements, Cr appears to be partially retained in nanoparticles of iron oxides. The high EFs found in tree barks of Fogo Island are certainly of geogenic origin rather than anthropogenic input since industry and the use of fertilizers is scarce.

  1. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Malekei-Ravasan


    Full Text Available Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures.In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method.Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abundant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality.From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  2. Statement by the Federal Environmental Office on nickel. Position of the ''Human Biomonitoring Commission'' of the Federal Environmental Office; Bekanntmachung des Umweltbundesamtes 'Nickel'. Stellungnahme der Kommission ''Human-Biomonitoring'' des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the focal areas of interest in environmental medicine are the sensitising and cancerogenic effects of nickel. There is no means within the realm of environmental medicine, nor in particular of biomonitoring, of either quantifying or preventing these two types of effects. However, there is evidence that even average rates of nickel uptake via food and water suffice to cause an aggravation or recurrence of nickel-induced contact eczemas. Nickel uptake rates in western industrial countries appear to be fairly uniform and roughly equal to nickel elimination via the urine. According to the present database 3 {mu}g appears to be a tenable reference value. Urinary nickel excretion levels in patients suffering from generalised nickel-induced contact eczemas who respond positively to epicutaneous tests could serve as an indicator of elevated nickel uptake via food or water. In the same way human biomonitoring could serve to determine the efficacy of nickel reducing dietary measures. [German] Im Bereich der Umweltmedizin steht die sensibilisierende und die krebserzeugende Wirkung von Nickel im Vordergrund des Interesses. Beide Wirkungen koennen im Bereich der Umweltmedizin durch ein Human-Biomonitoring weder quantifiziert noch verhindert werden. Es gibt jedoch Hinweise darauf, dass bereits die ueblicherweise ueber Nahrung und/oder Trinkwasser aufgenommene Nickelmenge zu einer Verschlimmerung oder zu einem Wiederauftreten von nickelbedingten Kontaktekzemen fuehren koennte. In den westlichen Industrielaendern scheint die Nickelaufnahme relative gleichfoermig zu sein und zu einer vergleichbaren Nickelausscheidung im Harn zu fuehren. Nach der aktuellen Datenlage kann 3 {mu}g/l als Referenzwert verwendet werden. Bei Patienten, die an generalisierten nickelbedingten Ekzemen leiden und die im Epikutantest positv auf Nickel reagieren, koennen anhand der Nickelausscheidung im Urin Hinweise auf eine moeglicherweise vermehrte Nickelaufnahme aus der Nahrung oder aus dem

  3. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals


    Balam Muñoz; Arnulfo Albores


    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring ...

  4. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai


    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  5. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria (United States)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 μg/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  6. Biomonitoring of humans exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and complex mixtures of metals by using the micronucleus test in lymphocytes. (United States)

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Bonassi, Stefano; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    Various metals have demonstrated genotoxic and carcinogenic potential via different mechanisms. Until now, biomonitoring and epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the genotoxic risk to exposed human populations. In this sense, the use of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes has proven to be a useful tool to determine increased levels of DNA damage, as a surrogate biomarker of cancer risk. Here we review those biomonitoring studies focused on people exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium and complex mixtures of metals. Only those studies that used the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated (BNMN) cells have been taken into consideration, although the inclusion of other biomarkers of exposure and genotoxicity are also reflected and discussed. Regarding arsenic, most of the occupational and environmental biomonitoring studies find an increase in BNMN among the exposed individuals. Thus, it seems conclusive that arsenic exposure increases the risk of exposed human populations. However, a lack of correlation between the level of exposure and the increase in BNMN is also common, and a limited number of studies evaluated the genotype as a risk modulator. As for chromium, a BNMN increase in occupationally exposed subjects and a correlation between level of exposure and effect is found consistently in the available literature. However, the quality score of the studies is only medium-low. On the other hand, the studies evaluating nickel and vanadium are scarce and lacks a correct characterization of the individual exposure, which difficult the building of clear conclusions. Finally, several studies with medium-high quality scores evaluated a more realistic scenario of exposure which takes into account a mixture of metals. Among them, those which correctly characterized and measured the exposure were able to find association with the level of BNMN. Also, several genes associated with DNA damage repair such as OGG1 and XRCC1 were

  7. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)


    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  8. The role of molecular biology in the biomonitoring of human exposure to chemicals. (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo


    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the "omic" sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  9. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo


    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions. PMID:21151453

  10. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balam Muñoz


    Full Text Available Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1 Use of cell cultures; (2 evaluation of gene expression; (3 the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics and (4 bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  11. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra


    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  12. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.


    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic....... This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly...

  13. Bioaccumulation of HMW PAHs in the roots of wild blackberry from the Bor region (Serbia): Phytoremediation and biomonitoring aspects. (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Jovanović, Vesna P Stankov; Mitić, Violeta D; Cvetković, Jelena S; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S


    In this work, the samples of roots and soils from the rooting zone of wild blackberry were collected from the urban-industrial and rural locations near "The Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor" (Serbia); they were analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method to determine the content of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). The obtained results were further processed using bio-concentration factor, Pearson's correlation study and hierarchical cluster analysis with the aim of investigating if they may be in favor of wild blackberry as a suitable plant for biomonitoring or phytoremediation purposes. In spite of the fact that numerous complex factors can affect the assimilation and accumulation of PAHs in plants, the obtained data expressed clearly many interesting specifics related to HMW PAH accumulation in roots of wild blackberry that naturally grows in an area, which is heavily polluted by heavy metals. The accumulation of individual PAH compounds in plant roots was at different level. The most abundant compound in all plant samples was benzo[a]pyrene and based on the results obtained for this environmental indicator of carcinogenic PAHs, it was possible to make several central conclusions: wild blackberry showed an excellent potential for its extraction from the soil and further accumulation in root tissues which indicate that this plant species may be applied in phytoremediation procedures based on mechanisms such as phytoextraction/phytoaccumulation in roots; phytostabilization and rhizodegradation are also possible as remediation mechanisms; utilization of plant roots in soil monitoring is possible but in this case, only the combination with soil data can provide correct information.

  14. Comprehensive analytical strategy for biomonitoring of pesticides in urine by liquid chromatography–orbitrap high resolution masss pectrometry. (United States)

    Roca, M; Leon, N; Pastor, A; Yusà, V


    In this study we propose an analytical strategy that combines a target approach for the quantitative analysis of contemporary pesticide metabolites with a comprehensive post-target screening for the identification of biomarkers of exposure to environmental contaminants in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). The quantitative method for the target analysis of 29 urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids, herbicides and fungicides was validated after a previous statistical optimization of the main factors governing the ion source ionization and a fragmentation study using the high energy collision dissociation (HCD) cell. The full scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), in both ESI+ and ESI− modes, and with and without HCD-fragmentation. The method – LOQ was lower than 3.2 μg L−1 for the majority of the analytes. For post-target screening a customized theoretical database was built, for the identification of 60 metabolites including pesticides, PAHs, phenols, and other metabolites of environmental pollutants. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass with less than 5 ppm, and diagnostic ions including isotopes and/or fragments were used. The analytical strategy was applied to 20 urine sample collected from children living in Valencia Region. Eleven target metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging from 1.18 to 131 μg L−1. Likewise, several compounds were tentatively identified in the post-target analysis belonging to the families of phthalates, phenols and parabenes. The proposed strategy is suitable for the determination of target pesticide biomarkers in urine in the framework of biomonitoring studies, and appropriate for the identification of other non-target metabolites.

  15. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds. (United States)

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R


    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case.

  16. Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Magnetic Measurements of Native and Transplanted Lichens; Two Case Studies Around Cement Plants (United States)

    Winkler, A.; Paoli, L.; Kodnik, D.; Candotto Carniel, F.; Guttová, A.; Loppi, S.; Sagnotti, L.; Tretiach, M.


    A cement plant is a source of dust pollution and lichens are suitable biomonitors of the impact of airborne pollutants released during cement production. We investigated the magnetic and chemical properties of lichens exposed around two cement plants, located in SW Slovakia and in NE Italy, respectively. We characterized the magnetic properties of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 180 days at selected sites around a Slovak cement plant in order to define the magnetic mineralogy and test the correlations between the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters and the content of heavy metals and crustal elements in the thalli. In addition, we compared the magnetic properties of the transplants to those carried by native thalli of the lichen Xanthoria parietina and neighboring soils, barks and rocks. The data indicated a substantial homogenous magnetic mineralogy, with the exception of a sample collected from a basalt quarry. The transplants showed an excellent correlation between the saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) and the concentration of Fe; the concentrations of the elements linked to cement production also correlated to Mrs values, apart from the basalt quarry sample. In the second context, we characterized the magnetic properties of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea transplanted near a cement plant in NE Italy. The transplants were exposed for 2 months in 40 sites distributed in surrounding rural, urban and industrial areas. In this case, the agreement between the magnetic and elemental datasets pointed out a modest environmental impact of the cement plant compared to the neighboring industrial activities, which resulted in significantly higher values of the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters. Magnetic analyses on lichens can expand the dataset of passive dust collectors in environmental magnetism, with the advantage, for the transplants, of precisely knowing the exposure time and the initial conditions.

  17. Determination of seven arsenic compounds in urine by HPLC-ICP-DRC-MS: a CDC population biomonitoring method. (United States)

    Verdon, Carl P; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Fresquez, Mark R; Jones, Robert L


    A robust analytical method has been developed and validated by use of high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology that separates seven arsenic (As) species in human urine: arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenate (As(V)), arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate. A polymeric anion-exchange (Hamilton PRP X-100) column was used for separation of the species that were detected at m/z 75 by ICP-DRC-MS (PerkinElmer SCIEX ELAN DRCII) using 10% hydrogen-90% argon as the DRC gas. The internal standard (As) is added postcolumn via an external injector with a sample loop. All analyte peaks were baseline-separated except AB and TMAO. Analytical method limits of detection for the various species ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 microg L(-1) as elemental As. As(III) conversion to As(V) was avoided by adjusting the urine sample to biomonitoring studies of As exposure. This method meets our requirement for sample throughput of 2,000-3,000 sample analyses per year.

  18. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    isozyme to hodrolysis process. The similar component of the isozyme are promising enzyme used as a tool for biomonitoring and an effective methods for detection of early river ecosystem degradation.

  19. Three decades of biomonitoring airborne Pb in a rural area with the epiphytic lichen Ramalina lacera: A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Lehr, H.; Garty-Spitz, R.L. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    The present paper analyzes the results of a biomonitoring study that used the epiphytic lichen Ramalina lacera to estimate the environmental pollution impact of anthropogenic activity in terms of Pb content. Thalli of the lichen growing on carob twigs were collected in November 2001 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramat Menashe Hills, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 11 rural and suburban sites around a coal-fired power plant near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in August 2002 and were found to contain smaller amounts of Pb than reported in the relevant literature. A comparative analysis of Pb amounts in thalli of R. lacera in the control site in HaZorea over the years 1974-2002 detected high values for Pb in July 1982 subsequent to extraordinarily extensive activity of motor vehicles, mostly using leaded gasoline, in June of the same year. The Pb values remained relatively high until 1993. Only in the years 1994-2002 did the Pb values decrease to a level resembling the first series of data obtained in the years 1974-1981. It is apparent that a decade and more were needed to 'forget' the polluting event, and that the data obtained in this period (1982-1993) were irrelevant to the availability of Pb pollutants. Despite the gradual increase of the total number of motor vehicles in Israel, the Pb values in lichens decreased due to the introduction of unleaded gasoline in September 1990. Additional retrospective studies dealing with Pb in lichens are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.


    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

  1. The use of biomarkers in biomonitoring: a 2-tier approach assessing the level of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in sentinel organisms. (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Lowe, D; Bolognesi, C; Fabbri, E; Koehler, A


    The paper outlines a 2-tier approach for wide-scale biomonitoring programmes. To obtain a high level of standardization, we suggest the use of caged organisms (mussels or fish). An "early warning", highly sensitive, low-cost biomarker is employed in tier 1 (i.e. lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and survival rate, a marker for highly polluted sites). Tier 2 is used only for animals sampled at sites in which LMS changes are evident and there is no mortality, with a complete battery of biomarkers assessing the levels of pollutant-induced stress syndrome. Possible approaches for integrating biomarker data in a synthetic index are discussed, along with our proposal to use a recently developed Expert System. The latter system allows a correct selection of biomarkers at different levels of biological organisation (molecular/cellular/tissue/organism) taking into account trends in pollutant-induced biomarker changes (increasing, decreasing, bell-shape). A selection of biomarkers of stress, genotoxicity and exposure usually employed in biomonitoring programmes is presented, together with a brief overview of new biomolecular approaches.

  2. Potential of Ranunculus acris L. for biomonitoring trace element contamination of riverbank soils: photosystem II activity and phenotypic responses for two soil series. (United States)

    Marchand, Lilian; Lamy, Pierre; Bert, Valerie; Quintela-Sabaris, Celestino; Mench, Michel


    Foliar ionome, photosystem II activity, and leaf growth parameters of Ranunculus acris L., a potential biomonitor of trace element (TE) contamination and phytoavailability, were assessed using two riverbank soil series. R. acris was cultivated on two potted soil series obtained by mixing a TE (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn)-contaminated technosol with either an uncontaminated sandy riverbank soil (A) or a silty clay one slightly contaminated by TE (B). Trace elements concentrations in the soil-pore water and the leaves, leaf dry weight (DW) yield, total leaf area (TLA), specific leaf area (SLA), and photosystem II activity were measured for both soil series after a 50-day growth period. As soil contamination increased, changes in soluble TE concentrations depended on soil texture. Increase in total soil TE did not affect the leaf DW yield, the TLA, the SLA, and the photosystem II activity of R. acris over the 50-day exposure. The foliar ionome did not reflect the total and soluble TE concentrations in both soil series. Foliar ionome of R. acris was only effective to biomonitor total and soluble soil Na concentrations in both soil series and total and soluble soil Mo concentrations in the soil series B.

  3. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie


    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  4. Biomonitoring of Heavy metals using the bivalve molluscs in sunderban mangrove wetland, Northeast Coast of Bay of bengal (india): possible risks to Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Henrique; Cardoso, Ines [Departamento de Biologia Animal/Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Chatterjee, Mousumi; Kumar Bhattacharya, Asok; Aftab Alam, Mohammad [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); Kanta Satpathy, Kamala [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar Sarkar, Santosh


    The suitability of using four bivalve molluscs (Sanguinolaria acuminata, Anadara granosa, Meretrix meretrix, and Pelecyora trigona) in biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg) collected from intertidal regions of the Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, were evaluated. Both speciesdependent variability and temporal variations were pronounced. A high degree of organ specificity was evident in the bivalves where gill and mantle exhibited higher metal accumulation due to ion exchange property of the mucous layer covering these organs while shells represent very poor accumulation. Elevated values of Zn and Cu reflect high potential for biomagnification through marine food chain. Metal concentrations in different body size groups of the bivalves do not follow uniform trend. Correlation coefficient between different metal couplings as tested statistically revealed significant coupling for Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Zn-Cu, and Hg-Cu. Concentrations of all the metals in specific organs (visceral mass, mantle and gill) of the bivalves exceeded the safe levels according to the international standards for metals compiled by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and would be of great risk for human consumption. It is concluded that the mussel and clam are suitable biomonitors to employ in programs designed to assess changes in metal pollution in the Sunderban mangrove wetland. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. An integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China based on both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches. (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jie; Hao, Xuewen


    The representativeness of available studies on integrated exposure assessment of phthalates for the general population in China is lacking. Based on an exhaustive review of the extensive monitoring data available for China, this study presents a large-scale estimation of exposure levels to three typical phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), by applying both exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches. The respective median exposure levels from the exposure scenario and biomonitoring estimation approaches were 3.80, 3.02 and 1.00 μg/kg bw/day and 3.38, 3.21 and 3.32 μg/kg bw/day for DEHP, DBP and DiBP, which are acceptable levels of exposure with respect to current international guidelines. Evaluation results from the two approaches showed both similarities and differences among the different phthalates, making the exposure assessment comparable and more comprehensive. In terms of sources of exposure, food intake was the largest contributor, while indoor air exposure had greater contribution to the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DiBP than that of the other phthalates. Moreover, more attention should be paid to the higher exposure levels of phthalates in several intensively industrialized and urbanized areas, and the causes of the different exposure levels in the different regions need to be further explored.

  6. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Magi, E., E-mail: magie@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Di Carro, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Suter, M.J.-F.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses. - Passive sampling and biomonitoring were used to determine the amounts of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters.

  7. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives. (United States)

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I


    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of diffuse pollution using biomonitoring tool for sustainable land use in Thailand. (United States)

    Iwai, Chuleemas Boonthai; Noller, Barry


    As a developing country, Thailand has a significant issue with diffuse pollution of the soil ecosystem due to an indiscriminate use of agrichemicals and poorly regulated disposal of a wide variety of hazardous wastes. Practical risk assessment tools based on locally-occurring species are needed to assess the effects of diffuse pollutants on the soil ecosystem in Thailand because reliance on soil criteria developed for overseas conditions may provide inadequate protection. Native soil organisms in Thailand may be more or less sensitive to contaminants compared to overseas test species. This article described a biological indicator approach for ecological risk assessment of diffuse pollution in the soil ecosystem of Thailand from pesticide application with the aim of developing standardized protocols using native species and locally generated data to better evaluate the ecological risks of non-point source soil pollution. It was found that ecotoxicological assessment provided a better understanding of the ecological impacts that diffuse pollution induced on Thai environmental conditions. Thai soil biota species were more sensitive to soil contaminants than similar species overseas. Soil series also had an influence on the ecotoxicology of contaminants to soil biota. Collembolan, Cyphoderus sp., was demonstrated as a useful alternative test species to Folsomia candida (international test species) for terrestrial ecotoxicological testing of Thai soils. In addition, the soil biota activities such as soil respiration and earthworm avoidance including soil biodiversity and the litter bag decomposition technique are also good tools to assess the effects of diffuse pollution by pesticides on the soil ecosystem of Thailand.

  9. Biomonitoring of atmospheric particulate matter using magnetic properties of Salix matsudana tree ring cores. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D A; Luo, Rensong


    Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter collected by both natural and artificial dust receptors are increasingly being used as proxy parameters for environmental analyses. This study reports the first investigation of the relationship between smelting factory activity and the impact on the environment as recorded by the magnetic signature in Salix matsudana tree rings. Magnetic techniques including low-temperature experiments, successive acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM), hysteresis loops and measurements of saturated IRM (SIRM) indicated that magnetic particles were omnipresent in tree bark and trunk wood, and that these particles were predominantly magnetite with multidomain properties. The magnetic properties of tree trunk and branch cores sampled from different directions and heights implied that the acquisition of magnetic particles by a tree depends on both orientation and height. The differences of SIRM values of tree ring cores indicated that pollution source-facing tree trunk wood contained significantly more magnetic particles than other faces. The results indicated that magnetic particles are most likely to be intercepted and collected by tree bark and then enter into tree xylem tissues during the growing season to become finally enclosed into the tree ring by lignification. There was a significant correlation between time-dependent SIRM values of tree ring cores and the annual iron production of the smelting factory. From the dependence of magnetic properties with sampling direction and height, it is argued that magnetic particles in the xylem cannot move between tree rings. Accordingly, the SIRM of tree ring cores from the source-facing side can contribute to historic studies of atmospheric particulate matter produced by heavy metal smelting activities.

  10. Determination of platinum-group metals and lead in vegetable environmental bio-monitors by voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques: critical comparison. (United States)

    Locatelli, Clinio; Melucci, Dora; Torsi, Giancarlo


    This paper reports voltammetric sequential determination of Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III), by square-wave adsorption stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV), and Pb(II), by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), in vegetable environmental matrices. Analytical procedures were verified by the analysis of the standard reference materials: Olive Leaves BCR-CRM 062 and Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a. Precision and accuracy, expressed as relative standard deviation and relative error, respectively, were always less than 6% and the limits of detection (LOD) for each element were below 0.096 mug g(-1). Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was transferred and applied to laurel leaves sampled in proximity to a superhighway and in the Po river mouth area. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is discussed.

  11. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data. (United States)

    Bus, James S


    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast milk.

  12. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout. (United States)

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M


    retrospective bio-monitors for the air-borne radiocesium contamination of the environment is discussed.

  13. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae). (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme


    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in agricultural workers from five colombian regions: association to occupational exposure to glyphosate. (United States)

    Bolognesi, C; Carrasquilla, G; Volpi, S; Solomon, K R; Marshall, E J P


    In order to assess possible human effects associated with glyphosate formulations used in the Colombian aerial spray program for control of illicit crops, a cytogenetic biomonitoring study was carried out in subjects from five Colombian regions, characterized by different exposure to glyphosate and other pesticides. Women of reproductive age (137 persons 15-49 yr old) and their spouses (137 persons) were interviewed to obtain data on current health status, history, lifestyle, including past and current occupational exposure to pesticides, and factors including those known to be associated with increased frequency of micronuclei (MN). In regions where glyphosate was being sprayed, blood samples were taken prior to spraying (indicative of baseline exposure), 5 d after spraying, and 4 mo after spraying. Lymphocytes were cultured and a cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay was applied to evaluate chromosomal damage and cytotoxicity. Compared with Santa Marta, where organic coffee is grown without pesticides, the baseline frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei (BNMN) was significantly greater in subjects from the other four regions. The highest frequency of BNMN was in Boyaca, where no aerial eradication spraying of glyphosate was conducted, and in Valle del Cauca, where glyphosate was used for maturation of sugar cane. Region, gender, and older age (> or =35 yr) were the only variables associated with the frequency of BNMN measured before spraying. A significant increase in frequency of BNMN between first and second sampling was observed in Narino, Putumayo, and Valle immediately (glyphosate exposure. The increase in frequency of BNMN observed immediately after the glyphosate spraying was not consistent with the rates of application used in the regions and there was no association between self-reported direct contact with eradication sprays and frequency of BNMN. Four months after spraying, a statistically significant decrease in the mean frequency of

  15. Flow cytometry of nucleated red blood cells used as monitoring technique for aquatic risk assessment. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratosin D.


    Full Text Available During the last decades anthropogenic factors led to a significant enhancement of pollutants in aquatic environment and for several years, chemicals analysis has been commonly employed. These techniques cannot detect and quantify many environmental phenomena such as bioavailability, bioaccumulation and synergistic effects. For these reasons, many investigations for evaluating the effects of xenobiotic on organisms use in vitro or in vivo bioassays. The bioassays give a global response for all chemicals present in the environment and these represent one of the best ways to estimate the risk assessment of pollutants in environment for monitoring. For assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, etc. and to assess aquatic pollution degree and biomonitoring of Danube River and Danube Delta, we developed a new experimental cell system based on the apoptosis of nucleated erythrocytes from fishes and batrachians which are directly exposed to pollutants absorbed by different ways. Despite their structural simplicity, the erythrocytes of lower vertebrates preserve nucleus and mitochondria, both the sensors of the programmed cell death (PCD machinery to develop an apoptosis phenomenon. Our proposed bioassays which are based on the apoptosis phenomenon as induced biomarker by pollutants on fish or amphibians erythrocytes, evidenced by flow cytometry (apoptosis/necrosis discriminated by FITC-annexin-V labeling/PI and cellular viability measured with calcein-AM method could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring. Standardization and application of these tests will surely provide the opportunity of their use easily in ecotoxicological laboratories, biomonitoring of large river basins such as the Danube River Basin and will be also able deliver information on fish as a food product.

  16. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne


    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  17. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J


    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  18. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro


    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  19. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A Estudos de biomonitoração do sistema urinário, circulatório e tecidos indicam grande exposição ao Bisfenol A


    Vandenberg, Laura N; Ibrahim Chahoud; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Vasantha Padmanabhan; Francisco J.R Paumgartten; Gilbert Schoenfelder


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other f...

  20. A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmpetis YAI


    Full Text Available Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetry which refers to random deviation from perfect symmetry of bilateral traits resulting from extrinsic and intrinsic perturbations not buffered during development. Fluctuating asymmetry was used as a proxy of developmental stability. We analyzed our data from a Bayesian perspective showing that developmental stability levels are decreased in the natural population. Our results indicate that an attention may be directed towards the conservation of the natural walnut resources of the area. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of developmental stability may contribute especially in the framework of comparative studies as a population biomonitoring tool.

  1. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses. (United States)

    Liscio, C; Magi, E; Di Carro, M; Suter, M J-F; Vermeirssen, E L M


    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses.

  2. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies. (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data.

  3. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification. (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben


    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (pcomet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW.

  4. On the use of Arion ater to biomonitor environmental pollution by Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, with a special insight into the population variability. (United States)

    Crespo, D; Bolón, M; Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A


    The suitability of Arion ater as a biomonitor of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was assessed. Individual specimens were collected from 22 sampling sites. Slugs from 3 of the sites were analysed individually, whereas the slugs from the other sites were pooled to make a composite sample for each site. The tissue burdens did not differ between individuals from contaminated and uncontaminated sites, and there was no gradient of bioaccumulation of any of the elements in the surroundings of the smelter. Analysis of the individual specimens from the 3 sites revealed very high coefficients of variation for the metal concentrations. As a result of the high level of variation, large numbers of slugs are required to produce a low error in characterizing the mean concentration at each site. Furthermore, as a consequence of the similar mean concentrations and high variability, large numbers of samples are needed to detect significant differences between pairs of sites.

  5. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  6. Analysis of protein adducts as biomarkers of short-term exposure to ethylene oxide and results of follow-up biomonitoring. (United States)

    Bader, Michael; Will, Wolfgang; Frey, Gunild; Nasterlack, Michael


    An accidental exposure of six workers to ethylene oxide (EO) provided the rationale for a biomonitoring and follow-up study, whose aim was to analyse protein adduct kinetics and examine the differentiation between accidental and environmental exposure, e.g., from tobacco smoke. For this purpose, the decrease in the concentration of the haemoglobin adduct N-2-hydroxyethylvaline (HEV) was followed during a five-month period after the accident, together with N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) and urinary cotinine, two well-established biomarkers for smoking. The follow-up study showed that EO adduct concentrations significantly increased after a short but presumably high exposure. Initial biomonitoring revealed HEV levels above 500 pmol g(-1) globin in all cases, with a maximum of about 2,400 pmol g(-1) globin. This compares to a German EKA value (exposure equivalent for carcinogenic substances) for a daily 8-h-exposure to 1 ppm EO of 90 μg L(-1) blood (~3,900 pmol g(-1) globin). The adduct levels dropped in accordance with the expected zero-order kinetics for a single exposure. After the five-month observation interval, the HEV concentrations in blood reflected the individual background from tobacco smoking. The results of this study show that even a short exposure to ethylene oxide may result in a significant rise in haemoglobin adduct levels. Although protein adducts and their occupational-medical assessment values are considered for long-term exposure surveillance, they can also be used for monitoring accidental exposures. In these cases, the calculation of daily 'ppm-equivalents' may provide a means for a comparison with the existing assessment values.

  7. Biomonitoring of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey. (United States)

    Sert, Emel; Uğur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay


    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatağan (Muğla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (210)Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for (210)Po and (210)Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more (210)Po and (210)Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatağan (Muğla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations.

  8. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe


    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  9. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and their Effects on Fish in the Mississippi River Basin (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.


    We collected, examined, and analyzed 1378 fish of 22 species from 47 sites in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) during 1995 and from a reference site in 1996. The sampling sites in the MRB represented National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations situated at key points on major rivers and National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations located on lower-order rivers and streams in the Eastern Iowa Basins (EIB) and Mississippi Embayment (MSE) Study Units. The reference site was the water supply system of the USGS-Leetown Science Center in rural Jefferson County, WV. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus spp.; bass), the targeted species, together represented 82% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organo-somatic indices, and selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of biomarkers. Fish health indicators included splenic macrophage aggregates, lysozyme activity, and hispathological analysis of liver, kidney, and other tissues. Reproductive biomarkers included analysis of plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (vtg) and the sex steroid hormones 17-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11- kt); and the histological determination of percent oocyte atresia (in female fish) and gonadal stage. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also measured. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organochlorine and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Organochlorine and inorganic contaminant concentrations in fish were generally low relative to historical levels at most sites, but remained present at concentrations representing threats to piscivorous wildlife in some locations. Toxaphene and DDT (mostly as p

  10. Climate biomonitoring. Assessing climate change and its impacts on the biosphere. New focus of the working group bioindication/assessment of effects; Klima-Biomonitoring: Nachweis des Klimawandels und dessen Folgen fuer die belebte Umwelt. Neuer Schwerpunkt des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation/Wirkungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Harald [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rammert, Uwe [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Wolf, Helmut [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden (Germany)


    Background, aim and scope: The use of biomonitoring is proposed for the identification, assessment and documentation of climate change impacts on the biosphere as requested in the German 'National Adaptation Strategy' (BMU 2009), because - this method succeeds to present climatic changes in especially sensitive areas of Germany including their habitats, ecosystems, and species; - it can reveal relevant information about the migration and dispersal of new pests and diseases threatening humans, animals and plants; - it can provide politicians with information, documents and a basis for decision support to assess climate change impacts and - it is possible to develop new and to evaluate the effectiveness of existing adaptive measures. It is proposed to use the term 'climate biomonitoring' for biomonitoring methods that are able to indicate climate change effects. For several reasons (e.g. unified methods, common data basis, cost reduction) all federal states should participate in it. Today, bioindication is an indispensable method for the early detection of changes in the biosphere, giving information about special hazards (early warning system). Climate biomonitoring preferably makes use of already existing monitoring systems and data collections. Materials and methods: Climate biomonitoring refers back to accepted and tested methods of bioindication to assess environmental changes. Existing methods are enhanced and supplemented in order to meet the particular needs for the indication of climate change conditions. On the basis of an evaluation of relevant and actual monitoring programs on state and national level we identify relevant impacts of climate change and programs providing relevant data, and we propose evaluation methods. Additionally, other data sources are described, that may enable further in depth assessments. Results: An overview table systematically lists the monitoring programs on national and state level and shows their relevance

  11. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, Thomas F.


    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  12. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean


    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  13. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn


    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  14. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra


    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  15. Magnetic Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Biomonitoring of Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Agents Based on Simultaneous Measurement of Total Enzyme Amount and Enzyme Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe


    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation for biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents based on a magnetic beads (MBs) immunosensing platform. The principle of this approach is based on the combination of MBs immuno-capture based enzyme activity assay and competitive immunoassay of total amount of enzyme for simultaneous detection of enzyme inhibition and phosphorylation in biological fluids. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was chosen as a model enzyme. In competitive immunoassay, the target total BChE in a sample (mixture of OP-inhibited BChE and active BChE) competes with the BChE modified on the MBs to bind to the limited anti-BChE antibody labeled with quantum dots (QDs-anti-BChE), and followed by electrochemical stripping analysis of the bound QDs conjugate on the MBs. This assay shows a linear response over the total BChE concentration range of 0.1~20 nM. Simultaneously, real time BChE activity was measured on an electrochemical carbon nanotube-based sensor coupled with microflow injection system after immuno-capture by MBs-anti-BChE conjugate. Therefore, the formed phosphorylated adduct (OP-BChE) can be estimated by the difference values of the total amount BChE (including active and OP-inhibited) and active BChE from established calibration curves. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure (less than 20% inhibition of BChE) because of individual variation of BChE values, but also avoids the drawback of the scarce availability of OP-BChE antibody. It is sensitive enough to detect 0.5 nM OP-BChE, which is less than 2% BChE inhibition. This method offers a new method for rapid, accurate, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts and enzyme inhibition for biomonitoring of OP and nerve agent exposures.

  16. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa


    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  17. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias


    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  18. Brominated flame retardants in the hair and serum samples from an e-waste recycling area in southeastern China: the possibility of using hair for biomonitoring. (United States)

    Liang, Si; Xu, Feng; Tang, Weibiao; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Junxia; Lin, Kuangfei


    Hair samples and paired serum samples were collected from e-waste and urban areas in Wenling of Zhejiang Province, China. The PBDE and DBDPE concentrations in hair and serum samples from e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of non-occupational residents and urban residents. BDE209 was the dominating BFRs in hair and serum samples from the e-waste area, while DBDPE was the major BFRs from the urban area. Statistically significant correlations were observed between hair level and serum level for some substances (BDE209, DBDPE, BDE99, BDE47, BDE28, and BDE17), although the PBDE congener profiles in hair were different from those in the serum. A statistically significant positive correlation between the PBDE concentrations and the working age, as well as gender difference, was observed in e-waste workers. Different sources of PBDEs and DBDPE in three groups were identified by principal component analysis and spearman correlation coefficient. Hair is suggested to be a useful matrix for biomonitoring the PBDE exposure in humans.

  19. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina. (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli


    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution.

  20. Effects of cadmium and 17β-estradiol on Mytilus galloprovincialis redox status. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) as a novel approach in biomonitoring of marine environments. (United States)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Franzellitti, Silvia; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Fabbri, Elena; Dimitriadis, Vasileios K; Kaloyianni, Martha


    Cadmium and 17β-estradiol are rapidly accumulated in mussel tissues, making mussels excellent pollution sentinel organisms. The aim of the present study was to compare the oxidative responses of the mussels after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure to cadmium with those to 17β-estradiol and subsequently, to suggest a multi-parametric approach for biomonitoring studies. Our results showed that environmentally relevant concentrations of either cadmium or 17β-estradiol for 1, 3 and 7 days induced oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels. The latter was determined by significantly increased ROS levels and apoptosis, by suppression of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) expression levels and subsequent increased prooxidant levels, as measured by prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay. To our knowledge this is the first time that prooxidant-antioxidant balance is evaluated in invertebrates as an index of oxidative stress. The simultaneous use of the parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant balance and antioxidant enzymes expression patterns, in combination with ROS production levels and apoptosis, in mussel hemocytes is suggested as an approach that may help to better evaluate the impact of environmental pollution on marine organisms and thereupon ecosystems.

  1. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kitajima


    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  2. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu


    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  3. Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population. (United States)

    Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Márquez, Claudia; Femia, Pedro; Olmedo, Pablo; López-Guarnido, Olga; Pla, Antonio


    Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure.

  4. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.


    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  5. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil; Biomonitoracao da qualidade do ar na Regiao Metropolitana do Recife, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos


    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  6. Trace element biomonitoring using mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna. The case of the Salinelle, Italy. (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro


    Trace element impact was assessed using mosses in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, releasing sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and NaCl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO(2) and He). To date, scarce data are available about the presence of trace elements, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of such emissions. In this study, concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were detected in the moss Bryum argenteum, in soil and water. Results showed that the trace element contribution of the Salinelle to the general pollution was significant for Al, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The comparison of trace concentrations in mosses from Salinelle and Etna showed that the mud volcanoes release a greater amount of Al and Mn, whereas similar values of Ni were found. Natural emissions of trace elements could be hazardous in human settlements, in particular, the Salinelle seem to play an important role in environmental pollution.

  7. Gastropod (Otala lactea) shell nanomechanical and structural characterization as a biomonitoring tool for dermal and dietary exposure to a model metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Paul G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Seiter, Jennifer M. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Diaz, Alfredo [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico); Lindsay, James H. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Moser, Robert D. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Tappero, Ryan V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kennedy, Alan J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States)


    Metallic tungsten (W) was initially assumed to be environmentally benign and a green alternative to lead. However, subsequent investigations showed that fishing weights and munitions containing elemental W can fragment and oxidize into complex monomeric and polymeric tungstate (WO4) species in the environment; this led to increased solubility and mobility in soils and increased bioaccumulation potential in plant and animal tissues. Here we expand on the results of our previous research, which examined tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms, and present in this research that the bioaccumulation of W was related to greater than 50% reduction in the mechanical properties of the snail (Otala lactea), based on depth-sensing nanoindentation. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence maps and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the integration of W in newly formed layers of the shell matrix with the observed changes in shell biomechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and crystal orientation. With further development, this technology could be employed as a biomonitoring tool for historic metals contamination since unlike the more heavily studied bioaccumulation into soft tissue, shell tissue does not actively eliminate contaminants.

  8. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile. (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan


    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  9. Biomonitoring marine habitats in reference to antibiotic resistant bacteria and ampicillin resistance determinants from oviductal fluid of the nesting green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Al-Zadjali, M A; Mahmoud, I Y; Elshafie, A E


    During the egg-laying process, oviductal fluid was collected using a non-invasive procedure from the cloacal vent of the green turtles. Forty-two independent isolates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from 11 genera were obtained from 20 turtles during nesting. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter (52.4%), followed by Pseudomonas, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Morganella, Providencia and Arcomobacter. Most of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed variations in their resistance for the following classes of β-lactamases: extended-spectrum β-lactamases (EBSLs), AmpC type β-lactamases C (AmpC), and screen-positive β-lactamase. None of the isolates produced metallo β-lactamase. Some ampicillin-resistant genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only. Inhibitor based test (IBT) categorized some isolates as AmpC β-lactamase producers. β-Lactamase genes were detected from a few strains. The sequencing of those genes revealed the presence of cephamycinase (CMY) and AmpC β-lactamases. The oviductal fluid was used in this study as a source of bacterial antibiotic-resistant determinants for biomonitoring marine turtles exposed to contaminated effluents. This data can be of value in understanding the decline of this endangered species as a result of exposure to marine pollution which is threatening their survival.

  10. Evaluación de la contaminación atmosférica en puntos críticos de la ciudad de Lima y Callao, utilizando Tillandsia capillaris como biomonitor


    Bedregal, Patricia; Ubillús, Marco; Hurtado, Jazmín; Mendoza, Pablo


    Se realizó una evaluación del nivel de contaminación atmosférica por metales pesados en la zona de Puerto Nuevo, Callao, empleando como biomonitor Tillandsia capillaris. Se aplicó el mismo monitoreo en el distrito residencial de San Isidro como control negativo a contaminación y como control positivo en el distrito de Ate, basados en un estudio previo realizado en ocho distritos de Lima Metropolitana. La cuantificación de los elementos químicos, se realizó utilizando la técnica de análisi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fränzle


    Full Text Available Among the various biopolymers which cover outer interfaces of organisms, chitin is the most abundant: each year several billion metric tons (possibly even much more are produced by arthropods and processed in soil and litter, wet sediment  (especially in moist soils while otherwise chitin samples can persist virtually unchanged for geological periods of time. Moreover, arthropods, among which Coleoptera are represented by some 400,000 species alone, inhabit almost all ecosystems, way beyond the ecological range of, say, mosses. Given that adsorption of metalliferous analytes (ions, volatile compounds, complexes of whatever net charge to chitin obtained from arthropods can be demonstrated (and it partly was already, it is feasible to obtain data on environmental element contents in all water, soil and gas phase (atmosphere by dissolving, analyzing outermost (part of exocuticle chitin layers. Data on relative uptake contributions/environmental burdens of either compartment can be obtained by both interspecies-comparisons and sampling of different parts of some larger arthropod (abdomen-, outer- and inner wing surfaces of sizable beetles. As just a very thin chitin layer (< 2 µm is ablated from the animal´s outer surface by dissolution using little toxic components, sampling will not cause harm to them, enabling a repeated sampling of the same specimen (e.g. for taking t = 0 starting values and b use of rare or/and protected species. Applications are with both biomonitoring and a better understanding of metal ion transport in ecosystems, e.g. concerning interfacial Mn+ binding to dying zooplankton then sinking below the chemokline of euxinic water bodies. An indirect metal levels monitoring of woody plants and underneath soils also appears feasible.

  12. Biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to the herbicide terbuthylazine in agriculture workers and in the general population using urine and hair specimens. (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia


    The aim of this work was to evaluate short-term and long-term exposure to terbuthylazine (TBA) in agriculture workers (AW), rural residents (RR), and urban residents (UR) using urine and hair specimens. Twelve AW, 13 RR, and 17 UR were included in the study. Urine spot samples were collected with two different protocols. AW urine samples were collected before the application season (February, U0), at bedtime on the day of TBA application (March-May, U1), and prior to the next shift on the day after TBA application (U2). RR and UR urine samples were collected on any day during the application season (Ue). Hair samples were collected for all subjects before the application season (February, H0) and at the end of the season (June, H1). TBA and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. DET was exclusively found in urine, while TBA was mostly found in the hair. In the AW, the urinary levels of DET were not detected in the U0 samples, and they increased to median levels of 1.81 and 2.94μg/L in the U1 and U2 samples, respectively (p<0.001). In the RR and UR, DET was not detected in the Ue samples. In the UR, TBA was not detected in the H0 samples, and the median levels of TBA were 0.01ng/mg hair in both the AW and RR. In the H1 samples, the median TBA levels were not detected, 0.01, and 0.08ng/mg hair in the UR, RR, and AW, respectively (p<0.001). Urinary DET and hair TBA are promising candidates for biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to TBA. The use of this herbicide in agriculture leads to exposure in rural residents.

  13. Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: Usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, Guillaume [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Leleu, Bruno [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Marez, Thierry [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Zerimech, Farid [Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Huriez, 01, Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Haguenoer, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Sante Publique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 03, Rue du Pr. Laguesse, BP 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France); Furon, Daniel [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail:


    A successful prevention of renal diseases induced by occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) largely relies on the capability to detect nephrotoxic effects at a stage when they are still reversible or at least not yet compromising renal function. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the usefulness of a set of early biological markers of oxidative stress or nephrotoxicity for the biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to Pb and/or Cd in a non-ferrous metal smelter, and gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and drug use-matched control individuals. In exposed subjects, mean levels of Pb in blood and urine were also 387.1 {+-} 99.1 {mu}g Pb/L (1.868 {+-} 0.478 {mu}mol Pb/L) and 217.7 {+-} 117.7 {mu}g Pb/g creatinine (1.051 {+-} 0.568 {mu}mol Pb/g creatinine), and mean levels of Cd in blood and urine were 3.26 {+-} 2.11 {mu}g Cd/L (0.029 {+-} 0.019 {mu}mol Cd/L) and 2.51 {+-} 1.89 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine (0.022 {+-} 0.017 {mu}mol Cd/g creatinine), suggesting thereby relatively low occupational exposure levels. Statistically significant variations in zinc protoporphyrin, malondialdehyde, retinol binding protein, alpha-glutathione S-transferase, and urinary protein levels were reported between the two groups, and were closely correlated with Pb and/or Cd exposure levels. Variations in {alpha}GST levels were closely associated with Pb exposure. Taken together, these results suggest the use of alpha-glutathione S-transferase excretion in urine as a hallmark of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity.

  14. Chromium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), erythrocytes, plasma and urine in the biomonitoring of chrome-plating workers exposed to soluble Cr(VI). (United States)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; De Palma, Giuseppe; Acampa, Olga; Gergelova, Petra; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio


    Chromium (Cr) levels measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-Cr) and urine (Cr-U) at the beginning and end of working shifts were related to those measured in erythrocytes (Cr-RBC) and plasma in 14 non-smoking male chrome-plating workers exposed to Cr(VI) in soluble aerosol form who did not report any significant current or past respiratory disease. Cr-U mainly correlated with Cr-P (Cr in plasma) at the end of the working shift (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.01), whereas Cr-RBC correlated with EBC-Cr (r(2) = 0.32, p < 0.05); at the beginning of the shift, the only significant correlation was between Cr-U and Cr-RBC (r(2) = 0.74, p < 0.01). The clearance of Cr(iii) arising from Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, thus making Cr-U and Cr-P ideal biomarkers of the most recent exposure, whereas Cr-RBC may represent the fraction of Cr(VI) that reaches the bloodstream in non-reduced form and therefore depends on the airway inhaled dose represented by EBC-Cr. Cr-RBC clearance is slower and not only involves the free diffusion of Cr(iii) from RBC to plasma, but probably also involves more complicated kinetic phenomena involving other tissues and organs, which may explain the correlation between Cr-RBC and Cr-U and the lack of correlation Cr-RBC and Cr-P at least 36 h after the last exposure. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the idea that measuring Cr in EBC can significantly contribute to traditional biomonitoring by providing specific information at the target organ level and integrating our knowledge of Cr toxicokinetics.

  15. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral responses following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB). (United States)

    Schriks, Merijn; van Hoorn, Melissa K; Faassen, Elisabeth J; van Dam, Joost W; Murk, Albertinka J


    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous recording and integration of different types of movement over time. Basic tadpole behavior was studied under standard ambient temperature and colder conditions. At lower temperatures the time spent on low frequency behavior such as swimming and ventilation decreased, while at higher frequency movements associated with subtle tail tip oscillations it increased. Changes in behavior were also studied during the process of metamorphosis when both the morphology and physiology of tadpoles change. In the course of metamorphosis the tadpoles decreased the time spent on swimming and increased tail tip oscillations, especially in the period shortly before and during metamorphic climax. Additional experiments were performed to investigate whether the MFB could be used to quantify behavioral effects of exposure to a toxic compound. A 48 h exposure to a sublethal concentration of 1.25 microg L(-1) triphenyltin (TPT) significantly increased low frequency behavior, whereas 5 microg L(-1) TPT significantly reduced this type of behavior while the number of periods of total inactivity increased. One week after transferring the animals to clean water, registered behavior of tadpoles in the highest TPT group (5 microg L(-1)) was normal again for this developmental stage. The results show that the MFB can be used as a new tool for automated registration of sublethal toxic effects on tadpole behavior including recovery.

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in the vicinity of a fire training area--human biomonitoring among 10 persons drinking water from contaminated private wells in Cologne, Germany. (United States)

    Weiss, Odulf; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Bunte, Anne; Göen, Thomas; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wilhelm, Michael; Hölzer, Jürgen


    In Cologne, Germany, increased concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have been observed in two private wells used for drinking water purposes. Both wells are located in the vicinity of a fire training area. Use of well water as a source of drinking water was prohibited by the Public Health Department of the City of Cologne. A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey was performed among all persons, who consumed water from these private wells (N=10). PFC concentrations in water of the private wells and in blood samples were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Repeated water analyses (seven measurements between December 2009 and November 2010) indicated a decrease of PFOS from 8.35 to 1.60 μg/l, (PFHxS: 2.36-0.15 μg/l; PFOA: 0.16-0.03 μg/l) in one private well. Although situated close together, PFC-concentrations in the other private well were significantly lower. PFOS-concentrations in blood samples of private well water consumers ranged from 4.8 to 295 μg/l (PFHxS: 12.1-205 μg/l; PFOA: 4.0-18 μg/l). Although no data on the formulation of the firefighting foams applied on the fire training area is available, firefighting foams are supposed to be the most likely source of contamination. These findings give reason to track systematically the application of PFC-containing firefighting foams in order to identify contaminations of surface, ground and drinking waters.

  17. Leucocytes isolated from simply frozen whole blood can be used in human biomonitoring for DNA damage measurement with the comet assay. (United States)

    Akor-Dewu, Maryam B; El Yamani, Naouale; Bilyk, Olena; Holtung, Linda; Tjelle, Torunn E; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew R


    Preservation of human blood cells for DNA damage analysis with the comet assay conventionally involves the isolation of mononuclear cells by centrifugation, suspension in freezing medium and slow freezing to -80 °C-a laborious process. A recent publication (Al-Salmani et al. Free Rad Biol Med 2011; 51: 719-725) describes a simple method in which small volumes of whole blood are frozen to -20 or -80 °C; on subsequent thawing, the comet assay is performed, with no indication of elevated DNA strand breakage resulting from the rapid freezing. However, leucocytes in whole blood (whether fresh or frozen) are abnormally resistant to damage by H2 O2 , and so a common test of antioxidant status (resistance to strand breakage by H2 O2 ) cannot be used. We have refined this method by separating the leucocytes from the thawed blood; we find that, after three washes, the cells respond normally to H2 O2 . In addition, we have measured specific endogenous base damage (oxidized purines) in the isolated leucocytes, using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. In a study of blood samples from 10 subjects, H2 O2 sensitivity and endogenous damage-both reflecting the antioxidant status of the cells-correlated significantly. This modified approach to sample collection and storage is particularly applicable when the available volume of blood is limited and has great potential in biomonitoring and ecogenotoxicology studies where samples are obtained in the field or at sites remote from the testing laboratory.

  18. Quality study of the air at Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) as biomonitor; Estudo da qualidade do ar na regiao de Sepetiba usando Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitassi, Gabriel Quadros; Julianelli, Olivia B.; Oliveira, Antonio Roberto Barboza de; Leite, Carlos Barros [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Luana; Medeiros, Geisa [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper studies the utilization of the bromelia specie Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) for characterization of the particle dispersion at urban and industrial regions. As a case study, a program will be developed for the monitoring the aerosols generated due to action of weather on the solid waste open sky stored and over the waste basin belonging to the INGA, located at Sepetiba bay. The identification of the stable metals will be done by the PIXE technique, and the radionuclides identification by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The preliminary results of aerosol samples collected at Ilha da Madeira region indicate the presence of particles containing Cd, V, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cu, Co and S. The variation in the percentage of each element at the points of collection suggests that there exist more than one aerosol source at the region

  19. Application of Amphibian for Water Quality Biomonitoring in Fuxian Lake%两栖动物在抚仙湖水体变化生物监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental changes, and the environmental pollutions could lead to the changes of amphibian population and structures. The response of amphibians to environmental pollutions and the characteristics of tested environment, the changes of amphibian populations, morphology, behavior and cytogenetic characteristics could be used to biomonitor of the water quality in Fuxin lake, and provide the scientific basis for the biomonitoring of the lake ecological environment.%两栖动物对环境的改变非常敏感,环境污染会引起其种群及机体结构发生变化.利用两栖动物对环境污染的反应以及所检测环境的变化特点,通过对抚仙湖生态环境中两栖动物的种群变化、形态、行为以及细胞遗传学等方面进行动态研究,可以对抚仙湖实施水体变化的生物监测,为湖泊生态环境的生物监测提供依据.

  20. Mapping carbon sequestration in forests at the regional scale - a climate biomonitoring approach by example of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, PO Box. 1553, Vechta (Germany)


    study, an alternative approach was introduced to map the spatial differentiation of C sequestration in North Rhine-Westphalia based on the combination of geostatistics, decision tree analyses and GIS techniques. As a result, the overall mean of C sequestration amounted for 177 t C/ha which is 8.4 t C/ha higher than what was calculated in the study at hand and 14 t C/ha below the roughly guessed German-wide mean of 191 t C/ha. The surface estimations of C pools in living forest trees/dead wood, the humus layer and the mineral soil enable to map the fixation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} in forests at the regional scale. The estimations that were derived in this study are in good accordance with estimations based on techniques which, in contrast, did neither allow for spatial differentiation nor for mapping. The presented approach should be validated by application of other statistical techniques and by use of German wide inventory data. Furthermore, C sequestration should be modelled according to different climate change scenarios by combining statistical methods and dynamic modelling. (orig.)

  1. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  2. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała


    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  3. Radiologic imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (US)); Eastman, T.R. (Agfagavert Inc., Irving, TX (US))


    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  4. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques. (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter


    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  5. Radiolocation Techniques (Les Techniques de Radiolocalisation (United States)


    importants sont occasionnds par Ia rifraction atmosphdnque. Sur route la bande de fr~quences radio. Ic bruit, aussi bien naturel qu’artificieljoue souvent...rdscau, techniques multi- capteurs ; aspects brouillage. - Uimpact de la propagation sur la gomornidmie et la tdlddetection: Les grandesi ondes, HF, VHF...par 36 Capteur At Analyse Sliquentielle en Balayage Rapide par D.Josset Radio Location through High Resolution Eigenstructure Processing Techniques 37

  6. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo


    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  7. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H


    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  8. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci


    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  9. Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies. (United States)

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G


    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31 microg/g), Pb (38.49 microg/g) and Zn (206.52 microg/g) were accumulated in the BYS than in the total ST (Cd: 0.29 microg/g; Pb: 8.27 microg/g; Zn: 102.6 microg/g). Semi-static and short period controlled laboratory experiments were also conducted for the accumulation and depuration of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total ST and BYS of P. viridis. The ratios (BYS/ST) for Pb and Cd from the laboratory experiments showed that the total ST accumulated more metals than the BYS. Therefore, these laboratory results disagreed with those found for the field samples. However, the laboratory results for the Zn ratio (BYS/ST) agreed with those of the field samples. It was evident that when compared to the ST, the BYS was a more sensitive biomonitoring organ for Zn while it could be a complementary organ for Cd and Pb in the total ST. Since total ST of P. viridis had been reported to have regulative mechanism for Zn, its BYS can be used as a biomonitoring organ for the identification of coastal areas exposed to Zn pollution.

  10. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)


    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  11. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂


    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  12. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Environment Sentinel Biomonitor Technology Assessment (United States)


    true even with water treated with a reverse osmosis -based treatment system; although highly effective at removing most chemicals, reverse osmosis ...the ESB system forward to the water production sites to conduct rapid screening of raw water or they may collect samples and bring them back to a

  14. Harmonised human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Reinhard; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Biot, Pierre;


    for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists...

  15. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik


    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...

  16. Clasroom Observation Techniques


    Akbayrak, Burcu


    In this article observation techniques as a data collecting tool used in social and educational research are examined and discussed. First the concepts and purposes of the observation technique are explained and later systematic and non-systematic observation techniques are described. Two research projects conducted in the classroom are then summarized. These are ‘ORACLE’ (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation Project), and ‘PRINDEP’ (Primary Needs Independent Evaluation Pr...

  17. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server


    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  18. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani


    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  19. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC


    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  20. UIAGM Ropehandling Techniques. (United States)

    Cloutier, K. Ross

    The Union Internationale des Associations des Guides de Montagne's (UIAGM) rope handling techniques are intended to form the standard for guiding ropework worldwide. These techniques have become the legal standard for instructional institutions and commercial guiding organizations in UIAGM member countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Great…

  1. Techniques for Teachers Section (United States)

    Tait, A., Ed.


    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  2. Internal septorhinoplasty technique. (United States)

    Waite, Peter D


    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  3. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A


    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  4. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A


    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  5. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis


    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  6. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R


    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  7. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A


    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  8. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny


    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  9. Plant tissue culture techniques


    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  10. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav


    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  11. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  12. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes


    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  13. Healthy Cooking Techniques (United States)

    ... By using healthy-cooking techniques, you can cut saturated fats. Consider, for instance, that many of the fats ... such as butter and lard — are high in saturated fats. Adults should limit calories from saturated fat to ...

  14. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou


    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  15. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  16. Relaxation techniques for stress (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  17. Separation techniques: Chromatography


    Coskun, Ozlem


    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorp...

  18. Gulliver, medium, technique


    Bullard, Paddy


    In the four Parts of Gulliver’s Travels the narrator attends closely to the manual skills, crafts and techniques of the different countries visited and to the materials and instruments by which they are mediated. The patterned, motif-like presentation of these observations and their rich contextual background, historical and literary, indicate their special significance. These references to technique play an important, previously underappreciated roll in Gulliver. They form a thematic connect...

  19. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael


    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  20. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S


    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  1. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yik-Hong; Ho; Mohamed; Ahmed; Tawfi; k; Ashour


    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastom...

  2. Computer assisted audit techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Danić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to point to the possibilities of more efficient auditing. In the encirclement of more and more intensive use of computer techniques that help to CAAT all the aims and the volume of auditing do not change when the audit is done in the computer-informatics environment. The computer assisted audit technique (CAATs can improve the efficiency and productivity of audit procedures. In the computerized information system, the CAATs are the ways in which an auditor can use computer to gather or as help in gathering auditing evidence. There are more reasons why the auditors apply computer techniques that help in auditing. Most often, they do it to achieve improvement of auditing efficiency when the data volume is large. It depends on several factors whether the auditors will apply the computer techniques that help auditing and to what degree respectively. If they do it, the most important are the computer knowledge, professional skill, experience of auditors, and availability of computer technique, and adequacy of computer supports, infeasibility of hand tests, efficiency and time limit. Through several examples from practice, we showed the possibilities of ACL as one of the CAAT tools.

  3. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela


    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  4. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique (United States)

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer


    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  5. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique. (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad


    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  6. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li


    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  7. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  8. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R


    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  9. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood


    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  10. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas


    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  11. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida


    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  12. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M


    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  13. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw


    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  14. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail:; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)


    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  15. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM


    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  16. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R


    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  17. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A


    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  18. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles


    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  19. Techniques for Vocal Health. (United States)

    Wiest, Lori


    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  20. Art Appreciation and Technique. (United States)

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora


    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  1. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar. (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  2. Imaging techniques in microbiology. (United States)

    Fung, D C; Theriot, J A


    Recent advances in optical imaging have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the light microscope and its usefulness in microbiology research. Some of these advances include improved fluorescent probes, better cameras, new techniques such as confocal and deconvolution microscopy, and the use of computers in imaging and image analysis. These new technologies have now been applied to microbiological problems with resounding success.

  3. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa


    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  4. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional li...

  5. Process measuring techniques; Prozessmesstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, A.


    This introduction into measurement techniques for chemical and process-technical plant in science and industry describes in detail the methods used to measure basic quantities. Most prominent are modern measuring techniques by means of ultrasound, microwaves and the Coriolis effect. Alongside physical and measuring technique fundamentals, the practical applications of measuring devices are described. Calculation examples are given to illustrate the subject matter. The book addresses students of physical engineering, process engineering and environmental engineering at technical schools as well as engineers of other disciplines wishing to familiarize themselves with the subject of process measurement techniques. (orig.) [German] Diese Einfuehrung in die Messtechnik fuer chemische und verfahrens-technische Forschungs- und Produktionsanlagen beschreibt ausfuehrlich die Methoden zur Messung der Basisgroessen. Moderne Messverfahren mit Ultraschall, Mikrowellen und Coriolis-Effekt stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Beruecksichtigung finden sowohl die physikalischen und messtechnischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Anwendungen der Geraete. Berechnungsbeispiele dienen der Erlaeuterung und Vertiefung des Stoffes. Angesprochen sind Studenten der Ingenieurstufengaenge Physikalische Technik und Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik an Fachhochschulen als auch Ingenieure anderer Fachrichtungen, die sich in das Gebiet der Prozessmesstechnik einarbeiten wollen. (orig.)

  6. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars


    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating the ...

  7. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration. (United States)

    Lane, John J.


    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  8. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C


    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  9. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    Acoustic measurements are traditionally based on transducers, and in particular, the most advanced measurement techniques are nowadays based on transducer arrays. This poses a fundamental problem, namely the influence of the transducer itself on the actual properties of sound when the transducer...... is immersed into the sound field. Typically, this influence is assumed to be negligible when the size of the transducer is small compared to the wavelength of the sound wave, or is rendered negligible by using a transducerbased correction that depends on the frequency. Either solution introduces additional...... uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...

  10. [Molecular techniques in mycology]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuesta, Isabel; Gómez-López, Alicia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel


    An increasing number of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of fungal infections have been developed in the last few years, due to the growing prevalence of mycoses and the length of time required for diagnosis when classical microbiological methods are used. These methods are designed to resolve the following aspects of mycological diagnosis: a) Identification of fungi to species level by means of sequencing relevant taxonomic targets; b) early clinical diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; c) detection of molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal agents; and d) molecular typing of fungi. Currently, these methods are restricted to highly developed laboratories. However, some of these techniques will probably be available in daily clinical practice in the near future.

  11. Nozzle fabrication technique (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  12. Whole cell entrapment techniques. (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W


    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  13. [Seldinger modified technique]. (United States)

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios


    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  14. Oberst beam test technique (United States)

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo


    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  15. SUSY using boosted techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon; The ATLAS collaboration


    In this talk, I present a discussion of techniques used in supersymmetry searches in papers published by the ATLAS Collaboration from late Run 1 to early Run 2. The goal is to highlight concepts the analyses have in common, why/how they work, and possible SUSY searches that could benefit from boosted studies. Theoretical background will be provided for reference to encourage participants to explore in depth on their own time.

  16. Colorimetric protein assay techniques. (United States)

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C


    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  17. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine


    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  18. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad


    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  19. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu


    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  20. Covariance mapping techniques (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.


    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  1. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.


    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  2. Formulation techniques for nanofluids. (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David


    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  3. A fuzzy disaggregation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Polli


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a problem of time series disaggregation in presence of broad information lack. In this framework it is not possible to follow standard methodologies, like those stemming from the Chow and Lin algorithm and based on probabilistic assumptions. In general terms, when information sets are limited, instead of referring to probabilistic measures it could be more appropriate to adopt an uncertainty measure satisfying only some general properties, like the fuzzy one. After a synthetic survey about fuzzy aggregation operators, we introduce a fuzzy disaggregation technique, based on Choquet capacity theory and characterized by De Finetti coherence.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1 Application of Fission Track Technique in Stratigraphy Guo Shilun Hao Xiuhong Chen Baoliu Huang Weiwen (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) Laterite (red soil) is distributed in the south of China from Qinling mountains to Hainan province and extends to Southeast Asia. The age of the formation and deposition of the laterite is an important subject in geological research. Due to lack of fossils of ancient animals and plants, as well as other objects which could be used for dating , the age of the laterite and its related stratum is unknown in the south of China.

  5. Automatic Threshold Detector Techniques (United States)


    TECHNIQUES Contract No. DAAH01-76-C-0363 ER76-4208 15 July 1976 Prepared for: HEADQUA RTERS U.S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35809 j...rain cross section each FFT filter) a MUT, MUCL , KCL, MUN, MUCLF (2 ), MUl, MUWI= MUW2 where MUT = Target cross section (M2), MUCL = total ground...variable is currently not used by the program. Since there is yet no point clutter model, MUCL represents the fluctuating component. Until a point plus

  6. Submersible Packaging Techniques (United States)


    Butyraldehyde E,K Aniline Hydrochloride E Butyric Acid V,E Fluid codes are defined in paragraph 40.2.1 and are listed in order of recommended use . 20...Furfuryl Alcohol E Ethyl Chloride E,B,N Gallic Acid V,FE Ethyl Chiorocarbonate V,F Gasoline BV,F Ethyl Chioroformate V,F Glycerine B,E Ethylene Chloride...This document describes packaging techniques that would allow sophisticated electronics to be used and transported reliably underwater. 20. DISTRIBUTION

  7. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration


    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  8. Diamond Anvil Cell Techniques (United States)

    Piermarini, Gasper J.

    It has often been said that scientific advances are made either in a dramatic and revolutionary way, or, as in the case of the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in a slow and evolutionary manner over a period of several years. For more than 2 decades, commencing in 1958, the DAC developed stepwise from a rather crude qualitative instrument to the sophisticated quantitative research tool it is today, capable of routinely producing sustained static pressures in the multi-megabar range and readily adaptable to numerous scientific measurement techniques because of its optical accessibility, miniature size, and portability.

  9. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP


    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  10. Optical techniques in optogenetics (United States)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan


    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  11. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter


    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  12. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J


    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  13. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU


    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  14. Decision Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Dabo Baba


    Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

  15. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon


    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  16. Other imaging techniques. (United States)

    Isard, H J


    Images of the breast can now be produced by five modalities: x-ray, heat, sound, light, and magnetism. X-ray mammography is generally accepted as the most accurate of these in the detection of breast cancer, and the standard by which the others are judged. Despite the obvious attraction of nonionizing techniques, the economic factor attendant on multiple studies requires consideration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is currently being investigated in several clinics, but as yet there is no large series of documented cases. This report addresses itself to thermography, ultrasonography and diaphanography (transillumination). The unique characteristics of each and their respective roles in evaluation of the breast, particularly in the detection of breast cancer, will be discussed. When used in conjunction with mammography, potential advantages include: enhanced diagnostic accuracy, reduction of unnecessary surgery, and, in proven cases of breast cancer, prognostic capability. Thus far it has not been demonstrated that any of the nonionizing techniques can serve as a sole screening modality for breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women.

  17. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano


    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  18. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques (United States)

    Seibert, Jon


    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  19. Technique murale picturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Coupry


    Full Text Available Après des études remarquables publiées, entre autres, dans Peindre à Auxerre au Moyen Âge, IXe-XIVe siècles, l’étude technique et analytique des peintures murales n’avait pas donné lieu à de nouvelles recherches méthodologiques en dépit des travaux de terrain (Souvigny, Stavelot… où l’archéologie du bâti avait permis des rencontres entre archéologues, historiens de l’art et restaurateurs particulièrement impliqués pour la période qui nous intéresse, de la basse Antiquité au haut Moyen Âge.Ce...

  20. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques]. (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida


    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  1. Extended Ewald summation technique (United States)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa


    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  2. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  3. Data flow modeling techniques (United States)

    Kavi, K. M.


    There have been a number of simulation packages developed for the purpose of designing, testing and validating computer systems, digital systems and software systems. Complex analytical tools based on Markov and semi-Markov processes have been designed to estimate the reliability and performance of simulated systems. Petri nets have received wide acceptance for modeling complex and highly parallel computers. In this research data flow models for computer systems are investigated. Data flow models can be used to simulate both software and hardware in a uniform manner. Data flow simulation techniques provide the computer systems designer with a CAD environment which enables highly parallel complex systems to be defined, evaluated at all levels and finally implemented in either hardware or software. Inherent in data flow concept is the hierarchical handling of complex systems. In this paper we will describe how data flow can be used to model computer system.

  4. The dendroanalysis of oak trees as a method of biomonitoring past and recent contamination in an area influenced by uranium mining. (United States)

    Märten, Arno; Berger, Dietrich; Köhler, Mirko; Merten, Dirk


    We reconstructed the contamination history of an area influenced by 40 years of uranium mining and subsequent remediation actions using dendroanalysis (i.e., the determination of the elemental content of tree rings). The uranium content in the tree rings of four individual oak trees (Quercus sp.) was determined by laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allows the investigation of trace metals in solid samples with a spatial resolution of 250 μm and a detection limit below 0.01 μg/g for uranium. The investigations show that in three of the four oaks sampled, there were temporally similar uranium concentrations. These were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher (0.15 to 0.4 μg/g) than those from before the period of active mining (concentrations below 0.01 μg/g). After the mining was terminated and the area was restored, the uranium contents in the wood decreased by approximately 1 order of magnitude. The similar radial uranium distribution patterns of the three trees were confirmed by correlation analysis. In combination with the results of soil analyses, it was determined that there was a heterogeneous contamination in the forest investigated. This could be confirmed by pre-remediation soil uranium contents from literature. The uranium contents in the tree rings of the oaks investigated reflect the contamination history of the study area. This study demonstrates that the dendrochemical analysis of oak tree rings is a suitable technique for investigating past and recent uranium contamination in mining areas.

  5. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer


    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu


    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  7. Improved Search Techniques (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald


    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana


    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  9. Fenestration obscuration techniques (United States)

    Smalley, Michael


    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  10. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O


    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...


    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  12. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J


    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  13. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  14. Aspectos prácticos de la fase preanalítica del estudio de biovigilancia BIOAMBIENT.ES Practical features of the pre-analytical phase of the BIOAMBIENT.ES biomonitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Esteban


    Full Text Available Entre marzo de 2009 y julio de 2010 se desarrolló el trabajo de campo de BIOAMBIENT.ES, un estudio de biovigilancia de contaminantes ambientales en humanos de cobertura nacional. Esta nota pretende mostrar las tareas desarrolladas antes del comienzo del trabajo de campo con el fin de asegurar la calidad de las muestras recogidas, y consecuentemente de los resultados obtenidos. Se recogieron 1936 muestras de sangre, suero y orina, y 604 muestras de pelo, de trabajadores que acudían al reconocimiento anual de salud laboral en 38 centros de la Península, Ceuta y Canarias. Previamente se identificó el material idóneo para la recogida y el transporte de las muestras, y se entrenó al personal de campo. La planificación y la organización de la fase preanalítica hizo posible que menos del 1% de las muestras recogidas tuvieran que rechazarse por problemas de derrames, conservación, etc. Asimismo, los análisis no reflejan la presencia de interferencias preanalíticas.The fieldwork of BIOAMBIENT.ES was developed from March 2009 to July 2010. BIOAMBIENT.ES is a human biomonitoring study of environmental pollutants performed in Spain at the national level. This article aims to show the tasks performed before starting the fieldwork to ensure the quality of the samples and consequently the quality of the results. A total of 1,936 whole blood, serum and first-morning urine samples and 604 hair samples were collected from workers who attended the annual occupational health examination in 38 centers in the Peninsula, Ceuta and the Canary Islands. Before the fieldwork was started, the optimal sampling material and sample shipment was identified and fieldworkers were trained in their tasks. Due to the planning and organization of the pre-analytical phase, only 1% of the collected samples had to be rejected due to problem with spills, conservation, etc. In addition, the analyses conducted showed no pre-analytical interferences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah


    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  16. Classroom Assessment Techniques (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  17. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D


    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  18. A summary of virtualization techniques


    Rodríguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Fèlix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernández Sánchez, Efraín; Farías Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibáñez, Juan Antonio; González Potes, Apolinar


    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  19. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.


    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Detection Techniques of Femtosecond Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-peng; ZHOU Ming; DAI Qi-xun; CAI Lan


    The measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy are effective method to investigate ultrafast dynamics, they are widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, the principle, experiment setup and the approaches to deal with the experiment data were presented. Then different measurement techniques such as transient absorption spectroscopy, photon echoes, optical Kerr effect and degenerate four-wave mixing were explained with special examples. At last, the application prospect of measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy was forecasted.