WorldWideScience

Sample records for biometric values obtained

  1. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  2. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  4. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  5. Obtaining exact value by approximate computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast.They have the advantage of high efficiency.However they only give approximate results,whereas we need exact results in some fields.There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results. In this paper,we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.

  6. Addressing missing values in kernel-based multimodal biometric fusion using neutral point substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Poh N.; Windridge D.; Mottl V.; Tatarchuk A.; Eliseyev A.

    2010-01-01

    In multimodal biometric information fusion, it is common to encounter missing modalities in which matching cannot be performed. As a result, at the match score level, this implies that scores will be missing. We address the multimodal fusion problem involving missing modalities (scores) using support vector machines (SVMs) with the neutral point substitution (NPS) method. The approach starts by processing each modality using a kernel. When a modality is missing, at the kernel level, the missi...

  7. The Impact of User Privacy Concerns and Ethnic Cultural Values on Attitudes toward the Use of Biometric Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Darrell R.

    2011-01-01

    Biometric technology is rapidly gaining popularity as an access control mechanism in the workplace. In some instances, systems relying on biometric technology have not been well received by employees. One reason for resistance may be perceived privacy issues associated with biometrics. This research draws on previous organizational information…

  8. Valores biométricos obtidos por ultra-sonografia dos tendões flexores e ligamentos acessório inferior e suspensório da região metacárpica palmar de cavalos Mangalarga Marchador Biometric values obtained by ultrasonography of flexor tendons and inferior accessory and suspensory ligaments of the palmar metacarpal region in Mangalarga Marchador horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Aristizábal M.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a área transversal (AT dos tendões e ligamentos da região metacárpica palmar de 15 cavalos da raça Mangalarga Marchador. As áreas transversais do tendão do músculo flexor digital superficial (TFDS, do tendão do músculo flexor digital profundo (TFDP, do ligamento acessório inferior (LA e do ligamento suspensório (LS foram determinadas mediante ultra-sonografia, em sete zonas distintas (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B e 3C. Os valores médios da AT para TFDS foram: zona 1A, 1,07±0,13; zona 1B, 0,97±0,12; zona 2A, 0,77±0,08; zona 2B, 0,68±0,12; zona 3A, 0,74±0,10; zona 3B, 0,86±0,10; e zona 3C, 1,33±0,24. Para TFDP foram: zona 1A, 1,09±0,12; zona 1B, 0,99±0,14; zona 2A, 0,72±0,11; zona 2B, 0,63±0,10; zona 3A, 0,71±0,14; zona 3B, 0,87±0,14; e zona 3C, 1,39±0,20. Para LA foram: zona 1A, 1,17±0,14; zona 1B, 0,85±0,11; zona 2A, 0,73±0,12; zona 2B, 0,60±0,16; e zona 3A, 0,42±0,15. Para LS foram: zona 1A, 0,82±0,14; zona 1B, 1,23±0,15; zona 2A, 1,21±0,15; zona 2B, 1,18±0,14; e zona 3A, 1,20±0,31. A AT de cada estrutura avaliada foi similar entre membros torácicos, considerando a mesma zona estudada. Não houve diferença significativa entre a AT do TFDS e a do TFDP.The transversal area (TA of tendons and ligaments located in the palmar metacarpal region was studied in 15 Mangalarga Marchador horses without locomotor pathology. The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT, deep digital flexor tendon (DDFP, accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL-DDFP, and suspensory ligament (TIOM were examined by ultrasonography, at seven different zones (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B e 3C, to determine the TA. The mean TA values for SDFT were: zone 1A, 1.07±0.13; zone 1B, 0.97±0.12; zone 2A, 0.77±0.08; zone 2B, 0.68±0.12; zone 3A, 0.74±0.10; zone 3B, 0.86±0.10; and zone 3C, 1.33±0.24. For DDFT were: zone 1A, 1.09±0.12; zone 1B, 0.99±0.14; zone 2A, 0.72±0.11; zone 2B, 0.63±0.10; zone 3A, 0.71±0.14; zone 3B, 0

  9. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant

  10. FLIR biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Barbara L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.

    2009-04-01

    Biometrics are generally thought of as anatomical features that allow positive identification of a person. This paper describes biometrics that are also physiological in nature. The differences between anatomy and physiology have to do with the fact that physiology is dynamic, functioning, and changing with the state or actions of a person whereas anatomy is generally more stable. Biometrics in general usually refers to a trait, whereas the new type of biometrics discussed in this paper refer to a state, which is temporary, and often even transitory. By state, what is meant is the condition of a person at a particular time relative to their psychological, physical, medical, or physiological status. The present paper describes metrics that are cues to the state of a functioning individual observable through a thermal camera video system. An inferred state might then be tied to the positive identification of the person. Using thermal for this purpose is significant because the thermal signature of a human is dynamic and changes with physical and emotional state, while also revealing underlying anatomical structures. A new method involving the counting of open pores on the skin is discussed as a way of observing the Electrodermal Activity (EDA) of the skin, a primary component of the polygraph.

  11. Biometric technology overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Biometrics was identified as one amongst 10 emerging technologies which would change the world in the twenty-first century. Components and processes of biometric system and the relevant technologies are explained in this article. Examples of biometric applications and trends of biometric research, together with industry development,are introduced, which illustrate the challenges and opportunities of this technology.

  12. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy kmeans classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based o...

  13. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy k-means classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based ...

  14. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  15. New Space Value of the Solar Oblateness Obtained with PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry; Bocquier, Maxime; Momar Cisse, E.

    2014-04-01

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  16. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  17. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  18. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  19. RANK LEVEL FUSION USING FINGERPRINT AND IRIS BIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of users is an essential and difficult to achieve in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers (PIN or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. The biometric improves the capability to recognize the persons. A biometric identificationsystem is an automatic recognition system that recognizes a person based on the physiological (e.g., fingerprints,face, retina, iris, ear or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature, voice characteristics. In many real-world applications,unimodal biometric systems often face has significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intra classvariability, data quality, non-universality, and other factors. Multimodal biometric systems overcome some of these limitations. Multimodal biometric system provides more accuracy when compared to unimodal biometric system. The main goal of multimodal biometric system is to develop the security system for the areas that require high level of security. The proposed system focused on developing a multimodal biometrics system,which uses biometrics such as fingerprint and iris. Fusion of biometrics is performed by means of rank level fusion. The features from the biometrics are obtained by using the FLD (Fisher Linear Discriminant. The experimental result shows the performance of the proposed multimodal biometrics system. In this paper, the decision is made using rank level fusion and the ranks of individual persons are calculated using the Borda count, and Logistic regression approaches.

  20. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... the creation and update of a biometric template, but requires the development of instruments to properly handle all the data and operations related to the user identity. These proceedings contain the selected and revised papers that were presented during the first European Workshop on Biometrics and Identity...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors...

  1. Security analysis for biometric data in ID documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Sascha; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus; Kalker, Ton

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we analyze chances and challenges with respect to the security of using biometrics in ID documents. We identify goals for ID documents, set by national and international authorities, and discuss the degree of security, which is obtainable with the inclusion of biometric into documents like passports. Starting from classical techniques for manual authentication of ID card holders, we expand our view towards automatic methods based on biometrics. We do so by reviewing different human biometric attributes by modality, as well as by discussing possible techniques for storing and handling the particular biometric data on the document. Further, we explore possible vulnerabilities of potential biometric passport systems. Based on the findings of that discussion we will expand upon two exemplary approaches for including digital biometric data in the context of ID documents and present potential risks attack scenarios along with technical aspects such as capacity and robustness.

  2. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  3. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  4. ECG biometric analysis in different physiological recording conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Porée, Fabienne; Kervio, Gaëlle; Carrault, Guy

    2016-01-01

    International audience Biometric systems have for objective to perform identification or verification of identity of individuals. Human electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently proposed as an additional tool for biometric applications. Then, a set of ECG-based biometric studies has occurred in the literature, but they are difficult to compare because they use various values of: the number of ECG leads, the length of the analysis window (only the QRS or more), the delays between recordings...

  5. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  6. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal;

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...

  7. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwarappa M.N.; Dr. Mrityunjaya V. Latte

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The late...

  8. Biometric template transformation: a security analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Abhishek; Nandakumar, Karthik; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical steps in designing a secure biometric system is protecting the templates of the users that are stored either in a central database or on smart cards. If a biometric template is compromised, it leads to serious security and privacy threats because unlike passwords, it is not possible for a legitimate user to revoke his biometric identifiers and switch to another set of uncompromised identifiers. One methodology for biometric template protection is the template transformation approach, where the template, consisting of the features extracted from the biometric trait, is transformed using parameters derived from a user specific password or key. Only the transformed template is stored and matching is performed directly in the transformed domain. In this paper, we formally investigate the security strength of template transformation techniques and define six metrics that facilitate a holistic security evaluation. Furthermore, we analyze the security of two wellknown template transformation techniques, namely, Biohashing and cancelable fingerprint templates based on the proposed metrics. Our analysis indicates that both these schemes are vulnerable to intrusion and linkage attacks because it is relatively easy to obtain either a close approximation of the original template (Biohashing) or a pre-image of the transformed template (cancelable fingerprints). We argue that the security strength of template transformation techniques must consider also consider the computational complexity of obtaining a complete pre-image of the transformed template in addition to the complexity of recovering the original biometric template.

  9. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...... identifier is stored in order to link a specific body to specific information related to status (asylum seeker, entry banned, convicted etc.). Finger prints are also integrated in passports in the EU, but this biometric information is restricted to establish only the link between the body and the passport....... This paper asks if and how biometric techniques are the basis of a re-structuring of management of migration and mobility: Is the suggestion of biometric identifiers reflecting the withdrawal from the principle of rights applied to human beings as an abstract of the universal individual all being equal...

  10. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  11. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  12. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  13. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  14. Biometrics and Kansei engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes a section on touchscreen devices Proposes a new mathematical model on Iris Recognition Introduces a new technological system dealing with human Kansei Covers the latest achievements in biometric application features

  15. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  16. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  17. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  18. BIOMETRICS BASED USER AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Tiwari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics technologies are base for a plethora of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is measurement of biological characteristics – either physiological or behavioral – that verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physiological biometrics include fingerprints, iris recognition. voice verification, retina recognition, palm vein patterns, finger vein patterns, hand geometry and DNA But there arises a need for more robust systems in order to tackle the increasing incidents of security breaches and frauds. So there is always a need for fool proof technology that can provide security and safety to individuals and the transactions that the individuals make. Biometrics is increasingly used by organizations to verify identities, but coupled with quantum cryptography it offers a new range of security benefits with quantum cryptography where we form a key when we need it and then destroy it. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  19. SOME COMPARATIVE BIOMETRIC ASPECTS IN ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS AND HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA VASILE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper performs a comparative analysis of some biometric (total length, standard length, head length and caudal footstalks length in two cultured cyprinids species grown in a controlled system, namely: Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp, of various ages (starting with the first up to the fourth growth summer. The results obtained evidenced that, along the four growing stages, the representatives of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix show slightly higher values than those of Aristichthys genus for the total and standard bodily length, while for the head length the situation is reversed.

  20. Biometrics Security using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is at risk to a variety of attacks. These attacks are intended to either avoid thesecurity afforded by the system or to put off the normal functioning of the system. Various riskshave been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of cryptography greatly reducesthe risks in biometric systems as the hackers have to find both secret key and template. It isnotified that still fraudrant goes on to some extent. Here in this paper a new idea is presented tomake system more secure by use of steganography. Here the secret key (which is in the form ofpixel intensities will be merged in the picture itself while encoding, and at decoding end only theauthentic user will be allowed to decode.

  1. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  2. Modeling biometric systems using the general pareto distribution (GPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixin; Kiefer, Frederick; Schneider, John; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-03-01

    Statistical modeling of biometric systems at the score level is extremely important. It is the foundation of the performance assessment of biometric systems including determination of confidence intervals and test sample size for simulations, and performance prediction of real world systems. Statistical modeling of multimodal biometric systems allows the development of a methodology to integrate information from multiple biometric sources. We present a novel approach for estimating the marginal biometric matching score distributions by using extreme value theory in conjunction with non-parametric methods. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is based on the modeling of extreme events represented by data which has abnormally low or high values in the tails of the distributions. Our motivation stems from the observation that the tails of the biometric score distributions are often difficult to estimate using other methods due to lack of sufficient numbers of training samples. However, good estimates of the tails of biometric distributions are essential for defining the decision boundaries. We present EVT based novel procedures for fitting a score distribution curve. A general non-parametric method is used for fitting the majority part of the distribution curve, and a parametric EVT model - the general Pareto distribution - is used for fitting the tails of the curve. We also demonstrate the advantage of applying the EVT by experiments.

  3. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Soria, E.; Martin, J.D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but

  4. Biometric Fingerprint Liveness Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Váňa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with biometric fingerprint liveness detection. A software-based liveness detection approach using neural network is proposed. To distinguish between live and fake samples, three image quality features extracted from one image are used. The algorithm is tested on LivDet database comprising real and fake images acquired with three sensors.

  5. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  6. BIOMETRICS IN ZOOTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Biometrics in zootechnics, by authors Prof.Dr.Sc.Dr.hc. Gordana Kralik, Prof.Dr. Zoran Škrtić and Assist.Prof.Dr. Zlata Kralik from the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, contains the following chapters: 1. Introduction overview, 2. Sample analysis, 3. Parameter estimation, 4. Hypothesis testing, 5. Variance analysis of experimental plans, 6. Regression and correlation, 7. Calculation of statistical parameters in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, 8. Scientific and professional work, Literature, Symbols and formulas, Material (tables and Index – glossary. The textbook is written for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek. As longtime university teachers, authors noticed the need for publishing textbook Biometrics in zootechnics due to the lack of literature. The textbook can also be used by students from other agricultural universities and agronomists who want to acquire basic knowledge about the use of biometric methods in the zootechnics. The aim of the authors is to clarify the core issues of research work and biometric data processing to interested readers in a simple and acceptable way. Students and professionals who wish to be engaged in research work should be familiar with the planning and conduction of experiments, data collection and analysis, data processing, as well as interpretation of results. From cooperation and contacts with the students, authors have realized the fact that many of them are not prone to mathematics. The textbook is written without mathematical “derivation” and theoretical interpretations and is easily accessible to students and experts to whom it is intended.

  7. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  8. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwarappa M.N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The latest research indicates multimodal person authentication system is more effective and more challenging. This work demonstrates that the fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. As a result, the identification performance is 100% and verification performances, False Acceptance Rate (FAR is 0%, and False Rejection Rate (FRR is 0%.

  9. Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

  10. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Electronic Vision Research Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  11. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  12. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this fi

  13. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  14. Embedded System for ECG Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Comunication in Internationa Conference with Peer Review First International Congress on Cardiovasular Technologies - CARDIOTECHNIX, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2013 Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents an embedded system for individual recognition based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. The proposed system implements a real...

  15. Obtaining imaginary weak values with a classical apparatus: Applications for the time and frequency domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedem, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA), Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-13

    Weak measurements with imaginary weak values are reexamined in light of recent experimental results. The shift of the meter, due to the imaginary part of the weak value, is derived via the probability of post-selection, which allows considering the meter as a distribution of a classical variable. The derivation results in a simple relation between the change in the distribution and its variance. By applying this relation to several experimental results, in which the meter involved the time and frequency domains, it is shown to be especially suitable for scenarios of that kind. The practical and conceptual implications of a measurement method, which is based on this relation, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a method to obtain imaginary weak values using classical meter. • A simple relation between the shift of the meter and its variance is derived. • Recent experimental results are analyzed using the new formalism. • The scheme is discussed as a new model for quantum measurement.

  16. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  17. Adaptive SVM fusion for robust multi-biometrics verification with missing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiuna; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jingyan; Li, Yongping

    2013-03-01

    Conventional multimodal biometrics systems usually do not account for missing data (missing modalities or incomplete score lists) that is commonly encountered in real applications. The presence of missing data in multimodal biometric systems can be inconvenient to the client, as the system will reject the submitted biometric data and request for another trial. In such cases, robust multimodal biometric verification is needed. In this paper, we present the criteria, fusion method and performance metrics of a robust multimodal biometrics verification system that verifies the client's identity at any condition of data missing. A novel adaptive SVM classification method is proposed for missing dimensional values, which can handle the missing data in multimodal biometrics. We show that robust multibiometrics imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional multibiometrics. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for robust verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  18. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  19. Biometric identification using holographic radar imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  20. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  1. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  2. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  3. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  4. Environmental Testing Methodology in Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Belén; Sánchez Reíllo, Raúl; Alonso Moreno, Raúl; Miguel Hurtado, Óscar

    2010-01-01

    Recently, biometrics is used in many security systems and these systems can be located in different environments. As many experts claim and previous works have demonstrated, environmental conditions influence biometric performance. Nevertheless, there is not a specific methodology for testing this influence at the moment. Due to it is essential to carry out this kind of evaluations, a new ISO standard was proposed for regularizing them. Such standard was accepted and it has to be specif...

  5. Do the values of prostate specific antigen obtained from fresh and dried urine reflect the serum measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan S Saglam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : We conclude that PSA values obtained from fresh and dried urine could not reflect serum PSA values. But, because dried urine on a filter paper can be stable for years, it could be used for forensic purposes.

  6. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person’s overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA. Specifically, one person’s different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  7. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  8. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible watermarking maintains high quality of biometric data. This paper proposes Rotational Replacement of LSB as a reversible watermarking scheme for biometric images. PSNR is the regular method used for quality measurement of biometric data. In this paper we also show that SSIM Index is a better alternate for effective quality assessment for reversible watermarked biometric data by comparing with the well known reversible watermarking scheme using Difference Expansion.

  9. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  10. Proposed Multi-Modal Palm Veins-Face Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bahgat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication technology identifies people by their unique biological information. An account holder’s body characteristics or behaviors are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Since veins are internal to the human body, its information is hard to duplicate. Compared with a finger or the back of a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of differentiating features for personal identification. However, a single biometric is not sufficient to meet the variety of requirements, including matching performance imposed by several large-scale authentication systems. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of the drawbacks encountered by uni-modal biometric systems by consolidating the evidence presented by multiple biometric traits/sources. This paper proposes a multi-modal authentication technique based on Palm Veins as a personal identifying factor, augmented by face features to increase the accuracy of security recognition. The obtained results point at an increased authentication accuracy.

  11. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics that are not sufficient...

  12. ASSORTED DIRECTIONS OF AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Prasad Sah*, Purushottam Das, Himanshu Pant, Ankur Singh Bist

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics refers to a way of authentication in the world of computer security using various metrics linked to human characteristics. It is used for access control and recognition of individuals. This paper provides the working of Biometrics System, description of its various features and various biometrics methods used in digital world of computer.  

  13. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  14. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  15. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  16. Biometrics - Evaluation of Current Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahidi, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Information security has always been a topic of concern in the world as an emphasis on new techniques to secure the identity of a legitimate user is regarded as top priority. To counter such an issue, we have a traditional way of authentication factors “what you have” and “what you know” in the form of smart cards or passwords respectively. But biometrics is based on the factor “who are you” by analyzing human physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics has always been an efficient way...

  17. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bursztyn; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Eran Shalom; Shlomo Engelberg; Ellie Hoffman; Yair Adar; Meir Nitzan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by...

  18. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure...... a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...

  19. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  20. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia: clinical, biometric, and Doppler velocity correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Laudij (Jacqueline); D. Tibboel (Dick); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the value of pulmonary artery Doppler velocimetry relative to fetal biometric indices and clinical correlates in the prenatal prediction of lethal lung hypoplasia (LH) in prolonged (>1 week) oligohydramnios. METHODS: Forty-two singleton pregnanc

  1. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication. PMID:25836061

  2. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  3. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  4. Chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of corn germ meal obtained by wet milling for layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Albuquerque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the chemical composition, metabolizable energy values, and coefficients of nutrient digestibility of corn germ meal for layers. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was determined, and then a metabolism assay was performed to determine its apparent metabolizable energy (AME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn values and its dry matter and gross energy apparent metabolizability coefficients (CAMDM and CAMGE, respectively. In the 8-day assay (four days of adaptation and four days of total excreta collection, 60 29-week-old white Lohman LSL layers were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments with five replicates of four birds each, was applied. Treatments consisted of a reference diet and two test diets, containing 20 or 30% corn germ meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey tests at 5% probability level. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was: 96.39% dry matter, 49.48% ether extract, 1.87% ashes, 7243 kcal gross energy/kg, 11.48% protein, 0.19% methionine, 0.21% cystine, 0.48% lysine, 0.40% threonine, 0.72% arginine, 0.35% isoleucine, 0.83% leucine, 0.57% valine, and 0.37% histidine, on as-fed basis. There were no statistical differences in AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values with the inclusion of 20 and 30% corn germ meal in the diets. On dry matter basis, AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values of corn germ meal were: 4,578 and 4,548 kcal/kg, 4,723 and 4,372 kcal/kg, 64.95 and 61.86%, respectively.

  5. Analysis of the obtained statistical measurement values of seismical blasting tremors

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Dambov, Ilija; Delipetrov, Todor

    2013-01-01

    The paper provided some measurements carried out by seismic shocks caused when carrying out primary mining and appropriate parameters in terms of safety of the surrounding buildings. In this paper one of the goals is to analyze and define the criteria for assessment of shocks in terms of appropriate application for methods of mining, safety distances, especially for different mining conditions. With statistical analyses of the values we can determine the criteria for soil oscillation law d...

  6. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bursztyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by less than 3 mmHg. In nine examinations the SBP value measured by PPG was higher than that measured by sphygmomanometry by 5 mmHg or more. In only one examination the former was lower by 5 mmHg or more than the latter. The appearance of either the PPG pulses or the Korotkoff sounds assures that the artery under the cuff is open during systolic peak pressure. In the nine examinations mentioned above the PPG pulses were observed while Korotkoff sounds were not detected, despite the open artery during systole. In these examinations, the PPG-based technique was more reliable than sphygmomanometry. The high signal-to-noise ratio of measured PPG pulses indicates that automatic measurement of the SBP by means of automatic detection of the PPG signals is feasible.

  7. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Return Period in China Based on b-value Obtained by Using a New Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xueshen; Qin Changyuan; Fu Zhengxiang

    2001-01-01

    The seismicity in the territory of China, a seismotectonically complicated region, has been examined by using some complete samples of the earthquakes occurred during the last two centuries (1800 ~ 1999). The b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation was estimated by using those data samples. Taking into account the fact that the b-value is spatially more stable than the a value, the b values were calculated at the nodes of a normal grid superposing on the whole area studied and their distribution were examined. The results show that the b values increase smoothly from 0.4 to 0.93. Furthermore, keeping the b values obtained fixed, the a value distribution was also examined. In order to display more detailed information about the seismicity, smaller cell surface ( 10000 km2 ) for the calculation of the a value has chosen. The mean return period for different magnitudes was also calculated for each small cell.

  9. Ocular biometric characteristics during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakmak H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Harun Çakmak,1 Ayten Taspinar,2 Mehmet Ozbagcivan,1 Tolga Kocatürk1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Midwifery, School of Health, Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty, Aydin, Turkey Purpose: To determine the ocular biometric characteristics during the menstrual cycle using the optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR biometry. Methods: Twenty-two healthy women between the ages of 19 and 36 years with regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in this prospective study. Subjects with irregular menstrual cycles, those taking contraceptive pills, those with a history of ocular surgery or trauma, and women unable to cooperate with the ocular biometry device were excluded from this study. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed between 8.30 and 10.30 am for all participants. Also, central corneal thickness, axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and keratometric measurements were made at the same time using the OLCR device. Measurements were taken at the beginning of the cycle (1–3 days, at ovulation (12–16 days, and at the end of the cycle (26–32 days. Results: The mean age of the participants was 22.86±4.22 (range: 18–36 years. The difference in central corneal thickness, axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and keratometry values were not statistically significant during the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The ocular biometric parameters did not significantly vary during the menstrual cycle according to the OLCR biometry. Keywords: ocular biometry, OLCR, menstrual cycle

  10. Using an MST based Value for ε in DBSCAN Algorithm for Obtaining Better Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Chowdhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an objective function based on minimal spanning tree (MST of data points is proposed for clustering and a density-based clustering technique has been used in an attempt to optimize the specified objective function in order to detect the “natural grouping” present in a given data set. A threshold based on MST of data points of each cluster thus found is used to remove noise (if any present in the data from the final clustering. A comparison of the experimental results obtained by DBSCAN (Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise algorithm and the proposed algorithm has also been incorporated. It is observed that our proposed algorithm performs better than DBSCAN algorithm. Several experiments on synthetic data set in R^2and R^3show the utility of the proposed method. The proposed method has also found to provide good results for two real life data sets considered for experimentation. Note thatK-means is one of the most popular methods adopted to solve the clustering problem. This algorithm uses an objective function that is based on minimization of squared error criteria. Note that it may not always provide the “natural grouping” though it is useful in many applications.

  11. Curvelet and Ridgelet-based Multimodal Biometric Recognition System using Weighted Similarity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric security artifacts for establishing the identity of a person with high confidence have evoked enormous interest in security and access control applications for the past few years. Biometric systems based solely on unimodal biometrics often suffer from problems such as noise, intra-class variations and spoof attacks. This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric recognition system by integrating three biometric traits namely iris, fingerprint and face using weighted similarity approach. In this work, the multi-resolution features are extracted independently from query images using curvelet and ridgelet transforms, and are then compared to the enrolled templates stored in the database containing features of each biometric trait. The final decision is made by normalizing the feature vectors, assigning different weights to the modalities and fusing the computed scores using score combination techniques. This system is tested with the public unimodal databases such as CASIA–Iris-V3-Interval, FVC2004, ORL and self-built multimodal databases. Experimental results obtained shows that the designed system achieves an excellent recognition rate of 98.75 per cent and 100 per cent for the public and self-built databases respectively and provides ultra high security than unimodal biometric systems.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 106-114. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3469

  12. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  13. Sparse Representation Fusion of Fingerprint, Iris and Palmprint Biometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Anu H Nair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized. But the computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper multimodal biometric image such as fingerprint, palmprint, and iris are extracted individually and are fused together using a sparse fusion mechanism. A multimodal sparse representation method is proposed, which interprets the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. The images are pre-processed for feature extraction. In this process Sobel, canny, Prewitt edge detection methods were applied. The image quality was measured using PSNR, NAE, and NCC metrics. Based on the results obtained, Sobel edge detection was used for feature extraction. Extracted features were subjected to sparse representation for the fusion of different modalities. The fused template can be used for watermarking and person identification application. CASIA database is chosen for the biometric images.

  14. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  15. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  16. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  17. Identification with Encrypted Biometric Data Made Feasible

    CERN Document Server

    Bringer, Julien; Kindarji, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics make human identification possible with a sample of a biometric trait and an associated database. Classical identification techniques lead to privacy concerns. This paper introduces a new method to identify someone using his biometrics in an encrypted way. Our construction combines Bloom Filters with Storage and Locality-Sensitive Hashing. We apply this error-tolerant scheme, in a Hamming space, to achieve biometric identification in an efficient way. This is the first non-trivial identification scheme dealing with fuzziness and encrypted data.

  18. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  19. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  20. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  1. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  2. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  4. Biometric systems technology, design and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wayman, James; Maltoni, Davide

    2005-01-01

    A reference book for anyone involved in the design, management or implementation of biometric systems, and provides all the information needed to a build reliable system. It focuses on the four most widely used types of biometric technology - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition.

  5. BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS: EVOLUTION, APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes.

  6. Biometric Systems: Evolution, Applications and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes

  7. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  8. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola M. Aly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted using (PSO Particle Swarm Optimization to ensure the desired system performance corresponding to the desired level of security. The experimental results prove that the proposed multimodal biometric system is appropriate for applications that require different levels of security.

  9. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  10. ECG-based biometric identification: some modern approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Astapov A.A.; Davydov D.V.; Egorov A.I.; Drozdov D.V.; Glukhovskij E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The uniqueness of electrical activity of every human heart prompts us to use the ECG as a biometric parameter in various security and authentication systems as it is easy and cheap to extract the signal and difficult to fake it or obtain nonconsensually. At the moment various approaches to researching a possibility of human identification by ECG are used. Identification mode includes the following stages: data collection, procession, feature extraction, classification. Researchers use differe...

  11. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  12. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  13. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section...

  14. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Joshua, E-mail: grimes.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Celler, Anna [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  15. Multimodal Biometric Systems - Study to Improve Accuracy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sasidhar, K; Ramakrishna, Kolikipogu; KailasaRao, K

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data of human body, extracting a feature set from the acquired data, and comparing this set against to the template set in the database. Experimental studies show that Unimodal biometric systems had many disadvantages regarding performance and accuracy. Multimodal biometric systems perform better than unimodal biometric systems and are popular even more complex also. We examine the accuracy and performance of multimodal biometric authentication systems using state of the art Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) products. Here we discuss fingerprint and face biometric systems, decision and fusion techniques used in these systems. We also discuss their advantage over unimodal biometric systems.

  16. Biometric Person Identification System: A Multimodal Approach Employing Spectral Graph Characteristics of Hand Geometry and Palmprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukhappa A. Angadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication systems operating in real world environments using a single modality are found to be insecure and unreliable due to numerous limitations. Multimodal biometric systems have better accuracy and reliability due to the use of multiple biometric traits to authenticate a claimed identity or perform identification. In this paper a novel method for person identification using multimodal biometrics with hand geometry and palmprint biometric traits is proposed. The geometrical information embedded in the user hand and palmprint images are brought out through the graph representations. The topological characterization of the image moments, represented as the virtual nodes of the palmprint image graph is a novel feature of this work. The user hand and palmprint images are represented as weighted undirected graphs and spectral characteristics of the graphs are extracted as features vectors. The feature vectors of the hand geometry and palmprint are fused at feature level to obtain a graph spectral feature vector to represent the person. User identification is performed by using a multiclass support vector machine (SVM classifier. The experimental results demonstrate, an appreciable performance giving identification rate of 99.19% for multimodal biometric after feature level fusion of hand geometry and palmprint modalities. The performance is investigated by conducting the experiments separately for handgeometry, palmprint and fused feature vectors for person identification. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system achieves better performance than the unimodal cues, and can be used in high security applications. Further comparison show that it is better than similar other multimodal techniques.

  17. Imaging systems and methods for obtaining and using biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Kennedy, Mike O [Richland, WA

    2010-11-30

    Disclosed herein are exemplary embodiments of imaging systems and methods of using such systems. In one exemplary embodiment, one or more direct images of the body of a clothed subject are received, and a motion signature is determined from the one or more images. In this embodiment, the one or more images show movement of the body of the subject over time, and the motion signature is associated with the movement of the subject's body. In certain implementations, the subject can be identified based at least in part on the motion signature. Imaging systems for performing any of the disclosed methods are also disclosed herein. Furthermore, the disclosed imaging, rendering, and analysis methods can be implemented, at least in part, as one or more computer-readable media comprising computer-executable instructions for causing a computer to perform the respective methods.

  18. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%.

  19. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%. (paper)

  20. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  1. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  2. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  3. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population.

  4. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  5. BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION: A MODERN ERA FOR SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAY DHIR,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of systems require some reliable recognition system that gives the identity of a person. There are many applications that need the identity of a person to operate such as ATM, Laptops, Access to buildings, cellular Phones & some sensitive security locations. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an ndividual’s identity based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card or “what she remembers” (e.g., a password. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  6. Debunking some myths about biometric authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems are presented as the best way to reach high security levels in controlling access to IT systems or sensitive infrastructures. But several issues are often not taken properly into account. In order for the implementation of those systems to be successful, the hidden risks and the related liabilities have to be carefully analyzed before biometrics can be used on a large scale for sensitive applications.

  7. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Dimitrios Hatzinakos; Foteini Agrafioti; Yongjin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact loca...

  8. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  9. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  10. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  11. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  12. Utilization of coffee by-products obtained from semi-washed process for production of value-added compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Hermosa, Verónica Alejandra; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-08-01

    The semi-dry processing of coffee generates significant amounts of coffee pulp and wastewater. This study evaluated the production of bioethanol and volatile compounds of eight yeast strains cultivated in a mixture of these residues. Hanseniaspora uvarum UFLA CAF76 showed the best fermentation performance; hence it was selected to evaluate different culture medium compositions and inoculum size. The best results were obtained with 12% w/v of coffee pulp, 1 g/L of yeast extract and 0.3 g/L of inoculum. Using these conditions, fermentation in 1 L of medium was carried out, achieving higher ethanol yield, productivity and efficiency with values of 0.48 g/g, 0.55 g/L h and 94.11% respectively. Twenty-one volatile compounds corresponding to higher alcohols, acetates, terpenes, aldehydes and volatile acids were identified by GC-FID. Such results indicate that coffee residues show an excellent potential as substrates for production of value-added compounds. H. uvarum demonstrated high fermentative capacity using these residues.

  13. Comparison of mammography radiation dose values obtained from direct incident air kerma measurements with values from measured X-ray spectral data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assiamah, M. [Health Physics Service/Schonland Research Institute for Nuclear Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Nam, T.L. [Health Physics Service/Schonland Research Institute for Nuclear Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)]. E-mail: nam@schonlan.src.wits.ac.za; Keddy, R.J. [Health Physics Service/Schonland Research Institute for Nuclear Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2005-04-01

    The application of X-rays and ionising radiations for diagnostic radiology requires that the procedure is justified and optimised and that the exposure to the patient is kept as low as possible, without compromising image information. X-ray mammography is considered to be the most sensitive technique currently available for early detection of breast cancer. The magnitude of the absorbed radiation dose to the breast from mammography X-ray beams forms an important part of the quality control of the mammographic examination since it gives an indication of the performance of the mammographic imaging system as well as an estimated risk to the patient. In this work mean glandular dose (MGD) values were obtained at various tube potentials and tube loadings (TL) using direct measurements of the incident air kerma (ESAK) at the surface of a standard breast phantom and also from spectral measurements acquired with a solid-state detector. Comparisons of the MGD values thus derived are presented and the relationship between MGD, phantom thickness, image quality and tube operating parameters is discussed.

  14. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Balakumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according to the physiological features or behavioral features to be recognized without human involvement. This leads to the world wide usage of biometrics to secure the system. The various biometrics used in securing system are fingerprint, iris, retina, etc. The construction of cryptographic key from biometrics is used generally to secure the system. The efficiency and the flexibility of the cryptographic make it suitable for securing purpose. In some times, biometrics can be stolen; this makes the attackers to access the system for any time. This problem is diminished in this paper by using two biometrics features. The biometrics used in this paper is fingerprint and iris. These two features are combined with the help of fusion algorithm. From the combined features, cryptographic key is generated. The experimental result shows that the proposed techniques results in better security than the existing techniques.

  15. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  16. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used. PMID:26737619

  17. Determination of age and its correlation with biometric variables and seasonal reproductive indices of Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Felizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the age and its correlation with biometric variables and reproductive indices of piapara Leporinus obtusidens caught at the Funil Reservoir. We caught 133 specimens between September 2006 and August 2007. Weight, total length, standard length, depth, height, head length and radius of the scales were measured. The sex was determined by macroscopic examination of gonads. The age of each fish was determined by analyzing the growth rings on the scales. Seasonal differences in biometric variables were tested using the NK test at 5%. The correlation of age and radius of the scales with the biometric variables and reproductive indices were analyzed using the SAEG software. Fish individuals ranging from 3 to 14 years of age were caught. In the spring and summer, smaller fish were captured compared to those caught during the fall and winter. Females tended to have higher weight and morphometric values when compared to males. Age and radius of the scales were correlated with biometric variables in L. obtusidens. It can be concluded that the biometric variables of this species can be used as an indicator of age.

  18. Two-Factor Cancelable Biometrics Authenticator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Han Pang; Andrew T. B. J; David N. C. L

    2007-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication system offers advantages of providing high reliability and accuracy.However,the contemporary authentication system is impuissance to compromise.If a biometrics data is compromised, it cannot be replaced and rendered unusable.In this paper, a cancelable biometrics-based authenticator is proposed to solve this irrevocability issue.The proposed approach is a two-factor authentication system, which requires both of the random data and facial feature in order to access the system.In this system, tokenized pseudo-random data is coupled with moment-based facial feature via inner product algorithm.The output of the product is then discretized to generate a set of private binary code, coined as 2factor-Hashing code, which is acted as verification key.If this biometrics-based verification key is compromised, a new one can be issued by replacing a different set of random number via token replacement.Then, the compromised one is rendered completely useless.This feature offers an extra protection layer against biometrics fabrication since the verification code is replaceable.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides zero Equal Error Rate in which there is a clear separation in between the genuine and the imposter distribution populations.

  19. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Shriram D. Raut; Vikas T. Humbe

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm pri...

  20. Biometric system for user authentication based on Hough transform and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dubey Dheeraj Agrawal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of a person is the major concern in this era for security purposes. In biometric systems Signature is one of the behavioural features used for the authentication purpose. In this paper we work on the offline signature collected through different persons. Morphological operations are applied on these signature images with Hough transform to determine regular shape which assists in authentication process. The values extracted from this Hough space is used in the feed forward neural network which is trained using back-propagation algorithm. After the different training stages efficiency found above more than 95%. Application of this system will be in the security concerned fields, in the defence security, biometric authentication, as biometric computer protection or as

  1. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    , and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time...... to the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based supervised...

  2. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint c

  3. A Hybrid Model for Biometric Authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface based on Angular Geometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Usha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based personal recognition is an efficient method for identifying a person. Recently, hand based biometric has become popular due to its various advantages such as high verification accuracy and high user acceptability. This paper proposes a hybrid model using an emerging hand based biometric trait known as Finger Back Knuckle Surface. This model is based on angular geometric analysis which is implemented on two different samples of Finger Back Knuckle Surface such as Finger Bend Knuckle Surface and Finger Intact Knuckle Surface for the extraction of knuckle feature information. The obtained feature information from both the surfaces is fused using feature information level fusion technique to authenticate the individuals. Experiments were conducted using newly created database for both Bend Knuckle and Intact Knuckle Surface. The results were promising in terms of accuracy, speed and computational complexity.

  4. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Balanoiu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system.

  5. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  6. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  7. Remote secure proof of identity using biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, S. K.; Pearson, P.; Strait, R.S.

    1997-06-10

    Biometric measurements derived from finger- or voiceprints, hand geometry, retinal vessel pattern and iris texture characteristics etc. can be identifiers of individuals. In each case, the measurements can be coded into a statistically unique bit-string for each individual. While in electronic commerce and other electronic transactions the proof of identity of an individual is provided by the use of either public key cryptography or biometric data, more secure applications can be achieved by employing both. However the former requires the use of exact bit patterns. An error correction procedure allows us to successfully combine the use of both to provide a general procedure for remote secure proof of identity using a generic biometric device. One such procedure has been demonstrated using a device based on hand geometry.

  8. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  9. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  10. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  11. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  12. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  13. A previsibilidade biométrica nas lentes intra-oculares multifocais Biometric predictability in multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cézar Lacava

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a previsibilidade biométrica, avaliando a refração pós-operatória e acuidade visual (AV, em olhos submetidos a implante de lente intra-ocular multifocal. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em 88 olhos de 50 pacientes, submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante de lentes multifocais, de três marcas comerciais ReSTOR, ReZoom e Tecnis. No exame biométrico foram utilizados a biometria óptica ou biometria por interferometria de baixa coerência, associada ao uso de tomógrafo de segmento anterior e à fórmula biométrica Holladay II. Com a refração pós-operatória, acuidade visual e a dioptria da LIO implantada, segundo a fórmula Holladay II, calculamos o valor da lente intra-ocular (LIO a ser implantada caso utilizássemos as fórmulas SRKT e Haigis. Os resultados foram avaliados por métodos estatísticos. RESULTADOS: Todos os olhos obtiveram AV igual ou maior a 20/40 e J3 sem correção. As fórmulas Holladay II, SRKT e Haigis apresentaram performance semelhante em todos os grupos de olhos. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de novas tecnologias, como a biometria óptica e fórmulas de última geração, favorecem a obtenção do resultado refracional almejado com grande previsibilidade.PURPOSE: To present biometric predictability, evaluating postoperative refraction and visual acuity in eyes submitted to multifocal intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: Retrospective study in 88 eyes of 50 patients, submitted to phacoemulsification with multifocal lens implant of three commercial brands: ReSTOR, ReZoom and Tecnis. For biometric examination were used: optic biometry associated to the use of tomography of anterior segment and Holladay II biometric formula. With postoperative refraction, visual acuity and implanted IOL, according to Holladay II formula, we calculated the value of IOL to be implanted in case we used SRKT and Haigis formulas. The results were evaluated according to statistical methods. RESULTS: All eyes

  14. A novel multisensoric system recording and analyzing human biometric features for biometric and biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The recording and analyzing human motor control movements are fundamental parts of both behavioral biometrics and biomedical research studies. The dynamics of human motor functions of fingers, hand and wrist movements can be studied while handwriting, drawing or hand gestures. The major difficulties are the acquisition of high quality data and the characterization of the acquired data accurately and efficiently. A multisensoric Biometric Smart Pen BiSP device has been developed which has the ...

  15. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  16. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N.Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample and by creating a physical spoof.Susceptibility of the database can have a disastrous impact on the whole authentication system. The potential disclosure of digitally stored biometric data raises serious concerns about privacy and data protection. Therefore, we propose a method which would integrate conventional cryptography techniques with biometrics. In this work, we present a biometric crypto system which encrypts the biometric template and the encryption is done by generating pseudo random numbers, based on non-linear dynamics.

  17. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Chouhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process. The performance of iris recognition system highly depends on edge detection. The Canny Edge Detector is one of the most commonly used image processing tools, detecting edges in a very robust manner. For instance, even an effective feature extraction method would not be able to obtain useful information from an iris image that is not segmented properly. This paper presents a straightforward approach for segmenting the iris patterns. The used method determines an automated global threshold and the pupil center. Experiments are performed using iris images obtained from CASIA database (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Matlab application for its easy and efficient tools in image manipulation.

  18. Biometric approach in selecting plants for phytoaccumulation of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Mirjana; Pezo, Lato; Lačnjevac, Časlav; Mihajlović, Marija; Petrović, Jelena; Milojković, Jelena; Stanojević, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper promotes the biometric classification system of plant cultivars, unique characteristics, in terms of the uranium (U) uptake, primarily in the function of the application for phytoremediation. It is known that the degree of adoption of U depends on the plant species and its morphological and physiological properties, but it is less known what impact have plants cultivars, sorts, and hybrids. Therefore, we investigated the U adoption in four cultivars of three plant species (corn, sunflower and soy bean). "Vegetation experiments were carried out in a plastic-house filled with soil (0.66 mgU) and with tailing (15.3 mgU kg(-1)) from closed uranium mine Gabrovnica-Kalna southeast of Serbia". Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for assessing the effect of different substrates cultivars, plant species and plant organs (root or shoot) on U uptake. Obtained results showed that a difference in U uptake by three investigated plant species depends not only of the type of substrate types and plant organs but also of their cultivars. Biometrics techniques provide a good opportunity for a better understanding the behavior of plants and obtaining much more useful information from the original data. PMID:26606604

  19. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm;

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye i...

  20. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program: Jianwen Fang

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  1. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  2. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle c

  3. BIOMETRIC SECURITY: ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN DALAM SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI TERKOMPUTERISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josua Tarigan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges will face when develop biometric technology as control in accounting information system are standardization, hybrid technology uses, life cycle management. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Adanya keinginan setiap organisasi untuk mencari metode pengamanan authentication yang lebih untuk akses user, dijawab dengan adanya teknologi biometric security yang mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar bagi organisasi. Implementasi teknologi biometric security cukup luas dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yaitu sebagai pengendalian pada physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications dan covert surveillance. Dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi biometric, ada tiga tahapan yang harus dilakukan organisasi, yakni strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan dan documentation. Tantangan yang akan dihadapi dalam mengembangkan teknologi biometric sebagai pengendalian dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yakni standarisasi, aplikasi teknologi hybrid dan manajemen siklus hidup pada biometric security. Kata kunci: authentication, akses user dan biometric security.

  4. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease: Potential role of molecular biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amosy; E; M’Koma

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is not possible in 30% of patients. For decades, scientists have worked to find a solution to improve diagnostic accuracy for IBD, encompassing Crohn’s colitis and ulcerative colitis. Evaluating protein patterns in surgical pathology colectomy specimens of colonic mucosal and submucosal compartments, individually, has potential for diagnostic medicine by identifying integrally independent, phenotype-specific cellular and molecular characteristics. Mass spectrometry(MS) and imaging(I) MS are analytical technologies that directly measure molecular species in clinical specimens, contributing to the in-depth understanding of biological molecules. The biometric-system complexity and functional diversity is well suited to proteomic and diagnostic studies. The direct analysis of cells and tissues by Matrix-Assisted-Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) MS/IMS has relevant medical diagnostic potential. MALDI-MS/IMS detection generates molecular signatures obtained from specific cell types within tissue sections. Herein discussed is a perspective on the use of MALDI-MS/IMS and bioinformatics technologies for detection of molecular-biometric patterns and identification of differentiating proteins. I also discuss a perspective on the global challenge of transferring technologies to clinical laboratories dealing with IBD issues. The significance of serologic-immunometric advances is also discussed.

  5. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  6. [Total proteins of the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by punction of the cisterna magna: normal values. Variations related to sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, L M; Ferri, R G; Aisen, J; Marlet, J M

    1976-12-01

    The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid) of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females) with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne--Appelt and Takata-Ara) were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females). The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and factors that could interfere in the different results mentioned in the literature are briefly discussed. Since the statistical analysis of the results showed that the mean total protein concentration in males (28.76 mg/100 ml) was higher than in females (23.91 mg/100 ml), normal limits for each sex were established: 16.96 to 47.13 mg/100 ml for males and 14.76 to 42.76 mg/100 ml for females.

  7. Stromatoporoid biometrics using image analysis software: A first order approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-01

    Strommetric is a new image analysis computer program that performs morphometric measurements of stromatoporoid sponges. The program measures 15 features of skeletal elements (pillars and laminae) visible in both longitudinal and transverse thin sections. The software is implemented in C++, using the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) library. The image analysis system distinguishes skeletal elements from sparry calcite using Otsu's method for image thresholding. More than 150 photos of thin sections were used as a test set, from which 36,159 measurements were obtained. The software provided about one hundred times more data than the current method applied until now. The data obtained are reproducible, even if the work is repeated by different workers. Thus the method makes the biometric studies of stromatoporoids objective.

  8. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  9. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  10. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  11. Biometric data reduction for embedding in small images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq Qazi, Naseem

    2003-06-01

    Biometric authentication systems require a fast and accurate method of matching biometric data for identification purposes. This paper introduces a data reduction technique based on image processing to better embed biometric data in small images. For the most part, biometric data cannot be directly embedded in small images, because of limited embedding capacities and a large amount of data in biometric images. An image processing technique to extract features from biometric data, like fingerprints and retinal scans, has been developed and tested. This new technique developed to extract features is based on the Hough transform and has been tested on a large volume of real image data. The data reduction technique was applied to these images and the data reduced to size, which could be easily embedded in small pictures, like those on identity cards. Existing embedding algorithms were utilized.

  12. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  13. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  14. 78 FR 44136 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM) Biometric...: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection...), Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM), formerly the United States Visitor and Immigrant...

  15. Biometric Identification System by Lip Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhan M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication techniques are more consistent and efficient than conventional authentication techniques and can be used in monitoring, transaction authentication, information retrieval, access control, forensics, etc. Human-lip shape detection is an important criterion for many automated modern system in present day. Like computerized speech reading, face recognition etc. system can work more precisely if human-lip shape can detect accurately. There are many processes for detecting human-lip. This paper presents an approach for biometric identification system based on lips shapes recognition in low resolution images of human faces. The presented technique uses edge detection for detecting the region of a human-lip shape, we called it lip contour and colour filtering for noise reduction and enhancement of the desired recognition of lips. Also discusses advantages of this method, its use, and future development.

  16. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  17. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Agrafioti, Foteini; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2007-12-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC) in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  18. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint cards) and individualization of offender from traces found on crime-scenes (e.g. fingermarks, earmarks, bitemarks, DNA). From sir Francis Galton, to the introduction of AFIS systems in the scientifi...

  19. Information Fusion in Biometrics: A Case Study in Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang,Xiaoyan; Fu,Desheng

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics is an emerging topic in the field of signal processing. Multibiometric systems can improve the performance of identification by integrating information presented by single or multiple biometric indicators and a lot of researchers are working on it. As fingerprints is one of the most studied and popular biometrics, researches that have approached the challenges in fingerprints from an information fusion perspective is provided in this paper.

  20. Bioelectrical Signals as Emerging Biometrics: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Narain Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Amit Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of bioelectrical signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG) for biometric applications. Studies show that the impulses of cardiac rhythm and electrical activity of the brain recorded in ECG and EEG, respectively; have unique features among individuals, therefore they can be suggested to be used as biometrics for identity verification. The favourable characteristics to use the ECG or EEG signals as biometric include univ...

  1. Heartbeat Biometrics for Remote Authentication Using Sensor Embedded Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Biometric verification has been included in remote user authentication schemes recently. In this paper, we have proposed the use of heartbeat biometrics for its liveness property as a possible defense against spoof attacks in remote authentication. Sensor embedded mobile computing devices such as smart phones could be used to capture biometric signals and to replace the use of traditional smart cards. For the remote authentication, we have adopted the state-of-the-art scheme. We have describe...

  2. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Singla; Ankit Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc.) are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print ca...

  3. Soft Biometrics for Keystroke Dynamics: Profiling Individuals While Typing Passwords

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new profiling approach of individuals based on soft biometrics for keystroke dynamics. Soft biometric traits are unique representation of a person, which can be in a form of physical, behavioural or biological human characteristics that differentiate between him/her into a group people (e.g. gender, age, height, colour, race etc.). Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality to recognise how a person types on a keyboard. In this paper, we consider the followin...

  4. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  5. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila; Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo; Javier Guerra-Casanova; Alberto de-Santos-Sierra

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight ...

  6. Building Cloud-based Biometric Services

    OpenAIRE

    Žganec Gros, Jerneja; Bule, Jernej; Štruc, Vitomir; PEER, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years the amount of biometric data being at the disposal of various agencies and authentication service providers is expected to grow significantly. Such quantities of data require not only enormous amounts of storage but unprecedented processing power as well. To be able to face this future challenges more and more people are looking towards cloud computing, which can address these challenges quite effectively with its seemingly unlimited storage capacity, ra...

  7. Pattern recognition, machine intelligence and biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Patrick S P

    2012-01-01

    ""Pattern Recognition, Machine Intelligence and Biometrics"" covers the most recent developments in Pattern Recognition and its applications, using artificial intelligence technologies within an increasingly critical field. It covers topics such as: image analysis and fingerprint recognition; facial expressions and emotions; handwriting and signatures; iris recognition; hand-palm gestures; and multimodal based research. The applications span many fields, from engineering, scientific studies and experiments, to biomedical and diagnostic applications, to personal identification and homeland secu

  8. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  9. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  10. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  11. Reviewing biometrics vulnerabilities with Identity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathimath Sabena

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics Identity Management (BIdM is a newly rising and developing discipline which could be expressed as the study of verification and validation methods for the next generation. The two key terms enclosed in the title of this paper are– “Biometrics Vulnerabilities” and “Identity Management”. Every one of us has an identity. By utilizing this identity along with distinctive characteristics we distinguish ourselves from one another. By cross referencing the data from both sources, a guideline that would adapt the best practices to maintain the sequence of BIdM and identity theft integrity was designed. Based on the findings a guideline is proposed to the experts and end-users to use. A walk through with the BIdM consultant was done to identify areas of improvement to fine tune the artifact. For proper identity management this guideline can be used as the processes in data collection and data maintenance procedures are included. The procedures include extracting the data from data collection for proofs, data matching and handling the data in an appropriate way. The guideline will have its proper BIdM techniques by having the best practices of tackling its vulnerabilities. Databases having biometric data are themselves a threat to privacy. While distinguishing gaps in BIdM and discovering new approaches to tackle the vulnerabilities, issues and protect such databases and increasing the awareness programs, this research can be further extended.

  12. Protecting Identity Using Biometrics Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathimath Sabena, Ali Dehghantanha & Andy Seddon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics Identity Management (BIdM is a newly rising and developingdiscipline which could be expressed as the study of verification and validationmethods for the next generation. The two key terms enclosed in the title of thispaper are– “Biometrics Vulnerabilities” and “Identity Management”. Every one ofus has an identity. By utilizing this identity along with distinctive characteristicswe distinguish ourselves from one another. By cross referencing the data fromboth sources, a guideline that would adapt the best practices to maintain thesequence of BIdM and identity theft integrity was designed. Based on thefindings a guideline is proposed to the experts and end-users to use. A walkthrough with the BIdM consultant was done to identify areas of improvement tofine tune the artifact.For proper identity management this guideline can be used as the processes indata collection and data maintenance procedures are included. The proceduresinclude extracting the data from data collection for proofs, data matching andhandling the data in an appropriate way. The guideline will have its proper BIdMtechniques by having the best practices of tackling its vulnerabilities.Databases having biometric data are themselves a threat to privacy. Whiledistinguishing gaps in BIdM and discovering new approaches to tackle thevulnerabilities, issues and protect such databases and increasing the awarenessprograms, this research can be further extended.

  13. Password Hardened Biometric: A Complete Solution of Online Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In present epoch, secure online access to enterprises resources is very important for any organization. To protect valuable data become one of the big challenge for today's business as enterprise customers or clients involved in business-to-customer (B2C and business-to-business (B2B e-commerce need to feel that their transactions are secured from system hackers. Biometric technology provides a solution to this problem in enterprise network security. In this article we enhance the security of online transaction using secure and unique biometric template. The uniqueness of our process is that we store biometric template and password together in encrypted form both without the fusion of score level and decision level, which leads a successful way to combine multiple technologies, different from earlier methods. Password hardened biometric system helps to generate many different secure biometric templates for the same biometric system. It also generates unique biometric templates for multiple biometric systems from the same biometric trait.

  14. Biometric technology authentication, biocryptography, and cloud-based architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the

  15. A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems have very success rate in identifying an individual based on ones biological traits. In biometric history some features like weight, age, height etc. are also there to provide user recognition to some extent but not fully upto the mark because of their changing nature according to time and environment. These features are called soft biometric traits. Soft biometric traits are lack of permanence but they have some positive aspects in respect of enhancing the biometric system performance. Here in this paper, we have also highlighting the similar point but with a new aspect that is integrating the soft biometrics with fingerprint and face for improving the performance of biometric system. Here we have proposed an architecture of three different sensors to evaluate the system performance. The approach includes soft biometrics, fingerprint and face features, we have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio and total response time, with the help of MUBI tool (Multimodal Biometrics Integration.

  16. Method of estimating risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine used in medical field, involves computing different curvature values to obtain value representative of degree of irregularity of curvature of spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    NOVELTY - The curvature (L1-L4) of spine at two neighboring vertebrae is calculated. The different curvature values are computed to obtain a value representative of the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine. The risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine is estimated using the degree...

  17. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Ford, John C.; Olsen, Kathryn M.; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with \\text{TR}≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm-2, pixel size  =  1.98× 1.98 mm2, slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm-2 from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm-2 were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p>0.05 , paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets—0-1000 50-1000 100-1000 500-1000 and 250 and 800 μs μm-2 were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise simulation

  18. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  19. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... test is conducted by a laboratory that does not have an interest in the outcome (positive or negative... biometric subsystem must operate at a false match rate of 0.001 or lower. (c) The biometric subsystem must... false match rate described in paragraph (b) of this section, or a lower false match rate. Testing...

  20. Automated Human Identification Scheme using Ear Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. Biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. Ear on the other hand, has a more uniform distribution of color, so almost all information is conserved when converting the original image into gray scales. We propose the ear as a biometric and investigate it with both 2D and 3D data. The ICP-based algorithm also demonstrates good scalability with size of dataset. These results are encouraging in that they suggest a strong potential for 3D ear shape as a biometric. Multi-biometric 2D and 3D ear recognition are also explored. The proposed automatic ear detection method will integrate with the current system, and the performance will be evaluated with the original one. The investigation of ear recognition under less controlled conditions will focus on the robustness and variability of ear biometrics. Multi-modal biometrics using 3D ear images will be explored, and the performance will be compared to existing biometrics experimental results.

  1. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  2. A secure and user-friendly multimodal biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Mimura, Masahiro; Isobe, Yoshiaki; Seto, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    Biometric verification has attracted attention recently because it is more secure than knowledge- or token-based verification techniques. Multi-modal biometric verification can provide even greater accuracy by combining several forms of biometrics. However, there are problems with the availability, usability and acceptability of the technique. In this paper, we take a new approach in proposing a multi-modal biometric system that enables users to select which biometrics they prefer to be matched at the time of verification. This system also reduces the number of inputs required by adopting a sequential test based on statistical methods. In addition, the accuracy of the system can be controlled according to the security level required. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed system experimentally.

  3. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition is still a very difficult task in real-world scenarios wherein unforeseen changes in degradations factors like noise, occlusion, blurriness and illumination can drastically affect the extracted features from the biometric signals. Very recently Haar-like rectangular features...... which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal...... and it is not clear whether all of these features are required for the actual recognition or not. This is exactly what we are dealing with in this paper: How can an initial set of Haar-like rectangular features, that have been used for biometric recognition, be reduced to a set of most influential features...

  4. An Authentication Protocol Based on Combined RFID-Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benmohammed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and biometric technologies saw fast evolutions during the last years and which are used in several applications, such as access control. Among important characteristics in the RFID tags, we mention the limitation of resources (memory, energy, …. Our work focuses on the design of a RFID authentication protocol which uses biometric data and which confirms the secrecy, the authentication and the privacy. Our protocol requires a PRNG (Pseud-Random Number Generator, a robust hash function and Biometric hash function. The Biometric hash function is used to optimize and to protect biometric data. For Security analysis of protocol proposed, we will use AVISPA and SPAN tools to verify the authentication and the secrecy.

  5. Comparison of C{sub K} values obtained by different dosimetry laboratories; Comparacao das razoes C{sub K} obtidas por diferentes laboratorios de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: lnatal@usp.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Siqueira, Patricia M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to implement the new IAEA code of practice in Brazil the national calibration laboratories, the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation and the Laboratory of Instrument Calibration, are calibrating clinical dosimeters in terms of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water in a {sup 60}Co gamma ray beam. The N{sub D,W}/N{sub K} ratios thus obtained are then compared with the literature values; a satisfactory agreement has been found. The differences between the C{sub K} values obtained in the present work and the literature values may be due to several components. These could be the chamber-to-chamber variations which may be subject to different estimated uncertainties by Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs), and the variations in the standards used by each National Metrology Institute (NMI). However, since the ratio of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water standards for each NMI to those of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) are known, it is possible to reduce the measured ratios to the expected 'BIPM equivalent ratios'. All these C{sub K} results have been converted to the 'BIPM equivalent values' to facilitate comparison. The use of the C{sub K} value as a chamber dependent parameter and quality control indicator to verify the results of the routine calibrations is discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  7. Quantitative biometric phenotype analysis in mouse lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Matthew A.; Andley, Usha P.

    2010-01-01

    The disrupted morphology of lenses in mouse models for cataracts precludes accurate in vitro assessment of lens growth by weight. To overcome this limitation, we developed morphometric methods to assess defects in eye lens growth and shape in mice expressing the αA-crystallin R49C (αA-R49C) mutation. Our morphometric methods determine quantitative shape and dry weight of the whole lens from histological sections of the lens. This method was then used to quantitatively compare the biometric gr...

  8. Multimodal Biometrics Recognition by Dimensionality Diminution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric system utilizes two or more character modalities, e.g., face, ear, and fingerprint, Signature, plamprint to improve the recognition accuracy of conventional unimodal methods. We propose a new dimensionality reduction method called Dimension Diminish Projection (DDP in this paper. DDP can not only preserve local information by capturing the intra-modal geometry, but also extract between-class relevant structures for classification effectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other algorithms including PCA, LDA and MFA.

  9. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  10. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  11. Chaotic Neural Network for Biometric Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushan Ahmadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric pattern recognition emerged as one of the predominant research directions in modern security systems. It plays a crucial role in authentication of both real-world and virtual reality entities to allow system to make an informed decision on granting access privileges or providing specialized services. The major issues tackled by the researchers are arising from the ever-growing demands on precision and performance of security systems and at the same time increasing complexity of data and/or behavioral patterns to be recognized. In this paper, we propose to deal with both issues by introducing the new approach to biometric pattern recognition, based on chaotic neural network (CNN. The proposed method allows learning the complex data patterns easily while concentrating on the most important for correct authentication features and employs a unique method to train different classifiers based on each feature set. The aggregation result depicts the final decision over the recognized identity. In order to train accurate set of classifiers, the subspace clustering method has been used to overcome the problem of high dimensionality of the feature space. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.

  12. Methodology of the determination of the uncertainties by using the biometric device the broadway 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Roman; Talandova, Hana; Adamek, Milan

    2016-06-01

    The biometric identification by face is among one of the most widely used methods of biometric identification. Due to it provides a faster and more accurate identification; it was implemented into area of security 3D face reader by Broadway manufacturer was used to measure. It is equipped with the 3D camera system, which uses the method of structured light scanning and saves the template into the 3D model of face. The obtained data were evaluated by software Turnstile Enrolment Application (TEA). The measurements were used 3D face reader the Broadway 3D. First, the person was scanned and stored in the database. Thereafter person has already been compared with the stored template in the database for each method. Finally, a measure of reliability was evaluated for the Broadway 3D face reader.

  13. Mathematical Expressions for Estimation of Errors in the Formulas which are used to obtaining intermediate values of Biological Activity in QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizam Uddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR attempts to find consistent relationships between the variations in the values of molecular properties and the biological activity for a series of compounds. These physicochemical descriptors, which include parameters to account for hydrophobicity, topology, electronic properties, and steric effects, are determined empirically or, more recently, by computational methods. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR generally take the form of a linear equation where the biological activity is dependent variable. Biological activity is depended on the parameters and the coefficients. Parameters are computed for each molecule in the series. Coefficients are calculated by fitting variations in the parameters. Intermediate values of the biological activity are obtained by some formulas. These formulas are worked in tabulated values of biological activity in Quantitative structure-activity relationships. These formulas are worked in the conditions and all conditions are based on the position of the point lies in the table. Derived formulas using Newton's method for interpolation are worked in conditions which are depending on the point lies. If the point lies in the upper half then used Newton's forward interpolation formula. If the point lies in the lower half then we used Newton's backward interpolation formula. And when the interval is not equally spaced then used Newton's divide difference interpolation formula. When the tabulated values of the function are not equidistant then used Lagrangian polynomial. Mathematical expressions are derived for estimation of errors using intermediate values and formulas.

  14. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram D. Raut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm prints uses ridge patterns to identify an individual. Palm print recognition system is most promising to recognize an individual based on statistical properties of palm print image. It is rich in its features: principal lines, wrinkles, ridges, singular points and minutiae points. This paper proposes a Biometric Palm print lines extraction using image processing morphological operation. The proposed work discusses the significance; since both the palm print and hand shape images are proposed to extract from the single hand image acquired from a sensor. The basic statistical properties can be computed and are useful for biometric recognition of individual. This result and analysis will result into Total Success Rate (TSR of experiment is 100%. This paper discusses proposed work for biometric recognition of individual by using basic statistical properties of palm print image. The experiment is carried out by using MATLAB software image processing toolbox.

  15. Comparison of T-score values obtained by ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžiavdić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic disease of bones. Early detection of pathological loss of bone mineral density represents the first step in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of osteoporosis. This study was aimed at establishing the correlation of T-score values obtained by ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on the sample of 569 female patients from September 13, 2010 to March 10, 2011. Measurement was made with ultrasound osteodensitometry of ACHILLES make. Quantitative ultrasound method revealed that 77 female patients had a lower value of T-score (osteopenia with risk factors or osteoporosis and they were referred to T-score measurement with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed using LUNAR DPX scanner and 49 female patients were examined. Results. It was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between T-score values obtained by quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. Conclusion. According to this study, it is necessary to provide a greater number of scanners for ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus in order to secure prevention and to refer the patients to further diagnosing on time.

  16. A Novel Robust Digital Watermarking Technique Using Compressive Sensing for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Thanki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are those which utilize or are capability of utilizing characteristics of human for enrolment, verification or authentication. Biometrics based authentication system that use physiological and/or behavioral traits likes fingerprint, face, signature, palm print and voice are accept and use by many organization now days. But these biometric authentication systems are vulnerable against different attacks when biometric data transfer from one check point to other check point. In this paper, by combined compressive sensing theory and the correlation approach of White Gaussian Noise based robust digital watermarking technique is proposed for biometric embedding. The technique is divided into five steps: generation of linear measurement from watermark biometric data, embedding linear measurement into another biometric data, extraction of secure biometric from linear measurement, compressive sensing recovery process of biometric data and recognition of reconstructed biometric data with enrol biometric data for user authenticity. The proposed technique is providing more security and more payload capacity compare to traditional watermarking technique in spatial domain. The proposed technique is evaluated based on parameter like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Similarity Factor between reconstruct biometric data and enrolled biometric data. This proposed technique is increased overall data storage capacity in term secure enrolled biometric data of biometric authentication system

  17. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  18. Enhancing Information Security and Privacy by Combining Biometrics with Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with "crypto-biometrics", a relatively new and multi-disciplinary area of research (started in 1998). Combining biometrics and cryptography provides multiple advantages, such as, revocability, template diversity, better verification accuracy, and generation of cryptographically usable keys that are strongly linked to the user identity. In this text, a thorough review of the subject is provided and then some of the main categories are illustrated with recently proposed systems by the authors. Beginning with the basics, this text deals with various aspects of crypto-biometrics, i

  19. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and challenging branch in biometrics technologies.

  20. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Developing a reliable, fast, and robust biometric recognition system is still a challenging task. This is because the inputs to these systems can be noisy, occluded, poorly illuminated, rotated, and of very low-resolutions. This paper proposes a probabilistic classifier using Haar-like features......, which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems...

  1. A novel biometric authentication approach using electrocardiogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Hakan; Guz, Umit; Yarman, B S

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel biometric authentication approach based on combination of AC/DCT features, MFCC features, and QRS beat information of the ECG signals. The proposed approach is tested on a subset of 30 subjects selected from the PTB database. This subset consists of 13 healthy and 17 non-healthy subjects who have two ECG records. The proposed biometric authentication approach achieves average frame recognition rate of %97.31 on the selected subset. Our experimental results imply that the frame recognition rate of the proposed authentication approach is better than that of ACDCT and MFCC based biometric authentication systems, individually. PMID:24110673

  2. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  3. Biometric Authorization System using Gait Biometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sudha, L R

    2011-01-01

    Human gait, which is a new biometric aimed to recognize individuals by the way they walk have come to play an increasingly important role in visual surveillance applications. In this paper a novel hybrid holistic approach is proposed to show how behavioural walking characteristics can be used to recognize unauthorized and suspicious persons when they enter a surveillance area. Initially background is modelled from the input video captured from cameras deployed for security and the foreground moving object in the individual frames are segmented using the background subtraction algorithm. Then gait representing spatial, temporal and wavelet components are extracted and fused for training and testing multi class support vector machine models (SVM). The proposed system is evaluated using side view videos of NLPR database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves a pleasing recognition rate and also the results indicate that the classification ability of SVM with Radial Basis Function...

  4. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  5. Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Gentles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz., the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking these areas/issues into consideration we have now come with the biometrics authenticated mobile voting system, to start with for a country like Jamaica. The technology being proposed now is novel and the first of its kind proposed at present. It is proposed that using fingerprint supported biometric control information and encryption along with Secure Socket Layer i.e. SSL using VeriSign, would make the software involved in the voting process well secured. In addition tying the credentials to a mobile device will make the system even more robust. We have considered the mobile equipment for the present system development, a smart phone using Android 3.0 (Honeycomb. The details of the proposed development are presented in this paper.

  6. Optimized Radial Basis Function Classifier for Multi Modal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems can be used for the identification or verification of humans based on their physiological or behavioral features. In these systems the biometric characteristics such as fingerprints, palm-print, iris or speech can be recorded and are compared with the samples for the identification or verification. Multimodal biometrics is more accurate and solves spoof attacks than the single modal bio metrics systems. In this study, a multimodal biometric system using fingerprint images and finger-vein patterns is proposed and also an optimized Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel classifier is proposed to identify the authorized users. The extracted features from these modalities are selected by PCA and kernel PCA and combined to classify by RBF classifier. The parameters of RBF classifier is optimized by using BAT algorithm with local search. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with the KNN classifier, Naïve Bayesian classifier and non-optimized RBF classifier.

  7. Using Biometrics in Evaluating Ritual Gestures in Wearable Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei

    2015-01-01

    The article emphasized on the versatility of designing interactions with considerations of wearable technology under the principle of slow technology. It also proposed a new way of evaluating the emotional effect of wearable devices by using the biometric approach.

  8. A Security Algorithm for Iris Based Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARACHAND VERMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a field which is evolving regularly and also ncorporated classes of security approaches itself in recent years for user authentication. Proposed approach uses iris recognition as a example to explore an idea to build secure biometric systems. After segmenting and identifying the region of the iris, the process of normalization done. Then uniquely robust features of each person’s iris which have extracted, further used to match with iris template which is already saved in database. In this work we will give a new approach of user authentication which uses both eyes of same user. In order to provide privacy protection and deter unauthorized use of biometric sensitive data, iris feature(s should be properly encrypted by applying cryptographic techniques and image processingapproach jointly. This paper discusses a suitable approach for secure and robust biometric matching.

  9. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Chouhan; Dr.(Mrs) Shailja Shukla

    2011-01-01

    biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process...

  10. Embedded system for individual recognition based on ECG biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biometric recognition is emerging has an alternative solution for applications where the privacy of the information is crucial. This paper presents an embedded biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signals (ECG) for individual identification and authentication. The proposed system implements a real-time state-of-the-art recognition algorithm, which extracts information from the frequency domain. The system is based on a ARM Cortex 4. Preliminary results show ...

  11. Biometric recognition system using low bandwidth ECG signals

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents a biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signal (ECG). The proposed system is based on a state-of-the-art recognition method which extracts information from the frequency domain. In this paper we propose a new method to increase the spectral resolution of low bandwidth ECG signals due to the limited bandwid...

  12. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  13. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  14. Biometric Attendance and Big Data Analysis for Optimizing Work Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neetu; Xavier, Teenu; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Although biometric attendance management is available, large healthcare organizations have difficulty in big data analysis for optimization of work processes. The aim of this project was to assess the implementation of a biometric attendance system and its utility following big data analysis. In this prospective study the implementation of biometric system was evaluated over 3 month period at our institution. Software integration with other existing systems for data analysis was also evaluated. Implementation of the biometric system could be successfully done over a two month period with enrollment of 10,000 employees into the system. However generating reports and taking action this large number of staff was a challenge. For this purpose software was made for capturing the duty roster of each employee and integrating it with the biometric system and adding an SMS gateway. This helped in automating the process of sending SMSs to each employee who had not signed in. Standalone biometric systems have limited functionality in large organizations unless it is meshed with employee duty roster. PMID:27332164

  15. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  16. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  17. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  18. On the use of time-averaging restraints when deriving biomolecular structure from [Formula: see text]-coupling values obtained from NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorna J; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Hansen, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Deriving molecular structure from [Formula: see text]-couplings obtained from NMR experiments is a challenge due to (1) the uncertainty in the Karplus relation [Formula: see text] connecting a [Formula: see text]-coupling value to a torsional angle [Formula: see text], (2) the need to account for the averaging inherent to the measurement of [Formula: see text]-couplings, and (3) the sampling road blocks that may emerge due to the multiple-valuedness of the inverse function [Formula: see text] of the function [Formula: see text]. Ways to properly handle these issues in structure refinement of biomolecules are discussed and illustrated using the protein hen egg white lysozyme as example. PMID:27627888

  19. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  20. HBS: a novel biometric feature based on heartbeat morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Alajlan, Naif; Bazi, Yakoub; Hichri, Haikel S

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new feature named heartbeat shape (HBS) is proposed for ECG-based biometrics. HBS is computed from the morphology of segmented heartbeats. Computation of the feature involves three basic steps: 1) resampling and normalization of a heartbeat; 2) reduction of matching error; and 3) shift invariant transformation. In order to construct both gallery and probe templates, a few consecutive heartbeats which could be captured in a reasonably short period of time are required. Thus, the identification and verification methods become efficient. We have tested the proposed feature independently on two publicly available databases with 76 and 26 subjects, respectively, for identification and verification. The second database contains several subjects having clinically proven cardiac irregularities (atrial premature contraction arrhythmia). Experiments on these two databases yielded high identification accuracy (98% and 99.85%, respectively) and low verification equal error rate (1.88% and 0.38%, respectively). These results were obtained by using templates constructed from five consecutive heartbeats only. This feature compresses the original ECG signal significantly to be useful for efficient communication and access of information in telecardiology scenarios. PMID:22361664

  1. Development of Palmprint Verification System Using Biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Shobha; M. Krishna; S.C. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Palmprint verification system using Biometrics is one of the emerging technologies, which recognizes a person based on the principle lines, wrinkles and ridges on the surface of the palm. These line structures are stable and remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual. More importantly, no two palmprints from different individuals are the same, and normally people do not feel uneasy to have their palmprint images taken for testing. Therefore palmprint recognition offers a promising future for medium-security access control systems. In this paper, a new approach for personal authentication using hand images is discussed. Gray-Scale palm images are captured using a digital camera at a resolution of 640′480. Each of these gray-scale images is aligned and then used to extract palmprint and hand geometry features. These features are then used for authenticating users. The image acquisition setup used here is inherently simple and it does not employ any special illumination nor does it use any pegs that might cause any inconvenience to users. Experimental results show that the designed system achieves an acceptable level of performance.

  2. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  3. Biometric study using hyperspectral imaging during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sheela; Quoraishee, Shafik; Chan, Gabriel; Short, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    To the casual observer, transient stress results in a variety of physiological changes that can be seen in the face. Although the conditions can be seen visibly, the conditions affect the emissivity and absorption properties of the skin, which imaging spectrometers, commonly referred to as Hyperspectral (HS) cameras, can quantify at every image pixel. The study reported on in this paper, using Hyperspectral cameras, provides a basis for continued study of HS imaging to eventually quantify biometric stress. This study was limited to the visible to near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Signal processing tools and algorithms have been developed and are described for using HS face data from human subjects. The subjects were placed in psychologically stressful situations and the camera data were analyzed to detect stress through changes in dermal reflectance and emissivity. Results indicate that hyperspectral imaging may potentially serve as a non-invasive tool to measure changes in skin emissivity indicative of a stressful incident. Particular narrow spectral bands in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum seem especially important. Further studies need to be performed to determine the optimal spectral bands and to generalize the conclusions. The enormous information available in hyperspectral imaging needs further analysis and more spectral regions need to be exploited. Non-invasive stress detection is a prominent area of research with countless applications for both military and commercial use including border patrol, stand-off interrogation, access control, surveillance, and non-invasive and un-attended patient monitoring.

  4. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  5. BIOMETRICS SOCIETY AND THE PROGRESS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Romanian animal, agricultural and biological sciences were seriously damaged in the period 1948-1964 by the introduction of the Stalinsko- lasenko approach in the field of Genetics and by an empiric-pragmatic approach of agricultural theory. In 1965, it started the reintroduction of the real genetic science and in 1969 a small group of scientists (22, 3 animal scientists, 3 agriculturalists registered in International Biometric Society aiming to change the scientific approach in experimental technique, genetic and animal breeding, ecological vision of animal production, education system. An international Congress of International Biometric Society was held in Romania. Some progress was achieved in all biological fields, but generally it was braked by the routine, by inertia. The number of Romanian agricultural members of Biometric Society decreased, the group disappeared after the year 1990, the biometricians were not present in research and education, but a correct approach is visible in Animal Breeding theory. It is noted that the biometric approach in biological sciences is originated from Darwin and Mendel theory, it was concretized by Galton and Pearson but the origin of Biometric Society (1946 is connected with S. Wright. Some basic scientific works of Quantitative Genetics and Evolution theory are noted.

  6. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  7. Biometric authentication for ID cards with hologram watermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Mayerhoefer, Astrid; Frank, Marcus; Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of a new technique for the authentication of ID cardholders, based on the integration of a biometrics-based authentication system with digital watermarks. The chosen biometric authentication method is the dynamic signature verification of the ID cardholder, while we use a specific integrity watermark technique we developed, called Hologram Watermark, to embed and retrieve the off-line data onto an ID card. We take advantage of the fact, that two static biometric features (images of the user's face and signature) are already integral part of ID cards for manual verification and extent the stored biometric information by embedding on-line handwriting features of the signature as holographic watermarks in the overall image information of an ID card. Manipulation of any of the image information can be detected and will further disallow biometric verification of the forger. The Hologram Watermark technique produces content-related data using computer-generated hologram coding techniques. These data are embedded with watermarking techniques into the personal data printed on an ID card. The content-related data in this specific application are the dynamic features of the cardholder's signature. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the suitability of dynamic signature verification in combination with the Hologram Watermark technique, to facilitate automated user authentication based on information transparently embedded in ID cards.

  8. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, Emile J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, Ileana; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved protectio

  9. BioSecure: white paper for research in biometrics beyond BioSecure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Deravi, F.; García-Mateo, C.; Tistarelli, M.; Snijder, M.; Meints, M.; Dittmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the output of a consultation process of various major stakeholders in the biometric community to identify the future biometrical research issues, an activity which employed not only researchers but representatives from the entire biometrical community, consisting of governments, indus

  10. Guide to biometrics for large-scale systems technological, operational, and user-related factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Presents a review of biometric technology and biometric systems, and the concept of identity management Discusses the legal, political and societal factors of biometric technology, in addition to user psychology and other human factors Provides chapter-ending review questions and discussion points

  11. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  12. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  13. European securitization and biometric identification: the uses of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Williams, Robin

    2007-01-01

    The recent loss of confidence in textual and verbal methods for validating the identity claims of individual subjects has resulted in growing interest in the use of biometric technologies to establish corporeal uniqueness. Once established, this foundational certainty allows changing biographies and shifting category memberships to be anchored to unchanging bodily surfaces, forms or features. One significant source for this growth has been the "securitization" agendas of nation states that attempt the greater control and monitoring of population movement across geographical borders. Among the wide variety of available biometric schemes, DNA profiling is regarded as a key method for discerning and recording embodied individuality. This paper discusses the current limitations on the use of DNA profiling in civil identification practices and speculates on future uses of the technology with regard to its interoperability with other biometric databasing systems. PMID:17536152

  14. Perfect Match: Biometrics and Body Patterning in a Networked World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fuller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bodies are increasingly becoming collectively integrated into informational processes which are open to biotechnical forms of regulation. Biometrics, the use of body measurements such as retina scanning, face recognition and fingerprinting is now being uncontroversially introduced throughout the world under the aegis of security and efficient traffic management. Fields that once molded the individual through bodily confinement and observation are dispersing and converging into the regimes of logistics and control. This paper looks at the operations of biometrics to consider the biopolitical ramifications of body measurement as power is made operational by controlling movement via the haptic techniques of information architecture rather than the more familiar modes of discipline and panoptical vision machines. Biometrics is the perfect control for the networked individual as we divide across infinite planes and dimensions, reconfiguring endlessly to become pattern matches in expanding databases of everyday life.

  15. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  16. Finding meta data in speech and handwriting biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Basu, T. K.; Dittmann, Jana; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to present our work on the analysis of speech and handwriting biometrics related to meta data, which are based on one side on system hardware specifics (technical meta data) and on the other side to personal attributes (non-technical meta data). System related meta data represent physical characteristics of biometric sensors and are essential for ensuring comparable quality of the biometric raw signals. Previous work in personal related meta data has shown that it is possible to estimate some meta data like script language, dialect, origin, gender and age by statistically analyzing human handwriting and voice data. On one hand, by knowing both kinds of such meta data, it appears to be possible to adapt the recognition or authentication algorithms in order to enhance their recognition accuracy and to analyze the sensor dependency of biometric algorithms with respect to hardware properties such as sampling resolution. On the other hand, interesting aspects are to evaluate, if cultural characteristics (such as native language, or ethnicity) can be derived by statistical or analytical means from voice or handwriting dynamics and to which degree grouping of users by persons with identical or similar meta data may result in better biometric recognition accuracy. All these aspects have been widely neglected by research until today. This article will discuss approaches to model such meta data and strategies for finding features by introducing a new meta data taxonomy, from which we derive those personal and system attributes related to the cultural background, which are employed in our experimental evaluation. Further, we describe the test methodology used for our experimental evaluation in different cultural regions of India and Europe and present first results for sensor hardware related meta data in handwriting biometrics as well as language related meta data in speaker recognition.

  17. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for automated teller machine (ATM banking systems is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, a fingerprint biometric technique is fused with the ATM for person authentication to ameliorate the security level.

  18. A new threshold signature scheme based on fuzzy biometric identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongquan Cai; Ke Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the first threshold signature scheme based on biometric identity, which is acquired from a recently proposed fuzzy identities-based encryption scheme. An important feature of this scheme, which is different from other previous ID-based threshold signature schemes, is that it can be applied to situations using not only average personal attributes in social contact but also people's noisy biometric inputs as identities. The security of our scheme in the selective-lD model reduces the limit in the hardness of the Decisional BDH Assumption.

  19. Biometric Subject Verification Based on Electrocardiographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of authenticating or declining to authenticate an asserted identity of a candidate-person. In an enrollment phase, a reference PQRST heart action graph is provided or constructed from information obtained from a plurality of graphs that resemble each other for a known reference person, using a first graph comparison metric. In a verification phase, a candidate-person asserts his/her identity and presents a plurality of his/her heart cycle graphs. If a sufficient number of the candidate-person's measured graphs resemble each other, a representative composite graph is constructed from the candidate-person's graphs and is compared with a composite reference graph, for the person whose identity is asserted, using a second graph comparison metric. When the second metric value lies in a selected range, the candidate-person's assertion of identity is accepted.

  20. Multi-Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Gad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-biometrics is an exciting and interesting research topic. It is used to recognizing individuals for security purposes; to increase security levels. The recent research trends toward next biometrics generation in real-time applications. Also, integration of biometrics solves some of unimodal system limitations. However, design and evaluation of such systems raises many issues and trade-offs. A state of the art survey of multi-biometrics benefits, limitations, integration strategies, and fusion levels are discussed in this paper. Finally, upon reviewing multi-biometrics approaches and techniques; some open points are suggested to be considered as a future research point of interest.

  1. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  2. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  3. Enhancement of low sampling frequency recordings for ECG biometric matching using interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) based biometric matching suffers from high misclassification error with lower sampling frequency data. This situation may lead to an unreliable and vulnerable identity authentication process in high security applications. In this paper, quality enhancement techniques for ECG data with low sampling frequency has been proposed for person identification based on piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation (PCHIP) and piecewise cubic spline interpolation (SPLINE). A total of 70 ECG recordings from 4 different public ECG databases with 2 different sampling frequencies were applied for development and performance comparison purposes. An analytical method was used for feature extraction. The ECG recordings were segmented into two parts: the enrolment and recognition datasets. Three biometric matching methods, namely, Cross Correlation (CC), Percent Root-Mean-Square Deviation (PRD) and Wavelet Distance Measurement (WDM) were used for performance evaluation before and after applying interpolation techniques. Results of the experiments suggest that biometric matching with interpolated ECG data on average achieved higher matching percentage value of up to 4% for CC, 3% for PRD and 94% for WDM. These results are compared with the existing method when using ECG recordings with lower sampling frequency. Moreover, increasing the sample size from 56 to 70 subjects improves the results of the experiment by 4% for CC, 14.6% for PRD and 0.3% for WDM. Furthermore, higher classification accuracy of up to 99.1% for PCHIP and 99.2% for SPLINE with interpolated ECG data as compared of up to 97.2% without interpolation ECG data verifies the study claim that applying interpolation techniques enhances the quality of the ECG data. PMID:23062461

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  6. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  7. A novel feature ranking algorithm for biometric recognition with PPG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reşit Kavsaoğlu, A; Polat, Kemal; Recep Bozkurt, M

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended for describing the application of the Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal and the time domain features acquired from its first and second derivatives for biometric identification. For this purpose, a sum of 40 features has been extracted and a feature-ranking algorithm is proposed. This proposed algorithm calculates the contribution of each feature to biometric recognition and collocates the features, the contribution of which is from great to small. While identifying the contribution of the features, the Euclidean distance and absolute distance formulas are used. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated by the results of the k-NN (k-nearest neighbor) classifier applications of the features. During application, each 15-period-PPG signal belonging to two different durations from each of the thirty healthy subjects were used with a PPG data acquisition card. The first PPG signals recorded from the subjects were evaluated as the 1st configuration; the PPG signals recorded later at a different time as the 2nd configuration and the combination of both were evaluated as the 3rd configuration. When the results were evaluated for the k-NN classifier model created along with the proposed algorithm, an identification of 90.44% for the 1st configuration, 94.44% for the 2nd configuration, and 87.22% for the 3rd configuration has successfully been attained. The obtained results showed that both the proposed algorithm and the biometric identification model based on this developed PPG signal are very promising for contactless recognizing the people with the proposed method.

  8. Biometric Template Protection With Robust Semi – Blind Watermarking Using Image Intrinsic Local Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita C. Paunwala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a biometric watermarking technology sturdy towards image manipulations,like JPEG compression, image filtering, and additive noise. Application scenarios includeinformation transmission between client and server, maintaining e-database and management ofsignatures through insecure distribution channels. Steps involved in this work are, a generationof binary signature code for biometric, b embedding of the binary signature to the host imageusing intrinsic local property, that ensures signature protection, c host image is then madeexposed to various attacks and d signature is extracted and matched based on an empiricalthreshold to verify the robustness of proposed embedding method. Embedding relies on binarysignature manipulating the lower order AC coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transformed subblocksof host image. In the prediction phase, DC values of the nearest neighbor DCT blocks isutilized to predict the AC coefficients of centre block. Surrounding DC values of a DCT blocks areadaptively weighed for AC coefficients prediction. Linear programming is used to calculate theweights with respect to the image content. Multiple times embedding of watermark ensuresrobustness against common signal processing operations (filtering, enhancement, rescaling etc.and various attacks. The proposed algorithm is tested for 50 different types of host images andpublic data collection, DB3, FVC2002. FAR and FRR are compared with other methods to showthe improvement.

  9. Quantifying privacy and security of biometric fuzzy commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Veldhuis, Raymond; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy commitment is an efficient template protection algorithm that can improve security and safeguard privacy of biometrics. Existing theoretical security analysis has proved that although privacy leakage is unavoidable, perfect security from information-theoretical points of view is possible when

  10. Advent of Biometric Sensors in Field of Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing biological data. It is used to uniquely identify individuals by their physical characteristics or personal behavior traits.The results from scrutiny of various themes including unimodal, multimodal, physiological, behavioural bio-metrics. Bio-metrics, Physiological and behavioural are compared in the review. The article addresses a particular aspect of utilizing biometrics for authentication, identification and access control. The use of systems like fingerprint, face recognition, hand geometry, Palm print, DNA analysis, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent will be dealt with herewith. This study deals with various applications of this technology, like surveillance, employee identification, device access etc with mentions respective of hardware used. The influence of such features is yet to be documented properly, but it is safe to say that it has been a huge step towards better information security and identification control.Over the course of this text, we will try to bring to light our analysis of the subject and provide an in-depth examination of contemporary and futuristic technologies pertaining to this field.

  11. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinc

  12. Polymer thick-film sensors: possibilities for smartcard biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the potential of polymer thick-film sensors are assessed for use as biometric sensors on smartcards. Piezoelectric and piezoresistive sensors have been printed on flexible polyester, then bonded to smartcard blanks. The tactile interaction of a person with these sensors has been invest

  13. A biometric authentication model using hand gesture images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan; Fister, Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2013-01-01

    A novel hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's stationary hand gesture of hand sign language is proposed. The measurement of hand gestures could be sequentially acquired by a low-cost video camera. There could possibly be another level of contextual information, associated with these hand signs to be used in biometric authentication. As an analogue, instead of typing a password 'iloveu' in text which is relatively vulnerable over a communication network, a signer can encode a biometric password using a sequence of hand signs, 'i' , 'l' , 'o' , 'v' , 'e' , and 'u'. Subsequently the features from the hand gesture images are extracted which are integrally fuzzy in nature, to be recognized by a classification model for telling if this signer is who he claimed himself to be, by examining over his hand shape and the postures in doing those signs. It is believed that everybody has certain slight but unique behavioral characteristics in sign language, so are the different hand shape compositions. Simple and efficient image processing algorithms are used in hand sign recognition, including intensity profiling, color histogram and dimensionality analysis, coupled with several popular machine learning algorithms. Computer simulation is conducted for investigating the efficacy of this novel biometric authentication model which shows up to 93.75% recognition accuracy. PMID:24172288

  14. An Introduction to Biometrics Technology: Its Place in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Peters, Jerry L.; Rishel, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The increased utilization of biometrics technology in the past few years has contributed to a strong growth pattern as the technology is used in a variety of facilities, including schools. Due to media exposure, students' familiarity with technology will continue to increase proportionately, which will result in an increased curiosity about…

  15. An efficient visualization method for analyzing biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; McGonagle, Mike; Yates, J. Harlan; Henning, Ronda; Hackett, Jay

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a novel application for biometric data analysis. This technology can be used as part of a unique and systematic approach designed to augment existing processing chains. Our system provides image quality control and analysis capabilities. We show how analysis and efficient visualization are used as part of an automated process. The goal of this system is to provide a unified platform for the analysis of biometric images that reduce manual effort and increase the likelihood of a match being brought to an examiner's attention from either a manual or lights-out application. We discuss the functionality of FeatureSCOPE™ which provides an efficient tool for feature analysis and quality control of biometric extracted features. Biometric databases must be checked for accuracy for a large volume of data attributes. Our solution accelerates review of features by a factor of up to 100 times. Review of qualitative results and cost reduction is shown by using efficient parallel visual review for quality control. Our process automatically sorts and filters features for examination, and packs these into a condensed view. An analyst can then rapidly page through screens of features and flag and annotate outliers as necessary.

  16. SAS Launches Biometric Identification at Airports All Over Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scandinavian Airlines is to launch a new biometric identification system throughout Sweden.When traveling, your fingerprint will be matched to your check-in baggage. This makes the check-in process easier and improves security. The new technology will be launched during November and December at almost all airports served by Scandinavian Airlines in Sweden.

  17. The value of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas, judged on the basis of radiation results obtained in Wuerzburg between 1977 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out into the effectiveness of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas as well as metastases formed by those tumours. The relevance of changes in CT findings and CEA values is discussed in detail. (MBC)

  18. Biometric Secured Result Processing Software For Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Oluwasegun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the challenges facing result processing in Nigerian tertiary institutions is the problem of insecurity. Untraceable changes are made to students result and this result to various disasters such as innocent people losing their jobs since their innocence cannot be proven. Biometric based systems operate on behavioral and physiological biometric data to identify a person and grant required access to a user. Physiological characteristics such as fingerprint remains unchanged throughout an individuals life time and thus it can serve as a viable means of identifying and authenticating users who are to access a system. In this study fingerprint biometric based result processing software is developed to ensure that users are well authenticated and are made to see only what they are pre-configured to see and work with. The fingerprint authentication system was developed using visual basic.net. Staff fingerprints were enrolled into the system to form a biometric template which the system validates against at every login attempt on the result processing software. The digital personal one touch ID sdk and other libraries were used in developing the authentication system. The result processing software also ensures that all write transactions to the database are confirmed and identified by forcing another biometric authentication at the point of making a write request to the web server and associated database. This ensures that the exact person initiating the transaction was the same user who logged in to the application. The users identified at login and various confirmation milestones set for write transactions are logged into a table for future reference and audit trail. Conclusively the developed system has helped to eradicate the problem of user impersonation by ensuring only authorized users are made to access the software and in-turn participate in result processing activities.

  19. Diagnostic value of the upper lip bite test in predicting difficulty in intubation with head and neck landmarks obtained from lateral neck X-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation remains a primary concern of anaesthesiologists and upper lip bite test (ULBT is one of the assessments used in predicting difficult intubation. In this study, we aimed to check the utility of lateral neck X-ray measurements in improving the diagnostic value of the ULBT. Methods: In a prospective study conducted from January 2007 until December 2010, we recorded personal and demographic data of 4500 patients who entered the study and subjected them to standard lateral neck radiography. Before the induction of anaesthesia, clinical examination and ULBT results were recorded and during induction of anaesthesia laryngoscopic grading was evaluated and recorded in questionnaires. All the compiled data were analysed by SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA software. Diagnostic value for each test was calculated and compared. Results: Negative predictive values (NPVs were high in all tests. ULBT had the highest specificity and NPV compared with the other tests. The positive predictive value for all the tests had been low, but marginally high in the ULBT. Conclusion: Although all the tests used had relatively acceptable predictive values, combination of tests appeared to be more predictive. Highest sensitivities were observed with ULBT, mandibulohyoid distance and thyromental distance respectively. Use of radiological parameters may not be suitable as screening tools, but may help in anticipating and preparing for a difficult scenario.

  20. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  1. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Data Representation by AVT Hierarchical Data Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user’s medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents’ medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data. Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  2. A NOVEL BIOMETRICS TRIGGERED WATERMARKING OF IMAGES BASED ON WAVELET BASED CONTOURLET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elakkiya Soundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of network and digital technology has led to several issues to the digital content. The technical solution to provide law enforcement and copyright protection is achieved by digital watermarking Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital image in a way that is difficult to remove. The proposed method contains following phases (i Pre-processing of biometric image (ii key generation from the biometrics of the owner/user and randomization of the host image using Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF (iii Wavelet-Based Contourlet Transform (WBCT is applied on the host image. The WBCT can give the anisotropy optimal representation of the edges and contours in the image by virtue of the characteristics of multi-scale framework and multi-directionality (iv Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is enforced over the watermark image (v Embedding of the host image with the watermark image. The comparative analysis confirms the efficiency and robustness of the proposed system Index Terms— Digital Watermarking, copyright, Pre-processing, wavelet, Speeded-Up Robust Features.

  3. Influence of Biometric Variables on Refractive Outcomes after Cataract Surgery in Angle-closure Glaucoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lim, Hyung Bin; Lee, Jong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of biometric variables on refractive outcomes after cataract surgery in angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) patients. Methods In this case-control study, 42 ACG patients, 40 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, and 35 controls without glaucoma who had undergone conventional cataract surgery were enrolled consecutively. Electronic medical records, including preoperative biometric variables (keratometric diopter, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness), the refractive change (RC), and the absolute value of refractive change (ARC) were reviewed. Results In the control and OAG patients, the anterior chamber depth was negatively correlated with the ARC (r = -0.344, p = 0.043 and r = -0.431, p = 0.006, respectively), whereas there was no correlation in the ACG patients. Lens thickness was positively correlated with the RC, but not with the ARC, in the control and OAG groups (r = 0.391, p = 0.020 and r = 0.501, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, lens thickness in the ACG group was not correlated with the RC but was positively correlated with the ARC (r = 0.331, p = 0.032). Conclusions In contrast with the anterior chamber depth, preoperatively measured lens thickness may be a useful predictor of the direction of the RC after cataract surgery in control and OAG patients. However, in ACG patients, a thicker lens was correlated with a larger RC, regardless of the direction of the shift (hyperopic or myopic). PMID:27478355

  4. Diagnostic value of the upper lip bite test in predicting difficulty in intubation with head and neck landmarks obtained from lateral neck X-ray

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid Hussain Khan; Shahriar Arbabi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation remains a primary concern of anaesthesiologists and upper lip bite test (ULBT) is one of the assessments used in predicting difficult intubation. In this study, we aimed to check the utility of lateral neck X-ray measurements in improving the diagnostic value of the ULBT. Methods: In a prospective study conducted from January 2007 until December 2010, we recorded personal and demographic data of 4500 patients who entered the study and su...

  5. Improved method for noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by 133Xe inhalation. I. description of method and normal values obtained in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical method for noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) is described, based on Obrist's 10 minute, desaturation method after 1 minute inhalation of 133Xe. Sixteen collimated probes are placed over both hemispheres and brain stem-cerebellar regions. End-tidal 133Xe curves are used for correction of recirculation. KEV discriminators are set to record gamma and x-ray activity separately. Values are printed out automatically by a computer on a brain map. Extracerebral contamination is reduced by (1) computing curves from gamma activity, (2) applying pressure on the scalp beneath the probes, (3) 1 minute inhalation of 133Xe and recording desaturation curves for 10 minutes, thereby minimizing slow clearance from extracranial tissues. Normal values for both fast and slow compartments are reproducible and are in good agreement with the carotid injection method. The speech dominant hemisphere has higher flow than the right under conditions described. Posterior portions of the cranium over the cerebellum and brain stem appear to have higher flow gray values than the cerebral cortex. Gray matter flow decreases with advancing age

  6. Influence of coefficient of variation in determining significant difference of quantitative values obtained from 28-day repeated-dose toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi; Sakuratani, Yuki; Abe, Takemaru; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Jun; Hirose, Akihiko; Kamata, Eiichi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of coefficient of variation (CV) in determining significant difference of quantitative values of 28-day repeated-dose toxicity studies, we examined 59 parameters of 153 studies conducted in accordance with Chemical Substance Control Law in 12 test facilities. Sex difference was observed in 12 parameters and 10 parameters showed large CV in females. The minimum CV was 0.74% for sodium. CV of electrolytes was comparatively small, whereas enzymes had large CV. Large differences in CV were observed for major parameters among 7-8 test facilities. The changes in CV were grossly classified into 11. Our study revealed that a statistical significant difference is usually detected if there is a difference of 7% in mean values between the groups and the groups have a CV of about 7%. A parameter with a CV as high as 30% may be significantly different, if the difference of the mean between the groups is 30%. It would be ideal to use median value to assess the treatment-related effect, rather than mean, when the CV is very high. We recommend using CV of the body weight as a standard to judge the adverse effect level.

  7. Do apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained using high b-values with a 3-T MRI correlate better than a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy with true Gleason scores obtained from radical prostatectomy specimens for patients with prostate cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato [Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kawakami, Fumi [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in predicting true Gleason scores from radical prostatectomy specimen (tGS), compared with systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy GS (bGS). Materials and methods: One hundred and five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent preoperative DWI (b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm{sup 2}) of 3-T MRI. The mean and minimum ADCs of visible tumors were calculated for either of a pair of b-values: 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 1000}), or 0 and 2000 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 2000}), and relationships between the four ADC parameters and tGS evaluated for the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ). For multiple tumors, the dominant tumor's GS and ADCs were estimated for cancer aggressiveness assessment by computing ROC curves. Results: Significant negative correlations were observed between tGS and mean ADC{sub 1000}, mean ADC{sub 2000}, minimum ADC{sub 1000}, and minimum ADC{sub 2000} (r = −0.41, −0.39, −0.39, and −0.37, respectively) of 100 visible PZ tumors and 66 visible TZ tumors (r = −0.40, −0.42, −0.29, and −0.21, respectively). For distinguishing high-grade from low/intermediate-grade PZ lesions, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of mean ADC{sub 1000} (0.751), mean ADC{sub 2000} (0.710), minimum ADC{sub 1000} (0.768), and minimum ADC{sub 2000} (0.752) were similar to that of the highest bGS (0.708) (p = 0.61, p = 0.98, p = 0.47, and p = 0.60, respectively). For distinguishing high-grade from low/intermediate-grade TZ lesions, AUCs of mean ADC{sub 1000} (0.779), and mean ADC{sub 2000} (0.811) were similar to that of the highest bGS (0.805) (p = 0.83 and p = 0.97). Conclusion: Tumor ADCs obtained with high b-values could predict prostate cancer aggressiveness as effectively as systematic TRUS-guided biopsy.

  8. Avoiding terminological confusion between the notions of 'biometrics' and 'biometric data' : An investigation into the meanings of the terms from a European data protection and a scientific perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article has been motivated by an observation: the lack of rigor by European bodies when they use scientific terms to address data protection and privacy issues raised by biometric technologies and biometric data. In particular, they improperly use the term ‘biometrics’ to mean at the same time

  9. Securing Revocable Iris and Retinal Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Multimodal Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Meenakshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are subjected to a variety of attacks. Stored biometric template attack is very severe compared to all other attacks. Providing security to biometric templates is an important issue in building a reliable personal identification system. Multi biometric systems are more resistive towards spoof attacks compared to unibiometric counterpart. Soft biometric are ancillary information about a person. This work provides security and revocability to iris and retinal templates using combined user and soft biometric based password hardened multimodal biometric fuzzy vault. Password hardening provides security and revocability to biometric templates. Eye biometrics namely iris and retina have certain merits compared to fingerprint. Iris and retina capturing cameras can be mounted on a single device to improve user convenience. Security of the vault is measured in terms of min-entropy.

  10. On the Value of Effective Parameters Obtained Under Reduced Spatial Scale Mismatch to Represent Soil Moisture - Evapotranspiration Interactions in Land Surface Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolem, R.; Iwema, J.; Blyth, E.; Wagener, T.; Rahman, A. S. M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture - evapotranspiration interactions have been studied in several regions characterized by distinct soil properties, land cover types, and climate. Such interactions are usually assessed with measurements representing different spatial footprint. For example, soil moisture measurements obtained from point-scale sensors or with remote sensing products are typically compared with evapotranspiration measurements obtained with eddy covariance systems. With efforts to develop hydrometeorological models capable of simulating processes at hyper-resolution (i.e., 1 sq-km), novel approaches for intermediate-scale soil moisture measurements give us new opportunities to evaluate the representation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration processes at similar spatial scales. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) in which key parameters are determined effectively based on both soil moisture and evapotranspiration measurements obtained with similar horizontal footprint. We use soil moisture data from selected sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) network in combination with co-located Ameriflux eddy covariance towers to constrain key parameters in JULES assuming their similar horizontal footprint of hundreds of meters. The COSMOS-Ameriflux sites are characterized by distinct soils, land cover types, and climate. In addition, point-scale soil moisture at each site is also used in combination with eddy covariance measurements to constrain JULES parameters, while recognizing its much smaller support volume. Each individual site is ranked based on differences in soil moisture dynamics from both point-scale and intermediate-scale measurements. Model calibration is carried out by optimizing JULES performance against (1) point-scale soil moisture only, (2) cosmic-ray soil moisture only, (3) point-scale soil moisture and surface fluxes, and (4) cosmic-ray soil moisture and surface fluxes. We then evaluate

  11. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  12. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics Feature Level Fusion Of Fingerprint And Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the users biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the users biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from...

  13. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted fr...

  14. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  15. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabham, N. J.; White, N. M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved.

  16. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  17. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  18. Performance of Personal Identification System Technique Using Iris Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iris identification as one of the significant techniques of biometric identification systems s and iris recognition algorithm is described. Biometric technology advances intellectual properties are wanted by many unauthorized personnel. As a result many researchers have being searching ways for more secure authentication methods for the user access. Iris recognition uses iris patterns for personnel identification. The system steps are capturing iris patterns; determining the location of iris boundaries; converting the iris boundary to the stretched polar coordinate system; extracting iris code based on texture analysis. The system has been implemented and tested using dataset of number of samples of iris data with different contrast quality. The developed algorithm performs satisfactorily on the images, provides 93% accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance.

  19. A new concept in biometric identification 3-dimensional hand geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of biometric identifier which utilizes hand outline measurements made in three dimensions is described. This device uses solid state imaging with no moving parts. The important characteristics of accuracy, speed, user tolerability, small template size, low power, portability and reliability are discussed. A complete stand-alone biometric access control station with sufficient memory for 10,000 users and weighing less than 10 pounds has been built and tested. A test was conducted involving daily use by 112 users over a seven week period during which over 6300 access attempts were made. The single try equal error rate was found to be 0.4%. There were no false rejects when three tries were allowed before access was denied. Defeat with an artifact is difficult because the hand must be copied in all three dimensions

  20. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabham, N J; White, N M [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved.

  1. Internet Passport Authentication System Using Multiple Biometric Identification Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic passports (e-Passports have known a wide and fast deployment all around the world since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO the world has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers. The purpose of biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The paper consider only those passport scenarios whose passport protocols base on public-key cryptography, certificates, and a public key infrastructure without addressing the protocols itself detailed, but this is no strong constraint. Furthermore assume the potential passport applier to use ordinary PCs with Windows or Linux software and an arbitrary connection to the Internet. Technological securities issues are to be found in several dimension, but below paper focus on hardware, software, and infrastructure as some of the most critical issues.

  2. A relation between irreversibility and unlinkability for biometric template protection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    井沼, 学

    2014-01-01

    For biometric recognition systems, privacy protection of enrolled users’ biometric information, which are called biometric templates, is a critical problem. Recently, various template protection algorithms have been proposed and many related previous works have discussed security notions to evaluate the protection performance of these protection algorithms. Irreversibility and unlinkability are important security notions discussed in many related previous works. In this paper, we prove that u...

  3. A Hybrid Model for Biometric Authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface based on Angular Geometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Usha, K.; M. Ezhilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric based personal recognition is an efficient method for identifying a person. Recently, hand based biometric has become popular due to its various advantages such as high verification accuracy and high user acceptability. This paper proposes a hybrid model using an emerging hand based biometric trait known as Finger Back Knuckle Surface. This model is based on angular geometric analysis which is implemented on two different samples of Finger Back Knuckle Surface such as Finger Bend Kn...

  4. Correlations of third-trimester hiatal biometry obtained using our-dimensional translabial ultrasonography with the delivery route in nulliparous pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temtanakitpaisan, Teerayut [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Chantarason, Varisara [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bumrungrad Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Bunyavejchevin, Suvit [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate normal hiatal dimensions in the third trimester in nulliparous Thai pregnant women and to establish which biometric factors were associated with various pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-seven consecutive nulliparous pregnant Thai women in their third trimester were recruited on a voluntary basis from April to October 2014. All subjects underwent four-dimensional (4D) translabial ultrasonography. Hiatal biometric parameters were measured at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. Information about the patients’ eventual deliveries was obtained from their medical records. The mean values of the patients’ age, body mass index, and gestational age at the time of examination were 27.4±5.47 years, 26.7±3.48 kg/m{sup 2}, and 36.6±1.49 weeks, respectively. No subjects had vaginal lumps or experienced prolapse greater than stage 1 of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Ultrasonography showed that the mean values of the hiatal area at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction were 13.10±2.92 cm{sup 2}, 17.50±4.81 cm{sup 2}, and 9.69±2.09 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The hiatal area at rest, the axial measurement at rest, and the axial measurement while performing a Valsalva maneuver were significantly associated with the route of delivery (P=0.02, P=0.04, and P=0.03, respectively). The route of delivery was associated with hiatal biometric values measured using 4D translabial ultrasonography, based on the results of nulliparous Thai women in the third trimester.

  5. Correlations of third-trimester hiatal biometry obtained using four-dimensional translabial ultrasonography with the delivery route in nulliparous pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerayut Temtanakitpaisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate normal hiatal dimensions in the third trimester in nulliparous Thai pregnant women and to establish which biometric factors were associated with various pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Fifty-seven consecutive nulliparous pregnant Thai women in their third trimester were recruited on a voluntary basis from April to October 2014. All subjects underwent four-dimensional (4D translabial ultrasonography. Hiatal biometric parameters were measured at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. Information about the patients’ eventual deliveries was obtained from their medical records. Results: The mean values of the patients’ age, body mass index, and gestational age at the time of examination were 27.4±5.47 years, 26.7±3.48 kg/m2, and 36.6±1.49 weeks, respectively. No subjects had vaginal lumps or experienced prolapse greater than stage 1 of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Ultrasonography showed that the mean values of the hiatal area at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction were 13.10±2.92 cm2, 17.50±4.81 cm2, and 9.69±2.09 cm2, respectively. The hiatal area at rest, the axial measurement at rest, and the axial measurement while performing a Valsalva maneuver were significantly associated with the route of delivery (P=0.02, P=0.04, and P=0.03, respectively. Conclusion: The route of delivery was associated with hiatal biometric values measured using 4D translabial ultrasonography, based on the results of nulliparous Thai women in the third trimester.

  6. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  7. Spotting and tracking good biometrics with the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We mathematically model the mammalian Visual System's (VS) capability of spotting objects. How can a hawk see a tiny running rabbit from miles above ground? How could that rabbit see the approaching hawk? This predatorprey interaction draws parallels with spotting a familiar person in a crowd. We assume that mammal eyes use peripheral vision to perceive unexpected changes from our memory, and then use our central vision (fovea) to pay attention. The difference between an image and our memory of that image is usually small, mathematically known as a 'sparse representation'. The VS communicates with the brain using a finite reservoir of neurotransmittents, which produces an on-center and thus off-surround Hubel/Wiesel Mexican hat receptive field. This is the basis of our model. This change detection mechanism could drive our attention, allowing us to hit a curveball. If we are about to hit a baseball, what information extracted by our HVS tells us where to swing? Physical human features such as faces, irises, and fingerprints have been successfully used for identification (Biometrics) for decades, recently including voice and walking style for identification from further away. Biologically, humans must use a change detection strategy to achieve an ordered sparseness and use a sigmoid threshold for noisy measurements in our Hetero-Associative Memory [HAM] classifier for fault tolerant recall. Human biometrics is dynamic, and therefore involves more than just the surface, requiring a 3 dimensional measurement (i.e. Daugman/Gabor iris features). Such a measurement can be achieved using the partial coherence of a laser's reflection from a 3-D biometric surface, creating more degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) to meet the Army's challenge of distant Biometrics. Thus, one might be able to increase the standoff loss of less distinguished degrees of freedom (DOF).

  8. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Sign...

  9. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    OpenAIRE

    André Lourenço; Hugo Silva; Ana Fred

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with...

  10. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinct from the populations on Tenerife and Gran Canaria than the two latter are mutually. An apparent decline in the number of adults occurs in July, which is related to a decrease in the number of egg...

  11. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecki Maciej J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio, based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2 and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98 respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  12. Inactivation model equations and their associated parameter values obtained under static acid stress conditions cannot be used directly for predicting inactivation under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M; Verhulst, A; Valdramidis, V; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F; Geeraerd, A H

    2008-11-30

    Organic acids (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid) are popular preservatives. In this study, the Listeria innocua inactivation is investigated under dynamic conditions of pH and undissociated lactic acid ([LaH]). A combined primary (Weibull-type) and secondary model developed for the L. innocua inactivation under static conditions [Janssen, M., Geeraerd, A.H., Cappuyns, A., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Schockaert, G., Van Houteghem, N., Vereecken, K.M., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., Van Impe, J.F., 2007. Individual and combined effects of pH and lactic acid concentration on L. innocua inactivation: development of a predictive model and assessment of experimental variability. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(5), 1601-1611] was applied to predict the microbial inactivation under dynamic conditions. Because of its non-autonomous character, two approaches were proposed for the application of the Weibull-type model to dynamic conditions. The results quantitatively indicated that the L. innocua cell population was able to develop an induced acid stress resistance under dynamic conditions of pH and [LaH]. From a modeling point of view, it needs to be stressed that (i) inactivation model equations and associated parameter values, derived under static conditions, may not be suitable for use as such under dynamic conditions, and (ii) non-autonomous dynamic models reveal additional technical intricacies in comparison with autonomous models.

  13. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus Biometrics and Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodriguez-Marin

    Full Text Available The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled, covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR. The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  14. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  15. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  16. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc. are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print can be picked from glass on synthetic skin and in face recognition system due to genetic factors identical twinsor father-son may have the same facial appearance. ECG does not have these problems. It can not be recorded without theknowledge of the person and ECG of every person is unique even identical twins have different ECG. In this paper an ECGbasedbiometrics verification system which was developed using Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench(LabVIEW version 7.1 is discussed. Experiments were conducted on the database stored in the laboratory of 20 individualshaving 10 samples each and the results revealed a false rejection rate (FRR of 3% and false acceptance rate (FAR of 3.21%.

  17. Biometric hashing for handwriting: entropy-based feature selection and semantic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidat, Tobias; Vielhauer, Claus

    2008-02-01

    Some biometric algorithms lack of the problem of using a great number of features, which were extracted from the raw data. This often results in feature vectors of high dimensionality and thus high computational complexity. However, in many cases subsets of features do not contribute or with only little impact to the correct classification of biometric algorithms. The process of choosing more discriminative features from a given set is commonly referred to as feature selection. In this paper we present a study on feature selection for an existing biometric hash generation algorithm for the handwriting modality, which is based on the strategy of entropy analysis of single components of biometric hash vectors, in order to identify and suppress elements carrying little information. To evaluate the impact of our feature selection scheme to the authentication performance of our biometric algorithm, we present an experimental study based on data of 86 users. Besides discussing common biometric error rates such as Equal Error Rates, we suggest a novel measurement to determine the reproduction rate probability for biometric hashes. Our experiments show that, while the feature set size may be significantly reduced by 45% using our scheme, there are marginal changes both in the results of a verification process as well as in the reproducibility of biometric hashes. Since multi-biometrics is a recent topic, we additionally carry out a first study on a pair wise multi-semantic fusion based on reduced hashes and analyze it by the introduced reproducibility measure.

  18. Biometric-based personal identity-authentication system and security analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YANG Yi-xian; NIU Xin-xin

    2006-01-01

    The traditional authentication system is based on the secret key, and is mainly based on public key infrastructure (PKI). Unfortunately, a key has many disadvantages, for example, the key can be forgotten or stolen, and can be easily cracked. Nowadays, authentication systems using biometric technology have become more prevalent because of the advantages over password-based authentication systems. In this article, several biometric authentication models are presented,upon which most biometric authentication systems are based.Biometric authentication systems based-on these models provide high security for access control in non-face-to-face environment such as e-commerce, over open network.

  19. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  20. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  1. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-hwan Ju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility.

  2. A study on user authentication methodology using numeric password and fingerprint biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Kwak, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  3. Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness in female nonradiation workers of a monazite processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest wall thickness (CWT) was estimated in fifty four female nonradiation workers of a monazite processing plant by biometric measurements. The CWT ranged from 4.12 cm to 6.94 cm giving an average of 5.19 ± 0.76 cm. CWT was found to have very good correlation with percent Body Fat and abdominal circumference but poor correlation with Body Mass Index, Body Build Index, Slenderness, age etc. CWT increases with age especially in the upper middle-aged group (> 35 years). A single measurement of abdominal circumference can be used to estimate CWT with 94 % accuracy. A factor of 0.0587 was derived to estimate CWT from abdominal circumference. The study also showed that about 11 % of the subjects were obese. The results obtained will be very useful for the accurate measurement of Low Energy Photons like 239Pu and 241Am deposited in the lung. (author)

  4. A study on user authentication methodology using numeric password and fingerprint biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Kwak, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility.

  5. Value of evaluating diastolic function with the single-beat E/(e’ × s) obtained by dual doppler echocardiograph in coronary heart disease patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of E/(e’×s)in estimating left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with coronary heart disease by dual Doppler echocardiograph.Methods Seventy-seven consecutive coronary heart disease patients with preserved systolic function underwent echocardiographic study were included.The E,e’and s were obtained by the dual Doppler echocardio-

  6. Maximum Key Size and Classification Performance of Fuzzy Commitment for Gaussian Modeled Biometric Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, J.; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from, or binding a key to the binary vector derived from the biomet

  7. iButton Enrolment and Verification Requirements for the Pressure Sequence Smartcard Biometric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, Neil J.; White, Neil M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2001-01-01

    With the growing number of smartcard applications there comes an increasing need to restrict access to the card itself. In previous work we proposed the pressure sequence biometric, within which a biometric sensor is integrated onto the card in a low-cost and mechanically compliant manner. Using an

  8. iButton enrolment and verification times for the pressure sequence smartcard biometric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; White, N.M.; Hartel, P.H.; Attali, I.; Jensen, Th.

    2001-01-01

    With the growing number of smartcard applications there comes an increasing need to restrict access to the card itself. In previous work we proposed the pressure sequence biometric, within which a biometric sensor is integrated onto the card in a low-cost and mechanically compliant manner. Using an

  9. Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Mahmood, Abdun

    2011-12-01

    Adoption of compression technology is often required for wireless cardiovascular monitoring, due to the enormous size of Electrocardiography (ECG) signal and limited bandwidth of Internet. However, compressed ECG must be decompressed before performing human identification using present research on ECG based biometric techniques. This additional step of decompression creates a significant processing delay for identification task. This becomes an obvious burden on a system, if this needs to be done for a trillion of compressed ECG per hour by the hospital. Even though the hospital might be able to come up with an expensive infrastructure to tame the exuberant processing, for small intermediate nodes in a multihop network identification preceded by decompression is confronting. In this paper, we report a technique by which a person can be identified directly from his / her compressed ECG. This technique completely obviates the step of decompression and therefore upholds biometric identification less intimidating for the smaller nodes in a multihop network. The biometric template created by this new technique is lower in size compared to the existing ECG based biometrics as well as other forms of biometrics like face, finger, retina etc. (up to 8302 times lower than face template and 9 times lower than existing ECG based biometric template). Lower size of the template substantially reduces the one-to-many matching time for biometric recognition, resulting in a faster biometric authentication mechanism. PMID:20703779

  10. Enhancement of Security and Privacy in Biometric Passport Inspection System Using Face, Fingerprint, and Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The biometric passports are to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. Biometric Passports have been introduced in many countries to improve the security in Inspection Systems and enhance procedures and systems that prevent identity and passport fraud. The deployment of biometric technologies, countries need to test and evaluate its systems since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO provides the guidelines, but the implementation is up to each issuing country. The paper also provides a cryptographic security analysis of the e-passport using face fingerprint, and iris biometric that are intended to provide improved security in protecting biometric information of the e-passport bearer.

  11. Biometric template data protection in mobile device environment using XML-database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirumathyam, Rubathas; Derawi, Mohammad; Fischer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a non-traditional XML database which supports biometric templates and provides an API which can be used by independent applications in mobile device environments. Until recently biometric systems are becoming more and more visible in mobile phone devices including fingerprint...... recognition or gait recognition. To gain a real understanding of how it is possible to protect the biometric data, this paper first starts out with introducing a technique for security in a biometric system and emphasizes that template protection is important by going through the vulnerabilities and threats....... Furthermore, it points out requirements for template protection, a recital of various template protection schemes and a brief overview of biometric standards....

  12. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP, and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matched Filter (IGMF. Experimental results confirm that the proposed multimodal biometric process achieves excellent recognition performance compared to unimodal biometric system. The Area Under Curve (AUC of the proposed approach is very close to unity (0.98.

  13. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  14. Development of a Mobile EEG-based Biometric Authentication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonovs, Juris; Petersen, Christoffer Kjeldgaard; Olesen, Henning;

    In recent years the need for greater security for storing personal and business data or accessing corporate networks on mobile devices is growing rapidly, and one of the potential solutions is to employ the innovative biometric authentication techniques. This paper presents the development...... and present a mobile prototype system capable of authenticating users based on the uniqueness of their brainwaves. Furthermore, we implement a novel authentication process, which leads the authentication system to be more secure. We also give suggestions for future improvements of the system....

  15. Una mirada a la biometría

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ MARÍN, MILTON; RODRÍGUEZ URIBE, JUAN CARLOS; OLIVARES MORALES, JUAN CARLOS

    2011-01-01

    La Identificación Biométrica, es decir, el reconocer a una persona por alguna característica biofísica o de comportamiento, está tomando cada vez más importancia en la actualidad ; su importancia radica en las limitaciones de los sistemas actuales de identificación personal, los cuales en su mayoría, están restringidos al uso de dispositivos externos como tarjetas inteligentes y claves personales. La biometría está basada en el principio de que cada individuo es único y posee rasgos físicos ...

  16. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Pisarchik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  17. Biometric identification systems: the science of transaction facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert R.

    1994-10-01

    The future ofthe "secure transaction" and the success ofall undertakings that depend on absolute certainty that the individuals involved really are who and what they represent themselves to be is dependent upon the successful development of absolutely accurate, low-cost and easy-to-operate Biometric Identification Systems. Whether these transactions are political, military, financial or administrative (e.g. health cards, drivers licenses, welfare entitlement, national identification cards, credit card transactions, etc.), the need for such secure and positive identification has never been greater -and yet we are only at the beginning ofan era in which we will see the emergence and proliferation of Biometric Identification Systems in nearly every field ofhuman endeavor. Proper application ofthese systems will change the way the world operates, and that is precisely the goal ofComparator Systems Corporation. Just as with the photo-copier 40 years ago and the personal computer 20 years ago, the potential applications for positive personal identification are going to make the Biometric Identification System a commonplace component in the standard practice ofbusiness, and in interhuman relationships ofall kinds. The development of new and specific application hardware, as well as the necessary algorithms and related software required for integration into existing operating procedures and newly developed systems alike, has been a more-than-a-decade-long process at Comparator -and we are now on the verge of delivering these systems to the world markets so urgently in need of them. An individual could feel extremely confident and satisfied ifhe could present his credit, debit, or ATM card at any point of sale and, after inserting his card, could simply place his finger on a glass panel and in less than a second be positively accepted as being the person that the card purported him to be; not to mention the security and satisfaction of the vendor involved in knowing that

  18. Elastic Face, An Anatomy-Based Biometrics Beyond Visible Cue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsap, L V; Zhang, Y; Kundu, S J; Goldgof, D B; Sarkar, S

    2004-03-29

    This paper describes a face recognition method that is designed based on the consideration of anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of facial tissues. Elastic strain pattern inferred from face expression can reveal an individual's biometric signature associated with the underlying anatomical structure, and thus has the potential for face recognition. A method based on the continuum mechanics in finite element formulation is employed to compute the strain pattern. Experiments show very promising results. The proposed method is quite different from other face recognition methods and both its advantages and limitations, as well as future research for improvement are discussed.

  19. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  20. La biometría hemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N López-Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La biometría hemática, o citometría hemática como también se le conoce, es el examen de laboratorio de mayor utilidad y más frecuentemente solicitado por el clínico. Esto es debido a que en un solo estudio se analizan tres líneas celulares completamente diferentes: eritroide, leucocitaria y plaquetaria, que no sólo orientan a patologías hematológicas; sino también a enfermedades de diferentes órganos y sistemas.

  1. Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. This prospective study analyses features of global and regional pulmonary function in 14 patients with little to moderately pronounced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. At the beginning of treatment, the global function values were not different from the values generally accepted as normal. Disturbed perfusion was determined in pulmonary sections where the X-ray pictures had revealed the presence of tuberculous foci. After therapy and inactivation of the tuberculosis the values were seen to remain unchanged. (MBC)

  2. Improving Atm Security Check Using DNA Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe, Agu Felix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes how DNA can be used to identify account owner of a particular bank.DNA samples were obtained from body fluid. Buccal swab was used for sample collection .Buccal cell collection involves wiping a small piece of filter paper or a cotton swab against the inside of armpit in order to collect shed epithelial cells. The swab was then air dried or could be pressed against a treated collection card in order to transfer epithelial cells for storage purposes. The stored samples were later amplified and separated .The data generated from the samples were stored and saved in the database so that if a customer comes to claim money, the system checks whether it matches with what is stored in the database ,if it matches with the one in the database, access is granted to the customer,.if it does not match with what is stored in the database ,access is denied from the customer

  3. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  4. Behavioral Biometrics in Assisted Living: A Methodology for Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xefteris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral biometrics aim at providing algorithms for the automatic recognition of individual behavioral traits, stemming from a person’s actions, attitude, expressions and conduct. In the field of ambient assisted living, behavioral biometrics find an important niche. Individuals suffering from the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases (MCI, Alzheimer’s, dementia need supervision in their daily activities. In this context, an unobtrusive system to monitor subjects and alert formal and informal carers providing information on both physical and emotional status is of great importance and positively affects multiple stakeholders. The primary aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for recognizing the emotional status of a subject using facial expressions and to identify its uses, in conjunction with pre-existing risk-assessment methodologies, for its integration into the context of a smart monitoring system for subjects suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Paul Ekman’s research provided the background on the universality of facial expressions as indicators of underlying emotions. The methodology then makes use of computational geometry, image processing and graph theory algorithms for the detection of regions of interest and then a neural network is used for the final classification. Findings are coupled with previous published work for risk assessment and alert generation in the context of an ambient assisted living environment based on Service oriented architecture principles, aimed at remote web-based estimation of the cognitive and physical status of MCI and dementia patients.

  5. Toward lightweight biometric signal processing for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, Roberto; Hooshmand, Mohsen; Gadaleta, Matteo; Grisan, Enrico; Yoon, Seung Keun; Rossi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Wearable devices are becoming a natural and economic means to gather biometric data from end users. The massive amount of information that they will provide, unimaginable until a few years ago, owns an immense potential for applications such as continuous monitoring for personalized healthcare and use within fitness applications. Wearables are however heavily constrained in terms of amount of memory, transmission capability and energy reserve. This calls for dedicated, lightweight but still effective algorithms for data management. This paper is centered around lossy data compression techniques, whose aim is to minimize the amount of information that is to be stored on their onboard memory and subsequently transmitted over wireless interfaces. Specifically, we analyze selected compression techniques for biometric signals, quantifying their complexity (energy consumption) and compression performance. Hence, we propose a new class of codebook-based (CB) compression algorithms, designed to be energy efficient, online and amenable to any type of signal exhibiting recurrent patterns. Finally, the performance of the selected and the new algorithm is assessed, underlining the advantages offered by CB schemes in terms of memory savings and classification algorithms.

  6. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lourenço

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications.

  8. Toward lightweight biometric signal processing for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, Roberto; Hooshmand, Mohsen; Gadaleta, Matteo; Grisan, Enrico; Yoon, Seung Keun; Rossi, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Wearable devices are becoming a natural and economic means to gather biometric data from end users. The massive amount of information that they will provide, unimaginable until a few years ago, owns an immense potential for applications such as continuous monitoring for personalized healthcare and use within fitness applications. Wearables are however heavily constrained in terms of amount of memory, transmission capability and energy reserve. This calls for dedicated, lightweight but still effective algorithms for data management. This paper is centered around lossy data compression techniques, whose aim is to minimize the amount of information that is to be stored on their onboard memory and subsequently transmitted over wireless interfaces. Specifically, we analyze selected compression techniques for biometric signals, quantifying their complexity (energy consumption) and compression performance. Hence, we propose a new class of codebook-based (CB) compression algorithms, designed to be energy efficient, online and amenable to any type of signal exhibiting recurrent patterns. Finally, the performance of the selected and the new algorithm is assessed, underlining the advantages offered by CB schemes in terms of memory savings and classification algorithms. PMID:26737218

  9. Obtaining of the cellular S values by means of Monte Carlo simulation with Penelope and MCNPX; Obtencion de los valores S celulares mediante simulacion Monte Carlo con PENELOPE y MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L.; Avila, O., E-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the simulation codes Monte Carlo, Penelope and MCNPX were used to calculate the doses by unit of accumulated activity S(N-N) in water spherical cells models of different radius exposed to mono-energetics electrons coming from punctual sources located in the center of the cellular nucleus. The studied cellular radii were: r{sub n}1=3 r{sub c}1=6; r{sub n}2=5 and r{sub c}2=10; r{sub n}3=9 and r{sub c}3=10 {mu}m; being r{sub n} and r{sub c} the nuclear and cellular radius, respectively. The following initial energies of the electrons were considered: 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 700 and 1000 keV. Additionally values S(N-N) were calculated for spherical cells of r= 3 {mu}m r{sub c}= 6 {mu}m due to the electrons coming from sources of {sup 111}In, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 186}Re. The obtained values are compared with those calculated by the MIRD Committee internationally accepted. The percentage differences between the values reported by this Committee and those calculated by Monte Carlo simulation are inside the interval that is considered valid for this dosimetry type. A major concordance was found among the values calculated by Monte Carlo simulation that among those calculated by MIRD and those obtained by simulation. Considering validated the use of both codes for similar applications, the values S(N-N) and S(N-C y) were obtained of prostate cancer real cells models of the PC3 line. The results were compared among them. The values of S(N-N) obtained with Penelope for the PC3 cells for the electron emissions of {sup 111}In, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 186}Re are: 3.19e{sup {sub {sup 4}}}, 3.24e{sup -4}, 1.37e{sup -4}, 1.11e{sup -4} and 1.91e{sup -4} Gy/Bq-s, respectively. Also the obtained results for S(N-C y) are: 2.95e{sup -6}, 3.17e{sup -5}, 2.09e{sup -6}, 1.41e{sup -5}, 1.86e{sup -5} Gy/Bq-s. (Author)

  10. Strategies for Exploiting Independent Cloud Implementations of Biometric Experts in Multibiometric Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the fastest growing areas of technology and offers a new computing model for various applications and services. This model is particularly interesting for the area of biometric recognition, where scalability, processing power, and storage requirements are becoming a bigger and bigger issue with each new generation of recognition technology. Next to the availability of computing resources, another important aspect of cloud computing with respect to biometrics is accessibility. Since biometric cloud services are easily accessible, it is possible to combine different existing implementations and design new multibiometric services that next to almost unlimited resources also offer superior recognition performance and, consequently, ensure improved security to its client applications. Unfortunately, the literature on the best strategies of how to combine existing implementations of cloud-based biometric experts into a multibiometric service is virtually nonexistent. In this paper, we try to close this gap and evaluate different strategies for combining existing biometric experts into a multibiometric cloud service. We analyze the (fusion strategies from different perspectives such as performance gains, training complexity, or resource consumption and present results and findings important to software developers and other researchers working in the areas of biometrics and cloud computing. The analysis is conducted based on two biometric cloud services, which are also presented in the paper.

  11. Unobtrusive Behavioral and Activity-Related Multimodal Biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drosou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  12. Thoracic and heart biometrics of non-anesthetized agouti (Dasyprocta primnolopha Wagler, 1831 measured on radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaemilia das N. Diniz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The agouti is a species intensively hunted throughout the Amazon and the semi-arid regions of northeastern Brazil. Considering the current trend in conservation management of wild species, the aim of this study was to determine the morphometric reference to the heart of agouti raised in captivity, based on thoracic and cardiac measurements in these animals. Thirty adult agoutis, 1 to 3 years of age, without clinical signs of cardiac disease were selected. The animals were physically restrained and radiographies in laterolateral (LL and ventrodorsal (VD recumbence were produced. The following measures were taken: the apicobasilar length of the heart (at the most cranial height of the Carina region to the heart apex (AB, maximum width of the heart perpendicular to AB (CD, heart inclination angle (AIC, trachea inclination angle (AIT, distance from the right heart wall (DPTd, distance from the left heart wall (DPTe and vertical depth of the thorax, and the ventral face of the vertebral column to the dorsal border of the sternum at the level of the trachea bifurcation (H. The ratios between AB/CD, AB/H and CD/H were also analyzed. To calculate the vertebral heart scale (VHS, the AB and CD measurements were laid over the thoracic vertebra starting at T4. Radiographic evaluation showed values consistent with those reported in small animals and some wild and exotic species. The main biometric values in the chest cavity and heart of agouti are arranged as follows: (1 The ratios between AB/H ratio and CD/H were not sensitive for identifying heart increases (p>0.05, while the ratio AB/CD was more sensitive in this identification (p<0.05; (2 AIC: 21.2±6.4º (mean between male and famale; (3 AIT for males and females: 9.93±3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4 DPTd and DPTe for males: 0.97±0.40cm and 0.7±0.30cm; (5 DPTd and DPTe for females: 1.12±0.42cm and 01.02±0.43cm; (6 VHS for males and females: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7 The caudal vena cava (CVC was

  13. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of bio-metric information – finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some otherchemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth andunreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essentialrequirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient andeffective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by usingarithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed ofencryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public keycryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  14. Feature Level Fusion of Biometrics Cues: Human Identification with Doddingtons Caricature

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal biometric system of fingerprint and ear biometrics. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptor based feature sets extracted from fingerprint and ear are fused. The fused set is encoded by K-medoids partitioning approach with less number of feature points in the set. K-medoids partition the whole dataset into clusters to minimize the error between data points belonging to the clusters and its center. Reduced feature set is used to match between two biometric sets. Matching scores are generated using wolf-lamb user-dependent feature weighting scheme introduced by Doddington. The technique is tested to exhibit its robust performance.

  15. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The security of bio-metric information - finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using arithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public key cryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  16. Classification Study of Patient Perceived Value Based on Willingness to Obtain Medical Knowledge%基于医疗知识获取意愿的患者感知价值分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金燕; 张大亮

    2013-01-01

    为研究医疗知识获取意愿对患者感知价值及就医行为的影响情况,在浙江省十家医院发放调研问卷,并使用统计分析软件SPSS18.0对调研结果进行数据分析.根据患者的医疗知识获取意愿将其分为主动获取知识的患者和被动获取知识的患者两类:主动获取知识的患者感知价值更高;两类患者对不同感知价值指标评价的差异性较大.医疗机构应为不同患者提供差异化的感知价值服务,从而在最大程度上提升医疗服务质量.%The effects of different level of patients' willingness are evaluated to obtain medical knowledge in patient perceived value and health seeking behavior,granting questionnaires in ten hospitals of Zhejiang Province,tested and verified investigate data with statistical analysis software SPSS18.0.According to the level of patients' willingness to obtain medical knowledge,they are divided into two types,active and passive patients,to obtain knowledge.The perceived value of active patients is higher than the passive patients,with big differences for their appraisement of perceived value indicators.According to different types of patients,it's advised that medical institutions can take different perceived value services to improve the quality of medical services.

  17. Biometric Authentication Through a Virtual Keyboard for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Trojahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Security through biometric keystroke authentication on mobile phones with a capacitive display and aQWERTZ-layout is a new approach. Keystroke on mobile phones with a 12-key layout has already shownthe possibility for authentication on these devices. But with hardware changes, new general requirementshave been arisen.In this paper, we focus on the authentication with keystroke dynamics. Therefore, we are presenting newimplemented keyboard layouts to show differences between a 12-key layout and a QWERTZ-layout. Inaddition, we compare a numerical (PIN and alphabetic (password input for mobile phones. For this, weadded new features for a keystroke authentication with a capacitive display. With the knowledge of the faultrates, we discuss the improvement of the security for keystroke dynamics with different virtual keyboardlayouts. Our results show, even with new hardware factors, that an authentication via keystroke dynamicsis possible.

  18. Atm Client Authentication System Using Biometric Identifier & Otp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Shamdasani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a design, to add more security to the current ATM systems by using biometric and GSM technology. In conventional method identification is done based on ID cards and static 4 digit password. Whereas in our purposed system, Bankers will collect the customer fingerprints and mobile number at the time of opening the accounts then only customer will be able to access ATM machine. The primary step of this project is to verify currently scanned fingerprint with the fingerprint which is registered in the bank during the account opening time. If the two fingerprints get matched, then a message will be delivered to the user’s mobile which is the random 4 digit pin number to access the account. For every transaction new pin numbers will be send to the user’s mobile thus there will not be fixed pin number for every transaction. Thus, Pin number will vary during each transaction .

  19. Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation Applied to Segmentation in Hand Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC and Normalized Cuts (NCuts. The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

  20. Iris recognition: a biometric method after refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iris recognition, as a biometric method, outperforms others because of its high accuracy. Iris is the visible internal organ of human, so it is stable and very difficult to be altered. But if an eye surgery must be made to some individuals, it may be rejected by iris recognition system as imposters after the surgery, because the iris pattern was altered or damaged somewhat during surgery and cannot match the iris template stored before the surgery. In this paper, we originally discuss whether refractive surgery for vision correction (LASIK surgery) would influence the performance of iris recognition. And experiments are designed and tested on iris images captured especially for this research from patients before and after refractive surgery. Experiments showed that refractive surgery has little influence on iris recognition.

  1. Personal Identification with Face Biometrics using Color Local Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A.Hiremani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition (FR has received a significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision due to the wide range of applications including video surveillance, biometric identification, and face indexing in multimedia contents. Recently, local texture features have gained reputation as powerful face descriptors because they are believed to be more robust to variations of facial pose, expression, occlusion, etc. In particular, local binary pattern (LBP texture feature has proven to be highly discriminative for FR due to different levels of locality. Hence, it is proposed to employ these features along with color local texture feature for efficient FR system. The personal identification accuracy with face modality using color local texture features is around 97% is achieved.

  2. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rattani, Ajita; Bicego, Manuele; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the fusion at feature extraction level for face and fingerprint biometrics. The proposed approach is based on the fusion of the two traits by extracting independent feature pointsets from the two modalities, and making the two pointsets compatible for concatenation. Moreover, to handle the problem of curse of dimensionality, the feature pointsets are properly reduced in dimension. Different feature reduction techniques are implemented, prior and after the feature pointsets fusion, and the results are duly recorded. The fused feature pointset for the database and the query face and fingerprint images are matched using techniques based on either the point pattern matching, or the Delaunay triangulation. Comparative experiments are conducted on chimeric and real databases, to assess the actual advantage of the fusion performed at the feature extraction level, in comparison to the matching score level.

  3. Contact-free and pose-invariant hand-biometric-based personal identification system using RGB and depth data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can WANG; Hong LIU; Xing LIU

    2014-01-01

    Hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation is considered to be an effective method for automatic recognition. However, existing systems require strict constraints during data acquisition, such as costly devices, specifi ed postures, simple background, and stable illumination. In this paper, a contactless personal identifi cation system is proposed based on matching hand geometry features and color features. An inexpensive Kinect sensor is used to acquire depth and color images of the hand. During image acquisition, no pegs or surfaces are used to constrain hand position or posture. We segment the hand from the background through depth images through a process which is insensitive to illumination and background. Then fi nger orientations and landmark points, like fi nger tips or fi nger valleys, are obtained by geodesic hand contour analysis. Geometric features are extracted from depth images and palmprint features from intensity images. In previous systems, hand features like fi nger length and width are normalized, which results in the loss of the original geometric features. In our system, we transform 2D image points into real world coordinates, so that the geometric features remain invariant to distance and perspective effects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation system is effective and robust in various practical situations.

  4. Temporal Stability of Visual Search-Driven Biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual s visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant s "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, fairly stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  5. Temporal stability of visual search-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual's visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant's "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, temporally stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  6. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  7. Ocular biometrics by score-level fusion of disparate experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo

    2014-12-01

    The concept of periocular biometrics emerged to improve the robustness of iris recognition to degraded data. Being a relatively recent topic, most of the periocular recognition algorithms work in a holistic way and apply a feature encoding/matching strategy without considering each biological component in the periocular area. This not only augments the correlation between the components in the resulting biometric signature, but also increases the sensitivity to particular data covariates. The main novelty in this paper is to propose a periocular recognition ensemble made of two disparate components: 1) one expert analyses the iris texture and exhaustively exploits the multispectral information in visible-light data and 2) another expert parameterizes the shape of eyelids and defines a surrounding dimensionless region-of-interest, from where statistics of the eyelids, eyelashes, and skin wrinkles/furrows are encoded. Both experts work on disjoint regions of the periocular area and meet three important properties. First, they produce practically independent responses, which is behind the better performance of the ensemble when compared to the best individual recognizer. Second, they do not share particularly sensitivity to any image covariate, which accounts for augmenting the robustness against degraded data. Finally, it should be stressed that we disregard information in the periocular region that can be easily forged (e.g., shape of eyebrows), which constitutes an active anticounterfeit measure. An empirical evaluation was conducted on two public data sets (FRGC and UBIRIS.v2), and points for consistent improvements in performance of the proposed ensemble over the state-of-the-art periocular recognition algorithms. PMID:25296405

  8. A Multimodal Biometric System Using Linear Discriminant Analysis For Improved Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Essentially a biometric system is a pattern recognition system which recognizes a user by determining the authenticity of a specific anatomical or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. With the ever increasing integration of computers and Internet into daily life style, it has become necessary to protect sensitive and personal data. This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system which incorporates more than one biometric trait to attain higher security and to handle failure to enroll situations for some users. This paper is aimed at investigating a multimodal biometric identity system using Linear Discriminant Analysis as backbone to both facial and speech recognition and implementing such system in real-time using SignalWAVE.

  9. Physiological Biometric Authentication Systems Advantages Disadvantages And Future Development A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Alsaadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing users private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face finger iris scanning voice signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

  10. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  11. Discussion on Biometric Identification Techniques%生物识别技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 赵庆兰

    2012-01-01

    生物特征识别技术作为一种身份识别的手段,具有独特的优势,对信息安全具有重要意义,近年来已逐渐成为研究热点.文章介绍了常见的生物识别技术和识别方法并阐述了每种方法的优缺点.%Biometric identification techniques is critical to our highly inter-connected information society. As a way of automatic identification, Biometrics have unique advantages because it is based on biological and behavioral traits. Biometrics is important to information safety. Firstly, this paper summarizes briefly biometric identification techniques, and introduces approaches, then analyzes the adavatge and then dis of every methods.

  12. An optical authentication system based on encryption technique and multimodal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Mingtang

    2013-12-01

    A major concern nowadays for a biometric credential management system is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources. To prevent a genuine user's templates from both internal and external threats, a novel and simple method combined optical encryption with multimodal biometric authentication technique is proposed. In this method, the standard biometric templates are generated real-timely by the verification keys owned by legal user so that they are unnecessary to be stored in a database. Compared with the traditional recognition algorithms, storage space and matching time are greatly saved. In addition, the verification keys are difficult to be forged due to the utilization of optical encryption technique. Although the verification keys are lost or stolen, they are useless for others in absence of the legal owner's biometric. A series of numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this method.

  13. A Multimodal Biometric System Using Linear Discriminant Analysis For Improved Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Aamir; Khurshid, Aasim; Akram, Adeel

    2012-01-01

    Essentially a biometric system is a pattern recognition system which recognizes a user by determining the authenticity of a specific anatomical or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. With the ever increasing integration of computers and Internet into daily life style, it has become necessary to protect sensitive and personal data. This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system which incorporates more than one biometric trait to attain higher security and to handle failure to enroll situations for some users. This paper is aimed at investigating a multimodal biometric identity system using Linear Discriminant Analysis as backbone to both facial and speech recognition and implementing such system in real-time using SignalWAVE.

  14. Sustaining Security In MANET: Biometric Stationed Authentication Protocol (BSAP Inculcating Meta-Heuristic Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprehends an impending accost of intensifying biometric stationed authentication protocol(BSAP bestowing meta-heuristic genetic algorithm for securing MANET. Biometric authentication using fingerprint, facial, iris scan, voice recognition etc. have gain a lot of importance in recent years to provide security in MANET. Biometrics are more advantageous and secure as compared to prevailing data security techniques like password or token mechanisms. A higher level of security is achieved in our impending approach using genetic algorithm to overcome the security and privacy concerns that exist in biometric technology. The foremost requirement of our protocol is to overcome various data attacks such as wormhole, cache poisoning, invisible node attack etc. that are confronted by MANET and make the network more secure.

  15. A review of data acquisition and difficulties in sensor module of biometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics refers to the recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Thebiometric traits which may be considered for the authentication of a person are face, hand geometry, finger print, vein, iris,etc. A competent selection of a sensor, its mechanism and adaptability is required, as the absence of these will leave thebiometric sensor deceptive to information sensing. Selecting a sensor for a biometric application from the large number ofavailable sensors with different technologies always brought the issue of performance and accuracy. Therefore, various errorrates and sensibility contention differentiate the available biometric sensors. This paper presents the difficulties faced in thesensor module of the biometric system and the incomparable alternatives on the basis of availability of information at sensormodule of the various systems.

  16. Predicting sex as a soft-biometrics from device interaction swipe gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Stevenage, Sarah V.; Bevan, Chris; Guest, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Touch and multi-touch gestures are becoming the most common way to interact with technology such as smart phones, tablets and other mobile devices. The latest touch-screen input capacities have tremendously increased the quantity and quality of available gesture data, which has led to the exploration of its use in multiple disciplines from psychology to biometrics. Following research studies undertaken in similar modalities such as keystroke and mouse usage biometrics, the present work propos...

  17. Improved AFIS for Color and Gray Image based on Biometric Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Espino-Gudiño, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Hernández, Vicente; Terol Villalobos, Iván R.; Herrera Ruiz, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    This research presents a fingerprint image processing algorithm for personal automatic identification, which has been in development since 1998. It is principally based on the comparison of the fingerprint's biometric pattern between the fingerprint captured (original) in each session and the one stored in database. It is preferable to capture the image in color. The biometric pattern is formed by the Euclidean distances based on the triangulation of only three minutiae. This methodology loca...

  18. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Won AN

    2006-01-01

    We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.

  19. Neural Network Based Accurate Biometric Recognition and Identification of Human Iris Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gopikrishnan; T.Santhanam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Approach: Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. However, published results have usually been produced under favor...

  20. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  1. A Skin Tone Detection Algorithm for an Adaptive DWT Based Approach to Steganography using Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Patil Samadhan T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Challenges face biometrics researchers and particularly those who are dealing with skin tone detection include select a colour space, generating the particular skin model and processing the obtained regions. The majority of obtainable methods have in common the de-correlation of luminance from the considered colour channels. Luminance is the miscalculate since it is seen as the least causal colour component to skin colour detection. This type of work ques-tions this claim by showing that luminance can be useful in the segregation of skin and non-skin clusters. To this end, here we use a new colour space which contains error signals derived from differentiate the grayscale map and the non-red encoded grayscale version. The advantages of the approach are the reduction of space dimensionality from 3D, RGB, to 1D space advocating its candor and the construction of a rapid classifier necessary for real time applications. The fu-ture method generates a 1D space map without prior know-ledge of the host image. A complete experimental test was conducted and initial results are presented. This paper also discusses an application of the method to image steganogra-phy where it is used to orient the embedding process since skin information is deemed to be psycho visually redundant

  2. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  3. Valorisation of typical products through characterising and promoting actions: morpho-biometric traits, sensory analysis and flavonol content in Cipolla di Giarratana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Riggi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The performances of 9 accessions of Cipolla di Giarratana landrace were evaluated at 5 different sites located 2 in the area where this landrace is traditionally grown (South-Eastern Sicily, 550 m asl, 2 in the neighbor areas with similar average altitude, and one on the South East coast of Sicily (sea level. Biometric and morphological traits, flavonol content and sensory profile were all considered in the valorisation of a typical product of a marginal area of Sicily. Data on the actual yield and crop management at farm scale were also obtained involving more than half of the growers actually cultivating Cipolla di Giarratana, and measuring yield, plant density, and bulb weight directly on the farms. The Cipolla di Giarratana landrace is characterised by a large and heavy bulb (535 g, strongly flattened at the poles, with the maximum diameter at the central section, and white in colour. Significant differences in bulb weight and diameter were found among accessions and locations, but there were no interactions between them and one accession reported the highest bulb weight value in all of the locations studied. With regards to bulb weight, farm scale data confirm the results we obtained at the experimental locations. Fifty percent of registered yield at farm scale ranged between 86 and 152 t ha–1 with a median of 119 t ha–1, and measured plant density revealed that 50% of the farmers planted 20-27 plants per square meter. Analysis of the UV-vis and mass spectra showed the presence of 10 different flavonols with Quercetin as the most represented flavonol. The sensory profile of Cipolla di Giarratana onion showed that this landrace is characterised by a high intensity of sweet, typical fresh flavour and texture perception.

  4. Reliability of automated biometrics in the analysis of enamel rod end patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Manjunath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth prints are enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. These patterns are unique to an individual tooth of same individual and different individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and sensitivity of an automated biometrics software (Verifinger ® standard SDK version 5.0 in analyzing tooth prints. In present study, enamel rod end patterns were obtained three times from a specific area on the labial surface of ten extracted teeth using acetate peel technique. The acetate peels were subjected to analysis with Verifinger ® standard SDK version 5.0 software to obtain the enamel rod end patterns (tooth prints and respective minutiae scores for each tooth print. The minutiae scores obtained for each tooth print was subjected to statistical analysis using Cronbach′s test for reliability. In the present study, it was found that Verifinger ® software was able to identify duplicate records of the same area of a same tooth with the original records stored on the database of the software. Comparison of the minutiae scores using Cronbach′s test also showed that there was no significant difference in the minutiae scores obtained (>0.6. Hence, acetate peel technique with Verifinger ® standard SDK version 5.0 is a reliable technique in analysis of enamel rod end patterns, and as a forensic tool in personal identification. But, further studies are needed to verify the reliability to this technique in a clinical setting, as obtaining an acetate peel record from the same area of the tooth in-vivo, is difficult.

  5. Effect of Biometric Characteristics on the Change of Biomechanical Properties of the Human Cornea due to Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on changes of biomechanical properties of the human cornea due to standard cataract surgery using biomechanical analysis. Patients and Methods. This prospective consecutive cross-sectional study comprised 54 eyes with cataract in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. CH, CRF, IOPg, and IOPcc intraocular pressure were measured by biomechanical analysis preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Changes (Δ were calculated as preoperative value versus postoperative value. Biometrical data were extracted from TMS-5 (CSI and SAI, IOLMaster (AL, and EM-3000 (CCT and ECC preoperatively. Results. The average values of the changes were ΔCH=-0.45±1.27 mmHg, ΔCRF=-0.88±1.1 mmHg, ΔIOPg=-1.58±3.15 mmHg, and ΔIOPcc=-1.45±3.93 mmHg. The higher the CSI the smaller the decrease in CH (r=0.302, P=0.028. The higher the CCT the larger the decrease in CRF (r=-0.371, P=0.013. The higher the AL the smaller the decrease in IOPg (r=0.417, P=0.005. The higher the AL, SAI, and EEC the smaller the decrease in IOPcc (r=0.351, P=0.001; r=-0.478, P<0.001; r=0.339, P=0.013. Conclusions. Corneal biomechanical properties were affected by comprehensive factors after cataract surgery, including corneal endothelium properties, biometry, and geometrical characteristics.

  6. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  7. Transformation of Hand-Shape Features for a Biometric Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús B. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM, each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class. Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database. Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success.

  8. Transformation of hand-shape features for a biometric identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso, Carlos M; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Alonso, Jesús B

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class). Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database). Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success. PMID:22368506

  9. Artifact Removal from Biosignal using Fixed Point ICA Algorithm for Pre-processing in Biometric Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Puneet; Singla, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF FEATURE DETECTION OPERATORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF IRIS BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsu C. Kovoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems area.Its robustness and unobtrusiveness, as opposed tomost of the currently deployed systems, make it a good candidate to replace most of thesecurity systems around. By making use of the distinctiveness of iris patterns, iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person.Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algorithm.In this paper, Daugman’s Rubber Sheet model is employed for irisnormalization and unwrapping, descriptive statistical analysis of different feature detection operators is performed, features extracted is encoded using Haar wavelets and for classification hammingdistance as a matching algorithm is used. The system was tested on the UBIRIS database. The edge detection algorithm, Canny, is found to be the best one to extract most ofthe iris texture. The success rate of feature detection using canny is 81%, False Accept Rate is 9% and False Reject Rate is 10%.

  11. THRIVE: threshold homomorphic encryption based secure and privacy preserving biometric verification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Kiraz, Mehmet Sabir; Erdogan, Hakan; Savas, Erkay

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new biometric verification and template protection system which we call THRIVE. The system includes novel enrollment and authentication protocols based on threshold homomorphic encryption where a private key is shared between a user and a verifier. In the THRIVE system, only encrypted binary biometric templates are stored in a database and verification is performed via homomorphically randomized templates, thus, original templates are never revealed during authentication. Due to the underlying threshold homomorphic encryption scheme, a malicious database owner cannot perform full decryption on encrypted templates of the users in the database. In addition, security of the THRIVE system is enhanced using a two-factor authentication scheme involving user's private key and biometric data. Using simulation-based techniques, the proposed system is proven secure in the malicious model. The proposed system is suitable for applications where the user does not want to reveal her biometrics to the verifier in plain form, but needs to prove her identity by using biometrics. The system can be used with any biometric modality where a feature extraction method yields a fixed size binary template and a query template is verified when its Hamming distance to the database template is less than a threshold. The overall connection time for the proposed THRIVE system is estimated to be 336 ms on average for 256-bit biometric templates on a desktop PC running with quad core 3.2 GHz CPUs at 10 Mbit/s up/down link connection speed. Consequently, the proposed system can be efficiently used in real-life applications.

  12. Modelling and Simulation of a Biometric Identity-Based Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Aljeaid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Government information is a vital asset that must be kept in a trusted environment and efficiently managed by authorised parties. Even though e-Government provides a number of advantages, it also introduces a range of new security risks. Sharing confidential and top-secret information in a secure manner among government sectors tends to be the main element that government agencies look for. Thus, developing an effective methodology is essential and it is a key factor for e-Government success. The proposed e-Government scheme in this paper is a combination of identity-based encryption and biometric technology. This new scheme can effectively improve the security in authentication systems, which provides a reliable identity with a high degree of assurance. This paper also demonstrates the feasibility of using finite-state machines as a formal method to analyse the proposed protocols. Finally we showed how Petri Nets could be used to simulate the communication patterns between the server and client as well as to validate the protocol functionality.

  13. A MEMS-based, wireless, biometric-like security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Joshua D.; Schneiter, John L.; Leiby, Grant A.; McCarter, Steven; Smith, Jeremiah; Budka, Thomas P.

    2010-04-01

    We present a system for secure identification applications that is based upon biometric-like MEMS chips. The MEMS chips have unique frequency signatures resulting from fabrication process variations. The MEMS chips possess something analogous to a "voiceprint". The chips are vacuum encapsulated, rugged, and suitable for low-cost, highvolume mass production. Furthermore, the fabrication process is fully integrated with standard CMOS fabrication methods. One is able to operate the MEMS-based identification system similarly to a conventional RFID system: the reader (essentially a custom network analyzer) detects the power reflected across a frequency spectrum from a MEMS chip in its vicinity. We demonstrate prototype "tags" - MEMS chips placed on a credit card-like substrate - to show how the system could be used in standard identification or authentication applications. We have integrated power scavenging to provide DC bias for the MEMS chips through the use of a 915 MHz source in the reader and a RF-DC conversion circuit on the tag. The system enables a high level of protection against typical RFID hacking attacks. There is no need for signal encryption, so back-end infrastructure is minimal. We believe this system would make a viable low-cost, high-security system for a variety of identification and authentication applications.

  14. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Palmprint Biometrics by Isomorphic Graph-based Improved K-Medoids Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feature level fusion approach which uses the improved K-medoids clustering algorithm and isomorphic graph for face and palmprint biometrics. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) algorithm is used to partition the set of n invariant feature points of the face and palmprint images into k clusters. By partitioning the face and palmprint images with scale invariant features SIFT points, a number of clusters is formed on both the images. Then on each cluster, an isomorphic graph is drawn. In the next step, the most probable pair of graphs is searched using iterative relaxation algorithm from all possible isomorphic graphs for a pair of corresponding face and palmprint images. Finally, graphs are fused by pairing the isomorphic graphs into augmented groups in terms of addition of invariant SIFT points and in terms of combining pair of keypoint descriptors by concatenation rule. Experimental results obtained from the extensive evaluation show that the proposed feature level fusion with the improve...

  15. Age Estimation-Based Soft Biometrics Considering Optical Blurring Based on Symmetrical Sub-Blocks for MLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its many useful applications, human age estimation has been considered in many previous studies as a soft biometrics. However, most existing methods of age estimation require a clear and focused facial image as input in order to obtain a trustworthy estimation result; otherwise, the methods might produce increased estimation error when an image of poor quality is used as input. Image blurring is one of major factors that affect estimation accuracies because it can cause a face to appear younger (i.e., reduce the age feature in the face region. Therefore, we propose a new human age estimation method that is robust even with an image that has the optical blurring effect by using symmetrical focus mask and sub-blocks for multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP. Experiment results show that the proposed method can enhance age estimation accuracy compared with the conventional system, which does not consider the effects of blurring.

  16. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    drawn from the wine water δ18O value. If water is added prior or during alcoholic fermentation, final ethanol δDn value will fall outside of the range of -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW, while wine water δ18O value may still appear valid for the wine origin. We are certain that measuring wine water δ18O alone could give wrong impression about wine origin. With the new set of ethanol δDn and wine water δ18O results obtained from genuine wine samples from different vintages and from different geographic destinations (Serbia and USA), we are more certain that EIM-IRMS® method can help in determination of geographical origin and give additional information about wine authenticity and also important information about illegal production practices (addition of sugar and/or dilution with water) in wine production. Keywords: Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), Wine, Authenticity, determination of origin

  17. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  18. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  19. Highly Secured Bio-Metric Authentication Model with Palm Print Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raja Murali Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For securing personal identifications and highly secure identification problems, biometric technologies will provide higher security with improved accuracy. This has become an emerging technology in recent years due to the transaction frauds, security breaches and personal identification etc. The beauty of biometric technology is it provides a unique code for each person and it can’t be copied or forged by others. To overcome the draw backs of finger print identification systems, here in this paper we proposed a palm print based personal identification system, which is a most promising and emerging research area in biometric identification systems due to its uniqueness, scalability, faster execution speed and large area for extracting the features. It provides higher security over finger print biometric systems with its rich features like wrinkles, continuous ridges, principal lines, minutiae points, and singular points. The main aim of proposed palm print identification system is to implement a system with higher accuracy and increased speed in identifying the palm prints of several users. Here, in this we presented a highly secured palm print identification system with extraction of region of interest (ROI with morphological operation there by applying un-decimated bi-orthogonal wavelet (UDBW transform to extract the low level features of registered palm prints to calculate its feature vectors (FV then after the comparison is done by measuring the distance between registered palm feature vector and testing palm print feature vector. Simulation results show that the proposed biometric identification system provides more accuracy and reliable recognition rate.

  20. Evolution of Electronic Passport Scheme using Cryptographic Protocol along with Biometrics Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Millions of citizens around the world have already acquired their new electronic passport. The e-passport is equipped with contactless chip which stores personal data of the passport holder, information about the passport and the issuing institution, as well as with a multiple biometrics enabling cryptographic functionality. Countries are required to build a Public Key Infrastructure, biometric and Radio Frequency Identification to support various cryptographic, as this is considered the basic tools to prove the authenticity and integrity of the Machine Readable Travel Documents. The large-scale worldwide PKI is construction, by means of bilateral trust relationships between Countries. Investigate the good practices, which are essential for the establishment of a global identification scheme based on e-passports. The paper explores the privacy and security implications of this impending worldwide experiment in biometrics authentication technology.

  1. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish

  2. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-06-17

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation-based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking-to reduce the dimensions of images-and binarization-to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  3. La biometría en las tecnologías de poder de Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Torrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La biometría es una de las tecnologías de control sobre la población más desarrollada y utilizada en la actualidad. En este artículo se analiza la biometría como una tecnología de la lógica securitaria propia de nuestra época. A su vez, se indaga sobre la reactualización de los mecanismos del poder soberano y disciplinario, en tanto tecnología basada en la lógica de inclusión exclusión como también de un ejercicio de poder sobre el cuerpo individual. Además, nos ocuparemos de la incidencia de la biometría sobre la identidad individual.

  4. Enhancement of Multi-Modal Biometric Authentication Based on IRIS and Brain Neuro Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Karthikeyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed method describes the current forensics and biometrics in a modern approach andimplements the concept of IRIS along with brain and resolves the issues and increases thestrength of Digital Forensics Community. It has enormous features in biometrics to enhancediverse security levels. A new method to identify individuals using IRIS Patterns with the brainwave signals (EEG is proposed. Several different algorithms were proposed for detecting,verifying and extracting the deterministic patterns in a person’s IRIS from the Eye. The extractedEEG recordings form the person's brain has proved to be unique. Next we combine EEG signalsinto the IRIS patterns a biometric application which makes use of future multi modal combinationarchitecture. The proposed forensic research directions and argues that to move forward thecommunity needs to adopt standardized, modular approaches for person identification. The resultof each authentication test is compared with the user's pre-recorded measurements, usingpattern recognition methods and signal-processing algorithms.

  5. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo [Department of Oceanography and Limnology, Federal University of Maranhão (Brazil); Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  6. Fusion of Fingerprint and Age Biometric for Gender Classification Using Frequency and Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gornale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of gender from fingerprints is one of the important steps in forensic anthropology. This forensic anthropology is used to identify the gender of a criminal in order to minimize the suspects list of search. A very few researcher have worked on gender classification using fingerprints and have gain the competitive results. In this work we are trying to fuse the fingerprint and age biometrics for gender classification. The real fingerprints were collected from different age groups such as 15-20 years and 20- 60 years of the rural and urban people. According to this experimental observation soft biometric information can be used significantly to improve the recognition performance of biometric system. The overall performance of the proposed method is found to be satisfactory and more competitive.

  7. Cryptanalysis And Further Improvement Of A Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Li et al. proposed a secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smartcards to withstand the security flaws of Li-Hwang’s efficient biometric-based remote user authenticationscheme using smart cards. Li et al.’s scheme is based on biometrics verification, smart card and one-wayhash function, and it also uses the random nonce rather than a synchronized clock, and thus it is efficientin computational cost and more secure than Li-Hwang’s scheme. Unfortunately, in this paper we showthat Li et al.’s scheme still has some security weaknesses in their design. In order to withstand thoseweaknesses in their scheme, we further propose an improvement of their scheme so that the improvedscheme always provides proper authentication and as a result, it establishes a session key between theuser and the server at the end of successful user authentication.

  8. Improving the recognition of fingerprint biometric system using enhanced image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Stripathi, Reshma

    2010-04-01

    Fingerprints recognition systems have been widely used by financial institutions, law enforcement, border control, visa issuing, just to mention few. Biometric identifiers can be counterfeited, but considered more reliable and secure compared to traditional ID cards or personal passwords methods. Fingerprint pattern fusion improves the performance of a fingerprint recognition system in terms of accuracy and security. This paper presents digital enhancement and fusion approaches that improve the biometric of the fingerprint recognition system. It is a two-step approach. In the first step raw fingerprint images are enhanced using high-frequency-emphasis filtering (HFEF). The second step is a simple linear fusion process between the raw images and the HFEF ones. It is shown that the proposed approach increases the verification and identification of the fingerprint biometric recognition system, where any improvement is justified using the correlation performance metrics of the matching algorithm.

  9. Cryptanalysis And Further Improvement Of A Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Li et al. proposed a secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards to withstand the security flaws of Li-Hwang's efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Li et al.'s scheme is based on biometrics verification, smart card and one-way hash function, and it also uses the random nonce rather than a synchronized clock, and thus it is efficient in computational cost and more secure than Li-Hwang's scheme. Unfortunately, in this paper we show that Li et al.'s scheme still has some security weaknesses in their design. In order to withstand those weaknesses in their scheme, we further propose an improvement of their scheme so that the improved scheme always provides proper authentication and as a result, it establishes a session key between the user and the server at the end of successful user authentication.

  10. The ethics of biometrics: the risk of social exclusion from the widespread use of electronic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickins, Jeremy

    2007-03-01

    Discussions about biotechnology tend to assume that it is something to do with genetics or manipulating biological processes in some way. However, the field of biometrics-the measurement of physical characteristics-is also biotechnology and is likely to affect the lives of more people more quickly than any other form. The possibility of social exclusion resulting from the use of biometrics data for such uses as identity cards has not yet been fully explored. Social exclusion is unethical, as it unfairly discriminates against individuals or classes of people. Social exclusion is unethical, as it unfairly discriminates against individuals or classes of people. This article looks at some of the ways in which social exclusion might arise from the use of biometric data, and introduces a model of balancing individual interests with which to analyse whether it is justified to run the risk of excluding some members of society for the benefit of others.

  11. Ear biometrics in 2D and 3D localization and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Surya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques and recent research progress on Ear Biometrics. Among the various physiological traits, the reasons for the ear to gain much attention in recent years are many folds. It has been found to be a reliable biometrics for human verification and identification. Ears are remarkably consistent and unlike face, it does not change shape with different expressions or age, and remain fixed in the middle of the side of the head against a predictable background. The book contains figures, tables and plots to illustrate the techniques in an easy and lucid manner. The book also provides an extensive literature on the subject, where readers have the benefit of receiving all the relevant material at one place in a very comprehensive manner. This book caters students, academics, researchers, practitioners who are interested in the field of Ear Biometrics and its applications in face recognition and security.

  12. Improving the Security of Internet Banking Applications by Using Multimodal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Lupu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Online banking applications are used by more and more people all over the world. Most of the banks are providing these services to their customers. The authentication methods varies from the basic user and password to username and a onetime password (OTP generated by a virtual or a physical digipass. The common thing among authentication methods is that the login wepage is provided through a secure channel. Some banks have introduced (especially for testing purposes the authentication using common biometric characteristics, like fingerprint, voice or keystroke recognition. This paper will present some of the most common online banking authentication methods, together with basic biometric characteristics that could be used in these applications. The security in internet banking applications can be improved by using biometrics for the authentication process. Also, the authors have developed an application for authentication of users using fingerprint as the main characteristic, which will be presented at the end of this paper.

  13. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J.; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation—based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking—to reduce the dimensions of images—and binarization—to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements. PMID:26091392

  14. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara del Val

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM. The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation—based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM to separate the person from the background, masking—to reduce the dimensions of images—and binarization—to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  15. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  16. Biometric relationships of ocular components in esotropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Debert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of the individual ocular components, i.e. anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth, to total axial length in patients with esotropic amblyopia. METHODS: The study population consisted of 74 children, aged between 5 and 8 years: thirty-seven patients with esotropic amblyopia and 37 healthy volunteers (control group. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including cycloplegic refraction and A-scan ultrasonography. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and total axial length were recorded. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare biometric measurements between amblyopic eyes and their fellow eyes and between right and left eyes in the control group. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular components to the total axial length, we report the individual components as a percentage of total axial length. RESULTS: The comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes regarding the individual contribution from ocular components to the total axial length revealed greater contribution from lens thickness (P=0.001 and smaller contribution from vitreous chamber depth (P=0.001 in amblyopic eyes, despite similar contribution from anterior chamber depth (P=0.434. The comparison between right and left eyes in the control group showed similar contributions from anterior chamber depth (P=0.620, lens thickness (P=0.721, and vitreous chamber depth (P=0.483. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows differences between amblyopic and non-amblyopic eyes when the total axial length is broken down into the individual contribution from the ocular components.

  17. Novel Simulation Framework of Three-Dimensional Skull Bio-Metric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously, most of the researcher was suffering from simulate any three dimension applications for biometrics application, likewise, various applications of forensics and cosmetology has not been easy to be simulated. Three dimensional figures have approved the fact that, it has been more reliable than two dimensional figures in most of the applications used to be implemented for the purposes above. The reason behind this reliability was the features that extract from the three dimensional applications more close to the reality. The goal of this paper is to study and evaluate how far three-dimensional skull biometric is reliable in term of the accurate measurements, capability and applicability. As it mentions above, it was hard to evaluate or simulate an application use three-dimensional skull in biometric, however, Canfield Imaging Systems provide a new suitable environment to simulate a new three-dimensional skull biometric. The second goal of this paper is to assess how good the new threedimensional image system is. This paper will also go through the recognition and verification based on a different biometric application. Subsequently this paper will study the reliability and dependability of using skull biometric. The simulation based on the three-dimensional Skull recognition using threedimensional matching technique. The feature of the simulate system shows the capability of using three-dimensional matching system as an efficient way to identify the person through his or her skull by match it with database, this technique grantee fast processing with optimizing the false positive and negative as well .

  18. BossPro: a biometrics-based obfuscation scheme for software protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes to integrate biometric-based key generation into an obfuscated interpretation algorithm to protect authentication application software from illegitimate use or reverse-engineering. This is especially necessary for mCommerce because application programmes on mobile devices, such as Smartphones and Tablet-PCs are typically open for misuse by hackers. Therefore, the scheme proposed in this paper ensures that a correct interpretation / execution of the obfuscated program code of the authentication application requires a valid biometric generated key of the actual person to be authenticated, in real-time. Without this key, the real semantics of the program cannot be understood by an attacker even if he/she gains access to this application code. Furthermore, the security provided by this scheme can be a vital aspect in protecting any application running on mobile devices that are increasingly used to perform business/financial or other security related applications, but are easily lost or stolen. The scheme starts by creating a personalised copy of any application based on the biometric key generated during an enrolment process with the authenticator as well as a nuance created at the time of communication between the client and the authenticator. The obfuscated code is then shipped to the client's mobile devise and integrated with real-time biometric extracted data of the client to form the unlocking key during execution. The novelty of this scheme is achieved by the close binding of this application program to the biometric key of the client, thus making this application unusable for others. Trials and experimental results on biometric key generation, based on client's faces, and an implemented scheme prototype, based on the Android emulator, prove the concept and novelty of this proposed scheme.

  19. Action of diode laser (830 nm) on cutaneous wound healing process: biometrical and histological study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, it was analyzed the acceleration of the healing process of cutaneous lesions in mice, using a diode laser emitting in 830 nm. The 64 selected animals in this study were randomically divided into four groups of 16 animals each (G1, G2, G3 and G4). Biometric and histological comparisons were accomplished in the following periods: 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery and laser application. Three laser irradiation configurations were used: a punctual contact (G2) and two non-contact and uniform (G3 and G4). For group G2, the laser intensity was 428 mW/cm2 , and for groups G3 and G4 it was 53 mW/cm2. The total doses were D = 3 J/cm2 for groups G2 and G4, and D = 1,3 J/cm2 for G3. The first group, G1, was considered control and thus not submitted to any treatment after the surgery. All irradiated lesions presented acceleration of the healing process with regard to the control group. However, our results clearly indicate that the smaller laser intensity (uniform irradiation) leaded to the best results. On the other hand, the smaller used dose also leaded to the more significant and expressive results. The combination of the intensity value of 53 mW/cm2 and the dose of 1,3 J/cm2 leaded to optimal results, regarding the Biometric and histological analysis, presenting faster lesion contraction, quicker neoformation of epithelial and conjunctive tissue (with more collagen fibers ). (author)

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Blue Light on the Biometric Traits and Photosynthesis of Dill Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FRĄSZCZAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of blue light to red light enhanced plant growth compared with the use of red alone. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different doses of blue light on the biometric traits and photosynthesis of dill plants. The plants were grown in pots in a growth chamber. They were grown in red light (100 μmol m-2 s-1 and blue light (from 10 to 50 μmol m-2 s-1 in five combinations. Light emitting diode modules were the source of light. The plants were evaluated every 7 days during vegetation, for the first time - seven days after germination and later on the 14th, 21st and 28th day after germination. The share of blue light in the spectrum significantly influenced the biometric traits of the dill plants. It significantly inhibited the elongation growth of the plants and negatively affected the increase in fresh weight. A small dose of blue light (20% had positive effect on the plants’ area. The research did not reveal a simple relationship between the amount of blue light and dry weight yield. The value of physiological indexes depended both on the combination and measurement time. The plants from the combination with 30% blue light were characterised by the greatest photosynthesis intensity. An effective share of blue light in the spectrum may range from 10 to 30% in relation to red light and depends on the plant’s development phase and on the result we want to achieve in the cultivation of plants.

  1. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixue Yang

    Full Text Available Although electrocardiogram (ECG fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD patients, respectively.

  2. Hand Biometric Recognition Based on Fused Hand Geometry and Vascular Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Soowon Kim; GiTae Park

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user’s hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed...

  3. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features. PMID:21537852

  4. Voice Biometrics as a Way to Self-service Password Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohgräfe, Bernd; Jacobi, Sebastian

    Password resets are time consuming. Especially when urgent jobs need to be done, it is cumbersome to inform the user helpdesk, to identify oneself and then to wait for response. It is easy to enter a wrong password multiple times, which leads to the blocking of the application. Voice biometrics is an easy and secure way for individuals to reset their own password. Read more about how you can ease the burden of your user helpdesk and how voice biometric password resets benefit your expense situation without harming your security.

  5. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features.

  6. Normalizing electrocardiograms of both healthy persons and cardiovascular disease patients for biometric authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meixue; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  7. Systems and methods for remote long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for remote, long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for remote biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals, the method including generating and directing first microwave energy in a direction of a person, receiving microwave energy reflected from the person, the reflected microwave energy indicative of cardiac characteristics of the person, segmenting a signal indicative of the reflected microwave energy into a waveform including a plurality of heart beats, identifying patterns in the microwave heart beats waveform, and identifying the person based on the identified patterns and a stored microwave heart beats waveform.

  8. Towards Designing a Biometric Measure for Enhancing ATM Security in Nigeria E-Banking System

    CERN Document Server

    Ibidapo,; Omogbadegun, Zaccheous O; Oyelami, Olufemi M

    2011-01-01

    Security measures at banks can play a critical, contributory role in preventing attacks on customers. These measures are of paramount importance when considering vulnerabilities and causation in civil litigation. Banks must meet certain standards in order to ensure a safe and secure banking environment for their customers. This paper focuses on vulnerabilities and the increasing wave of criminal activities occurring at Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) where quick cash is the prime target for criminals rather than at banks themselves. A biometric measure as a means of enhancing the security has emerged from the discourse. Keywords-Security, ATM, Biometric, Crime.

  9. Dependency of magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometrics in healthy pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geue Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetocardiography enables the precise determination of fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that fetal CTI change in course of gestation. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependency of fetal CTI on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data in a substantial sample of subjects during normal pregnancy. Methods A total of 230 fetal magnetocardiograms were obtained in 47 healthy fetuses between the 15th and 42nd week of gestation. In each recording, after subtraction of the maternal cardiac artifact and the identification of fetal beats, fetal PQRST courses were signal averaged. On the basis of therein detected wave onsets and ends, the following CTI were determined: P wave, PR interval, PQ interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT and QTc interval. Using regression analysis, the dependency of the CTI were examined with respect to gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data. Results Atrioventricular conduction and ventricular depolarization times could be determined dependably whereas the T wave was often difficult to detect. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis established strong dependency on age for the P wave and QRS complex (r2 = 0.67, p r2 = 0.66, p r2 = 0.21, p r2 = 0.13, p st week onward (p Conclusion We conclude that 1 from approximately the 18th week to term, fetal CTI which quantify depolarization times can be reliably determined using magnetocardiography, 2 the P wave and QRS complex duration show a high dependency on age which to a large part reflects fetal growth and 3 fetal gender plays a role in QRS complex duration in the third trimester. Fetal development is thus in part reflected in the CTI and may be useful in the identification of intrauterine growth retardation.

  10. Biometric Calculation and Refractive Results. A Study of 250 Cases of Patients Operated for Cataract Cálculo biométrico y resultados refractivos. Estudio de 250 casos operados de catarata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Benita Zamora Galindo

    2012-02-01

    >Objective: To evaluate the biometric calculation and postoperative refraction in patients who underwent cataract surgery. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Center of the State of Anzoategui in Venezuela. It included 250 patients who underwent cataract surgery with previous refraction, keratometry, biometry and intraocular lens power calculation. After surgery, the following parameters were determined: biometrically calculated expected refraction, postoperative refractive error, uncorrected visual acuity and postoperative correction. Results: In general, females and patient between 60 and 69 years old predominated. The most commonly recorded value for keratometry ranged from 43 to 44 D. For axial length, values ranged from 22 to 24 mm. Most commonly used intraocular lenses were from 16 to 20 diopters and from 21 to 25 diopters. The largest percent of expected refraction was obtained in the group from 0.00 to 0, 50. Refractive error was predominant from 0.50 to 1.00. In the refraction performed without glasses one month after surgery, more than half of patients had vision between 20/30 and 20 / 25. Conclusions: We demonstrated the effectiveness of intraocular lens calculation prior to cataract surgery.

  11. Seasonality in vegetation biometrics and its effects on sediment characteristics and meiofauna in Baltic seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Emilia; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Kotwicki, Lech; Balazy, Piotr; Kuliński, Karol

    2014-02-01

    Seagrass meadows can act as ecosystem engineers, i.e., organisms that modify the availability of resources to other organisms. However, their possible positive impacts depend on the characteristics of the vegetation, and these can vary strongly seasonally. This study assesses seasonal variability in macrophyte taxonomic composition and seagrass biometrics in the temperate Baltic Sea eelgrass meadows. We hypothesize that the anticipated strong seasonality in vegetation cover induces parallel seasonal changes in seagrass engineering effects as indicated by changes in sediment characteristics and meiozoobenthic abundance, composition and diversity. Macrophytes, sediments, and fauna were sampled at two locations in the Puck Bay from vegetated bottoms and bare sands five times in one year. Zostera marina vegetation occurred throughout the year and showed strong seasonality with the highest values of shoot density, leaf length, and biomass in July (202.3 ± 30.0 95% CI shoots m-2) and the lowest in March (55.4 ± 15.0 shoots m-2). POC was significantly higher in vegetated sands, and these effects were evident throughout the study period regardless of variability in macrophyte vegetation. The density and diversity of meiofauna did not differ between the seagrass beds and bare sands even in summer months when vegetation was best developed. The lack of an effect of the seagrass meadows on the meiofauna can be explained by the relatively low shoot density and biomass of the studied seagrass meadows and/or higher macrobenthic predation on the vegetated bottom compared to bare sands. However, both the canopies of macrophytes and the effects of the vegetation on benthic systems could increase substantially over the course of the gradual, natural restoration of the seagrass meadows.

  12. On the police application of biometrics technology%生物识别技术警务应用刍论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖寿华

    2009-01-01

    The biometric technology by using human biological characteristics for authentication, for their own advantage, has broad application value in police work, but in practice there is some issues such as a sufficient understanding, the narrow application, lack of research, and slow database building, which must be reformed and improved to further play the application value of biometrics technology in police work.%利用人体生物特征进行身份认证的生物识别技术因其自身的优势,在警务工作中具有广阔的应用价值,但在实践中存在认识不足、应用狭窄、研究缺乏、数据库建设缓慢等问题,进一步发挥生物识别技术在警务工作中的应用价值必须对这些问题加以改革完善.

  13. Applications of a hologram watermarking protocol: aging-aware biometric signature verification and time validity check with personal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2003-06-01

    Our paper addresses two issues of a biometric authentication algorithm for ID cardholders previously presented namely the security of the embedded reference data and the aging process of the biometric data. We describe a protocol that allows two levels of verification, combining a biometric hash technique based on handwritten signature and hologram watermarks with cryptographic signatures in a verification infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of a Trusted Central Public Authority (TCPA), which serves numerous Enrollment Stations (ES) in a secure environment. Each individual performs an enrollment at an ES, which provides the TCPA with the full biometric reference data and a document hash. The TCPA then calculates the authentication record (AR) with the biometric hash, a validity timestamp, and a document hash provided by the ES. The AR is then signed with a cryptographic signature function, initialized with the TCPA's private key and embedded in the ID card as a watermark. Authentication is performed at Verification Stations (VS), where the ID card will be scanned and the signed AR is retrieved from the watermark. Due to the timestamp mechanism and a two level biometric verification technique based on offline and online features, the AR can deal with the aging process of the biometric feature by forcing a re-enrollment of the user after expiry, making use of the ES infrastructure. We describe some attack scenarios and we illustrate the watermarking embedding, retrieval and dispute protocols, analyzing their requisites, advantages and disadvantages in relation to security requirements.

  14. Biometric analysis and taxonomic allocation of Pleistocene Hystrix specimens (Rodentia, Porcupines) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, van D.J.; Shaohua, Zheng

    1998-01-01

    Early to Middle Pleistocene Hystrix material in the collections of the IVPP in Beijing, has been biometrically studied and compared with other fossil and extant species. The specimens are from Zhoukoudian (Beijing), the Liucheng Gigantopithecus cave (Guangxi) and other caves in that province, the Wa

  15. A New Feature Extraction Technique for Person Identification Using Multimodal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Malathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unimodal biometric systems when compared with multimodal systems can be easily spoofed and may get affected by noisy data. Due to the limitations faced by unimodal systems, the need for multimodal biometric systems has rapidly increased. Multimodal systems are more reliable as it uses more than one independent biometric trait to recognize a person. These systems are more secured and have less enrollment problems compared to unimodal systems. A new Enhanced Local Line Binary Pattern (ELLBP method is devised to extract features from ear and fingerprint so as to improve recognition rate and to provide a more reliable and secured multimodal system. The features extracted are stored in the database and compared with the test features for matching. Hamming distance is used as the metric for identification. Experiments were conducted with publicly available databases and were observed that this enhanced method provides excellent results compared to earlier methods. The method was analyzed for performance with Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP. The results of our multimodal system were compared with individual biometric traits and also with ear and fingerprint fused together using enhanced LLPD and other earlier methods. It is observed that our method outperforms earlier methods.

  16. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys, Inc., Bolder Technologies Corp., Boyds Wheels, Inc., Breakaway Solutions, Inc., and BRE-X Minerals... Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended December 31, 2006....

  17. A User Authentication Scheme Using Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics for Multitouch Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorng-Shiuh Koong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage.

  18. A user authentication scheme using physiological and behavioral biometrics for multitouch devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Yang, Tzu-I; Tseng, Chien-Chao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage. PMID:25147864

  19. Biometrics for Emotion Detection (BED): Exploring the combination of Speech and ECG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Broek, van den Egon L.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Kim, Jonghwa; Karjalainen, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm Biometrics for Emotion Detection (BED) is introduced, which enables unobtrusive emotion recognition, taking into account varying environments. It uses the electrocardiogram (ECG) and speech, as a powerful but rarely used combination to unravel people’s emotions. BED was applied in two e

  20. Face Biometrics Based on Principal Component Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih H. Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In facial biometrics, face features are used as the required human traits for automatic recognition. Feature extracted from face images are significant for face biometrics system performance. Approach: In this thesis, a framework of facial biometric was designed based on two subspace methods i.e., Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. First, PCA is used for dimension reduction, where original face images are projected into lower-dimensional face representations. Second, LDA was proposed to provide a solution of better discriminant. Both PCA and LDA features were presented to Euclidean distance measurement which is conveniently used as a benchmark. The algorithms were evaluated in face identification and verification using a standard face database-AT and T and a locally collected database-CBE. Each database consists of 400 images and 320 images respectively. Results: LDA-based methods outperform PCA for both face identification and verification. For face identification, PCA achieves accuracy of 91.9% (AT and T and 76.7% (CBE while LDA 94.2% (AT and T and 83.1% (CBE. For face verification, PCA achieves Equal Error Rate (EER of 1.15% (AT and T, 7.3% (CBE while LDA 0.78% (AT and T and 5.81% (CBE. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study had proved that, when given sufficient training samples, LDA is able to provide better discriminant ability in feature extraction for face biometrics.

  1. INTEGRATED EXPRESSIONAL AND COLOR INVARIANT FACIAL RECOGNITION SCHEME FOR HUMAN BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Punithavalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many practical applications like biometrics, video surveillance and human computer interaction, face recognition plays a major role. The previous works focused on recognizing and enhancing the biometric systems based on the facial components of the system. In this work, we are going to build Integrated Expressional and Color Invariant Facial Recognition scheme for human biometric recognition suited to different security provisioning public participation areas.At first, the features of the face are identified and processed using bayes classifier with RGB and HSV color bands. Second, psychological emotional variance are identified and linked with the respective human facial expression based on the facial action code system. Finally, an integrated expressional and color invariant facial recognition is proposed for varied conditions of illumination, pose, transformation, etc. These conditions on color invariant model are suited to easy and more efficient biometric recognition system in public domain and high confidential security zones. The integration is made derived genetic operation on the color and expression components of the facial feature system. Experimental evaluation is planned to done with public face databases (DBs such as CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0 to estimate the performance of the proposed integrated expressional facial and color invariant recognition scheme [IEFCIRS]. Performance evaluation is done based on the constraints like recognition rate, security and evalaution time.

  2. Assessing Factors Affecting Physician's Intention to Adopt Biometric Authentication Technology in Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazao, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) regulated the privacy and security of patient information. Since HIPPA became a law, hospital operators have struggled to comply fully with its security and privacy provisions. The proximity-based biometric authentication (PBBA) technology evolved in last decade to help…

  3. A novel biometric signature: multi-site, remote (> 100 m) photo-plethysmography using ambient light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruijsse, W.; Bodlaender, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel biometric signature based on the principle of multi-site remote photo-plethysmography (remote PPG). This signature can be measured using video cameras. Traditional PPG uses a contact sensor to measure slight skin color changes that occur with every heartbeat. Recently we have demo

  4. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanotelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio of net primary production (NPP over gross primary production (GPP, is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010. We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m−2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m−2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71

  5. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  6. Biometric analysis of the Arkhangelskiella group in the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the stevns-1 borehole, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of the calcareous nannofossil Arkhangelskiella is revised using the results of a biometric analysis performed on 599 specimens from various stratigraphic levels throughout the upper Campanian-Maastrichtian of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Combined qualitative labelling and biometric...... in the coccolith length and in the rim width, and that the central opening is an important additional parameter allowing distinction between the different morphogroups. Biometric analysis shows, however, that the morphogroups are strongly overlapping on all measured parameters. Therefore, the three distinct...

  7. Cellular Automata based Encrypted ECG-hash Code Generation: An Application in Inter human Biometric Authentication System

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Nandi; Satyabrata Roy; Jayanti Dansana; Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa; Ruben Ray; Shatadru Roy Chowdhury; Sayan Chakraborty; Nilanjan Dey

    2014-01-01

    In this modern era, biometrics incorporate various mechanisms to recognize inimitable features of human beings by utilizing their biological and evident features. This paper proposes a novel technique for constructing a resilient and secure biometric recognition system. In this paper, an ECG-hash code of two distinct individuals has been formed by taking dot product of electrocardiogram (ECG) feature matrices of two persons located at two different sites at respective databases. The validity ...

  8. A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User’s Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hojin Seo; Eunjin Kim; Huy Kang Kim

    2012-01-01

    As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods ‐ looked upon as good alternatives ‐ are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobi...

  9. Security issues of Internet-based biometric authentication systems: risks of Man-in-the-Middle and BioPhishing on the example of BioWebAuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Christian; Scheidat, Tobias; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; González Agulla, Elisardo; Otero Muras, Enrique; García Mateo, Carmen; Alba Castro, José L.

    2008-02-01

    Beside the optimization of biometric error rates the overall security system performance in respect to intentional security attacks plays an important role for biometric enabled authentication schemes. As traditionally most user authentication schemes are knowledge and/or possession based, firstly in this paper we present a methodology for a security analysis of Internet-based biometric authentication systems by enhancing known methodologies such as the CERT attack-taxonomy with a more detailed view on the OSI-Model. Secondly as proof of concept, the guidelines extracted from this methodology are strictly applied to an open source Internet-based biometric authentication system (BioWebAuth). As case studies, two exemplary attacks, based on the found security leaks, are investigated and the attack performance is presented to show that during the biometric authentication schemes beside biometric error performance tuning also security issues need to be addressed. Finally, some design recommendations are given in order to ensure a minimum security level.

  10. Influence of the pH Values of the Sol–Gel State on the Properties of SnO2 Powders Obtained From a Sol–Gel Route

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Han; Huang, S. Y.; Campet, G.; Kennard, M. A.; Y. M. Son

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the specific surface area and crystallite size of SnO2 powders, prepared from a sol-gel process, was studied as a function of the calcination temperature of the stannic hydroxyde colloid, and for two different pH values (7.5 and 12.5) of the colloïdal state. The samples were characterized by TGA, IR spectroscopy, BET, and XRD techniques. The crystallite size and specific surface area were strongly affected not only by the calcination temperature, but unexpectedly,...

  11. A using of biometric methods for the delineation of floral units on the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria E. Kharchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of the using of biometric analysis of linear dimensions of the leaves, stipules, bracts and bracteoles in the Brassicaceae (Arabidopsis thaliana, Matthiola longipetala, Lobularia maritime, Lamiaceae (Lamium purpureum, Salvia tesquicola and Boraginaceae (Cynoglossum offisinale, Echium vulgare, Nonea pulla, it has found that the linear dimensions of the leaves and bracts are changed in a similar pattern, which is different from the pattern of change of the stipules and bracteole. In this regard, the biometric analysis of the linear dimensions of the leaves on the shoot can be used as an additional criterion for establishing of the boundaries and composition of floral pieces, as well as for the homologation of shoot elements.

  12. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  13. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  14. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  15. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Premiums for Long-Term Care Insurance Packages: Sensitivity with Respect to Biometric Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Pitacco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term care insurance (LTCI covers are rather recent products, in the framework of health insurance. It follows that specific biometric data are scanty; pricing and reserving problems then arise because of difficulties in the choice of appropriate technical bases. Different benefit structures imply different sensitivity degrees with respect to changes in biometric assumptions. Hence, an accurate sensitivity analysis can help in designing LTCI products and, in particular, in comparing stand-alone products to combined products, i.e., packages including LTCI benefits and other lifetime-related benefits. Numerical examples show, in particular, that the stand-alone cover is much riskier than all of the LTCI combined products that we have considered. As a consequence, the LTCI stand-alone cover is a highly “absorbing” product as regards capital requirements for solvency purposes.

  17. Perceptions of Privacy and the Consequences of Apathy: Biometrics in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne van den Hoogen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Privacy, long considered one of our most valuable rights, is at risk. Younger generations are increasingly becoming de-sensitized to the disclosure of their personal and confidential information. With little or no contemplation, this information is bartered in exchange for the conveniences and luxuries that today’s technologies offer. Moreover, recent developments in the field of biometrics have created unprecedented opportunities for organizations to observe, gather, and share our personal information. This paper explores the evolution of biometrics, the benefits and challenges of this technology, and the potential threat it poses to future generations.

  18. A Novel Crypt-Biometric Perception Algorithm to Protract Security in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are networks that have properties of self configuration and multi hopping. These networks do not have any fixed infrastructure and need to be dynamic in nature. The specification of dynamism leads to various security breaches that a MANET suffers from such as impersonation, data modification etc. which results in degradation of performance and hence QOS is strongly affected. Hence this paper focuses on improving security performance of MANET by employing biometric technique in combination with cryptography, since biometric perception is specified as the most neoteric technological advancement which enhance security specifications of various networks by specifying exclusive human identification features. Cryptography is designed on computational hardness assumptions making various algorithms hard to break by an adversary. Simulation and experimental results specify that the proposed crypto-metric perception technique leads in achieving better QOS parameters by avoiding security intrusions hence better performance of mobile ad-hoc networks.

  19. The Biometric Algorithm based on Fusion of DWT Frequency Components of Enhanced Iris Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biometrics are used to authenticate a person effectively compared to conventional methods of identification. In this paper we propose the biometric algorithm based on fusion of Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT frequency components of enhanced iris image.The iris template is extracted from an eye image by considering horizontal pixels in an iris part.The iris template contrast is enhanced using Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE and Histogram Equalization (HE.The DWT is applied on enhanced iris template.The features are formed by straight line fusion of low and high frequency coefficients of DWT.The Euclidian distance is used to compare final test features with database features. It is observed that the performance parameters are better in the case of proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithms.

  20. Validação de novos valores previstos brasileiros para a espirometria forçada na raça branca e comparação com os valores previstos obtidos por outras equações de referência Validation of new brazilian predicted values for forced spirometry in caucasians and comparison with predicted values obtained using other reference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Araújo de Oliveira Duarte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os novos valores previstos brasileiros de capacidade vital forçada e volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo para a espirometria obtidos em 2006 com os obtidos por outras equações de referência e validar os achados por meio da comparação com uma nova amostra de brasileiros normais. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se espirometria forçada, de acordo com as normas da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, em 643 adultos brancos não-fumantes. Os valores previstos obtidos por pesquisadores brasileiros em 1992 e os obtidos por quatro grupos de pesquisadores estrangeiros foram comparados com os novos valores previstos brasileiros obtidos em 2006. Em uma segunda fase, os valores médios obtidos em 65 mulheres e 79 homens adultos foram comparados aos valores previstos obtidos pelas diversas equações de referência. RESULTADOS: O teste t para amostras pareadas revelou diferenças significativas entre os valores previstos obtidos pelas seis equações e os obtidos pela equação brasileira de 2006. Na segunda fase, observou-se que os valores previstos obtidos por Crapo et al. e os obtidos por Hankinson et al. para os méxico-americanos mostraram valores médios semelhantes aos observados na nova amostra. Porém, quando os valores previstos obtidos na nova amostra foram comparados com os obtidos por esses autores, discrepâncias foram observadas, com valores previstos altos e baixos. Os valores obtidos pela equação brasileira de 2006 mostraram as menores diferenças em comparação com os valores médios obtidos na nova amostra. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sublinham a importância de se usar equações de predição para espirometria que sejam apropriadas para nossa população.OBJECTIVE: To compare the most recent (2006 predicted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second for spirometry in Brazilians with those obtained using other reference equations and to validate the findings

  1. Biometrical studies upon hominoid teeth: the coefficient of variation, sexual dimorphism and questions of phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism as a function of variation in hominoid tooth metrics has been investigated for four groups of taxa: Recent great apes (two subfamilies), Dryopiths (one subfamily), Ramapiths (one subfamily) and hominids (one family). Gorilla, and to a lesser extent Pan, appear characterized by very high levels of sexual dimorphism and meet several criteria for statistical outliers. Recent great apes are the only group exhibiting consistently high levels of sexual dimorphism. Ramapiths are the only group characterized by low levels of sexual dimorphism and their relative canine length is most similar to Dryopiths. Both Dryopiths and hominids contain taxa with low and intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism. The Gingerich and Shoeninger hypothesis relating coefficients of variation to occlusal complexity is supported. Non-parametric statistics suggest that homogeneity of coefficient of variation profiles over most of the tooth row is characteristic of only the Dryopiths and a composite data set composed of the Dryopith plus Ramapith tooth measurements. Oxnard's model for the multifactorial basis of multiple sexual dimorphisms is also supported. The Dryopith and hominid patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar, an observation that suggests phylogenetic relationship. At the taxonomic level of subfamily or family, sexual dimorphism is a character of cladistic usefulness and possible phylogenetic valence. Assuming that breeding system and sexual dimorphism are functional correlates as many workers suggest, then Ramapithecus sp. China, Sivapithecus indicus and possibly Australopithecus boisei are good candidates for having possessed monogamous breeding/social structures. All Dryopith taxa, S. sivalensis, Sivapithecus sp. China, A. afarensis, Homo habilis and H. erectus emerge as the best candidates for having possessed a polygynous breeding/social structure. No biometrical affinities of Ramapiths with hominids can be demonstrated and some phylogenetic relationship with

  2. The CDVPlex biometric cinema: sensing physiological responses to emotional stimuli in film

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, Sandra; Lehane, Bart; Chan, Ching Hau; Smeaton, Alan F.; O'Connor, Noel E.; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    We describe a study conducted to investigate the potential correlations between human subject responses to emotional stimuli in movies, and observed biometric responses. The experimental set-up and procedure are described, including details of the range of sensors used to detect and record observed physiological data (such as heart-rate, galvanic skin response, body temperature and movement). Finally, applications and future analysis of the results of the study are discussed.

  3. Biometric characterization of sharks of the genus Sphyrna (Griffith & Smith, 1834) on the coast of Sergipe

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Barros Andrade; Daniela Nascimento Santos; Maraisa de Oliveira Silva; Thays Brito Reis Santos; Thiago Silveira Meneses; Andressa Sales Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Sharks, rays and chimeras belonging to the subclass Elasmobranchii of the class Chondrichthyes have a slow maturation and development, and they are animals often caught as by-catch, making them vulnerable to extinction. Six species of the genus Sphyrna are found in Brazil, in the coastal-oceanic zone, three of which were studied: Sphyrna lewini, S. mokarran and S. tiburo. This study aimed to evaluate the biometrics, sex and stage of sexual development of the genus Sphyrna in artisanal fishin...

  4. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hung Lin; Jian-Liung Chen; Zwe-Lee Gaing

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP) and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate th...

  5. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  6. Biometrics Institute机构架设安全新网站

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics Institute一直以来就是一个独立运作机构,近日该机构架设了一个安全无虞的新网站,网址为www.biometricsinstiute.org,该机构的主要工作是为生物辨识产业和产品使用者发声。

  7. The Impact of EU Privacy Legislation on Biometric System Deployment: Protecting citizens but constraining applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bustard, John

    2015-01-01

    Biometric systems provide a valuable service in helping to identify individuals from their stored personal details. Unfortunately, with the rapidly increasing use of such systems, there is a growing concern about the possible misuse of that information. To counteract the threat, the European Union (EU) has introduced comprehensive legislation that seeks to regulate data collection and help strengthen an individual’s right to privacy. This article looks at the implications of the legislation f...

  8. Biometrics for Emotion Detection (BED): Exploring the combination of Speech and ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Broek, van den, E.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Kim, Jonghwa; Karjalainen, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm Biometrics for Emotion Detection (BED) is introduced, which enables unobtrusive emotion recognition, taking into account varying environments. It uses the electrocardiogram (ECG) and speech, as a powerful but rarely used combination to unravel people’s emotions. BED was applied in two environments (i.e., office and home-like) in which 40 people watched 6 film scenes. It is shown that both heart rate variability (derived from the ECG) and, when people’s gender is taken into accoun...

  9. Global patterns of ecosystem carbon flux in forests: A biometric data-based synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Shen, Haihua; Fang, Jingyun

    2014-09-01

    Forest ecosystems function as a significant carbon sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, our understanding of global patterns of forest carbon fluxes remains controversial. Here we examined global patterns and environmental controls of forest carbon balance using biometric measurements derived from 243 sites and synthesized from 81 publications around the world. Our results showed that both production and respiration increased with mean annual temperature and exhibited unimodal patterns along a gradient of precipitation. However, net ecosystem production (NEP) initially increased and subsequently declined along gradients of both temperature and precipitation. Our results also indicated that ecosystem production increased during stand development but eventually leveled off, whereas respiration was significantly higher in mature and old forests than in young forests. The residual variation of carbon flux along climatic and age gradients might be explained by other factors such as atmospheric CO2 elevation and disturbances (e.g., forest fire, storm damage, and selective harvest). Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was positively associated with net primary production (NPP), but the Rh-NPP relationship differed between natural and planted forests: Rh increased exponentially with NPP in natural forests but tended toward saturation with increased NPP in planted forests. Comparison of biometric measurements with eddy covariance observations revealed that ecosystem carbon balance derived from the latter generated higher overall NEP estimates. These results suggest that the eddy covariance observations may overestimate the strength of carbon sinks, and thus, biometric measurements need to be incorporated into global assessments of the forest carbon balance.

  10. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  11. Democracies restricting democratic rights: some classical sources and implications for ethics of biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-03-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the most attention to two paradigms that have most influenced modern democratic thinking: 17th century English democracy and ancient Athens. I do not accept the dogma that the Athenians were obviously wrong to try and then to condemn Socrates. His death-loving doctrine could not but have weakened the will of the youth to work and fight for the good of Athens. I will try to understand the Athenians' point of view and their need to defend their security. At the end, I will apply these lessons to biometrics and data sharing for security reasons.

  12. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database. PMID:25680220

  13. Analysis of low-dimensional radio-frequency impedance-based cardio-synchronous waveforms for biometric authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Shreyas; Savvides, Marios; Griofa, Marc O; Cohen, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been a lot of advances in the field of pattern analyses for biomedical signals, which have helped in both medical diagnoses and in furthering our understanding of the human body. A relatively recent area of interest is the utility of biomedical signals in the field of biometrics, i.e., for user identification. Seminal work in this domain has already been done using electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. In this paper, we discuss our ongoing work in using a relatively recent modality of biomedical signals-a cardio-synchronous waveform measured using a Radio-Frequency Impedance-Interrogation (RFII) device for the purpose of user identification. Compared to an ECG setup, this device is noninvasive and measurements can be obtained easily and quickly. Here, we discuss the feasibility of reducing the dimensions of these signals by projecting onto various subspaces while still preserving interuser discriminating information. We compare the classification performance using classical dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), random projections, with more recent techniques such as K-SVD-based dictionary learning. We also report the reconstruction accuracies in these subspaces. Our results show that the dimensionality of the measured signals can be reduced by 60 fold while maintaining high user identification rates. PMID:23846435

  14. Towards User Acceptance of Biometric Technology in E-Government: A Survey Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Thamer; Drew, Steve

    The paper discussed an exploratory study of government employees’ perceptions of the introduction of biometric authentication at the workplace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We suggest that studying the factors affecting employees’ acceptance of new technology will help ease the adoption of biometric technology in other e-government applications. A combination of survey and interviews was used to collect the required data. Interviews were conducted with managers and questionnaires were given to employees from two different government organisations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to investigate the employees’ perceptions of using biometrics. The results of this study indicate a significant digital and cultural gap between the technological awareness of employees and the preferred authentication solutions promoted by management. A lack of trust in technology, its potential for misuse and management motives reflect the managers’ need to consider their responsibilities for narrowing these gaps. It was apparent that overcoming employees’ resistance is an essential issue facing biometric implementation. Based on the research we recommend that an awareness and orientation process about biometrics should take place before the technology is introduced into the organisation.

  15. FUSION BASED MULTIMODAL AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRICS USING CONTEXT-SENSITIVE EXPONENT ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY MODEL : A NOVEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. S. N. Krishna Prasad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is one of the primary key concepts of real application domains such as aadhar card, passport, pan card, etc. In such applications user can provide two to three biometrics patterns like face, finger, palm, signature, iris data, and so on. We considered face and finger patterns for encoding and then also for verification. Using this data we proposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometrics often called Context-Sensitive Exponent Associative Memory Model (CSEAM. It provides different stages of security for biometrics patterns. In stage 1, face and finger patterns can be fusion through Principal Component Analysis (PCA, in stage 2 by applying SVD decomposition to generate keys from the fusion data and preprocessed face pattern and then in stage 3, using CSEAM model the generated keys can be encoded. The final key will be stored in the smart cards. In CSEAM model, exponential kronecker product plays a critical role for encoding and also for verification to verify the chosen samples from the users. This paper discusses by considering realistic biometric data in terms of time and space.

  16. Second Wave of Biometric ID-documents in Europe: The Residence Permit for non-EU/EEA Nationals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeau, Detlef

    The first implementation of biometric documents, called biometric passports, based on a regulation is running, the second implementation since end of CY 2008 is coming to Europe. The focus is on persons staying for business, study or leisure for more than 3 months in Europe and coming from a state outside Europe and not being a member of the Visa-Waiver-Program of the EU. This second wave increases the demand for the security industry for certified security microcontroller chips, secure smart cards, readers and supporting infrastructure on top of the biometric Passport business. It underlines the continuing advance of contactless identification technology in the public sector. The article gives an overview on the application, the technology, the EU regulation, the EU roadmap and the implementations.

  17. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin. PMID:26861986

  18. 生物识别技术%Biometric Verification Simplifies Security Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖马

    2005-01-01

    所谓生物识别技术(Biometric Identification Technology)是指通过对人体所固有的生理特征或行为特征的收集、汇总、对比、分析,进行个人身份鉴定的技术。生物特征是唯一的(与他人不同),可以测量或可自动识别和验证的生理特性或行为方式,分为生理特征和行为特征。

  19. Novel Complex Conjugate-Phase Transform Technique for Cancelable and Irrevocable Biometric Template Generation for Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kanagalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for cancellable and irrevocable biometric template generation. The proposed method named as complex conjugate phase transform takes the main components like bit shifted-phase, twin complex conjugate transpose and chaff point generation along with it. The strength of the proposed method is tested in different aspects such as cancelability, irrevocability and security. The performance of the same is also calculated in terms of time and space complexity; ROC analysis is also carried out. The proposed method achieves higher matching scores; and the experimental results show that the proposed complex conjugate phase transform is better in all the aspects of performance.

  20. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Net Ecosystem and Net Primary Productivities as Determined from Flux Tower, Biometric, and Model Estimates for a Coastal Douglas-fir Forest in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Filipescu, C.

    2013-12-01

    caused a small increase in Rs and litter decay, and a small decrease in Rh. Litterfall rates averaged 100 g C m2 y-1 and did not differ between fertilized and control plots. Stem wood increments for 2007-10 indicated aboveground growth in fertilized trees was 35% greater than in control trees. However this was due to fertilized tree growth being 30% greater and control trees 5% less when compared to growth in the pre-fertilization period. Preliminary examination of root wood increments indicated that the post-fertilization growth was less than pre-fertilization growth, suggesting that the post-fertilization NPP was lower than if just estimated from stem wood. Mean CBM-CFS3 NEP for seven groundplots around the tower were 465 g C m2 y-1 for 2007-10, a 34% increase above pre-fertilization model NEP (347 g C m2 y-1). Using post- and pre-fertilization values, fertilization effects on EC NEP (64%) were nearly twice that of CBM-CFS3 model NEP (34%) or biometric tree growth (30%). However, if fertilized and unfertilized control values for 2007-10 were used; fertilization effects on EC NEP (28%) were comparable to those from biometric tree growth (35%). Results suggest choice of an appropriate baseline will be important in determining the C gains of forest C offset projects.

  1. Graceful Labeling Based Active Appearance Model for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiamoorthy G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for reading face images and image sequences using Graceful Labeling Active Appearance Model (GLAAM. The GLAAM contains a statistical, photo-realistic model of the chassis and grey-level appearance of faces. This paper demonstrates the use of the GLAAM’s efficient iterative matching scheme for image interpretation. We use the GLAAM as a basis for face identification, obtain good results for difficult images. We show how the GLAAM framework allows identity information to be decoupled from other variation, allowing evidence of identity to be integrated over a sequence. The GLAAM approach makes optimal use of the evidence from either a single image or image sequence. Since we derive a complete description of a given image our method can be used as the basis for a range of face image interpretation tasks.

  2. Fluorescent Molecular Rotor-in-Paraffin Waxes for Thermometry and Biometric Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young-Jae; Dogra, Rubal; Cheong, In Woo; Kwak, Giseop

    2015-07-01

    Novel thermoresponsive sensor systems consisting of a molecular rotor (MR) and paraffin wax (PW) were developed for various thermometric and biometric identification applications. Polydiphenylacetylenes (PDPAs) coupled with long alkyl chains were used as MRs, and PWs of hydrocarbons having 16-20 carbons were utilized as phase-change materials. The PDPAs were successfully dissolved in the molten PWs and did not act as an impurity that prevents phase transition of the PWs. These PDPA-in-PW hybrids had almost the same enthalpies and phase-transition temperatures as the corresponding pure PWs. The hybrids exhibited highly reversible fluorescence (FL) changes at the critical temperatures during phase transition of the PWs. These hybrids were impregnated into common filter paper in the molten state by absorption or were encapsulated into urea resin to enhance their mechanical integrity and cyclic stability during repeated use. The wax papers could be utilized in highly advanced applications including FL image writing/erasing, an array-type thermo-indicator, and fingerprint/palmprint identification. The present findings should facilitate the development of novel fluorescent sensor systems for biometric identification and are potentially applicable for biological and biomedical thermometry.

  3. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme. PMID:24888983

  4. Adoption of Biometric Fingerprint Identification as an Accessible, Secured form of ATM Transaction Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mireku Kwakye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Security is continuously an important concern for most Information Technology-related industries, especially the banking industry. The banking industry is concerned with protecting and securing the privacy and data of their customers, as well as their transactions. The adoption of biometric technology as a means of identifying and authenticating individuals has been proposed as one of the varied solutions to many of the security challenges faced by the banking industry. In this paper, the authors address the ATM transaction authentication problem of banking transactions using fingerprint identification as one form of biometric authentication. The novel methodology adopted proposes the use of an online off-card fingerprint verification, which involves the matching of live fingerprint (templates with pre-stored templates read from the ATM smart card. The experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology presents a system that offers a faster and relatively better security of authentication, as compared to previous and existing methodologies. Moreover, the use of BioHASH templates ensures an irreversible cryptographic hash function, facilitates a faster authentication, and enables an efficient framework of detecting potential duplicates of banking account holders.

  5. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  6. Particulate matter effect on biometric and biochemical attributes of fruiting plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Younis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust accumulation capacity of Ficus carica L. and Psidium guajava L. was investigated from eight different sites of Multan, Pakistan.  Leaves of both plants were used for analyzing biometric (leaf area, fresh and dry weights and biochemical attributes (chlorophyll contents, carotenoids and ascorbic acid.  Maximum dust accumulation was occurred in the plants growing near road sites, while, minimum dust accumulation occurred in the plants of Bahauddin Zakariya University.  Most of the biometric and biochemical attributes of F. carica showed significant response towards dust but it had not significant influence on some attributes of P. guajava.  Biochemical traits of P. guajava appeared to be more prone than foliage ones. A positive correlation was foundbetween dust accumulation and foliage attributes in F. carica. On the other hand,in P. guajava opposite was observed, however, the reverse was true for leaf biomass.Biochemical contents had shown an inconsistency as chlorophylls (a, b & total, carotenoid contents declined but ascorbic acid increased with an increase in dust accumulation in both species.

  7. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the...... value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of...... morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have...

  8. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  9. 生物特征密码技术综述%A Survey on Biometric Cryptographic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游林

    2015-01-01

    生物特征密码技术,即融合生物特征识别技术与密码技术的新兴技术,主要体现为基于生物特征识别技术的密钥保护技术与密钥生成技术。生物特征密码技术不仅可以安全保护用户的生物特征信息免遭泄露的风险,更重要的是可以解决各种对象实体的数字身份认证与私密信息的加密保护问题。本文综述了自1996年第一个利用指纹特征的密钥生成方案及2012年经典模糊金库提出以来主要的密钥生成技术研究工作,剖析了这些方案的基本结构及性能优劣,并探讨了生物特征密码技术的未来研究思路。%Biometric cryptography ,a newly emerging technology which fuses biometrics and cryptography , is mainly embodied in biometric-based key protection technology and biometric-based key generation technology . Biometric cryptography can not only be applied to protect the user 's biometric information from the leakage risk, what is more , it can also be applied to realize the digital identity authentication and secret information protection for various entities .In this paper , a comprehensive survey is presented on the key generation schemes since the first one proposed in 1996 and the fuzzy vaults since the classic version given in 2012 , their basic structures and their merit performances are analyzed , and the future approaches for biometric cryptography are explored .

  10. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  11. A Genetic Based Non-Invertible Cryptographic Key Generation From Cancelable Biometric in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mehta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mission critical applications uses mobile ad hoc network. Security is required to protect this data while transmitting in network. Biometric characteristic such as face, fingerprint, voice, iris, and retina can be potential alternative to generate a cryptographic key and enhance the security. In this paper non-invertible key generation using cancelable fingerprint is discussed. From the receivers fingerprint minutiae are generated. Applying one way transformation cancelable template is generated and stored into vectors. After shuffling vector data, a genetic operator two point crossover is applied and 256 bit key is generated for the encryption AES-256 algorithm. Authentication is done by watermarked face of the sender. The proposed model is analysed against security attributes authentication, confidentiality, integrity. It is also analyse for brute force attack. It is found that it survive against all attack.

  12. Identity based Encryption and Biometric Authentication Scheme for Secure Data Access in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongbing; Rong, Chunming; Tan, Zheng-Hua;

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing will be a main information infrastructure in the future; it consists of many large datacenters which are usually geographically distributed and heterogeneous. How to design a secure data access for cloud computing platform is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a secure data...... access scheme based on identity-based encryption and biometric authentication for cloud computing. Firstly, we describe the security concern of cloud computing and then propose an integrated data access scheme for cloud computing, the procedure of the proposed scheme include parameter setup, key...... distribution, feature template creation, cloud data processing and secure data access control. Finally, we compare the proposed scheme with other schemes through comprehensive analysis and simulation. The results show that the proposed data access scheme is feasible and secure for cloud computing....

  13. Safety Margins for Systematic Biometric and Financial Risk in a Semi-Markov Life Insurance Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Niemeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies use conservative first order valuation bases to calculate insurance premiums and reserves. These valuation bases have a significant impact on the insurer’s solvency and on the premiums of the insurance products. Safety margins for systematic biometric and financial risk are in practice typically chosen as time-constant percentages on top of the best estimate transition intensities. We develop a risk-oriented method for the allocation of a total safety margin to the single safety margins at each point in time and each state. In a case study, we demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method in different frameworks. The results show that the traditional method yields an unwanted variability of the safety level with respect to time, whereas the variability can be significantly reduced by the new method. Furthermore, the case study supports the German 60 percent rule for the technical interest rate.

  14. Facial Analysis: Looking at Biometric Recognition and Genome-Wide Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens

    on genetic information, a new area that holds great potential. Two papers explore the connection between minor physical anomalies in the face and schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia is a life long disease, but early discovery and treatment can have a significant impact on the course of the disease......The goal of this Ph.D. project is to present selected challenges regarding facial analysis within the fields of Human Biometrics and Human Genetics. In the course of the Ph.D. nine papers have been produced, eight of which have been included in this thesis. Three of the papers focus on face......”. However, we document intra- and inter-operator variability associated with annotating these landmarks, which is a valuable result for applications that are sensitive to such variability. One paper presents a comprehensive proof-of-concept study of the prediction of facial characteristics based solely...

  15. Robust Biometrics Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Xing; Yang, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authenticated schemes using smart cards have attracted much attention in multi-server environments. Several schemes of this type where proposed in the past. However, many of them were found to have some design flaws. This paper concentrates on the security weaknesses of the three-factor authentication scheme by Mishra et al. After careful analysis, we find their scheme does not really resist replay attack while failing to provide an efficient password change phase. We further propose an improvement of Mishra et al.’s scheme with the purpose of preventing the security threats of their scheme. We demonstrate the proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against several attacks including attacks shown in the original scheme. In addition, we compare the performance and functionality with other multi-server authenticated key schemes. PMID:25978373

  16. Strong authentication of remote users over insecure networks by using fingerprint-biometric and smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad K.; Zhang, Jiashu

    2006-04-01

    Recently, Lee et al. and Lin-Lai proposed fingerprint-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards. We demonstrate that their schemes are vulnerable and susceptible to the attack and have practical pitfalls. Their schemes perform only unilateral authentication (only client authentication) and there is no mutual authentication between user and remote system, so their schemes suscept from the server spoofing attack. To overcome the flaw, we present a strong remote user authentication scheme by using fingerprint-biometric and smart cards. The proposed scheme is an extended and generalized form of ElGamal's signature scheme whose security is based on discrete logarithm problem, which is not yet forged. Proposed scheme not only overcome drawbacks and problems of previous schemes, but also provide a strong authentication of remote users over insecure network. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are better than other related schemes.

  17. Windows Biometirc Framework系统简介%The Brief Introduction of Windows Biometric Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑嘉彦

    2012-01-01

    随着生物科技的成熟发展,在如今的计算机安全领域,指纹系统认证已经越来越被广泛运用.各个笔记本厂商也相继推出带有指纹处理芯片的高端笔记本电脑.在windows7系统中,微软为指纹设备驱动与指纹认证系统应用程序之间的链接定义一系列框架——windows biometric framework,本文将对这一系统框架做一简单简介.

  18. BSK-WBSN: Biometric Symmetric Keys to Secure Wireless Body Sensors Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mesmoudi, Samira

    2011-01-01

    The Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) is an emergent technology resulting from progress of various fields. Many applications of networks WSN are born. One of the applications which have an operational effectiveness relates to the field of health and allows a medical remote support. Miniature wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) which allows supervising various essential biological signals (rate of heartbeat, pressure, etc). The sensitivity of medical information requires mechanisms of safety. This performance constitutes a challenge for WBSN because of their limitation in resources energy and data-processing. In this paper we propose a new approach to symmetric cryptographic key establishment, based on biometrics physiology. This approach takes into account WBSN constraints and its topology.

  19. Cogntive Consistency Analysis in Adaptive Bio-Metric Authentication System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahangir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive consistency analysis aims to continuously monitor one's perception equilibrium towards successful accomplishment of cognitive task. Opposite to cognitive flexibility analysis – cognitive consistency analysis identifies monotone of perception towards successful interaction process (e.g., biometric authentication and useful in generation of decision support to assist one in need. This study consider fingertip dynamics (e.g., keystroke, tapping, clicking etc. to have insights on instantaneous cognitive states and its effects in monotonic advancement towards successful authentication process. Keystroke dynamics and tapping dynamics are analyzed based on response time data. Finally, cognitive consistency and confusion (inconsistency are computed with Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC and Maximal Asymmetry Score (MAS, respectively. Our preliminary study indicates that a balance between cognitive consistency and flexibility are needed in successful authentication process. Moreover, adaptive and cognitive interaction system requires in depth analysis of user’s cognitive consistency to provide a robust and useful assistance.

  20. Evaluation and comparison of current fetal ultrasound image segmentation methods for biometric measurements: a grand challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Sylvia; Fathima, Sana; Knight, Caroline L; Yaqub, Mohammad; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Rahmatullah, Bahbibi; Foi, Alessandro; Maggioni, Matteo; Pepe, Antonietta; Tohka, Jussi; Stebbing, Richard V; McManigle, John E; Ciurte, Anca; Bresson, Xavier; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Sun, Changming; Ponomarev, Gennady V; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Kazanov, Marat D; Wang, Ching-Wei; Chen, Hsiang-Chou; Peng, Chun-Wei; Hung, Chu-Mei; Noble, J Alison

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the evaluation results of the methods submitted to Challenge US: Biometric Measurements from Fetal Ultrasound Images, a segmentation challenge held at the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2012. The challenge was set to compare and evaluate current fetal ultrasound image segmentation methods. It consisted of automatically segmenting fetal anatomical structures to measure standard obstetric biometric parameters, from 2D fetal ultrasound images taken on fetuses at different gestational ages (21 weeks, 28 weeks, and 33 weeks) and with varying image quality to reflect data encountered in real clinical environments. Four independent sub-challenges were proposed, according to the objects of interest measured in clinical practice: abdomen, head, femur, and whole fetus. Five teams participated in the head sub-challenge and two teams in the femur sub-challenge, including one team who tackled both. Nobody attempted the abdomen and whole fetus sub-challenges. The challenge goals were two-fold and the participants were asked to submit the segmentation results as well as the measurements derived from the segmented objects. Extensive quantitative (region-based, distance-based, and Bland-Altman measurements) and qualitative evaluation was performed to compare the results from a representative selection of current methods submitted to the challenge. Several experts (three for the head sub-challenge and two for the femur sub-challenge), with different degrees of expertise, manually delineated the objects of interest to define the ground truth used within the evaluation framework. For the head sub-challenge, several groups produced results that could be potentially used in clinical settings, with comparable performance to manual delineations. The femur sub-challenge had inferior performance to the head sub-challenge due to the fact that it is a harder segmentation problem and that the techniques presented relied more on the femur's appearance