WorldWideScience

Sample records for biometric values obtained

  1. Biometrics: libraries have begun to see the value of biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Selvi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    It explains the Biometric Technologies which are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solution. Biometric devices with special reference to finger print recognition is dealt in detail. The benefits of Biometrics in Libraries, its employees and members are highlighted.

  2. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  3. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  4. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: brain normal linear biometric values below 24 gestational weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazzini, C.; Righini, A.; Triulzi, F. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, M. [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Consonni, D. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Unit of Epidemiology, Milan (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is currently used to measure quantitative data concerning brain structural development. At present, morphometric MR imaging studies have been focused mostly on the third trimester of gestational age. However, in many countries, because of legal restriction on abortion timing, the majority of MR imaging fetal examination has to be carried out during the last part of the second trimester of pregnancy (i.e., before the 24th week of gestation). Accurate and reliable normative data of the brain between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation is not available. This report provides easy and practical parametric support to assess those normative data. From a database of 1,200 fetal MR imaging studies, we retrospectively selected 84 studies of the brain of fetuses aged 20-24 weeks of gestation that resulted normal on clinical and radiological follow-up. Fetuses with proved or suspected infections, twin pregnancy, and fetuses of mothers affected by pathology that might have influenced fetal growth were excluded. Linear biometrical measurements of the main cerebral structures were obtained by three experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. A substantial interobserver agreement for each measurements was reached, and normative data with median, maximum, and minimum value were obtained for brain structures. The knowledge of a range of normality and interindividual variability of linear biometrical values for the developing brain between 20th and 24th weeks of gestation may be valuable in assessing normal brain development in clinical settings. (orig.)

  5. Efficiency of Biometric integration with Salt Value at an Enterprise Level and Data Centres

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is going to deal with enhancing the efficiency of Biometric by integrating it with Salt Value (randomly generated value of varying length). Normally at an enterprise level or data centres, the servers are maintained with complex passwords and they are known only to the system administrators. Even after applying lot of securities at an expert level, the hackers are able to penetrate through the network and break the passwords easily. Here how the biometric can play a vital role and that too with the inclusion of Salt value can prevent the hacker from stealing the confidential data's of an organization.

  6. Beyond Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, R.C.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the last 40 years, the essence of automated identification of users has remained the same. In this article, a new class of biometrics is proposed that is founded on processing biosignals, as opposed to images. After a brief introduction on biometrics, biosignals are discussed, including their advantages, disadvantages, and guidelines for obtaining them. This new class of biometrics increases biometrics’ robustness and enables cross validation. Next, biosignals’ use is illustrated b...

  7. Cryptographically secure biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianov, A.

    2010-04-01

    Biometric systems usually do not possess a cryptographic level of security: it has been deemed impossible to perform a biometric authentication in the encrypted domain because of the natural variability of biometric samples and of the cryptographic intolerance even to a single bite error. Encrypted biometric data need to be decrypted on authentication, which creates privacy and security risks. On the other hand, the known solutions called "Biometric Encryption (BE)" or "Fuzzy Extractors" can be cracked by various attacks, for example, by running offline a database of images against the stored helper data in order to obtain a false match. In this paper, we present a novel approach which combines Biometric Encryption with classical Blum-Goldwasser cryptosystem. In the "Client - Service Provider (SP)" or in the "Client - Database - SP" architecture it is possible to keep the biometric data encrypted on all the stages of the storage and authentication, so that SP never has an access to unencrypted biometric data. It is shown that this approach is suitable for two of the most popular BE schemes, Fuzzy Commitment and Quantized Index Modulation (QIM). The approach has clear practical advantages over biometric systems using "homomorphic encryption". Future work will deal with the application of the proposed solution to one-to-many biometric systems.

  8. Addressing missing values in kernel-based multimodal biometric fusion using neutral point substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Poh N.; Windridge D.; Mottl V.; Tatarchuk A.; Eliseyev A.

    2010-01-01

    In multimodal biometric information fusion, it is common to encounter missing modalities in which matching cannot be performed. As a result, at the match score level, this implies that scores will be missing. We address the multimodal fusion problem involving missing modalities (scores) using support vector machines (SVMs) with the neutral point substitution (NPS) method. The approach starts by processing each modality using a kernel. When a modality is missing, at the kernel level, the missi...

  9. The Impact of User Privacy Concerns and Ethnic Cultural Values on Attitudes toward the Use of Biometric Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Darrell R.

    2011-01-01

    Biometric technology is rapidly gaining popularity as an access control mechanism in the workplace. In some instances, systems relying on biometric technology have not been well received by employees. One reason for resistance may be perceived privacy issues associated with biometrics. This research draws on previous organizational information…

  10. Valores biométricos obtidos por ultra-sonografia dos tendões flexores e ligamentos acessório inferior e suspensório da região metacárpica palmar de cavalos Mangalarga Marchador Biometric values obtained by ultrasonography of flexor tendons and inferior accessory and suspensory ligaments of the palmar metacarpal region in Mangalarga Marchador horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Aristizábal M.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a área transversal (AT dos tendões e ligamentos da região metacárpica palmar de 15 cavalos da raça Mangalarga Marchador. As áreas transversais do tendão do músculo flexor digital superficial (TFDS, do tendão do músculo flexor digital profundo (TFDP, do ligamento acessório inferior (LA e do ligamento suspensório (LS foram determinadas mediante ultra-sonografia, em sete zonas distintas (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B e 3C. Os valores médios da AT para TFDS foram: zona 1A, 1,07±0,13; zona 1B, 0,97±0,12; zona 2A, 0,77±0,08; zona 2B, 0,68±0,12; zona 3A, 0,74±0,10; zona 3B, 0,86±0,10; e zona 3C, 1,33±0,24. Para TFDP foram: zona 1A, 1,09±0,12; zona 1B, 0,99±0,14; zona 2A, 0,72±0,11; zona 2B, 0,63±0,10; zona 3A, 0,71±0,14; zona 3B, 0,87±0,14; e zona 3C, 1,39±0,20. Para LA foram: zona 1A, 1,17±0,14; zona 1B, 0,85±0,11; zona 2A, 0,73±0,12; zona 2B, 0,60±0,16; e zona 3A, 0,42±0,15. Para LS foram: zona 1A, 0,82±0,14; zona 1B, 1,23±0,15; zona 2A, 1,21±0,15; zona 2B, 1,18±0,14; e zona 3A, 1,20±0,31. A AT de cada estrutura avaliada foi similar entre membros torácicos, considerando a mesma zona estudada. Não houve diferença significativa entre a AT do TFDS e a do TFDP.The transversal area (TA of tendons and ligaments located in the palmar metacarpal region was studied in 15 Mangalarga Marchador horses without locomotor pathology. The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT, deep digital flexor tendon (DDFP, accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL-DDFP, and suspensory ligament (TIOM were examined by ultrasonography, at seven different zones (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B e 3C, to determine the TA. The mean TA values for SDFT were: zone 1A, 1.07±0.13; zone 1B, 0.97±0.12; zone 2A, 0.77±0.08; zone 2B, 0.68±0.12; zone 3A, 0.74±0.10; zone 3B, 0.86±0.10; and zone 3C, 1.33±0.24. For DDFT were: zone 1A, 1.09±0.12; zone 1B, 0.99±0.14; zone 2A, 0.72±0.11; zone 2B, 0.63±0.10; zone 3A, 0.71±0.14; zone 3B, 0

  11. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant

  12. Review of Multimodal Biometrics: Applications, challenges and Research Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Vijay M. Mane; Prof. (Dr.) Dattatray V. Jadhav

    2009-01-01

    Biometric systems for today’s high security applications must meet stringent performance requirements. The fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. Fusion methods include processing biometric modalities sequentially until an acceptable match is obtained. More sophisticated methods combine scores from separate classifiers for each modality. This paper is an overview of multimodal biometrics, challenges in the progress of multimodal biometrics, the main research a...

  13. FLIR biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Barbara L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.

    2009-04-01

    Biometrics are generally thought of as anatomical features that allow positive identification of a person. This paper describes biometrics that are also physiological in nature. The differences between anatomy and physiology have to do with the fact that physiology is dynamic, functioning, and changing with the state or actions of a person whereas anatomy is generally more stable. Biometrics in general usually refers to a trait, whereas the new type of biometrics discussed in this paper refer to a state, which is temporary, and often even transitory. By state, what is meant is the condition of a person at a particular time relative to their psychological, physical, medical, or physiological status. The present paper describes metrics that are cues to the state of a functioning individual observable through a thermal camera video system. An inferred state might then be tied to the positive identification of the person. Using thermal for this purpose is significant because the thermal signature of a human is dynamic and changes with physical and emotional state, while also revealing underlying anatomical structures. A new method involving the counting of open pores on the skin is discussed as a way of observing the Electrodermal Activity (EDA) of the skin, a primary component of the polygraph.

  14. Biometric Authentication. Types of biometric identifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build clear understanding biometrics and biometrics identifiers and also to look closely on the methods of biometrics. In this work such methods as data collecting, content analysis were applied. The information is taken from multiple internet resources, TV reports, magazines and newspapers and books. The study contains information about the history of biometrics and the process of its development, characteristics that people consider to be the adva...

  15. The Biometric Values of Affected and Fellow Eyes in Patients with Acute Attack of Primary Angle Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been estimated that 67 million peopleworldwide are affected with a primary glaucoma and that onethirdhave primary angle closure glaucoma. We aimed to determinethe biometric differences between the eyes of patientswith acute attack of primary angle closure and their noninvolvedfellow eyes.Methods: Twenty eight patients with acute attack of primary angleclosure were recruited in this prospective study. Three weeksafter laser iridotomy and resolution of corneal edema, all patientshad a complete ocular examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy,pachymetry, keratometry, and ocular biometry. The followingA-scan parameters were measured: anterior chamberdepth, lens thickness, axial length, lens– axial length factor, relativelens position, and corrected anterior chamber depth.Results: There were 22 (78.5% women and six (21.5% menwith mean age of 52.82±9.25 years. There were no statisticallysignificant differences in the biometric figures between theaffected and fellow eyes [anterior chamber depth (P=0.4, lensthickness (P=0.4, axial length (P=0.7, lens-axial length factor(P=0.6, relative lens position (P=0.7, and corrected anteriorchamber depth (P=0.8]. The mean ± standard deviation ofcentral corneal thickness in the affected and fellow eyes were560.12±41.93 and 557.727±18.53, respectively (P=0.806.There was no statistically significant difference between theboth eyes in the mean keratometric diopters in the affected andin the fellow eyes (45.05±2.02 v 44.91±1.73; P=0.78.Conclusion: The present study did not reveal any statisticallysignificant differences regarding the ocular biometricparameters between the affected and fellow eyes in patientswith acute primary angle closure. The biometric parameterswere similar between male and female patients as well.

  16. Biometric Authentication using Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sheela, S V; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2309

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determined from the training samples. Hu moments are applied on the components. The summation of moment values corresponding to minimum variance components are provided as input vector to k-means and fuzzy k-means classifiers. The best performance was obtained for MMU database consisting of 45 subjects. The number of subjects with zero False Rejection Rate [FRR] was 44 and number of subjects with zero False Acceptance Rate [FAR] was 45. This paper addresses the computational load reduction in off-line signature verification based ...

  17. New Space Value of the Solar Oblateness Obtained with PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Djafer, Djelloul; Corbard, Thierry; Bocquier, Maxime; Momar Cisse, E.

    2014-04-01

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  18. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  19. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  20. An Overview of Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jammi Ashok,; Vaka Shivashankar,; P.V.G.S.Mudiraj

    2010-01-01

    The term biometrics is derived from the Greek words bio meaning “life” and metrics meaning “ to measure” . Biometrics refers to the identification or verification of a person based on his/her physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Several verification/identification based biometrics have evolved based on various unique aspects of human body, ease of acquiring the biometric, public acceptance and the degree of security required. This paper presents an overview of various biometrics i...

  1. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  2. A survey on biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathgeb Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Form a privacy perspective most concerns against the common use of biometrics arise from the storage and misuse of biometric data. Biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics represent emerging technologies of biometric template protection addressing these concerns and improving public confidence and acceptance of biometrics. In addition, biometric cryptosystems provide mechanisms for biometric-dependent key-release. In the last years a significant amount of approaches to both technologies have been published. A comprehensive survey of biometric cryptosystems and cancelable biometrics is presented. State-of-the-art approaches are reviewed based on which an in-depth discussion and an outlook to future prospects are given.

  3. Biometric-based Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2004-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an understanding of the benefits and limitations of biometric-based technologies. It also includes information on existing privacy and security methodologies for assessing biometrics.

  4. Behavioural Biometrics in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Chakravarthy; VVSSS. Balaram; B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context,...

  6. BIOMETRICS BASED USER AUTHENTICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuj Tiwari; Tanya Tiwari2; Sanjay Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics technologies are base for a plethora of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is measurement of biological characteristics – either physiological or behavioral – that verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physiological biometrics include fingerprints, iris recognition. voice verification, retina recognition, palm vein patt...

  7. Review of Multimodal Biometrics: Applications, challenges and Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Vijay M. Mane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems for today’s high security applications must meet stringent performance requirements. The fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. Fusion methods include processing biometric modalities sequentially until an acceptable match is obtained. More sophisticated methods combine scores from separate classifiers for each modality. This paper is an overview of multimodal biometrics, challenges in the progress of multimodal biometrics, the main research areas and its applications to develop the security system for high security areas

  8. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply the...... creation and update of a biometric template, but requires the development of instruments to properly handle all the data and operations related to the user identity. These proceedings contain the selected and revised papers that were presented during the first European Workshop on Biometrics and Identity...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors of...

  9. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  10. Future Path Way to Biometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar C.N, P. Girish Chandra, R. Narayana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Pattern Recognition employing Biometric system causes the fact that not only theverification & identification system becomes practical but also enables recognition of thecharacter and serves as a tool in diagnosing the disease of a person. One of the main interestsfor Biometric System is identification of person’s psychological traits and personality types whichcan be accomplished by classifying the Biometric into different levels. Existing Biometric systemcan identify or verify the person but cannot declare the personality of a Person. Face and Handprovides Researchers and Psychologists with instrument of obtaining information aboutpersonality and psychological traits. Initially the paper describes the Different level of Biometricand need for classification. Later the paper mentions some of technologies to explore the entirefield of personality through the skillful use of the computer data processing and biometricscanning. Applications of Personality Analysis include, but are not limited to, for use in daily living,private industry, civil service, education, law enforcement, military, medicine and psychology,throughout all aspects of human life.

  11. Biometrics and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this relates to. A number of practical basic rules are also given as a guide to proceeding in a legally acceptable manner when applying biometrics. The Dutch version of this article was published in: Priv...

  12. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Salah, Albert Ali; Soria, E.; Martin, J. D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but there are many other possible biometrics, including gait, ear image, retina, DNA, and even behaviours. This chapter presents a survey of machine learning methods used for biometrics applications, ...

  13. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  14. Advanced topics in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haizhou; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based on one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. After decades of research activities, biometrics, as a recognized scientific discipline, has advanced considerably both in practical technology and theoretical discovery to meet the increasing need of biometric deployments. In this book, the editors provide both a concise and accessible introduction to the field as well as a detailed coverage on the unique research problems with their solutions in a wide spectrum of biometrics research ranging from voice, face, finge

  15. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  16. ECG biometric analysis in different physiological recording conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Porée, Fabienne; Kervio, Gaëlle; Carrault, Guy

    2016-01-01

    International audience Biometric systems have for objective to perform identification or verification of identity of individuals. Human electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently proposed as an additional tool for biometric applications. Then, a set of ECG-based biometric studies has occurred in the literature, but they are difficult to compare because they use various values of: the number of ECG leads, the length of the analysis window (only the QRS or more), the delays between recordings...

  17. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  18. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwarappa M.N.; Dr. Mrityunjaya V. Latte

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The late...

  19. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal;

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three...... strands combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  20. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  1. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  2. Biometrics and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  3. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  4. Biometrics and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Venu

    The science of Biometrics is concerned with recognizing people based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. It has emerged as a vibrant field of research in today's security conscious society. In this talk we will introduce the important research challenges in Biometrics and specifically address the following topics: i) unobtrusive people tracking using a novel evolutionary recognition paradigm, ii) efficient indexing and searching of large fingerprint databases, iii) cancelability of templates where the task is to ensure that enrolled biometric templates can be revoked and new templates issued, and iv) fusion of fingerprints with other biometric modalities such as face where we will explore optimal trainable functions that operate on the scores returned by individual matchers.

  5. Biometrics and Kansei engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes a section on touchscreen devices Proposes a new mathematical model on Iris Recognition Introduces a new technological system dealing with human Kansei Covers the latest achievements in biometric application features

  6. On Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Hadid, Abdenour; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate s...

  7. Biometric Authentication: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Rahul Ranjan; Farkhod Alisherov; Minkyu Choi

    2009-01-01

    Advances in the field of Information Technology also make Information Security an inseparable part of it. In order to deal with security, Authentication plays an important role. This paper presents a review on the biometric authentication techniques and some future possibilities in this field. In biometrics, a human being needs to be identified based on some characteristic physiological parameters. A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or de...

  8. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  9. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  10. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  11. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  12. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  13. An Overview of Multimodal Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Sanjekar; J. B. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Unimodal biometrics has several problems such as noisy data, intra class variation, inter class similarities, non universality and spoofing which cause this system less accurate and secure. To overcome these problems and to increase level of security multimodal biometrics is used. Multimodal biometrics makes the use of multiple source of information for personal authentication. Multimodal biometrics has becoming very popular now days since it is at the frontier of...

  14. PIN-based cancelable biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lacharme, Patrick; Plateaux, Aude

    2011-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems are more and more deployed in replacement of traditional authentication systems. Security of such systems is required in real- world applications and constitutes a major challenge in biometric field. An ef- ficient approach of this issue is realized by cancelable biometrics. However, the security of such biometric systems is often overestimated or based on restrictive as- sumptions. This paper presents and investigates a PIN-based variant for cancelable biometri...

  15. BIOMETRICS BASED USER AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Tiwari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics technologies are base for a plethora of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is measurement of biological characteristics – either physiological or behavioral – that verify the claimed identity of an individual. Physiological biometrics include fingerprints, iris recognition. voice verification, retina recognition, palm vein patterns, finger vein patterns, hand geometry and DNA But there arises a need for more robust systems in order to tackle the increasing incidents of security breaches and frauds. So there is always a need for fool proof technology that can provide security and safety to individuals and the transactions that the individuals make. Biometrics is increasingly used by organizations to verify identities, but coupled with quantum cryptography it offers a new range of security benefits with quantum cryptography where we form a key when we need it and then destroy it. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  16. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  17. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    positioned and managed technologically as risks through surveillance and storage of data, whereas citizens are managed as holders of access to privileges. The technique however of both circuits is using bodily coded information through fingerprints and emphasizes the general tendency of ‘securitization of......Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...... identifier is stored in order to link a specific body to specific information related to status (asylum seeker, entry banned, convicted etc.). Finger prints are also integrated in passports in the EU, but this biometric information is restricted to establish only the link between the body and the passport...

  18. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  19. Biometrics Security using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kant

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is at risk to a variety of attacks. These attacks are intended to either avoid thesecurity afforded by the system or to put off the normal functioning of the system. Various riskshave been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of cryptography greatly reducesthe risks in biometric systems as the hackers have to find both secret key and template. It isnotified that still fraudrant goes on to some extent. Here in this paper a new idea is presented tomake system more secure by use of steganography. Here the secret key (which is in the form ofpixel intensities will be merged in the picture itself while encoding, and at decoding end only theauthentic user will be allowed to decode.

  20. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  1. Modeling biometric systems using the general pareto distribution (GPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixin; Kiefer, Frederick; Schneider, John; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-03-01

    Statistical modeling of biometric systems at the score level is extremely important. It is the foundation of the performance assessment of biometric systems including determination of confidence intervals and test sample size for simulations, and performance prediction of real world systems. Statistical modeling of multimodal biometric systems allows the development of a methodology to integrate information from multiple biometric sources. We present a novel approach for estimating the marginal biometric matching score distributions by using extreme value theory in conjunction with non-parametric methods. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is based on the modeling of extreme events represented by data which has abnormally low or high values in the tails of the distributions. Our motivation stems from the observation that the tails of the biometric score distributions are often difficult to estimate using other methods due to lack of sufficient numbers of training samples. However, good estimates of the tails of biometric distributions are essential for defining the decision boundaries. We present EVT based novel procedures for fitting a score distribution curve. A general non-parametric method is used for fitting the majority part of the distribution curve, and a parametric EVT model - the general Pareto distribution - is used for fitting the tails of the curve. We also demonstrate the advantage of applying the EVT by experiments.

  2. Biometric Fingerprint Liveness Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Váňa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with biometric fingerprint liveness detection. A software-based liveness detection approach using neural network is proposed. To distinguish between live and fake samples, three image quality features extracted from one image are used. The algorithm is tested on LivDet database comprising real and fake images acquired with three sensors.

  3. Machine Learning for Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Soria, E.; Martin, J.D.; Magdalena, R.; Martinez, M.; Serrano, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics aims at reliable and robust identification of humans from their personal traits, mainly for security and authentication purposes, but also for identifying and tracking the users of smarter applications. Frequently considered modalities are fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice, but

  4. Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bigoš; J. Kuľka; Mantič, M.; M. Kopas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the ...

  5. Biometrics Human Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    P.RAVI TEJA#1 , R.R.V.S.S.ABHISHEK *2 , P.RAM MANINTH

    2013-01-01

    Most of the technologies now being developed for the purpose of automatic capture, measurement and identification of distinctive physiological that could safe our identity and therefore our property and privacy have come to be named as 'biometrics', because they implied statistical technique to observe the phenomena in biological. However, the followers of biometrics are much broader than just identity verification. Biometrics plays a essentials role in agriculture, environmental and life sci...

  6. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  7. BIOMETRICS IN ZOOTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Biometrics in zootechnics, by authors Prof.Dr.Sc.Dr.hc. Gordana Kralik, Prof.Dr. Zoran Škrtić and Assist.Prof.Dr. Zlata Kralik from the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, contains the following chapters: 1.Introduction overview, 2. Sample analysis, 3. Parameter estimation, 4. Hypothesis testing, 5. Variance analysis of experimental plans, 6. Regression and correlation, 7. Calculation of statistical parameters in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, 8. Scientific and professional work, Literature, Symbols and formulas, Material (tables and Index – glossary. The textbook is written for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek. As longtime university teachers, authors noticed the needfor publishing textbook Biometrics in zootechnics due to the lack of literature. The textbook can also be used by students from other agricultural universities and agronomists who want to acquire basic knowledge about the use of biometric methods in the zootechnics. The aim of the authors is to clarify the core issues of research workand biometric data processing to interested readers in a simple and acceptable way. Students and professionals who wish to be engaged in research work should be familiar with the planning and conduction of experiments, data collection and analysis, data processing, aswell as interpretation of results. From cooperation and contacts with the students, authors have realized the fact that many of them are not prone to mathematics. The textbook is written without mathematical “derivation” and theoretical interpretations and is easily accessible to students and experts to whom it is intended.

  8. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  9. Multimodal Biometric Person Authentication using Speech, Signature and Handwriting Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwarappa M.N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a multimodal biometric system using speech, signature and handwriting information. Unimodal biometric person authentication systems are initially developed for each of these biometric features. Methods are then explored for integrating them to obtain multimodal system. Apart from implementing state-of-the art systems, the major part of the work is on the new explorations at each level with the objective of improving performance and robustness. The latest research indicates multimodal person authentication system is more effective and more challenging. This work demonstrates that the fusion of multiple biometrics helps to minimize the system error rates. As a result, the identification performance is 100% and verification performances, False Acceptance Rate (FAR is 0%, and False Rejection Rate (FRR is 0%.

  10. Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

  11. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  12. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this fi

  13. Embedded System for ECG Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Comunication in Internationa Conference with Peer Review First International Congress on Cardiovasular Technologies - CARDIOTECHNIX, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2013 Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents an embedded system for individual recognition based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. The proposed system implements a real...

  14. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Electronic Vision Research Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  15. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  16. Obtaining imaginary weak values with a classical apparatus: Applications for the time and frequency domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedem, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA), Roslagstullsbacken 23, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-13

    Weak measurements with imaginary weak values are reexamined in light of recent experimental results. The shift of the meter, due to the imaginary part of the weak value, is derived via the probability of post-selection, which allows considering the meter as a distribution of a classical variable. The derivation results in a simple relation between the change in the distribution and its variance. By applying this relation to several experimental results, in which the meter involved the time and frequency domains, it is shown to be especially suitable for scenarios of that kind. The practical and conceptual implications of a measurement method, which is based on this relation, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a method to obtain imaginary weak values using classical meter. • A simple relation between the shift of the meter and its variance is derived. • Recent experimental results are analyzed using the new formalism. • The scheme is discussed as a new model for quantum measurement.

  17. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  18. Adaptive SVM fusion for robust multi-biometrics verification with missing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiuna; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jingyan; Li, Yongping

    2013-03-01

    Conventional multimodal biometrics systems usually do not account for missing data (missing modalities or incomplete score lists) that is commonly encountered in real applications. The presence of missing data in multimodal biometric systems can be inconvenient to the client, as the system will reject the submitted biometric data and request for another trial. In such cases, robust multimodal biometric verification is needed. In this paper, we present the criteria, fusion method and performance metrics of a robust multimodal biometrics verification system that verifies the client's identity at any condition of data missing. A novel adaptive SVM classification method is proposed for missing dimensional values, which can handle the missing data in multimodal biometrics. We show that robust multibiometrics imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional multibiometrics. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for robust verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  19. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  20. Obtaining S values for rectangular--solid tumors inside rectangular--solid host organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for obtaining S values between a tumor and its host organ for use with the MIRD formalism. It applies the point-source specific absorbed fractions for an infinite water medium, tabulated by Berger, to a rectangular solid of arbitrary dimensions which contains a rectangular tumor of arbitrary dimensions. Contributions from pairs of source and target volume elements are summed for the S values between the tumor and itself, between the remaining healthy host organ and itself, and between the tumor and the remaining healthy host organ, with the reciprocity theorem assumed for the last. This method labeled MTUMOR, is interfaced with the widely used MIRDOSE program which incorporates the MIRD formalism. An example is calculated

  1. The prognostic value of non-perfusion variables obtained during vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Navkaranbir S; Singh, Siddharth; Farag, Ayman; El-Hajj, Stephanie; Heo, Jack; Iskandrian, Ami E; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established diagnostic test that provides useful prognostic data in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. In more than half of the patients referred for stress testing, vasodilator stress is used in lieu of exercise. Unlike exercise, vasodilator stress does not provide information on exercise and functional capacity, heart rate recovery, and chronotropy, and ECG changes are less frequent. These non-perfusion data provide important prognostic and patient management information. Further, event rates in patients undergoing vasodilator MPI are higher than in those undergoing exercise MPI and even in those with normal images probably due to higher pretest risk. However, there are a number of non-perfusion variables that are obtained during vasodilator stress testing, which have prognostic relevance but their use has not been well emphasized. The purpose of this review is to summarize the prognostic values of these non-perfusion data obtained during vasodilator MPI. PMID:26940574

  2. Comparative and Analysis of Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometric as the science of recognizing an individual based on his or her physical or behavioral traits, it is beginning to gain acceptance as a legitimate method for determining an individual identity.Biometric have now been deployed in various commercial, civilian, and national security applications. Biometric described overview of various biometric techniques and the need to be addressed form making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security.

  3. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  4. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  5. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  6. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  7. Biometric Recognition for Pet Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Missing, swapping, false insurance claims and reallocation of pet animals (dog) are global problems throughout the world and research done to solve this problem is minimal. Traditional biometrics and non-biometrics methods have their own boundaries and they fail to provide competent level of security to pet animal (dog). The work on animal identification based on their phenotype appearance (coat patterns) has been an active research area in recent years and automatic face recognition for...

  8. Environmental Testing Methodology in Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Belén; Sánchez Reíllo, Raúl; Alonso Moreno, Raúl; Miguel Hurtado, Óscar

    2010-01-01

    Recently, biometrics is used in many security systems and these systems can be located in different environments. As many experts claim and previous works have demonstrated, environmental conditions influence biometric performance. Nevertheless, there is not a specific methodology for testing this influence at the moment. Due to it is essential to carry out this kind of evaluations, a new ISO standard was proposed for regularizing them. Such standard was accepted and it has to be specif...

  9. Palmprint and Face Multi-Modal Biometric Recognition Based on SDA-GSVD and Its Kernelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When extracting discriminative features from multimodal data, current methods rarely concern themselves with the data distribution. In this paper, we present an assumption that is consistent with the viewpoint of discrimination, that is, a person’s overall biometric data should be regarded as one class in the input space, and his different biometric data can form different Gaussians distributions, i.e., different subclasses. Hence, we propose a novel multimodal feature extraction and recognition approach based on subclass discriminant analysis (SDA. Specifically, one person’s different bio-data are treated as different subclasses of one class, and a transformed space is calculated, where the difference among subclasses belonging to different persons is maximized, and the difference within each subclass is minimized. Then, the obtained multimodal features are used for classification. Two solutions are presented to overcome the singularity problem encountered in calculation, which are using PCA preprocessing, and employing the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD technique, respectively. Further, we provide nonlinear extensions of SDA based multimodal feature extraction, that is, the feature fusion based on KPCA-SDA and KSDA-GSVD. In KPCA-SDA, we first apply Kernel PCA on each single modal before performing SDA. While in KSDA-GSVD, we directly perform Kernel SDA to fuse multimodal data by applying GSVD to avoid the singular problem. For simplicity two typical types of biometric data are considered in this paper, i.e., palmprint data and face data. Compared with several representative multimodal biometrics recognition methods, experimental results show that our approaches outperform related multimodal recognition methods and KSDA-GSVD achieves the best recognition performance.

  10. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  11. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible watermarking maintains high quality of biometric data. This paper proposes Rotational Replacement of LSB as a reversible watermarking scheme for biometric images. PSNR is the regular method used for quality measurement of biometric data. In this paper we also show that SSIM Index is a better alternate for effective quality assessment for reversible watermarked biometric data by comparing with the well known reversible watermarking scheme using Difference Expansion.

  12. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  13. Proposed Multi-Modal Palm Veins-Face Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bahgat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication technology identifies people by their unique biological information. An account holder’s body characteristics or behaviors are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Since veins are internal to the human body, its information is hard to duplicate. Compared with a finger or the back of a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of differentiating features for personal identification. However, a single biometric is not sufficient to meet the variety of requirements, including matching performance imposed by several large-scale authentication systems. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of the drawbacks encountered by uni-modal biometric systems by consolidating the evidence presented by multiple biometric traits/sources. This paper proposes a multi-modal authentication technique based on Palm Veins as a personal identifying factor, augmented by face features to increase the accuracy of security recognition. The obtained results point at an increased authentication accuracy.

  14. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  15. Imputing Human Descriptions in Semantic Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel; Nixon, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Human identification at a distance has received significant interest due to the ever increasing surveillance infrastructure. Biometrics such as face and gait offer a suitable physical attribute to uniquely identify people from a distance. When linking this with human perception, these biometrics suffer from the semantic gap which is the difference between how people and how biometrics represent and describe humans. Semantic biometrics bridges this gap, allowing conversions between gait biomet...

  16. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    OpenAIRE

    Ola M. Aly; Tarek A. Mahmoud; Gouda I. Salama; Hoda M. Onsi

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted u...

  17. Biometrics as security technology: Expansion amidst fallibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technology has been afforded a central role in the security architecture that Western governments have forged since the events of 9/11 2001. With biometrics the body becomes the anchor of identification. In a security architecture centred on identification of persons of interest and determination of their status as friend or foe, biometrics has come to be praised for its supposedly exceptional capacity to identify reliably. This report situates the use of biometrics as a security te...

  18. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics that are not sufficient...

  19. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment. PMID:20703610

  20. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  1. ASSORTED DIRECTIONS OF AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Prasad Sah*, Purushottam Das, Himanshu Pant, Ankur Singh Bist

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics refers to a way of authentication in the world of computer security using various metrics linked to human characteristics. It is used for access control and recognition of individuals. This paper provides the working of Biometrics System, description of its various features and various biometrics methods used in digital world of computer.  

  2. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  3. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  4. Biometrics - Evaluation of Current Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahidi, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Information security has always been a topic of concern in the world as an emphasis on new techniques to secure the identity of a legitimate user is regarded as top priority. To counter such an issue, we have a traditional way of authentication factors “what you have” and “what you know” in the form of smart cards or passwords respectively. But biometrics is based on the factor “who are you” by analyzing human physical or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics has always been an efficient way...

  5. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics. PMID:15751854

  6. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bursztyn; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Eran Shalom; Shlomo Engelberg; Ellie Hoffman; Yair Adar; Meir Nitzan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by...

  7. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  8. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure a...... positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...

  9. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication. PMID:25836061

  10. Method and system for normalizing biometric variations to authenticate users from a public database and that ensures individual biometric data privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A password system comprises a set of codewords spaced apart from one another by a Hamming distance (HD) that exceeds twice the variability that can be projected for a series of biometric measurements for a particular individual and that is less than the HD that can be encountered between two individuals. To enroll an individual, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with a random codeword to produce a reference value. To verify the individual later, a biometric measurement is taken and exclusive-ORed with the reference value to reproduce the original random codeword or its approximation. If the reproduced value is not a codeword, the nearest codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword to it is found, and the bits that were corrected to produce the codeword are also toggled in the biometric measurement taken and the codeword generated during enrollment. The correction scheme can be implemented by any conventional error correction code such as Reed-Muller code R(m,n). In the implementation using a hand geometry device an R(2,5) code has been used in this invention. Such codeword and biometric measurement can then be used to see if the individual is an authorized user. Conventional Diffie-Hellman public key encryption schemes and hashing procedures can then be used to secure the communications lines carrying the biometric information and to secure the database of authorized users

  11. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  12. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  13. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  14. Analysis of the obtained statistical measurement values of seismical blasting tremors

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Dambov, Ilija; Delipetrov, Todor

    2013-01-01

    The paper provided some measurements carried out by seismic shocks caused when carrying out primary mining and appropriate parameters in terms of safety of the surrounding buildings. In this paper one of the goals is to analyze and define the criteria for assessment of shocks in terms of appropriate application for methods of mining, safety distances, especially for different mining conditions. With statistical analyses of the values we can determine the criteria for soil oscillation law d...

  15. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bursztyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by less than 3 mmHg. In nine examinations the SBP value measured by PPG was higher than that measured by sphygmomanometry by 5 mmHg or more. In only one examination the former was lower by 5 mmHg or more than the latter. The appearance of either the PPG pulses or the Korotkoff sounds assures that the artery under the cuff is open during systolic peak pressure. In the nine examinations mentioned above the PPG pulses were observed while Korotkoff sounds were not detected, despite the open artery during systole. In these examinations, the PPG-based technique was more reliable than sphygmomanometry. The high signal-to-noise ratio of measured PPG pulses indicates that automatic measurement of the SBP by means of automatic detection of the PPG signals is feasible.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Return Period in China Based on b-value Obtained by Using a New Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xueshen; Qin Changyuan; Fu Zhengxiang

    2001-01-01

    The seismicity in the territory of China, a seismotectonically complicated region, has been examined by using some complete samples of the earthquakes occurred during the last two centuries (1800 ~ 1999). The b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation was estimated by using those data samples. Taking into account the fact that the b-value is spatially more stable than the a value, the b values were calculated at the nodes of a normal grid superposing on the whole area studied and their distribution were examined. The results show that the b values increase smoothly from 0.4 to 0.93. Furthermore, keeping the b values obtained fixed, the a value distribution was also examined. In order to display more detailed information about the seismicity, smaller cell surface ( 10000 km2 ) for the calculation of the a value has chosen. The mean return period for different magnitudes was also calculated for each small cell.

  17. IRIS Biometric Recognition System Employing Canny Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsu C. Kovoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics has become important in security applica tions. In comparison with many other biometric features, iris recognition has very high recognition accuracy because it depends on iris which is located in a place that still stable throughout human life and the probability to find two identical iris's is close to zero. The identifi cation system consists of several stages including segmentation stage which is the most serious and cr itical one. The current segmentation methods still have limitation in localizing the iri s due to circular shape consideration of the pupil. In this research, Daugman method is done to investigate the segmentation techniques. Eyelid detection is another step that has been incl uded in this study as a part of segmentation stage to localize the iris accurately and remove un wanted area that might be included. The obtained iris region is encoded using haar wavelets to construct the iris code, which contains the most discriminating feature in the iris pattern . Hamming distance is used for comparison of iris templates in the recognition stage. The datase t which is used for the study is UBIRIS database. A comparative study of different edge det ector operator is performed. It is observed that canny operator is best suited to extract most of the edges to generate the iris code for comparison. Recognition rate of 89% and rejection r ate of 95% is achieved.

  18. Using an MST based Value for ε in DBSCAN Algorithm for Obtaining Better Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Chowdhury

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an objective function based on minimal spanning tree (MST of data points is proposed for clustering and a density-based clustering technique has been used in an attempt to optimize the specified objective function in order to detect the “natural grouping” present in a given data set. A threshold based on MST of data points of each cluster thus found is used to remove noise (if any present in the data from the final clustering. A comparison of the experimental results obtained by DBSCAN (Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise algorithm and the proposed algorithm has also been incorporated. It is observed that our proposed algorithm performs better than DBSCAN algorithm. Several experiments on synthetic data set in R^2and R^3show the utility of the proposed method. The proposed method has also found to provide good results for two real life data sets considered for experimentation. Note thatK-means is one of the most popular methods adopted to solve the clustering problem. This algorithm uses an objective function that is based on minimization of squared error criteria. Note that it may not always provide the “natural grouping” though it is useful in many applications.

  19. Curvelet and Ridgelet-based Multimodal Biometric Recognition System using Weighted Similarity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric security artifacts for establishing the identity of a person with high confidence have evoked enormous interest in security and access control applications for the past few years. Biometric systems based solely on unimodal biometrics often suffer from problems such as noise, intra-class variations and spoof attacks. This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric recognition system by integrating three biometric traits namely iris, fingerprint and face using weighted similarity approach. In this work, the multi-resolution features are extracted independently from query images using curvelet and ridgelet transforms, and are then compared to the enrolled templates stored in the database containing features of each biometric trait. The final decision is made by normalizing the feature vectors, assigning different weights to the modalities and fusing the computed scores using score combination techniques. This system is tested with the public unimodal databases such as CASIA–Iris-V3-Interval, FVC2004, ORL and self-built multimodal databases. Experimental results obtained shows that the designed system achieves an excellent recognition rate of 98.75 per cent and 100 per cent for the public and self-built databases respectively and provides ultra high security than unimodal biometric systems.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 106-114. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3469

  20. Privacy Protection of Data Using Chaos and Biometric Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem with traditional cryptography authentication is that the keys that are very long, difficult to memorize and can easily be attacked. Although it provides sample security but these algorithms are secure only when the key is secure. So instead of using conventional cryptographic approach for protecting or authenticating user data, biometric security techniques are used. In this paper the concept of bio-chaotic algorithm is proposed to generate a biometric chaotic -keys to encrypt and decrypt the data in cipher block chaining mode. The biometric template is first decomposed using discrete wavelet transform. The horizontal and vertical coefficients are processed to extract the features which generate the bio-chaotic keys on mixing with chaotic logistic function. The proposed bio-chaotic key based block encryption system provides two levels of security, which can be controlled through the random secret key and the biometric template as well. The experimental results of randomness, histogram distribution, mean value, correlation coefficient and entropy validate the high encryption performance of the proposed bio-chaotic block encryption algorithm

  1. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  2. A review on Advancements in Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometric recognition technology relies upon the physiological characteristic of an individual, offering positive identification that is difficult to counterfeit. Examples of physiological biometric features include height, weight, body odor, the shape of the hands, vein patterns, retina or iris, face, fingerprints etc. examples of behavioral biometrics are voice pattern, signature, keystroke sequences, gait etc. Biometric systems have evolved significantly over the past years from single-sample verification matchers to a wide range of multi-sample fully automated person recognition systems. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction frauds increases, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent.

  3. Sparse Representation Fusion of Fingerprint, Iris and Palmprint Biometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Anu H Nair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal Biometric System using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized. But the computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. In this paper multimodal biometric image such as fingerprint, palmprint, and iris are extracted individually and are fused together using a sparse fusion mechanism. A multimodal sparse representation method is proposed, which interprets the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. The images are pre-processed for feature extraction. In this process Sobel, canny, Prewitt edge detection methods were applied. The image quality was measured using PSNR, NAE, and NCC metrics. Based on the results obtained, Sobel edge detection was used for feature extraction. Extracted features were subjected to sparse representation for the fusion of different modalities. The fused template can be used for watermarking and person identification application. CASIA database is chosen for the biometric images.

  4. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  5. Ear Biometrics Based on Geometrical Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Choraś, Micha

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics identification methods proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. In fact, only biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. The future of biometrics will surely lead to systems based on image analysis as the data acquisition is very simple and requires only cameras, scanners or sensors. More importantly such methods could be passive, which means that t...

  6. Secure Biometrics: Concepts, Authentication Architectures and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Shantanu; Wang, Ye; Draper, Stark C.; Ishwar, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    BIOMETRICS are an important and widely used class of methods for identity verification and access control. Biometrics are attractive because they are inherent properties of an individual. They need not be remembered like passwords, and are not easily lost or forged like identifying documents. At the same time, bio- metrics are fundamentally noisy and irreplaceable. There are always slight variations among the measurements of a given biometric, and, unlike passwords or identification numbers, ...

  7. Privacy Preserving using Primary Biometrics and Softbiometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Jain; Sukhdev Singh; Anish Soni

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, unimodal biometric systems often face significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intra class variability, data quality, pressure, dirt, dryness and other factors. Multimodal biometric authentication systems aim to fuse two or more physical or behavioral traits to provide optimal Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) Vs Imposter Acceptance Rate (IAR) curve i.e. Receiver‘s Operating Characteristic (ROC). Soft biometrics can be used to improve the performance of tradition...

  8. Biometric Security System based on Fingerprint Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Habib, Ijlal Shahrukh Ateeq, Kamran Hameed

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face r...

  9. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  10. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  11. SURVEY ON MULTISPECTRAL BIOMETRIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHESWARI.M, ANCY.S, DR. G.R.SURESH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic theory says that hertzian waves provide stronger penetrability into objects. Multi-spectrum illuminator can penetrate tissues at different depths and form images of both surface skin textures and hypodemia. This multi-spectrum sensor provides greater acquisition time and better quality images than any other unimodal sensors. There are many biometric features available like hand, finger, iris, palm etc which are used for various authentication and identification purposes. These features can be captured using various technologies like optical, ultra sound, multispectral and many more. Among all multispectral images have proven for efficient results in both recognition and identification systems. In this paper we will make a study of various multispectral biometric modalities and their acquisition techniques.

  12. A Framework for the Adoption of Biometric ATM Authentication in the Kenyan Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Onywoki, Benson M.; Opiyo, Elisha T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ATMs has become fundamental in the banking industry owing to the values transacted using these systems and their 24/7 usage. Although several researchers have studied the role of biometrics in security applications for financial institutions, no systematic empirical research has been applied to studying the role of organizational characteristics and contextual factors in the Kenyan financial sector. This study sought to develop a framework for the adoption of biometric ATMs in the ...

  13. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  14. Biometric Security - Fingerprint Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Emanuela Vacarus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application, FingerTouch that provides a secure method of storing usernames and passwords for different types of accounts by using biometric fingerprint authentication. Recent developments in the smartphone area regarding fingerprint authentication on mobile devices is discussed. The purpose of the application and the technologies that were used in the development are described. The features, architecture and implementation of the application are analyzed.

  15. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  16. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  17. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  18. Behavioural Biometrics for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 56-56. ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Biometric Systems: Evolution, Applications and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes

  20. BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS: EVOLUTION, APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes.

  1. Biometric systems technology, design and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Wayman, James; Maltoni, Davide

    2005-01-01

    A reference book for anyone involved in the design, management or implementation of biometric systems, and provides all the information needed to a build reliable system. It focuses on the four most widely used types of biometric technology - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition.

  2. Optimization of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izquierdo Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an acoustic biometric system that captures 16 acoustic images of a person for 4 frequencies and 4 positions, a study was carried out to improve the performance of the system. On a first stage, an analysis to determine which images provide more information to the system was carried out showing that a set of 12 images allows the system to obtain results that are equivalent to using all of the 16 images. Finally, optimization techniques were used to obtain the set of weights associated with each acoustic image that maximizes the performance of the biometric system. These results improve significantly the performance of the preliminary system, while reducing the time of acquisition and computational burden, since the number of acoustic images was reduced.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  4. An Adaptive Multimodal Biometrics System using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola M. Aly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems which fuse information from a number of biometrics, are gaining more attentions lately because they are able to overcome limitations in unimodal biometric systems. These systems are suited for high security applications. Most of the proposed multibiometric systems offer one level of security. In this paper a new approach for adaptive combination of multiple biometrics has been proposed to ensure multiple levels of security. The score level fusion rule is adapted using (PSO Particle Swarm Optimization to ensure the desired system performance corresponding to the desired level of security. The experimental results prove that the proposed multimodal biometric system is appropriate for applications that require different levels of security.

  5. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  6. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  7. ECG-based biometric identification: some modern approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Astapov A.A.; Davydov D.V.; Egorov A.I.; Drozdov D.V.; Glukhovskij E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The uniqueness of electrical activity of every human heart prompts us to use the ECG as a biometric parameter in various security and authentication systems as it is easy and cheap to extract the signal and difficult to fake it or obtain nonconsensually. At the moment various approaches to researching a possibility of human identification by ECG are used. Identification mode includes the following stages: data collection, procession, feature extraction, classification. Researchers use differe...

  8. Viscoplastic-dynamic analyses of small-scale fracture tests to obtain crack arrest toughness values for PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable predictions of crack arrest at the high upper shelf toughness conditions involved in postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events require procedures beyond those utilized in conventional fracture mechanics treatments. To develop such a procedure, viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element analyses, viscoplastic material characterization testing, and small-scale crack propagation and arrest experimentation are being combines in this research. The approach couples SwRI's viscoplastic-dynamic fracture mechanics finite element code VISCRK with experiments using duplex 4340/A533B steel compact specimens. The experiments are simulated by VISCRK computations employing the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitutive relation and the nonlinear fracture mechanics parameter T. The goal is to develop temperature-dependent crack arrest toughness values for A533B steel. While only room temperature KIa values have been obtained so far, these have been found to agree closely with those obtained from wide plate tests. (author)

  9. Valorization of biodiesel derived glycerol as a carbon source to obtain added-value metabolites: Focus on polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The amount of glycerol derived from the biodiesel industry is exponentially increasing. The valorization of glycerol has acquired attention and resources with an obvious economic and environmental interest. Glycerol has the potential to improve the profitability of biodiesel in a biorefinery scenario. Added-value metabolites obtained from glycerol-based fermentations are the target of multiple research studies, primarily chemicals and biopolymers. Pigments and polyunsaturated fatty acids are exceptional examples as they have market presence as nutraceuticals. Most of the studies reviewed have been based on microalgae cultures. Depending on the strain and the engineering aspects of such cultures the final yield suffers notable variations. This is an emerging field which shows great potential from the perspective of a byproduct usage and the increasing yields (value) obtained from the bioprocess. PMID:22261015

  10. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  11. CAR ACCESS USING MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin LUPU

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of multimodal biometrics in order to identify or to verify a person that wants to start the engine of a car. First of all, a fingerprint sensor is posted on the car’s door, one on the steering wheel, a camera for iris recognition on the car's main mirror, and finally a microphone for voice recognition. There are two possibilities: if the person is identified as the car owner or a known user, then he/she can take control over the car; if it’s an intruder, the car ca...

  12. Palm Biometrics: Testimony of Security

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy*, Abhilasha

    2014-01-01

    Now a days, whenever we think of developing a system or software, the first thing that comes in one’s mind is Security. We always think whether the given system is secure enough to use or not? This question arises because Security is no more secure word in today’s world because of unlawful persons. So, to provide assertion there comes an epoch i.e. BIOMETRICS. This field has gained wide popularity all over the universe, as it recognizes our Biological or Physiological characte...

  13. Multimodal Biometric Systems - Study to Improve Accuracy and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sasidhar, K; Ramakrishna, Kolikipogu; KailasaRao, K

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data of human body, extracting a feature set from the acquired data, and comparing this set against to the template set in the database. Experimental studies show that Unimodal biometric systems had many disadvantages regarding performance and accuracy. Multimodal biometric systems perform better than unimodal biometric systems and are popular even more complex also. We examine the accuracy and performance of multimodal biometric authentication systems using state of the art Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) products. Here we discuss fingerprint and face biometric systems, decision and fusion techniques used in these systems. We also discuss their advantage over unimodal biometric systems.

  14. Rotation, Scaling and Translation Analysis of Biometric Signature Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Chadha, Aman; Roja, M Mani

    2011-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems that make use of signature verification methods often render optimum performance only under limited and restricted conditions. Such methods utilize several training samples so as to achieve high accuracy. Moreover, several constraints are imposed on the end-user so that the system may work optimally, and as expected. For example, the user is made to sign within a small box, in order to limit their signature to a predefined set of dimensions, thus eliminating scaling. Moreover, the angular rotation with respect to the referenced signature that will be inadvertently introduced as human error, hampers performance of biometric signature verification systems. To eliminate this, traditionally, a user is asked to sign exactly on top of a reference line. In this paper, we propose a robust system that optimizes the signature obtained from the user for a large range of variation in Rotation-Scaling-Translation (RST) and resolves these error parameters in the user signature according to ...

  15. Comparisons of equivalent dose values obtained with different protocols using a lacustrine sediment sample from Xuchang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of seven protocols for equivalent dose (De) determination using the conventional optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal and the recuperation OSL (ReOSL) signal were made on a sample that is representative of a series of samples taken from a lacustrine sedimentary sequence at the archaeological site of Xuchang Man. Fine-grained quartz (4-11 μm) was extracted and the OSL signal was found to be dominated by the fast component. The De values obtained using different protocols varied from 222 ± 4 Gy to 368 ± 8 Gy. The dose response curves were all fitted with a single saturating exponential function except in the case of the multiple-aliquot additive dose protocol with sensitivity correction for the recuperated OSL signal (ReMAAD). The characteristic saturation dose (D0) values obtained with the conventional OSL signal varied between 107 ± 6 Gy and 154 ± 7 Gy and showed no relationship with De values. The ReMAAD dose response curve was linear, and yielded an equivalent dose of 269 ± 12 Gy. The ReMAAD protocol may potentially serve as a means of dating relatively older samples provided the bleaching at the time of deposition was complete.

  16. Soft biometrics for subject identification using clothing attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Emad Sami; Nixon, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, soft biometrics has emerged as a novel attribute-based person description for identification. It is likely that soft biometrics can be deployed where other biometrics cannot, and have stronger invariance properties than vision-based biometrics, such as invariance to illumination and contrast. Previously, a variety of bodily soft biometrics has been used for identifying people. Describing a person by their clothing properties is a natural task performed by people. As yet, clothing de...

  17. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.PON SANGEETHA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possible to borrow or steel or forgotten the physical or behavioral characteristics. In this paper, we are concentrating on Iris as a biometric component which is somewhat better than other biometrics in terms of stability, uniqueness, accuracy, fast and non-invasive. Usually an iris technique works by capturing & storing the biometric information & then comparing the scanned iris biometric with what is stored in the database [7]. There are so many Iris recognition techniques have been developed so far. Here we presented the survey about those techniques and an outline for a proposed Iris Recognition System which uses the concept of Neural Network and Fuzzy logic.

  18. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%. (paper)

  19. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%.

  20. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  1. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  2. Imaging systems and methods for obtaining and using biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Kennedy, Mike O [Richland, WA

    2010-11-30

    Disclosed herein are exemplary embodiments of imaging systems and methods of using such systems. In one exemplary embodiment, one or more direct images of the body of a clothed subject are received, and a motion signature is determined from the one or more images. In this embodiment, the one or more images show movement of the body of the subject over time, and the motion signature is associated with the movement of the subject's body. In certain implementations, the subject can be identified based at least in part on the motion signature. Imaging systems for performing any of the disclosed methods are also disclosed herein. Furthermore, the disclosed imaging, rendering, and analysis methods can be implemented, at least in part, as one or more computer-readable media comprising computer-executable instructions for causing a computer to perform the respective methods.

  3. Mean F0 values obtained through standard phrase pronunciation compared with values obtained from the normal work environment: a study on teacher and child voices performed in a preschool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Fredric; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Sjöholm, Jonas; Waye, Kerstin Persson

    2010-05-01

    Mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) values are often used in research on vocal load. In this study, we examine how the mean F(0) differs when evaluated through pronouncing a standard phrase as compared to the mean F(0) obtained in a real work/play environment. We also examine how the F(0) values change throughout the day. The study was performed in a preschool, nine adult female preschool teachers and 11 children participated. The participants wore a digital recorder equipped with an accelerometer, which was attached to the neck. In the study, the participant first pronounced a standard phrase in a controlled environment; thereafter, the voice was recorded in the environment where both children and adults normally reside throughout the day, denoted by the work/play environment. For each participant, the procedure was repeated four times throughout the day. Analyses showed that the F(0) values of the children's and adult's voices were significantly higher when recorded in the work/play environment as compared to the controlled environment. The average difference was 36 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. Previous studies have shown an increase of F(0) over the day for teachers. In this study, an increase between morning and afternoon values was found amounting to 8 Hz for adults and 24 Hz for children. For the child population, this increase was statistically significant. However, the total changes over the day revealed a somewhat more complex scheme, with an increase of F(0) in the morning, a decrease during lunch, and finally an increase in the afternoon. This pattern was verified statistically for the joint child-adult population. PMID:19660906

  4. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  5. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  6. Autopoietic Theory as a Framework for Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autopoietic theory which represents a framework for describing complex non-linear and especially living systems is described in a context of biometric characteristics. It is argued that any living system by performing an internal process of reproducing its structural components yields physical biometric characteristics. Likewise any living system when structurally coupling to another (eventually allopoietic system yields a behavioral or psychological characteristic of the living system. It is shown that any system that can be considered as autopoietic can potentially be measured, authenticated and/or identified using adequate biometric methods, and thus biometrics is applicable to any autopoietic system: living beings, groups of living beings, social systems, organizations as well as information systems. In the end implications of such a conceptualization are discussed as well as possible applications.

  7. Recent research results in iris biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen; Baker, Sarah; Ring, Sarah; Bowyer, Kevin W.; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2009-05-01

    Many security applications require accurate identification of people, and research has shown that iris biometrics can be a powerful identification tool. However, in order for iris biometrics to be used on larger populations, error rates in the iris biometrics algorithms must be as low as possible. Furthermore, these algorithms need to be tested in a number of different environments and configurations. In order to facilitate such testing, we have collected more than 100,000 iris images for use in iris biometrics research. Using this data, we have developed a number of techniques for improving recognition rates. These techniques include fragile bit masking, signal-level fusion of iris images, and detecting local distortions in iris texture. Additionally, we have shown that large degrees of dilation and long lapses of time between image acquisitions negatively impact performance.

  8. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  9. BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION: A MODERN ERA FOR SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAY DHIR,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of systems require some reliable recognition system that gives the identity of a person. There are many applications that need the identity of a person to operate such as ATM, Laptops, Access to buildings, cellular Phones & some sensitive security locations. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an ndividual’s identity based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card or “what she remembers” (e.g., a password. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the field of biometrics and summarize some of its advantages, disadvantages, strengths, limitations, and related privacy concerns.

  10. Efficient Biometric Iris Recognition Using Hough Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kriti Sharma*1,; Himanshu Monga2

    2014-01-01

    The demand for an accurate biometric system that provides reliable identification and verification of an individual has increased over the years. A biometric system that provides reliable and accurate identification of an individual is an iris recognition system. Iris recognition systems capture an image of an individual's eye; the iris in the image is then segmented and normalized for feature extraction process. The performance of iris recognition systems highly depends on se...

  11. IRIS Biometric Recognition System Employing Canny Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Binsu C. Kovoor; Supriya M.H.; K Poulose Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics has become important in security applica tions. In comparison with many other biometric features, iris recognition has very high recognition accuracy because it depends on iris which is located in a place that still stable throughout human life and the probability to find two identical iris's is close to zero. The identifi cation system consists of several stages including segmentation stage which is the most serious and ...

  12. Performance Enhancement Of Multimodal Biometrics Using Cryptosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Muskaan,; Tarun Gulati

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal biometrics means the unification of two or more uni modal biometrics so as to make the system more reliable and secure. Such systems promise better security. This study is a blend of iris and fingerprint recognition technique and their fusion at feature level. Our work comprises of two main sections: feature extraction of both modalities and fusing them before matching and finally application of an encryption technique to enhance the security of the fused template.

  13. Enhanced ATM Security System using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Selina Oko; Jane Oruh

    2012-01-01

    Because biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there hasbeen a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. In this paper the existing security of the ATM (Automated Teller Machine) system has been improved by integrating the fingerprint of the user into the banks database as to further authenticate it. This was achieved by modelling and building an ATM simulator that will mimic a typical ATM system. ...

  14. Performance Enhancement Of Multimodal Biometrics Using Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskaan,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics means the unification of two or more uni modal biometrics so as to make the system more reliable and secure. Such systems promise better security. This study is a blend of iris and fingerprint recognition technique and their fusion at feature level. Our work comprises of two main sections: feature extraction of both modalities and fusing them before matching and finally application of an encryption technique to enhance the security of the fused template.

  15. Soft computing in biometrics : a pragmatic appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Jayaram; Fleyeh, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing spurt in digital crimes such as image manipulation, image tampering, signature forgery, image forgery, illegal transaction, etc. have hard pressed the demand to combat these forms of criminal activities. In this direction, biometrics - the computer-based validation of a persons' identity is becoming more and more essential particularly for high security systems. The essence of biometrics is the measurement of person’s physiological or behavioral characteristics, it enables...

  16. A Survey of Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pin Shen Teh; Andrew Beng Jin Teoh; Shigang Yue

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an...

  17. Behavioural biometrics using electricity load profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bicego, Manuele; Recchia, F.; Farinelli, Alessandro; Ramchurn, Sarvapali; GROSSO, E.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling behavioural biometric patterns is a key issue for modern user centric applications, aimed at better monitoring users’ activities, understanding their habits and detecting their identity. Following this trend, this paper investigates whether the electrical energy consumption of a user can be a distinctive behavioural biometric trait. In particular we analyse daily and weekly load profiles showing that they are closely related to the identity of the users. Hence, we believe that this ...

  18. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis; Dimitrios Hatzinakos; Foteini Agrafioti; Yongjin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact loca...

  19. Debunking some myths about biometric authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems are presented as the best way to reach high security levels in controlling access to IT systems or sensitive infrastructures. But several issues are often not taken properly into account. In order for the implementation of those systems to be successful, the hidden risks and the related liabilities have to be carefully analyzed before biometrics can be used on a large scale for sensitive applications.

  20. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  1. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  2. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  3. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  4. Global Patterns of Ecosystem C Flux in Forests: a Synthesis of Biometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Fang, J.; Yang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the key issues in current global change analyses. During the past several decades, a number of individual studies have been conducted to examine key parameters of carbon balance in forest ecosystem. These individual measurements offer the possibility to be synthesized to clarify the strength, distribution and mechanisms of carbon sequestration in world's forests. However, most previous syntheses have been derived from eddy-covariance measurements. To the best of our knowledge, key parameters of forest carbon balance obtained from biometric measurements have not yet been synthesized. In this study, we established a global dataset of forest carbon balance by collecting the data from publications which reported the biometric measurements of carbon pool and flux. This dataset contains carbon pool and flux measurements from 243 sites, 304 site/years, and 81 literatures. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Across all sites, the average Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) in global forest ecosystem was 2.47 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was 6.66 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, and Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was 4.52 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The order of NEP values was Subtropical > Temperate broadleaves > Temperate conifer > Tropical > Boreal. NPP, GPP, Rh, and Re decreased with increases in latitude. However, NEP exhibited an initial increase and then declined along the latitudinal gradient. The variation in NEP was large in the middle-latitudes. The NPP, GPP, Rh, and Re had positive relationships with mean annual temperature, and increased firstly and declined afterward with mean annual precipitation. NEP peaked in moderate climate areas. Stand age was also very important in determining forest carbon budget. The forests in middle age classes had the highest NEP, while old forests were only a small carbon sink. (2) Our results show a significant correlation between productivity and respiration in forest

  5. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P.Balakumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according to the physiological features or behavioral features to be recognized without human involvement. This leads to the world wide usage of biometrics to secure the system. The various biometrics used in securing system are fingerprint, iris, retina, etc. The construction of cryptographic key from biometrics is used generally to secure the system. The efficiency and the flexibility of the cryptographic make it suitable for securing purpose. In some times, biometrics can be stolen; this makes the attackers to access the system for any time. This problem is diminished in this paper by using two biometrics features. The biometrics used in this paper is fingerprint and iris. These two features are combined with the help of fusion algorithm. From the combined features, cryptographic key is generated. The experimental result shows that the proposed techniques results in better security than the existing techniques.

  6. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  7. Pitfalls of hypothesis tests and model selection on bootstrap samples: Causes and consequences in biometrical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitza, Silke; Binder, Harald; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The bootstrap method has become a widely used tool applied in diverse areas where results based on asymptotic theory are scarce. It can be applied, for example, for assessing the variance of a statistic, a quantile of interest or for significance testing by resampling from the null hypothesis. Recently, some approaches have been proposed in the biometrical field where hypothesis testing or model selection is performed on a bootstrap sample as if it were the original sample. P-values computed from bootstrap samples have been used, for example, in the statistics and bioinformatics literature for ranking genes with respect to their differential expression, for estimating the variability of p-values and for model stability investigations. Procedures which make use of bootstrapped information criteria are often applied in model stability investigations and model averaging approaches as well as when estimating the error of model selection procedures which involve tuning parameters. From the literature, however, there is evidence that p-values and model selection criteria evaluated on bootstrap data sets do not represent what would be obtained on the original data or new data drawn from the overall population. We explain the reasons for this and, through the use of a real data set and simulations, we assess the practical impact on procedures relevant to biometrical applications in cases where it has not yet been studied. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of subsampling (i.e., drawing from a data set without replacement) as a potential alternative solution to the bootstrap for these procedures. PMID:26372408

  8. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used. PMID:26737619

  9. Biometrics and Banks in Finland from a Privacy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rekola, Maija Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the interaction between privacy, biometrics and banks. The purpose is to by researching biometrics in the light of privacy and data protection to recognize the possible need to amend the legislation.

  10. Review of modern biometric user authentication and their development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z. V.; Sokolov, S. S.; Nyrkov, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the possibility of using biometric information technologies in management. Made a brief overview of access control and time attendance. Analyzed biometrics and identification system user. Recommendations on the use of various systems depending on the specific tasks.

  11. Biometrics in support of special forces medical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on ways in which the ODA can leverage biometrics in medical operations to improve their security, improve relations with indigenous personnel, and contribute to the larger theater biometrics program. PMID:23536454

  12. BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipko E. P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Test of cardiorespiratory synchronism is offered as a way of biometric identification of the person. The way represents registration, transformation and fixing on electronic carriers of parameters physiological is intimate - respiratory synchronism, such as the minimal and maximal borders of a range of synchronization in synchronous cardiorespiratory cycles in one minute, width of a range of synchronization in synchronous cardiorespiratory cycles in minute, duration of development of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the minimal border of a range from the beginning of test before steady formation of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the minimal border and duration of development of cardiorespiratory synchronism from the beginning of test before steady formation of cardiorespiratory synchronism on the maximal border of synchronization in intimate cycles at objects of identification as the schedules displaying electrophysiological characteristics of work of heart and respiratory activity of the person at the moment of reception of cardiorespiratory synchronism. Further, the received schedules compare to available schedules and judge that, they belong to the same person whether or not. Advantages of this way are high reliability of identification, simplicity and speed of performance, exception of trainings in advance

  13. A Study on Existing Gait Biometrics Approaches and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Katiyar; Vinay Kumar Pathak; K. V. Arya

    2013-01-01

    Applications of biometrics system are increasingly day by day as these methods provide more reliable and accurate way of identification and verification. Psychological studies indicate that people have a small but statistically significant ability to recognize the gait of individuals that they know. Gait biometrics is one of the recent biometrics systems which works on the shape and gesture of an individual walking style and comes under the category of behavioral biometric characteristics. Th...

  14. Four Machine Learning Algorithms for Biometrics Fusion: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Damousis, I. G.; Argyropoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the efficiency of four machine learning algorithms for the fusion of several biometrics modalities to create a multimodal biometrics security system. The algorithms examined are Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Expert Systems (FESs), and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The fusion of biometrics leads to security systems that exhibit higher recognition rates and lower false alarms compared to unimodal biometric security systems. Supervised lear...

  15. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Shriram D. Raut; Vikas T. Humbe

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm pri...

  16. Two-Factor Cancelable Biometrics Authenticator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Han Pang; Andrew T. B. J; David N. C. L

    2007-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication system offers advantages of providing high reliability and accuracy.However,the contemporary authentication system is impuissance to compromise.If a biometrics data is compromised, it cannot be replaced and rendered unusable.In this paper, a cancelable biometrics-based authenticator is proposed to solve this irrevocability issue.The proposed approach is a two-factor authentication system, which requires both of the random data and facial feature in order to access the system.In this system, tokenized pseudo-random data is coupled with moment-based facial feature via inner product algorithm.The output of the product is then discretized to generate a set of private binary code, coined as 2factor-Hashing code, which is acted as verification key.If this biometrics-based verification key is compromised, a new one can be issued by replacing a different set of random number via token replacement.Then, the compromised one is rendered completely useless.This feature offers an extra protection layer against biometrics fabrication since the verification code is replaceable.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides zero Equal Error Rate in which there is a clear separation in between the genuine and the imposter distribution populations.

  17. Biometric system for user authentication based on Hough transform and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dubey Dheeraj Agrawal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of a person is the major concern in this era for security purposes. In biometric systems Signature is one of the behavioural features used for the authentication purpose. In this paper we work on the offline signature collected through different persons. Morphological operations are applied on these signature images with Hough transform to determine regular shape which assists in authentication process. The values extracted from this Hough space is used in the feed forward neural network which is trained using back-propagation algorithm. After the different training stages efficiency found above more than 95%. Application of this system will be in the security concerned fields, in the defence security, biometric authentication, as biometric computer protection or as

  18. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    , and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time to...... the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based...

  19. Body shape-based biometric recognition using millimeter wave images

    OpenAIRE

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. González-Sosa, E. ; Vera-Rodríguez, R. ; Fierrez, J. ; Ortega-García, J. "Body shape-based biometric recognition using millime...

  20. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint c

  1. A Hybrid Model for Biometric Authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface based on Angular Geometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Usha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based personal recognition is an efficient method for identifying a person. Recently, hand based biometric has become popular due to its various advantages such as high verification accuracy and high user acceptability. This paper proposes a hybrid model using an emerging hand based biometric trait known as Finger Back Knuckle Surface. This model is based on angular geometric analysis which is implemented on two different samples of Finger Back Knuckle Surface such as Finger Bend Knuckle Surface and Finger Intact Knuckle Surface for the extraction of knuckle feature information. The obtained feature information from both the surfaces is fused using feature information level fusion technique to authenticate the individuals. Experiments were conducted using newly created database for both Bend Knuckle and Intact Knuckle Surface. The results were promising in terms of accuracy, speed and computational complexity.

  2. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  3. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  4. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions. PMID:24298216

  5. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  6. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Morling, Niels; Borsting, Claus; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs) and the......The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively. The...

  7. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Balanoiu, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system.

  8. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  9. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  10. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  11. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  12. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.N.Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample and by creating a physical spoof.Susceptibility of the database can have a disastrous impact on the whole authentication system. The potential disclosure of digitally stored biometric data raises serious concerns about privacy and data protection. Therefore, we propose a method which would integrate conventional cryptography techniques with biometrics. In this work, we present a biometric crypto system which encrypts the biometric template and the encryption is done by generating pseudo random numbers, based on non-linear dynamics.

  13. Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balakumar; DR.R.VENKATESAN

    2011-01-01

    Exact and automatic recognition and authentication of users are a essential difficulty in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. What is required is a system that could authenticate that the person is actually the person. The biometrics is improving the capability to recognize the persons. The usage of biometrics system permits the recognition of a living person according...

  14. A novel multisensoric system recording and analyzing human biometric features for biometric and biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The recording and analyzing human motor control movements are fundamental parts of both behavioral biometrics and biomedical research studies. The dynamics of human motor functions of fingers, hand and wrist movements can be studied while handwriting, drawing or hand gestures. The major difficulties are the acquisition of high quality data and the characterization of the acquired data accurately and efficiently. A multisensoric Biometric Smart Pen BiSP device has been developed which has the ...

  15. Biometric approach in selecting plants for phytoaccumulation of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Mirjana; Pezo, Lato; Lačnjevac, Časlav; Mihajlović, Marija; Petrović, Jelena; Milojković, Jelena; Stanojević, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper promotes the biometric classification system of plant cultivars, unique characteristics, in terms of the uranium (U) uptake, primarily in the function of the application for phytoremediation. It is known that the degree of adoption of U depends on the plant species and its morphological and physiological properties, but it is less known what impact have plants cultivars, sorts, and hybrids. Therefore, we investigated the U adoption in four cultivars of three plant species (corn, sunflower and soy bean). "Vegetation experiments were carried out in a plastic-house filled with soil (0.66 mgU) and with tailing (15.3 mgU kg(-1)) from closed uranium mine Gabrovnica-Kalna southeast of Serbia". Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for assessing the effect of different substrates cultivars, plant species and plant organs (root or shoot) on U uptake. Obtained results showed that a difference in U uptake by three investigated plant species depends not only of the type of substrate types and plant organs but also of their cultivars. Biometrics techniques provide a good opportunity for a better understanding the behavior of plants and obtaining much more useful information from the original data. PMID:26606604

  16. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Chouhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process. The performance of iris recognition system highly depends on edge detection. The Canny Edge Detector is one of the most commonly used image processing tools, detecting edges in a very robust manner. For instance, even an effective feature extraction method would not be able to obtain useful information from an iris image that is not segmented properly. This paper presents a straightforward approach for segmenting the iris patterns. The used method determines an automated global threshold and the pupil center. Experiments are performed using iris images obtained from CASIA database (Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Matlab application for its easy and efficient tools in image manipulation.

  17. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program: Jianwen Fang

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  18. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm;

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...

  19. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vandana S Inamdar; Priti P Rege

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the robustness of the watermarking algorithm, a dual watermarking method is proposed to prove copyright ownership. Visible watermarking is important for protecting online resources from unauthorized reproduction. However robust, visible watermarks are vulnerable to illegal removal and other common signal processing and geometric attacks. Multiple invisible watermarks can enhance the protection of the visibly watermarked image. When the ownership of tampered image is in question, the invisible watermark can be extracted to provide appropriate ownership information. We have proposed dual watermarking scheme with multiple biometric watermarks in which it embeds speech and face biometric traits of owner invisibly and lastly offline signature is overlaid translucently on image. Before embedding, speech is compressed using Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) and Gabor face is created from face biometric trait. All three watermarks Gabor face, LPC coefficients and offline signature are the biometric characteristics of the owner and hence they are highly related with copyright holder. The proposed scheme is robust enough, Gabor face and LPC coefficients can be extracted from the signature marked image or even from the tampered image from which signature is removed illegally or legally. As multiple watermarks are embedded at least one watermark survives under different attacks. It can find application for joint ownership or to address single ownership multiple times.

  20. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  1. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kitis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy determined for various Thermoluminescence materials; the experimental values are then tested using the criteria of acceptance showing the goodness of the method here presented in this research.

  2. Reliability Criteria for Testing the Goodness of the Activation Energy Values Obtained by the Peak Shape Methods in Thermoluminescence Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Kitis, G.; Furetta, C.; E. Cruz-Zaragoza

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give some expressions able to give a criteria of acceptance for the activation energy values determined through the so called peak shape methods. The expressions are derived for both first and second order kinetics. Furthermore, using approximations concerning the peak temperature parameters, the reliability expressions are simplified for getting a more quickly criteria of acceptance. A table lists several data, from literature, concerning the activation energy det...

  3. Biometric identification devices -- Laboratory testing vs. real life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over fifteen years Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in laboratory testing of biometric identification devices. The key concept of biometric identification devices is the ability for the system to identify some unique aspect of the individual rather than some object a person may be carrying or some password they are required to know. Tests were conducted to verify manufacturer's performance claims, to determine strengths/weaknesses of devices, and to determine devices that meet the US Department of energy's needs. However, during recent field installation, significantly different performance was observed than was predicted by laboratory tests. Although most people using the device believed it operated adequately, the performance observed was over an order of magnitude worse than predicted. The search for reasons behind this gap between the predicted and the actual performance has revealed many possible contributing factors. As engineers, the most valuable lesson to be learned from this experience is the value of scientists and engineers with (1) common sense, (2) knowledge of human behavior, (3) the ability to observe the real world, and (4) the capability to realize the significant differences between controlled experiments and actual installations

  4. BIOMETRIC SECURITY: ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN DALAM SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI TERKOMPUTERISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josua Tarigan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges will face when develop biometric technology as control in accounting information system are standardization, hybrid technology uses, life cycle management. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Adanya keinginan setiap organisasi untuk mencari metode pengamanan authentication yang lebih untuk akses user, dijawab dengan adanya teknologi biometric security yang mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar bagi organisasi. Implementasi teknologi biometric security cukup luas dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yaitu sebagai pengendalian pada physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications dan covert surveillance. Dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi biometric, ada tiga tahapan yang harus dilakukan organisasi, yakni strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan dan documentation. Tantangan yang akan dihadapi dalam mengembangkan teknologi biometric sebagai pengendalian dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yakni standarisasi, aplikasi teknologi hybrid dan manajemen siklus hidup pada biometric security. Kata kunci: authentication, akses user dan biometric security.

  5. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  6. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease: Potential role of molecular biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amosy; E; M’Koma

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is not possible in 30% of patients. For decades, scientists have worked to find a solution to improve diagnostic accuracy for IBD, encompassing Crohn’s colitis and ulcerative colitis. Evaluating protein patterns in surgical pathology colectomy specimens of colonic mucosal and submucosal compartments, individually, has potential for diagnostic medicine by identifying integrally independent, phenotype-specific cellular and molecular characteristics. Mass spectrometry(MS) and imaging(I) MS are analytical technologies that directly measure molecular species in clinical specimens, contributing to the in-depth understanding of biological molecules. The biometric-system complexity and functional diversity is well suited to proteomic and diagnostic studies. The direct analysis of cells and tissues by Matrix-Assisted-Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) MS/IMS has relevant medical diagnostic potential. MALDI-MS/IMS detection generates molecular signatures obtained from specific cell types within tissue sections. Herein discussed is a perspective on the use of MALDI-MS/IMS and bioinformatics technologies for detection of molecular-biometric patterns and identification of differentiating proteins. I also discuss a perspective on the global challenge of transferring technologies to clinical laboratories dealing with IBD issues. The significance of serologic-immunometric advances is also discussed.

  7. Rotation, Scaling and Translation Analysis of Biometric Signature Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mani Roja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication systems that make use of signature verification methods often render optimum performance only under limited and restricted conditions. Such methods utilize several training samples so as to achieve high accuracy. Moreover, several constraints are imposed on the end-user so that the system may work optimally, and as expected. For example, the user is made to sign within a small box, in order to limit their signature to a predefined set of dimensions, thus eliminating scaling. Moreover, the angular rotation with respect to the referenced signature that will be inadvertently introduced as human error, hampers performance of biometric signature verification systems. To eliminate this, traditionally, a user is asked to sign exactly on top of a reference line. In this paper, we propose a robust system that optimizes the signature obtained from the user for a large range of variation in Rotation-Scaling-Translation (RST and resolves these error parameters in the user signature according to the reference signature stored in the database

  8. Diet-meat and diet-milk transfer of /sup 137/Cs in cattle: Values of dynamic model and values obtained in field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenti, F.; Calamosca, M.; Pagano, P.; Cipone, M.

    1992-12-31

    In conditions of environmental radiocontamination, the vegetable-animal products-man food chain becomes particularly critical for the determination of population equivalent doses. Such doses may be predicted using contaminant transfer models such as NUCRAC-SAI, DOSDIM, NRPB, PATHWAY and others. These are principally founded on dynamic compartmental systems and they have in common the use of first degree kinetics, which lead to the formulation of a system of differential equations, the solution of which shows the trend of radionuclide concentration in time, in the various environmental and animal matrices. Efficacy verification of these analytical instruments is performed at its best in real situations of radioactive spill in the environment, such as the incident which occurred in Italy in 1986. In the latter occasion, a modulus was applied which belongs to a more complex model described below, and which uses the daily dietary intake of /sup l37/Cs, to predict the meat and milk contamination variation in time, in the adult bovine. To verify the efficacy of this model, calculated values were compared against those measured directly by radiometry of meat and milk samples of the same bovines.

  9. A Novel Biometric Technique Benchmark Analysis For Selection Of Best Biometric Modality And Template Generation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanabasappa Raikoti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A biometric security is a technique by means of which digital contents are protected by acryptographic key generated from the biometric features of a person like Retina, Iris, Fingerprint,Face, Voice and so on. Normally the digital contents like documents are protected by acryptographic key generated from a unique password. The process in irreversible, i.e the key canbe generated from the password but not the vice versa. Passwords are relatively easy to hack asmost of the users keep their personal information like date of birth as password and alsopassword length has a limit as human beings cannot remember a password of significantly largelength. Hence guessing the password of a user, whose significant information is available, iseasier. Therefore off late lot of emphasis has been given to biometric features. Biometric featuresof no two people are same. For example the finger prints or the face of any two people differ.Hence if a template (alphanumeric or binary representation of features from a biometric data isselected for the key generation than cracking them for accessing information becomessignificantly difficult. But as with every advantage comes certain limitations also. The keys are nottime invariant. Templates tends to change based on the data acquisition, or with time. Forexample the finger prints or palm prints changes with ages. Iris, retina and face features changeswith change in light intensity during the acquisition phase. Fingerprint features changes withchange in the orientation of the finger while scanning. In a classic authentication problem, suchvariability’s can be easily dealt with by keeping a threshold for the acceptance of the features.Such acceptance threshold is not applicable for the case of biometric templates. Even slightest ofthe variability in the templates changes the generated key, therefore causing a high falserejection rate. Hence in this work we analyze the most accepted biometric features andtechniques for

  10. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  11. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  12. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  13. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  14. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  15. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  16. Stromatoporoid biometrics using image analysis software: A first order approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-01

    Strommetric is a new image analysis computer program that performs morphometric measurements of stromatoporoid sponges. The program measures 15 features of skeletal elements (pillars and laminae) visible in both longitudinal and transverse thin sections. The software is implemented in C++, using the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) library. The image analysis system distinguishes skeletal elements from sparry calcite using Otsu's method for image thresholding. More than 150 photos of thin sections were used as a test set, from which 36,159 measurements were obtained. The software provided about one hundred times more data than the current method applied until now. The data obtained are reproducible, even if the work is repeated by different workers. Thus the method makes the biometric studies of stromatoporoids objective.

  17. Benchmarking Fast Data Platforms for the Aadhaar Biometric Database

    OpenAIRE

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Shukla, Anshu; Verma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Aadhaar is the world's largest biometric database with a billion records, being compiled as an identity platform to deliver social services to residents of India.Aadhaar processes streams of biometric data as residents are enrolled and updated.Besides 1 million enrolments and updates per day,up to 100 million daily biometric authentications are expected during delivery of various public services.These form critical Big Data applications,with large volumes and high velocity of data.

  18. Bioelectrical Signals as Emerging Biometrics: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Narain Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Amit Kumar Ray

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of bioelectrical signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG) for biometric applications. Studies show that the impulses of cardiac rhythm and electrical activity of the brain recorded in ECG and EEG, respectively; have unique features among individuals, therefore they can be suggested to be used as biometrics for identity verification. The favourable characteristics to use the ECG or EEG signals as biometric include univ...

  19. Heartbeat Biometrics for Remote Authentication Using Sensor Embedded Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Biometric verification has been included in remote user authentication schemes recently. In this paper, we have proposed the use of heartbeat biometrics for its liveness property as a possible defense against spoof attacks in remote authentication. Sensor embedded mobile computing devices such as smart phones could be used to capture biometric signals and to replace the use of traditional smart cards. For the remote authentication, we have adopted the state-of-the-art scheme. We have describe...

  20. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Singla; Ankit Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc.) are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print ca...

  1. Fusing Face and Periocular biometrics using Canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmiprabha, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face and periocular biometric fusion at feature level using canonical correlation analysis. Face recognition itself has limitations such as illumination, pose, expression, occlusion etc. Also, periocular biometrics has spectacles, head angle, hair and expression as its limitations. Unimodal biometrics cannot surmount all these limitations. The recognition accuracy can be increased by fusing dual information (face and periocular) from a single source (face image) us...

  2. Biometrics & [and] Security: Combining Fingerprints, Smart Cards and Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of this brand new century, and especially since the 2001 Sept 11 events in the U.S, several biometric technologies are considered mature enough to be a new tool for security. Generally associated to a personal device for privacy protection, biometric references are stored in secured electronic devices such as smart cards, and systems are using cryptographic tools to communicate with the smart card and securely exchange biometric da...

  3. An Analysis of Random Projections in Cancelable Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit, Devansh; Nwogu, Ifeoma; Srivastava, Gaurav; Govindaraju, Venu

    2014-01-01

    With increasing concerns about security, the need for highly secure physical biometrics-based authentication systems utilizing \\emph{cancelable biometric} technologies is on the rise. Because the problem of cancelable template generation deals with the trade-off between template security and matching performance, many state-of-the-art algorithms successful in generating high quality cancelable biometrics all have random projection as one of their early processing steps. This paper therefore p...

  4. Security of biometric systems: revocability and private life protection

    OpenAIRE

    Belguechi, Rima Ouidad

    2015-01-01

    In reference to information security, biometrics concerns the use of morphological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity of an user. Recently, discussions on security of biometric systems have emerged. The storage of biometric data arises serious privacy and security issues : exposure of sensitive information, possibility of raw data reconstruction, possibility of spoof attack, secondary use of information (function creep or cross-matching) or the impossibility to revo...

  5. Behavioural Biometrics for Multi-factor Authentication in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 19-24. ISSN 1801-5603 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * anatomical-physiological biometrics * behavioural biometrics * multi-factor authentication * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Schlenker_en.pdf

  6. Biometrics in forensic science: challenges, lessons and new technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint cards) and individualization of offender from traces found on crime-scenes (e.g. fingermarks, earmarks, bitemarks, DNA). From sir Francis Galton, to the introduction of AFIS systems in the scientifi...

  7. Soft Biometrics for Keystroke Dynamics: Profiling Individuals While Typing Passwords

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Bours, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new profiling approach of individuals based on soft biometrics for keystroke dynamics. Soft biometric traits are unique representation of a person, which can be in a form of physical, behavioural or biological human characteristics that differentiate between him/her into a group people (e.g. gender, age, height, colour, race etc.). Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality to recognise how a person types on a keyboard. In this paper, we consider the followin...

  8. Information Fusion in Biometrics: A Case Study in Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang,Xiaoyan; Fu,Desheng

    2005-01-01

    Biometrics is an emerging topic in the field of signal processing. Multibiometric systems can improve the performance of identification by integrating information presented by single or multiple biometric indicators and a lot of researchers are working on it. As fingerprints is one of the most studied and popular biometrics, researches that have approached the challenges in fingerprints from an information fusion perspective is provided in this paper.

  9. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of providing a robust non-invasive authentication service for mobile users in a smart environment. We base our work on the persistent authentication model (PAISE), which relies on available sensors to track principals from the location where they authenticate, e.......g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users in the...... environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...

  10. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  11. Analysis of Human Electrocardiogram for Biometric Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Agrafioti, Foteini; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2007-12-01

    Security concerns increase as the technology for falsification advances. There are strong evidences that a difficult to falsify biometric trait, the human heartbeat, can be used for identity recognition. Existing solutions for biometric recognition from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are based on temporal and amplitude distances between detected fiducial points. Such methods rely heavily on the accuracy of fiducial detection, which is still an open problem due to the difficulty in exact localization of wave boundaries. This paper presents a systematic analysis for human identification from ECG data. A fiducial-detection-based framework that incorporates analytic and appearance attributes is first introduced. The appearance-based approach needs detection of one fiducial point only. Further, to completely relax the detection of fiducial points, a new approach based on autocorrelation (AC) in conjunction with discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. Experimentation demonstrates that the AC/DCT method produces comparable recognition accuracy with the fiducial-detection-based approach.

  12. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  13. IRIS BIOMETRIC SYSTEM USING A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Sarin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition Systems are ocular- based biometric devices used primarily for security reasons. The complexity and the randomness of the Iris, amongst various other factors, ensure that this biometric system is inarguably an exact and reliable method of identification. The algorithm is responsible for automatic localization and segmentation of boundaries using circular Hough Transform, noise reductions, image enhancement and feature extraction across numerous distinct images present in the database. This paper delves into the various kinds of techniques required to approximate the pupillary and limbic boundaries of the enrolled iris image, captured using a suitable image acquisition device and perform feature extraction on the normalized iris image with the help of Haar Wavelets to encode the input data into a binary string format. These techniques were validated using images from the CASIA database, and various other procedures were also tried and tested.

  14. Face Recognition (Patterns Matching & Bio-Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Dhirubhai Hirapara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies are investing a considerable amount of resources into improving security systems as result of recent terrorist events that dangerously exposed flaws and weaknesses in today’s safety mechanisms. Badge or password-based authentication procedures are too easy to hack. Biometrics represents a valid alternative but they suffer of drawbacks as well. Iris scanning, for example, is very reliable but too intrusive; fingerprints are socially accepted, but not applicable to non-con sentient people. On the other hand, face recognition represents a good compromise between what’s socially acceptable and what’s reliable, even when operating under controlled conditions. In last decade, many algorithms based on linear/nonlinear methods, neural networks, wavelets, etc. have been proposed. Nevertheless, Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002 shown that most of these approaches encountered problems in outdoor conditions. This lowered their reliability compared to state of the art biometrics.

  15. Biometric Identification System by Lip Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhan M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication techniques are more consistent and efficient than conventional authentication techniques and can be used in monitoring, transaction authentication, information retrieval, access control, forensics, etc. Human-lip shape detection is an important criterion for many automated modern system in present day. Like computerized speech reading, face recognition etc. system can work more precisely if human-lip shape can detect accurately. There are many processes for detecting human-lip. This paper presents an approach for biometric identification system based on lips shapes recognition in low resolution images of human faces. The presented technique uses edge detection for detecting the region of a human-lip shape, we called it lip contour and colour filtering for noise reduction and enhancement of the desired recognition of lips. Also discusses advantages of this method, its use, and future development.

  16. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouzali, Sanaa; Lafkih, Maryam; Abdul, Wadood; Mikram, Mounia; El Haziti, Mohammed; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2016-01-01

    With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biomet...

  17. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila; Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo; Javier Guerra-Casanova; Alberto de-Santos-Sierra

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight ...

  18. Building Cloud-based Biometric Services

    OpenAIRE

    Žganec Gros, Jerneja; Bule, Jernej; Štruc, Vitomir; PEER, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years the amount of biometric data being at the disposal of various agencies and authentication service providers is expected to grow significantly. Such quantities of data require not only enormous amounts of storage but unprecedented processing power as well. To be able to face this future challenges more and more people are looking towards cloud computing, which can address these challenges quite effectively with its seemingly unlimited storage capacity, ra...

  19. Pattern recognition, machine intelligence and biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Patrick S P

    2012-01-01

    ""Pattern Recognition, Machine Intelligence and Biometrics"" covers the most recent developments in Pattern Recognition and its applications, using artificial intelligence technologies within an increasingly critical field. It covers topics such as: image analysis and fingerprint recognition; facial expressions and emotions; handwriting and signatures; iris recognition; hand-palm gestures; and multimodal based research. The applications span many fields, from engineering, scientific studies and experiments, to biomedical and diagnostic applications, to personal identification and homeland secu

  20. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. Radha; Karthikeyan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and in...

  1. Evaluating the Security of Handwriting Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Lucas; Lopresti, Daniel; Monrose, Fabian

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing interest in biometric security has resulted in much work on systems that exploit the individuality of human behavior. In this paper, we study the use of handwritten passphrases in the context of authentication or cryptographic key generation. We demonstrate that accurate generative models for a targeted user's handwriting can be developed based only on captured static (offline) samples combined with pen-stroke dynamics learned from general population statistics. Our work suggests that...

  2. Biometric Methods for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 37-43. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biometrics * data security * EHR (electronic health record) * fingerprints * hand geometry * face recognition * iris recognition * retinal scanning * keystroke dynamics * multi-factor authentification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Schlenker_en.pdf

  3. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  4. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  5. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  6. Secure access control to hidden data by biometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellaro, M.; Carli, M.; Egiazarian, K.; Neri, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a novel authentications system combining biometric cryptosystems with digital watermarking is presented. One of the main vulnerabilities of the existing data hiding systems is the public knowledge of the embedding domain. We propose the use of biometric data, minutiae fingerprint set, for generating the encryption key needed to decompose an image in the Tree structured Haar transform. The uniqueness of the biometrics key together with other, embedded, biometric information guarantee the authentication of the user. Experimental tests show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. Biometric technology authentication, biocryptography, and cloud-based architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the

  8. Password Hardened Biometric: A Complete Solution of Online Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In present epoch, secure online access to enterprises resources is very important for any organization. To protect valuable data become one of the big challenge for today's business as enterprise customers or clients involved in business-to-customer (B2C and business-to-business (B2B e-commerce need to feel that their transactions are secured from system hackers. Biometric technology provides a solution to this problem in enterprise network security. In this article we enhance the security of online transaction using secure and unique biometric template. The uniqueness of our process is that we store biometric template and password together in encrypted form both without the fusion of score level and decision level, which leads a successful way to combine multiple technologies, different from earlier methods. Password hardened biometric system helps to generate many different secure biometric templates for the same biometric system. It also generates unique biometric templates for multiple biometric systems from the same biometric trait.

  9. Reviewing biometrics vulnerabilities with Identity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathimath Sabena

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics Identity Management (BIdM is a newly rising and developing discipline which could be expressed as the study of verification and validation methods for the next generation. The two key terms enclosed in the title of this paper are– “Biometrics Vulnerabilities” and “Identity Management”. Every one of us has an identity. By utilizing this identity along with distinctive characteristics we distinguish ourselves from one another. By cross referencing the data from both sources, a guideline that would adapt the best practices to maintain the sequence of BIdM and identity theft integrity was designed. Based on the findings a guideline is proposed to the experts and end-users to use. A walk through with the BIdM consultant was done to identify areas of improvement to fine tune the artifact. For proper identity management this guideline can be used as the processes in data collection and data maintenance procedures are included. The procedures include extracting the data from data collection for proofs, data matching and handling the data in an appropriate way. The guideline will have its proper BIdM techniques by having the best practices of tackling its vulnerabilities. Databases having biometric data are themselves a threat to privacy. While distinguishing gaps in BIdM and discovering new approaches to tackle the vulnerabilities, issues and protect such databases and increasing the awareness programs, this research can be further extended.

  10. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  11. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  12. Method of estimating risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine used in medical field, involves computing different curvature values to obtain value representative of degree of irregularity of curvature of spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    NOVELTY - The curvature (L1-L4) of spine at two neighboring vertebrae is calculated. The different curvature values are computed to obtain a value representative of the degree of irregularity in curvature of spine. The risk of future fracture in vertebrae of spine is estimated using the degree of...

  13. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Ford, John C.; Olsen, Kathryn M.; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with \\text{TR}≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm-2, pixel size  =  1.98× 1.98 mm2, slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm-2 from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm-2 were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p>0.05 , paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets—0-1000 50-1000 100-1000 500-1000 and 250 and 800 μs μm-2 were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise simulation

  14. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  15. Biometrical analysis in radiobiological works of N.V. Luchnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the famous Russian geneticist and biophysics N.V. Luchnik into biometrical analysis of radiobiological data is discussed. His works on radiation mortality of mice (2) and the process of post-radiation repair of chromosome aberrations (10) are thoroughly observed. The conclusion of necessity to develop biometrical analysis as separate part of biometry is made

  16. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  17. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damousis, Ioannis G.; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos

    2008-12-01

    Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO) (2007) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  18. An Authentication Protocol Based on Combined RFID-Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benmohammed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and biometric technologies saw fast evolutions during the last years and which are used in several applications, such as access control. Among important characteristics in the RFID tags, we mention the limitation of resources (memory, energy, …. Our work focuses on the design of a RFID authentication protocol which uses biometric data and which confirms the secrecy, the authentication and the privacy. Our protocol requires a PRNG (Pseud-Random Number Generator, a robust hash function and Biometric hash function. The Biometric hash function is used to optimize and to protect biometric data. For Security analysis of protocol proposed, we will use AVISPA and SPAN tools to verify the authentication and the secrecy.

  19. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO (2007 is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  20. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition is still a very difficult task in real-world scenarios wherein unforeseen changes in degradations factors like noise, occlusion, blurriness and illumination can drastically affect the extracted features from the biometric signals. Very recently Haar-like rectangular features...... which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal...... and it is not clear whether all of these features are required for the actual recognition or not. This is exactly what we are dealing with in this paper: How can an initial set of Haar-like rectangular features, that have been used for biometric recognition, be reduced to a set of most influential features...

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF FEATURE DETECTION OPERATORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF IRIS BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Binsu C. Kovoor; Supriya M.H.; K Poulose Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems area.Its robustness and unobtrusiveness, as opposed tomost of the currently deployed systems, make it a good candidate to replace most of thesecurity systems around. By making use of the distinctiveness of iris patterns, iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person.Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algor...

  2. Biometric Iris Recognition Based on Hybrid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab M. Ali Alheeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is one of the important biometric recognition systems that identify people based on theireyes and iris. In this paper the iris recognition algorithm is implemented via histogram equalization andwavelet techniques. In this paper the iris recognition approach is implemented via many steps, these stepsare concentrated on image capturing, enhancement and identification. Different types of edge detectionmechanisms; Canny scheme, Prewitt scheme, Roberts scheme and Sobel scheme are used to detect irisboundaries in the eyes digital image. The implemented system gives adequate results via different types ofiris images.

  3. Multimodal Biometrics Recognition by Dimensionality Diminution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric system utilizes two or more character modalities, e.g., face, ear, and fingerprint, Signature, plamprint to improve the recognition accuracy of conventional unimodal methods. We propose a new dimensionality reduction method called Dimension Diminish Projection (DDP in this paper. DDP can not only preserve local information by capturing the intra-modal geometry, but also extract between-class relevant structures for classification effectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other algorithms including PCA, LDA and MFA.

  4. Quantitative biometric phenotype analysis in mouse lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Matthew A.; Andley, Usha P.

    2010-01-01

    The disrupted morphology of lenses in mouse models for cataracts precludes accurate in vitro assessment of lens growth by weight. To overcome this limitation, we developed morphometric methods to assess defects in eye lens growth and shape in mice expressing the αA-crystallin R49C (αA-R49C) mutation. Our morphometric methods determine quantitative shape and dry weight of the whole lens from histological sections of the lens. This method was then used to quantitatively compare the biometric gr...

  5. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  6. Fast computation of the performance evaluation of biometric systems: application to multibiometric

    CERN Document Server

    Giot, Romain; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The performance evaluation of biometric systems is a crucial step when designing and evaluating such systems. The evaluation process uses the Equal Error Rate (EER) metric proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/IEC). The EER metric is a powerful metric which allows easily comparing and evaluating biometric systems. However, the computation time of the EER is, most of the time, very intensive. In this paper, we propose a fast method which computes an approximated value of the EER. We illustrate the benefit of the proposed method on two applications: the computing of non parametric confidence intervals and the use of genetic algorithms to compute the parameters of fusion functions. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed EER approximation method in term of computing time, and the interest of its use to reduce the learning of parameters with genetic algorithms. The proposed method opens new perspectives for the development of secure multibiometrics systems by speedi...

  7. ORNL Biometric Eye Model for Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Iris recognition has been proven to be an accurate and reliable biometric. However, the recognition of non-ideal iris images such as off angle images is still an unsolved problem. We propose a new biometric targeted eye model and a method to reconstruct the off-axis eye to its frontal view allowing for recognition using existing methods and algorithms. This allows for existing enterprise level algorithms and approaches to be largely unmodified by using our work as a pre-processor to improve performance. In addition, we describe the `Limbus effect' and its importance for an accurate segmentation of off-axis irides. Our method uses an anatomically accurate human eye model and ray-tracing techniques to compute a transformation function, which reconstructs the iris to its frontal, non-refracted state. Then, the same eye model is used to render a frontal view of the reconstructed iris. The proposed method is fully described and results from synthetic data are shown to establish an upper limit on performance improvement and establish the importance of the proposed approach over traditional linear elliptical unwrapping methods. Our results with synthetic data demonstrate the ability to perform an accurate iris recognition with an image taken as much as 70 degrees off-axis.

  8. Chaotic Neural Network for Biometric Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushan Ahmadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric pattern recognition emerged as one of the predominant research directions in modern security systems. It plays a crucial role in authentication of both real-world and virtual reality entities to allow system to make an informed decision on granting access privileges or providing specialized services. The major issues tackled by the researchers are arising from the ever-growing demands on precision and performance of security systems and at the same time increasing complexity of data and/or behavioral patterns to be recognized. In this paper, we propose to deal with both issues by introducing the new approach to biometric pattern recognition, based on chaotic neural network (CNN. The proposed method allows learning the complex data patterns easily while concentrating on the most important for correct authentication features and employs a unique method to train different classifiers based on each feature set. The aggregation result depicts the final decision over the recognized identity. In order to train accurate set of classifiers, the subspace clustering method has been used to overcome the problem of high dimensionality of the feature space. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.

  9. Methodology of the determination of the uncertainties by using the biometric device the broadway 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Roman; Talandova, Hana; Adamek, Milan

    2016-06-01

    The biometric identification by face is among one of the most widely used methods of biometric identification. Due to it provides a faster and more accurate identification; it was implemented into area of security 3D face reader by Broadway manufacturer was used to measure. It is equipped with the 3D camera system, which uses the method of structured light scanning and saves the template into the 3D model of face. The obtained data were evaluated by software Turnstile Enrolment Application (TEA). The measurements were used 3D face reader the Broadway 3D. First, the person was scanned and stored in the database. Thereafter person has already been compared with the stored template in the database for each method. Finally, a measure of reliability was evaluated for the Broadway 3D face reader.

  10. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram D. Raut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm prints uses ridge patterns to identify an individual. Palm print recognition system is most promising to recognize an individual based on statistical properties of palm print image. It is rich in its features: principal lines, wrinkles, ridges, singular points and minutiae points. This paper proposes a Biometric Palm print lines extraction using image processing morphological operation. The proposed work discusses the significance; since both the palm print and hand shape images are proposed to extract from the single hand image acquired from a sensor. The basic statistical properties can be computed and are useful for biometric recognition of individual. This result and analysis will result into Total Success Rate (TSR of experiment is 100%. This paper discusses proposed work for biometric recognition of individual by using basic statistical properties of palm print image. The experiment is carried out by using MATLAB software image processing toolbox.

  11. Mathematical Expressions for Estimation of Errors in the Formulas which are used to obtaining intermediate values of Biological Activity in QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizam Uddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR attempts to find consistent relationships between the variations in the values of molecular properties and the biological activity for a series of compounds. These physicochemical descriptors, which include parameters to account for hydrophobicity, topology, electronic properties, and steric effects, are determined empirically or, more recently, by computational methods. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR generally take the form of a linear equation where the biological activity is dependent variable. Biological activity is depended on the parameters and the coefficients. Parameters are computed for each molecule in the series. Coefficients are calculated by fitting variations in the parameters. Intermediate values of the biological activity are obtained by some formulas. These formulas are worked in tabulated values of biological activity in Quantitative structure-activity relationships. These formulas are worked in the conditions and all conditions are based on the position of the point lies in the table. Derived formulas using Newton's method for interpolation are worked in conditions which are depending on the point lies. If the point lies in the upper half then used Newton's forward interpolation formula. If the point lies in the lower half then we used Newton's backward interpolation formula. And when the interval is not equally spaced then used Newton's divide difference interpolation formula. When the tabulated values of the function are not equidistant then used Lagrangian polynomial. Mathematical expressions are derived for estimation of errors using intermediate values and formulas.

  12. A Novel Robust Digital Watermarking Technique Using Compressive Sensing for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Thanki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are those which utilize or are capability of utilizing characteristics of human for enrolment, verification or authentication. Biometrics based authentication system that use physiological and/or behavioral traits likes fingerprint, face, signature, palm print and voice are accept and use by many organization now days. But these biometric authentication systems are vulnerable against different attacks when biometric data transfer from one check point to other check point. In this paper, by combined compressive sensing theory and the correlation approach of White Gaussian Noise based robust digital watermarking technique is proposed for biometric embedding. The technique is divided into five steps: generation of linear measurement from watermark biometric data, embedding linear measurement into another biometric data, extraction of secure biometric from linear measurement, compressive sensing recovery process of biometric data and recognition of reconstructed biometric data with enrol biometric data for user authenticity. The proposed technique is providing more security and more payload capacity compare to traditional watermarking technique in spatial domain. The proposed technique is evaluated based on parameter like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Similarity Factor between reconstruct biometric data and enrolled biometric data. This proposed technique is increased overall data storage capacity in term secure enrolled biometric data of biometric authentication system

  13. Comparison of T-score values obtained by ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžiavdić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic disease of bones. Early detection of pathological loss of bone mineral density represents the first step in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of osteoporosis. This study was aimed at establishing the correlation of T-score values obtained by ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on the sample of 569 female patients from September 13, 2010 to March 10, 2011. Measurement was made with ultrasound osteodensitometry of ACHILLES make. Quantitative ultrasound method revealed that 77 female patients had a lower value of T-score (osteopenia with risk factors or osteoporosis and they were referred to T-score measurement with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning was performed using LUNAR DPX scanner and 49 female patients were examined. Results. It was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between T-score values obtained by quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. Conclusion. According to this study, it is necessary to provide a greater number of scanners for ultrasound osteodensitometry of calcaneus in order to secure prevention and to refer the patients to further diagnosing on time.

  14. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  15. A novel biometric authentication approach using electrocardiogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Hakan; Guz, Umit; Yarman, B S

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel biometric authentication approach based on combination of AC/DCT features, MFCC features, and QRS beat information of the ECG signals. The proposed approach is tested on a subset of 30 subjects selected from the PTB database. This subset consists of 13 healthy and 17 non-healthy subjects who have two ECG records. The proposed biometric authentication approach achieves average frame recognition rate of %97.31 on the selected subset. Our experimental results imply that the frame recognition rate of the proposed authentication approach is better than that of ACDCT and MFCC based biometric authentication systems, individually. PMID:24110673

  16. Contactless Biometrics in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    Security can be enhanced through wireless sensor network using contactless biometrics and it remains a challenging and demanding task due to several limitations of wireless sensor network. Network life time is very less if it involves image processing task due to heavy energy required for image processing and image communication. Contactless biometrics such as face recognition is most suitable and applicable for wireless sensor network. Distributed face recognition in WSN not only help to reduce the communication overload but it also increase the node life time by distributing the work load on the nodes. This paper presents state-of-art of biometrics in wireless sensor network.

  17. Enhancing Information Security and Privacy by Combining Biometrics with Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanade, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with "crypto-biometrics", a relatively new and multi-disciplinary area of research (started in 1998). Combining biometrics and cryptography provides multiple advantages, such as, revocability, template diversity, better verification accuracy, and generation of cryptographically usable keys that are strongly linked to the user identity. In this text, a thorough review of the subject is provided and then some of the main categories are illustrated with recently proposed systems by the authors. Beginning with the basics, this text deals with various aspects of crypto-biometrics, i

  18. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and challenging branch in biometrics technologies.

  19. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    , which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems......Developing a reliable, fast, and robust biometric recognition system is still a challenging task. This is because the inputs to these systems can be noisy, occluded, poorly illuminated, rotated, and of very low-resolutions. This paper proposes a probabilistic classifier using Haar-like features...

  20. Biometric Authorization System using Gait Biometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sudha, L R

    2011-01-01

    Human gait, which is a new biometric aimed to recognize individuals by the way they walk have come to play an increasingly important role in visual surveillance applications. In this paper a novel hybrid holistic approach is proposed to show how behavioural walking characteristics can be used to recognize unauthorized and suspicious persons when they enter a surveillance area. Initially background is modelled from the input video captured from cameras deployed for security and the foreground moving object in the individual frames are segmented using the background subtraction algorithm. Then gait representing spatial, temporal and wavelet components are extracted and fused for training and testing multi class support vector machine models (SVM). The proposed system is evaluated using side view videos of NLPR database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves a pleasing recognition rate and also the results indicate that the classification ability of SVM with Radial Basis Function...

  1. Bioinformatic and Biometric Methods in Plant Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  2. Using Biometrics in Evaluating Ritual Gestures in Wearable Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei

    2015-01-01

    The article emphasized on the versatility of designing interactions with considerations of wearable technology under the principle of slow technology. It also proposed a new way of evaluating the emotional effect of wearable devices by using the biometric approach.

  3. An analysis of issues in biometric finger identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Kumar Veerasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Person's identity is an essential factor in this vastly connected society. Biometric Finger has wide acceptance as a genuine method for determining an individual’s identity. Biometric Finger authentication is reliable, since physical characteristics in humans are difficult to forge, harder to change or make copies. Biometric fingerprinting is one of the most popular and legally accepted biometrics used in person identification. Finger print authentication applications include Computer Applications, Network Access, Data Protection, Transaction Security, and Web Security. E-commerce and E-governments can carry out strong authentication rules. This paper analyzes issues related to Fingerprint identification to suggest viable alternatives. Keywords: Fingerprint Identification, Optical Sensors, Ultrasound Sensors, Issues in Finger Print Identification.

  4. A Security Algorithm for Iris Based Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARACHAND VERMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a field which is evolving regularly and also ncorporated classes of security approaches itself in recent years for user authentication. Proposed approach uses iris recognition as a example to explore an idea to build secure biometric systems. After segmenting and identifying the region of the iris, the process of normalization done. Then uniquely robust features of each person’s iris which have extracted, further used to match with iris template which is already saved in database. In this work we will give a new approach of user authentication which uses both eyes of same user. In order to provide privacy protection and deter unauthorized use of biometric sensitive data, iris feature(s should be properly encrypted by applying cryptographic techniques and image processingapproach jointly. This paper discusses a suitable approach for secure and robust biometric matching.

  5. Optimized Radial Basis Function Classifier for Multi Modal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems can be used for the identification or verification of humans based on their physiological or behavioral features. In these systems the biometric characteristics such as fingerprints, palm-print, iris or speech can be recorded and are compared with the samples for the identification or verification. Multimodal biometrics is more accurate and solves spoof attacks than the single modal bio metrics systems. In this study, a multimodal biometric system using fingerprint images and finger-vein patterns is proposed and also an optimized Radial Basis Function (RBF kernel classifier is proposed to identify the authorized users. The extracted features from these modalities are selected by PCA and kernel PCA and combined to classify by RBF classifier. The parameters of RBF classifier is optimized by using BAT algorithm with local search. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with the KNN classifier, Naïve Bayesian classifier and non-optimized RBF classifier.

  6. Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Gentles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz., the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking these areas/issues into consideration we have now come with the biometrics authenticated mobile voting system, to start with for a country like Jamaica. The technology being proposed now is novel and the first of its kind proposed at present. It is proposed that using fingerprint supported biometric control information and encryption along with Secure Socket Layer i.e. SSL using VeriSign, would make the software involved in the voting process well secured. In addition tying the credentials to a mobile device will make the system even more robust. We have considered the mobile equipment for the present system development, a smart phone using Android 3.0 (Honeycomb. The details of the proposed development are presented in this paper.

  7. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    CERN Document Server

    Padmavathi, V S Meenakshi; Dr G

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function is changed new revocable/cancelable templates are generated. Soft biometrics is ancillary information that can be combined with primary biometrics to identify a person in a better way. Iris has certain advantage compared to other biometric traits like fingerprint. Iris is an internal part that is less prone to damage. Moreover is very difficult for an attacker to capture an iris. The key advantage of iris biometrics is its stability or template longevity. Biometric systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. This work...

  8. Embedded system for individual recognition based on ECG biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biometric recognition is emerging has an alternative solution for applications where the privacy of the information is crucial. This paper presents an embedded biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signals (ECG) for individual identification and authentication. The proposed system implements a real-time state-of-the-art recognition algorithm, which extracts information from the frequency domain. The system is based on a ARM Cortex 4. Preliminary results show ...

  9. Biometric recognition system using low bandwidth ECG signals

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents a biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signal (ECG). The proposed system is based on a state-of-the-art recognition method which extracts information from the frequency domain. In this paper we propose a new method to increase the spectral resolution of low bandwidth ECG signals due to the limited bandwid...

  10. Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Chouhan; Dr.(Mrs) Shailja Shukla

    2011-01-01

    biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman, and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. Especially it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction for iris recognition process...

  11. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Bekiaris; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Ioannis G. Damousis

    2008-01-01

    Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO) (2007) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each ind...

  12. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugapriya, D.; Dr. G.Padmavathi

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are g...

  13. Direct Problems and Inverse Problems in Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailescu Marius Iulian

    2013-01-01

    The article purpose is to describe the two sides of biometrics technologies, direct problems and inverse problems. The advance that we face today in field of Information Technology makes Information Security an inseparable part. The authentication has a huge role when we deal about security. The problems that can appear in implementing and developing biometrics systems is raising many problems, and one of the goal of this article is to focus on direct and inverse problems which is a new and c...

  14. Efficient Ways to Make Biometrics System More Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Er.Neeraj Jindal; Er.Sona Aggarwal; Er.Shweta Lakhara

    2013-01-01

    Biometric identification system, which uses physical or behavioral features to check a person’s identity, ensures much greater security than passwords and number systems. Biometric features such as face or fingerprint can be stored on a microchip in credit card, for example. A single feature, however, sometimes fails to be exact enough to identification. Another disadvantage of using only one feature is that the chosen feature is not always readable; a multi-modal identification that uses two...

  15. RANK LEVEL FUSION USING FINGERPRINT AND IRIS BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Radha; A Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Authentication of users is an essential and difficult to achieve in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. The biometric improves the capability to recognize the persons. A biometric identificationsystem is an automatic recognition system that recognizes a person based on the physiological (e.g., fingerprints,face, retina, iris, ear) or behavioral (e.g., gait, signa...

  16. Biometrics and smart card based applications for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biometrics has emerged as a convenient, foolproof and well-accepted technology for identification around the globe. Nucleonix has developed innovative solutions based on finger scan biometrics for various industries. This paper closely looks into the application areas for the nuclear industry and how it will benefit this industry, in terms of identification, access control, security of PCs and applications, attendance, machinery usage control and other custom applications. (author)

  17. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  18. Alignment and bit extraction for secure fingerprint biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, A.; Rane, S.; Vetro, A.

    2010-01-01

    Security of biometric templates stored in a system is important because a stolen template can compromise system security as well as user privacy. Therefore, a number of secure biometrics schemes have been proposed that facilitate matching of feature templates without the need for a stored biometric sample. However, most of these schemes suffer from poor matching performance owing to the difficulty of designing biometric features that remain robust over repeated biometric measurements. This paper describes a scheme to extract binary features from fingerprints using minutia points and fingerprint ridges. The features are amenable to direct matching based on binary Hamming distance, but are especially suitable for use in secure biometric cryptosystems that use standard error correcting codes. Given all binary features, a method for retaining only the most discriminable features is presented which improves the Genuine Accept Rate (GAR) from 82% to 90% at a False Accept Rate (FAR) of 0.1% on a well-known public database. Additionally, incorporating singular points such as a core or delta feature is shown to improve the matching tradeoff.

  19. Biometric Attendance and Big Data Analysis for Optimizing Work Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neetu; Xavier, Teenu; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Although biometric attendance management is available, large healthcare organizations have difficulty in big data analysis for optimization of work processes. The aim of this project was to assess the implementation of a biometric attendance system and its utility following big data analysis. In this prospective study the implementation of biometric system was evaluated over 3 month period at our institution. Software integration with other existing systems for data analysis was also evaluated. Implementation of the biometric system could be successfully done over a two month period with enrollment of 10,000 employees into the system. However generating reports and taking action this large number of staff was a challenge. For this purpose software was made for capturing the duty roster of each employee and integrating it with the biometric system and adding an SMS gateway. This helped in automating the process of sending SMSs to each employee who had not signed in. Standalone biometric systems have limited functionality in large organizations unless it is meshed with employee duty roster. PMID:27332164

  20. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  1. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  2. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Gu Kim; Hae-Min Moon; Yongwha Chung; Sung Bum Pan

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But...

  3. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  4. HBS: a novel biometric feature based on heartbeat morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Alajlan, Naif; Bazi, Yakoub; Hichri, Haikel S

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new feature named heartbeat shape (HBS) is proposed for ECG-based biometrics. HBS is computed from the morphology of segmented heartbeats. Computation of the feature involves three basic steps: 1) resampling and normalization of a heartbeat; 2) reduction of matching error; and 3) shift invariant transformation. In order to construct both gallery and probe templates, a few consecutive heartbeats which could be captured in a reasonably short period of time are required. Thus, the identification and verification methods become efficient. We have tested the proposed feature independently on two publicly available databases with 76 and 26 subjects, respectively, for identification and verification. The second database contains several subjects having clinically proven cardiac irregularities (atrial premature contraction arrhythmia). Experiments on these two databases yielded high identification accuracy (98% and 99.85%, respectively) and low verification equal error rate (1.88% and 0.38%, respectively). These results were obtained by using templates constructed from five consecutive heartbeats only. This feature compresses the original ECG signal significantly to be useful for efficient communication and access of information in telecardiology scenarios. PMID:22361664

  5. Biometric study using hyperspectral imaging during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sheela; Quoraishee, Shafik; Chan, Gabriel; Short, Kenneth R.

    2010-04-01

    To the casual observer, transient stress results in a variety of physiological changes that can be seen in the face. Although the conditions can be seen visibly, the conditions affect the emissivity and absorption properties of the skin, which imaging spectrometers, commonly referred to as Hyperspectral (HS) cameras, can quantify at every image pixel. The study reported on in this paper, using Hyperspectral cameras, provides a basis for continued study of HS imaging to eventually quantify biometric stress. This study was limited to the visible to near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Signal processing tools and algorithms have been developed and are described for using HS face data from human subjects. The subjects were placed in psychologically stressful situations and the camera data were analyzed to detect stress through changes in dermal reflectance and emissivity. Results indicate that hyperspectral imaging may potentially serve as a non-invasive tool to measure changes in skin emissivity indicative of a stressful incident. Particular narrow spectral bands in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum seem especially important. Further studies need to be performed to determine the optimal spectral bands and to generalize the conclusions. The enormous information available in hyperspectral imaging needs further analysis and more spectral regions need to be exploited. Non-invasive stress detection is a prominent area of research with countless applications for both military and commercial use including border patrol, stand-off interrogation, access control, surveillance, and non-invasive and un-attended patient monitoring.

  6. Development of Palmprint Verification System Using Biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Shobha; M. Krishna; S.C. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Palmprint verification system using Biometrics is one of the emerging technologies, which recognizes a person based on the principle lines, wrinkles and ridges on the surface of the palm. These line structures are stable and remain unchanged throughout the life of an individual. More importantly, no two palmprints from different individuals are the same, and normally people do not feel uneasy to have their palmprint images taken for testing. Therefore palmprint recognition offers a promising future for medium-security access control systems. In this paper, a new approach for personal authentication using hand images is discussed. Gray-Scale palm images are captured using a digital camera at a resolution of 640′480. Each of these gray-scale images is aligned and then used to extract palmprint and hand geometry features. These features are then used for authenticating users. The image acquisition setup used here is inherently simple and it does not employ any special illumination nor does it use any pegs that might cause any inconvenience to users. Experimental results show that the designed system achieves an acceptable level of performance.

  7. Text Independent Biometric Speaker Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Gbadamosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing a machine that mimics the human behavior, particularly with the capability of responding properly to spoken language, has intrigued engineers and scientists for centuries. The earlier research work on voice recognition system which is text-dependent requires that the user must say exactly the same text or passphrase for both enrollment and verification before gaining access. In this method the testing speech is polluted by additive noise at different noise decibel levels to achieve only 75% recognition rate and would require full cooperation by the speaker which could not be used for forensic investigation. This paper presents the historical background, and technological advances in voice recognition and most importantly the study and implementation of text-independent biometric voice recognition system which could be used for speaker identification with 100% recognition rate. The technique makes it possible to use the speaker's voice to verify their identity and control access to services such as voice dialing, telephone shopping, database access services, information services, voice mail, and remote access to computers. The implementation mainly incorporates Mel frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCCs which was used for feature extraction and Vector quantization using the Linde-Buzo-Gray (VQLBG algorithm used to minimize the amount of data to be handled. The matching result is given on the basis of minimum distortion distance. The project is coded in MATLAB.

  8. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  9. Technical, Legal, Economic and Social Aspects of Biometrics for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Bule, Jernej; Peer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses technical, legal, economic and social aspects of biometrics for cloud computing, featuring application example, gains of such solution, current laws, directives and legislation for biometrics and cloud computing. It is primarily based on Slovenian example due to common general EU legislation in the field of cloud computing and biometrics. Authentication on the Internet is still mainly done using passwords, while biometrics is practically not us...

  10. Security EvaBio: An Analysis Tool for the Security Evaluation of Biometric Authentication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed, Mohamad; Lacharme, Patrick; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Biometric systems present several drawbacks that may significantly decrease their utility. Nowadays, several platforms (such as the FVC-onGoing) exist to assess the performance of such systems. Despite this, none platform exists for the security evaluation of biometric systems. Hence, the aim of this paper is to present an on-line platform for the security evaluation of biometric systems. The key benefits of the presented platform are twofold. First, it provides biometrics community an evalua...

  11. Multi-Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Gad; Nawal El-Fishawy; AYMAN EL-SAYED; M. Zorkany

    2015-01-01

    Multi-biometrics is an exciting and interesting research topic. It is used to recognizing individuals for security purposes; to increase security levels. The recent research trends toward next biometrics generation in real-time applications. Also, integration of biometrics solves some of unimodal system limitations. However, design and evaluation of such systems raises many issues and trade-offs. A state of the art survey of multi-biometrics benefits, limitations, integration strategies, and ...

  12. Biometric applications related to human beings: there is life beyond security

    OpenAIRE

    Faúndez Zanuy, Marcos; Hussain, Amir; Mekyska, Jiri; Sesa Nogueras, Enric; Monte Moreno, Enrique; Esposito, Anna; Chetouani, Mohamed; Garre Olmo, Josep; Abel, Andrew; Smékal, Zdenek; Lopez-De-Ipina, Karmele

    2013-01-01

    The use of biometrics has been successfully applied to security applications for some time. However, the extension of other potential applications with the use of biometric information is a very recent development. This paper summarizes the field of biometrics and investigates the potential of utilizing biometrics beyond the presently limited field of security applications. There are some synergies that can be established within security-related applications. These can...

  13. BIOMETRICS SOCIETY AND THE PROGRESS OF ANIMAL SCIENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Romanian animal, agricultural and biological sciences were seriously damaged in the period 1948-1964 by the introduction of the Stalinsko- lasenko approach in the field of Genetics and by an empiric-pragmatic approach of agricultural theory. In 1965, it started the reintroduction of the real genetic science and in 1969 a small group of scientists (22, 3 animal scientists, 3 agriculturalists registered in International Biometric Society aiming to change the scientific approach in experimental technique, genetic and animal breeding, ecological vision of animal production, education system. An international Congress of International Biometric Society was held in Romania. Some progress was achieved in all biological fields, but generally it was braked by the routine, by inertia. The number of Romanian agricultural members of Biometric Society decreased, the group disappeared after the year 1990, the biometricians were not present in research and education, but a correct approach is visible in Animal Breeding theory. It is noted that the biometric approach in biological sciences is originated from Darwin and Mendel theory, it was concretized by Galton and Pearson but the origin of Biometric Society (1946 is connected with S. Wright. Some basic scientific works of Quantitative Genetics and Evolution theory are noted.

  14. Comparison of body shape descriptors for biometric recognition using MMW images

    OpenAIRE

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. E. González-Sosa, R. Vera-Rodríguez, Julián Fiérrez, J. Ortega-García, "Comparison of Body Shape Descriptors for Biometric ...

  15. 78 FR 22274 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... biometrics in connection with their admission to the United States. See 73 FR 77473 (Dec. 19, 2008). OMB is... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM) Biometric...: 1600- 0006. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and...

  16. A Preliminary Review of Behavioural Biometrics for Health Monitoring in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vancea, Mihaela; March Amengual, Jaume Miquel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential of ICT-based biometrics for monitoring the health status of the elderly people. It departs from specific ageing and biometric traits to then focus on behavioural biometric traits like handwriting, speech and gait to finally explore their practical application in health monitoring of elderly.

  17. Crypto Key Generation Based on Signature Biometric Using Gabor Features Selection

    OpenAIRE

    AL-MAHADEEN Bassam; AL-TARAWNEH Mokhled

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a direct crypto keygeneration method form signature biometric based onGabor feature selection. The proposed method outputssecure entropy keys, which could be used as highwatermarking source for signature biometric itself aswell as digital electronic signature that hide edocumentsin electronic open system. Simulated resultshave demonstrated that generated Crypto Keyaddresses a replacement of a biometric signaturerepresentation into digital symmetric key; where thegenerated ...

  18. Guide to biometrics for large-scale systems technological, operational, and user-related factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Presents a review of biometric technology and biometric systems, and the concept of identity management Discusses the legal, political and societal factors of biometric technology, in addition to user psychology and other human factors Provides chapter-ending review questions and discussion points

  19. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  20. The use of biometrics in the Personal Health Record (PHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Personal Health Record (PHR) has made individual health information more readily accessible to a wide range of users including patients, consumers, practitioners, and healthcare providers. However, increased accessibility of PHR threatens the confidentiality, privacy, and security of personalized health information. Therefore, a need for robust and reliable forms of authentication is of prime concern. The concept of biometric authentication is now highly visible to healthcare providers as a technology to prevent unauthorized access to individual health information. Implementing biometric authentication mechanisms to protect PHR facilitates access control and secure exchange of health information. In this paper, a literature review is used to explore the key benefits, technical barriers, challenges, and ethical implications for using biometric authentication in PHR. PMID:21335696

  1. European securitization and biometric identification: the uses of genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Williams, Robin

    2007-01-01

    The recent loss of confidence in textual and verbal methods for validating the identity claims of individual subjects has resulted in growing interest in the use of biometric technologies to establish corporeal uniqueness. Once established, this foundational certainty allows changing biographies and shifting category memberships to be anchored to unchanging bodily surfaces, forms or features. One significant source for this growth has been the "securitization" agendas of nation states that attempt the greater control and monitoring of population movement across geographical borders. Among the wide variety of available biometric schemes, DNA profiling is regarded as a key method for discerning and recording embodied individuality. This paper discusses the current limitations on the use of DNA profiling in civil identification practices and speculates on future uses of the technology with regard to its interoperability with other biometric databasing systems. PMID:17536152

  2. Biometric feature extraction using local fractal auto-correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image texture feature extraction is a classical means for biometric recognition. To extract effective texture feature for matching, we utilize local fractal auto-correlation to construct an effective image texture descriptor. Three main steps are involved in the proposed scheme: (i) using two-dimensional Gabor filter to extract the texture features of biometric images; (ii) calculating the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales using fractal auto-correlation algorithm; and (iii) linking the local fractal dimension of Gabor feature under different orientations and scales into a big vector for matching. Experiments and analyses show our proposed scheme is an efficient biometric feature extraction approach. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  3. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  4. Agatha: Multimodal Biometric Authentication Platform in Large-Scale Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Gómez, David; Saeta, Javier Rodríguez; Ejarque, Pascual; Hernando, Javier

    Biometric technologies are each time more demanded for security applications. In this sense, systems for identifying people are gaining popularity, especially in governmental sectors, and forensic applications have climbed to the top of the list when talking about biometrics. However, some problems still remain as cornerstones in identification processes, all of them linked to the length of the databases in which the individual is supposed to be. The speed and the error are parameters that depend on the number of users in the database and measure the quality of the whole system.

  5. A new approach for willingness test in biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Biometrics identifies/verifies a person using his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics. It is becoming an important ally for law enforcement and homeland security. However, there are some safety and privacy concerns: biometric based systems can be accessed when users are under threat, reluctant or even unconscious states. In this paper, we introduce a new method which can identify a person and detect his/her willingness. Our experimental results show that the new approach can enhance the security by checking the consent signature while achieving very high recognition accuracy.

  6. Securing Biometric Templates Where Similarity Is Measured with Set Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socek, Daniel; Božović, Vladimir; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    A novel scheme for securing biometric templates of variable size and order is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on a new similarity measure approach, namely the set intersection, which strongly resembles the methodology used in most of the current state-of-the-art biometrics matching systems. The applicability of the new scheme is compared with that of the existing principal schemes, and it is shown that the new scheme has definite advantages over the existing approaches. The proposed scheme is analyzed both in terms of security and performance.

  7. A Survey of Biometric keystroke Dynamics: Approaches, Security and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Shanmugapriya, D

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics technologies are gaining popularity today since they provide more reliable and efficient means of authentication and verification. Keystroke Dynamics is one of the famous biometric technologies, which will try to identify the authenticity of a user when the user is working via a keyboard. The authentication process is done by observing the change in the typing pattern of the user. A comprehensive survey of the existing keystroke dynamics methods, metrics, different approaches are given in this study. This paper also discusses about the various security issues and challenges faced by keystroke dynamics.

  8. A new threshold signature scheme based on fuzzy biometric identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongquan Cai; Ke Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the first threshold signature scheme based on biometric identity, which is acquired from a recently proposed fuzzy identities-based encryption scheme. An important feature of this scheme, which is different from other previous ID-based threshold signature schemes, is that it can be applied to situations using not only average personal attributes in social contact but also people's noisy biometric inputs as identities. The security of our scheme in the selective-lD model reduces the limit in the hardness of the Decisional BDH Assumption.

  9. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric authentication scheme for automated teller machine (ATM banking systems is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, a fingerprint biometric technique is fused with the ATM for person authentication to ameliorate the security level.

  10. Multi-Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Gad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-biometrics is an exciting and interesting research topic. It is used to recognizing individuals for security purposes; to increase security levels. The recent research trends toward next biometrics generation in real-time applications. Also, integration of biometrics solves some of unimodal system limitations. However, design and evaluation of such systems raises many issues and trade-offs. A state of the art survey of multi-biometrics benefits, limitations, integration strategies, and fusion levels are discussed in this paper. Finally, upon reviewing multi-biometrics approaches and techniques; some open points are suggested to be considered as a future research point of interest.

  11. Biometric Subject Verification Based on Electrocardiographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of authenticating or declining to authenticate an asserted identity of a candidate-person. In an enrollment phase, a reference PQRST heart action graph is provided or constructed from information obtained from a plurality of graphs that resemble each other for a known reference person, using a first graph comparison metric. In a verification phase, a candidate-person asserts his/her identity and presents a plurality of his/her heart cycle graphs. If a sufficient number of the candidate-person's measured graphs resemble each other, a representative composite graph is constructed from the candidate-person's graphs and is compared with a composite reference graph, for the person whose identity is asserted, using a second graph comparison metric. When the second metric value lies in a selected range, the candidate-person's assertion of identity is accepted.

  12. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  13. Enhancement of low sampling frequency recordings for ECG biometric matching using interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) based biometric matching suffers from high misclassification error with lower sampling frequency data. This situation may lead to an unreliable and vulnerable identity authentication process in high security applications. In this paper, quality enhancement techniques for ECG data with low sampling frequency has been proposed for person identification based on piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation (PCHIP) and piecewise cubic spline interpolation (SPLINE). A total of 70 ECG recordings from 4 different public ECG databases with 2 different sampling frequencies were applied for development and performance comparison purposes. An analytical method was used for feature extraction. The ECG recordings were segmented into two parts: the enrolment and recognition datasets. Three biometric matching methods, namely, Cross Correlation (CC), Percent Root-Mean-Square Deviation (PRD) and Wavelet Distance Measurement (WDM) were used for performance evaluation before and after applying interpolation techniques. Results of the experiments suggest that biometric matching with interpolated ECG data on average achieved higher matching percentage value of up to 4% for CC, 3% for PRD and 94% for WDM. These results are compared with the existing method when using ECG recordings with lower sampling frequency. Moreover, increasing the sample size from 56 to 70 subjects improves the results of the experiment by 4% for CC, 14.6% for PRD and 0.3% for WDM. Furthermore, higher classification accuracy of up to 99.1% for PCHIP and 99.2% for SPLINE with interpolated ECG data as compared of up to 97.2% without interpolation ECG data verifies the study claim that applying interpolation techniques enhances the quality of the ECG data. PMID:23062461

  14. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  15. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  16. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied. PMID:23762851

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  19. Biometric Template Protection With Robust Semi – Blind Watermarking Using Image Intrinsic Local Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita C. Paunwala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a biometric watermarking technology sturdy towards image manipulations,like JPEG compression, image filtering, and additive noise. Application scenarios includeinformation transmission between client and server, maintaining e-database and management ofsignatures through insecure distribution channels. Steps involved in this work are, a generationof binary signature code for biometric, b embedding of the binary signature to the host imageusing intrinsic local property, that ensures signature protection, c host image is then madeexposed to various attacks and d signature is extracted and matched based on an empiricalthreshold to verify the robustness of proposed embedding method. Embedding relies on binarysignature manipulating the lower order AC coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transformed subblocksof host image. In the prediction phase, DC values of the nearest neighbor DCT blocks isutilized to predict the AC coefficients of centre block. Surrounding DC values of a DCT blocks areadaptively weighed for AC coefficients prediction. Linear programming is used to calculate theweights with respect to the image content. Multiple times embedding of watermark ensuresrobustness against common signal processing operations (filtering, enhancement, rescaling etc.and various attacks. The proposed algorithm is tested for 50 different types of host images andpublic data collection, DB3, FVC2002. FAR and FRR are compared with other methods to showthe improvement.

  20. Fusion of footsteps and face biometrics on an unsupervised and uncontrolled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports for the first time experiments on the fusion of footsteps and face on an unsupervised and not controlled environment for person authentication. Footstep recognition is a relatively new biometric based on signals extracted from people walking over floor sensors. The idea of the fusion between footsteps and face starts from the premise that in an area where footstep sensors are installed it is very simple to place a camera to capture also the face of the person that walks over the sensors. This setup may find application in scenarios like ambient assisted living, smart homes, eldercare, or security access. The paper reports a comparative assessment of both biometrics using the same database and experimental protocols. In the experimental work we consider two different applications: smart homes (small group of users with a large set of training data) and security access (larger group of users with a small set of training data) obtaining results of 0.9% and 5.8% EER respectively for the fusion of both modalities. This is a significant performance improvement compared with the results obtained by the individual systems.

  1. An Introduction to Biometrics Technology: Its Place in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Peters, Jerry L.; Rishel, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The increased utilization of biometrics technology in the past few years has contributed to a strong growth pattern as the technology is used in a variety of facilities, including schools. Due to media exposure, students' familiarity with technology will continue to increase proportionately, which will result in an increased curiosity about…

  2. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  3. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.116 Additional requirements for biometrics. (a) If one of the factors used to authenticate to the electronic prescription...-approved government or nongovernment laboratory. Such testing must comply with the requirements...

  4. Quantifying privacy and security of biometric fuzzy commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Veldhuis, Raymond; Busch, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy commitment is an efficient template protection algorithm that can improve security and safeguard privacy of biometrics. Existing theoretical security analysis has proved that although privacy leakage is unavoidable, perfect security from information-theoretical points of view is possible when

  5. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinc

  6. Advent of Biometric Sensors in Field of Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing biological data. It is used to uniquely identify individuals by their physical characteristics or personal behavior traits.The results from scrutiny of various themes including unimodal, multimodal, physiological, behavioural bio-metrics. Bio-metrics, Physiological and behavioural are compared in the review. The article addresses a particular aspect of utilizing biometrics for authentication, identification and access control. The use of systems like fingerprint, face recognition, hand geometry, Palm print, DNA analysis, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent will be dealt with herewith. This study deals with various applications of this technology, like surveillance, employee identification, device access etc with mentions respective of hardware used. The influence of such features is yet to be documented properly, but it is safe to say that it has been a huge step towards better information security and identification control.Over the course of this text, we will try to bring to light our analysis of the subject and provide an in-depth examination of contemporary and futuristic technologies pertaining to this field.

  7. The value of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas, judged on the basis of radiation results obtained in Wuerzburg between 1977 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out into the effectiveness of radiotherapy in colorectal and anal carcinomas as well as metastases formed by those tumours. The relevance of changes in CT findings and CEA values is discussed in detail. (MBC)

  8. Diagnostic value of the upper lip bite test in predicting difficulty in intubation with head and neck landmarks obtained from lateral neck X-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation remains a primary concern of anaesthesiologists and upper lip bite test (ULBT is one of the assessments used in predicting difficult intubation. In this study, we aimed to check the utility of lateral neck X-ray measurements in improving the diagnostic value of the ULBT. Methods: In a prospective study conducted from January 2007 until December 2010, we recorded personal and demographic data of 4500 patients who entered the study and subjected them to standard lateral neck radiography. Before the induction of anaesthesia, clinical examination and ULBT results were recorded and during induction of anaesthesia laryngoscopic grading was evaluated and recorded in questionnaires. All the compiled data were analysed by SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA software. Diagnostic value for each test was calculated and compared. Results: Negative predictive values (NPVs were high in all tests. ULBT had the highest specificity and NPV compared with the other tests. The positive predictive value for all the tests had been low, but marginally high in the ULBT. Conclusion: Although all the tests used had relatively acceptable predictive values, combination of tests appeared to be more predictive. Highest sensitivities were observed with ULBT, mandibulohyoid distance and thyromental distance respectively. Use of radiological parameters may not be suitable as screening tools, but may help in anticipating and preparing for a difficult scenario.

  9. Medidas biométricas obtidas in vivo e na carcaça de ovelhas de descarte em diferentes estágios fisiológicos Biometric measurements obtained in vivo and in the carcass of culled ewes at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2010-02-01

    between rearing systems in most of the characteristics measured in vivo and in the carcass. The croup perimeter determined in the carcass and the thoracic perimeter and chest and croup width obtained in vivo were highly correlated to the body and cold carcass weights of the ewes in this study. Therefore, these measurements can assist in determining the body weight of ewes at different physiological stages.

  10. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Data Representation by AVT Hierarchical Data Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user’s medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents’ medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data. Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  11. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper. PMID:22547926

  12. A NOVEL BIOMETRICS TRIGGERED WATERMARKING OF IMAGES BASED ON WAVELET BASED CONTOURLET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elakkiya Soundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of network and digital technology has led to several issues to the digital content. The technical solution to provide law enforcement and copyright protection is achieved by digital watermarking Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital image in a way that is difficult to remove. The proposed method contains following phases (i Pre-processing of biometric image (ii key generation from the biometrics of the owner/user and randomization of the host image using Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF (iii Wavelet-Based Contourlet Transform (WBCT is applied on the host image. The WBCT can give the anisotropy optimal representation of the edges and contours in the image by virtue of the characteristics of multi-scale framework and multi-directionality (iv Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is enforced over the watermark image (v Embedding of the host image with the watermark image. The comparative analysis confirms the efficiency and robustness of the proposed system Index Terms— Digital Watermarking, copyright, Pre-processing, wavelet, Speeded-Up Robust Features.

  13. Influence of Biometric Variables on Refractive Outcomes after Cataract Surgery in Angle-closure Glaucoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lim, Hyung Bin; Lee, Jong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of biometric variables on refractive outcomes after cataract surgery in angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) patients. Methods In this case-control study, 42 ACG patients, 40 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, and 35 controls without glaucoma who had undergone conventional cataract surgery were enrolled consecutively. Electronic medical records, including preoperative biometric variables (keratometric diopter, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness), the refractive change (RC), and the absolute value of refractive change (ARC) were reviewed. Results In the control and OAG patients, the anterior chamber depth was negatively correlated with the ARC (r = -0.344, p = 0.043 and r = -0.431, p = 0.006, respectively), whereas there was no correlation in the ACG patients. Lens thickness was positively correlated with the RC, but not with the ARC, in the control and OAG groups (r = 0.391, p = 0.020 and r = 0.501, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, lens thickness in the ACG group was not correlated with the RC but was positively correlated with the ARC (r = 0.331, p = 0.032). Conclusions In contrast with the anterior chamber depth, preoperatively measured lens thickness may be a useful predictor of the direction of the RC after cataract surgery in control and OAG patients. However, in ACG patients, a thicker lens was correlated with a larger RC, regardless of the direction of the shift (hyperopic or myopic). PMID:27478355

  14. Avoiding terminological confusion between the notions of 'biometrics' and 'biometric data' : An investigation into the meanings of the terms from a European data protection and a scientific perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article has been motivated by an observation: the lack of rigor by European bodies when they use scientific terms to address data protection and privacy issues raised by biometric technologies and biometric data. In particular, they improperly use the term ‘biometrics’ to mean at the same time

  15. Diagnostic value of the upper lip bite test in predicting difficulty in intubation with head and neck landmarks obtained from lateral neck X-ray

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid Hussain Khan; Shahriar Arbabi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation remains a primary concern of anaesthesiologists and upper lip bite test (ULBT) is one of the assessments used in predicting difficult intubation. In this study, we aimed to check the utility of lateral neck X-ray measurements in improving the diagnostic value of the ULBT. Methods: In a prospective study conducted from January 2007 until December 2010, we recorded personal and demographic data of 4500 patients who entered the study and su...

  16. Improved method for noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by 133Xe inhalation. I. description of method and normal values obtained in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical method for noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) is described, based on Obrist's 10 minute, desaturation method after 1 minute inhalation of 133Xe. Sixteen collimated probes are placed over both hemispheres and brain stem-cerebellar regions. End-tidal 133Xe curves are used for correction of recirculation. KEV discriminators are set to record gamma and x-ray activity separately. Values are printed out automatically by a computer on a brain map. Extracerebral contamination is reduced by (1) computing curves from gamma activity, (2) applying pressure on the scalp beneath the probes, (3) 1 minute inhalation of 133Xe and recording desaturation curves for 10 minutes, thereby minimizing slow clearance from extracranial tissues. Normal values for both fast and slow compartments are reproducible and are in good agreement with the carotid injection method. The speech dominant hemisphere has higher flow than the right under conditions described. Posterior portions of the cranium over the cerebellum and brain stem appear to have higher flow gray values than the cerebral cortex. Gray matter flow decreases with advancing age

  17. Securing Revocable Iris and Retinal Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Multimodal Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Meenakshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are subjected to a variety of attacks. Stored biometric template attack is very severe compared to all other attacks. Providing security to biometric templates is an important issue in building a reliable personal identification system. Multi biometric systems are more resistive towards spoof attacks compared to unibiometric counterpart. Soft biometric are ancillary information about a person. This work provides security and revocability to iris and retinal templates using combined user and soft biometric based password hardened multimodal biometric fuzzy vault. Password hardening provides security and revocability to biometric templates. Eye biometrics namely iris and retina have certain merits compared to fingerprint. Iris and retina capturing cameras can be mounted on a single device to improve user convenience. Security of the vault is measured in terms of min-entropy.

  18. Biometric parameters of the bream (Abramis brama) as indicators for long-term changes in fish health and environmental quality--data from the German ESB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Diana; Paulus, Martin; Veith, Michael; Klein, Roland

    2015-02-01

    Piscifaunal health depends upon the state and quality of the aquatic environment. Variations in physical condition of fish may therefore be attributed to changes in environmental quality. Based on time series of up to 20 years of biometric data of bream from multiple sampling sites of the German environmental specimen bank (ESB), this study assessed whether changes in biometric parameters are able to indicate long-term alterations in fish health and environmental quality. Evaluated biometric parameters of fish health comprised length and weight of individuals of a defined age class, the condition factor, lipid content and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Although there are negative trends of the HSI, the overall development of health parameters can be interpreted as positive. This seems to suggest that health parameters conclusively mirror the long-term improvement of water quality in the selected rivers. However, the applicability of the condition factor as well as lipid content as indicators for fish health remained subject to restrictions. Altogether, the results from the ESB confirmed the high value of biometric parameters for monitoring of long-term changes in state and quality of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24824506

  19. On the Value of Effective Parameters Obtained Under Reduced Spatial Scale Mismatch to Represent Soil Moisture - Evapotranspiration Interactions in Land Surface Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolem, R.; Iwema, J.; Blyth, E.; Wagener, T.; Rahman, A. S. M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture - evapotranspiration interactions have been studied in several regions characterized by distinct soil properties, land cover types, and climate. Such interactions are usually assessed with measurements representing different spatial footprint. For example, soil moisture measurements obtained from point-scale sensors or with remote sensing products are typically compared with evapotranspiration measurements obtained with eddy covariance systems. With efforts to develop hydrometeorological models capable of simulating processes at hyper-resolution (i.e., 1 sq-km), novel approaches for intermediate-scale soil moisture measurements give us new opportunities to evaluate the representation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration processes at similar spatial scales. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) in which key parameters are determined effectively based on both soil moisture and evapotranspiration measurements obtained with similar horizontal footprint. We use soil moisture data from selected sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) network in combination with co-located Ameriflux eddy covariance towers to constrain key parameters in JULES assuming their similar horizontal footprint of hundreds of meters. The COSMOS-Ameriflux sites are characterized by distinct soils, land cover types, and climate. In addition, point-scale soil moisture at each site is also used in combination with eddy covariance measurements to constrain JULES parameters, while recognizing its much smaller support volume. Each individual site is ranked based on differences in soil moisture dynamics from both point-scale and intermediate-scale measurements. Model calibration is carried out by optimizing JULES performance against (1) point-scale soil moisture only, (2) cosmic-ray soil moisture only, (3) point-scale soil moisture and surface fluxes, and (4) cosmic-ray soil moisture and surface fluxes. We then evaluate

  20. Efficient Implementation of Electronic Passport Scheme Using Cryptographic Security Along With Multiple Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic passports have known a wide and fast deployment all around the world since the International Civil Aviation Organization the world has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers. The use of biometrics for identification has the potential to make the lives easier, and the world people live in a safer place. The purpose of biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The paper analyses the face, fingerprint, palm print and iris biometric e-passport design. The paper also provides a cryptographic security analysis of the e-passport using face fingerprint, palm print and iris biometric that are intended to provide improved security in protecting biometric information of the e-passport bearer.

  1. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics Feature Level Fusion Of Fingerprint And Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the users biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the users biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted from...

  2. Secured Cryptographic Key Generation From Multimodal Biometrics: Feature Level Fusion of Fingerprint and Iris

    CERN Document Server

    Jagadeesan, A

    2010-01-01

    Human users have a tough time remembering long cryptographic keys. Hence, researchers, for so long, have been examining ways to utilize biometric features of the user instead of a memorable password or passphrase, in an effort to generate strong and repeatable cryptographic keys. Our objective is to incorporate the volatility of the user's biometric features into the generated key, so as to make the key unguessable to an attacker lacking significant knowledge of the user's biometrics. We go one step further trying to incorporate multiple biometric modalities into cryptographic key generation so as to provide better security. In this article, we propose an efficient approach based on multimodal biometrics (Iris and fingerprint) for generation of secure cryptographic key. The proposed approach is composed of three modules namely, 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. Initially, the features, minutiae points and texture properties are extracted fr...

  3. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  4. An Efficient Secure Multimodal Biometric Fusion Using Palmprint and Face Image

    CERN Document Server

    Nageshkumar, M; Swamy, M N S

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence a person's identity. A multimodal biometric systems consolidate the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources and typically better recognition performance compare to system based on a single biometric modality. This paper proposes an authentication method for a multimodal biometric system identification using two traits i.e. face and palmprint. The proposed system is designed for application where the training data contains a face and palmprint. Integrating the palmprint and face features increases robustness of the person authentication. The final decision is made by fusion at matching score level architecture in which features vectors are created independently for query measures and are then compared to the enrolment template, which are stored during database preparation. Multimodal biometric system is developed through fusion of face and palmprint recognition.

  5. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  6. A relation between irreversibility and unlinkability for biometric template protection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    井沼, 学

    2014-01-01

    For biometric recognition systems, privacy protection of enrolled users’ biometric information, which are called biometric templates, is a critical problem. Recently, various template protection algorithms have been proposed and many related previous works have discussed security notions to evaluate the protection performance of these protection algorithms. Irreversibility and unlinkability are important security notions discussed in many related previous works. In this paper, we prove that u...

  7. Unobtrusive Behavioral and Activity-Related Multimodal Biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Drosou, A.; Ioannidis, D.; Moustakas, K.; Tzovaras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of...

  8. Video-Object Oriented Biometrics Hiding for User Authentication under Error-Prone Transmissions

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Drigas; Nicolas Tsapatsoulis; Klimis Ntalianis

    2011-01-01

    An automatic video-object oriented steganographic system is proposed for biometrics authentication over error-prone networks. Initially, the host video object is automatically extracted through analysis of videoconference sequences. Next, the biometric pattern corresponding to the segmented video object is encrypted by a chaotic cipher module. Afterwards, the encrypted biometric signal is inserted to the most significant wavelet coefficients of the video object, using its qualified significa...

  9. Development of Electronic Passport Scheme for Cryptographic Security and Face, Fingerprint Biometrics using ASP.Net

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR; B. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The e-passport, as it is sometimes called, represents a bold initiative in the deployment of two new technologies: Cryptography security and biometrics face and fingerprints. The privacy and security implications of this impending worldwide experiment in biometrics face and fingerprints authentication technology. A...

  10. DEFENDING AGAINST ATTACKS BY ENHANCING SECURITY USING BIOMETRICS IN SEMANTIC WEB

    OpenAIRE

    Akhilesh Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web is maturing day by day and data and information integration is growing and becoming crucial. Security is one of the key features of the future Internet’s security. So it is necessary harnessing the synergy in biometrics and in Semantic Web. It can leverage the lack of widely accepted biometrics security standards along with Semantic Web technologies to protect, represent, store and query metadata and data across biometrics datasets. However, the success of security mostly relies ...

  11. Security Defects in Biometric- based IdentificationSystemsand Mechanisms torectify them

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mozamel M. Saeed; Dr.Abdulwahid A. Fadul; Mesfer A. Al Duhayyim

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is one of the evolving technologies widely used in different aspects of life today. Theuse of biometrics for identification is a system mainly established to recognize a certain person through authentication by using a set of biological characteristics. In this paper, I aim to survey the security risks and defects in identity verification systems that are based on biometrics, and try to suggest risk management solutions in order to increase the security factor whenever using such s...

  12. Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation oriented to Hand Biometric Segmentation in Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Sierra, Alberto de; Sánchez Ávila, Carmen; Bailador del Pozo, Gonzalo; Guerra Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    New trends in biometrics are oriented to mobile devices in order to increase the overall security in daily actions like bank account access, e-commerce or even document protection within the mobile. However, applying biometrics to mobile devices imply challenging aspects in biometric data acquisition, feature extraction or private data storage. Concretely, this paper attempts to deal with the problem of hand segmentation given a picture of the hand in an unknown background, requiring an accur...

  13. A Hybrid Model for Biometric Authentication using Finger Back Knuckle Surface based on Angular Geometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Usha, K.; M. Ezhilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric based personal recognition is an efficient method for identifying a person. Recently, hand based biometric has become popular due to its various advantages such as high verification accuracy and high user acceptability. This paper proposes a hybrid model using an emerging hand based biometric trait known as Finger Back Knuckle Surface. This model is based on angular geometric analysis which is implemented on two different samples of Finger Back Knuckle Surface such as Finger Bend Kn...

  14. A new concept in biometric identification 3-dimensional hand geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of biometric identifier which utilizes hand outline measurements made in three dimensions is described. This device uses solid state imaging with no moving parts. The important characteristics of accuracy, speed, user tolerability, small template size, low power, portability and reliability are discussed. A complete stand-alone biometric access control station with sufficient memory for 10,000 users and weighing less than 10 pounds has been built and tested. A test was conducted involving daily use by 112 users over a seven week period during which over 6300 access attempts were made. The single try equal error rate was found to be 0.4%. There were no false rejects when three tries were allowed before access was denied. Defeat with an artifact is difficult because the hand must be copied in all three dimensions

  15. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  16. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved

  17. A Multi-Sample Standoff Multimodal Biometric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Mann, Christopher J [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The data captured by existing standoff biometric systems typically has lower biometric recognition performance than their close range counterparts due to imaging challenges, pose challenges, and other factors. To assist in overcoming these limitations systems typically perform in a multi-modal capacity such as Honeywell s Combined Face and Iris (CFAIRS) [21] system. While this improves the systems performance, standoff systems have yet to be proven as accurate as their close range equivalents. We will present a standoff system capable of operating up to 7 meters in range. Unlike many systems such as the CFAIRS our system captures high quality 12 MP video allowing for a multi-sample as well as multi-modal comparison. We found that for standoff systems multi-sample improved performance more than multi-modal. For a small test group of 50 subjects we were able to achieve 100% rank one recognition performance with our system.

  18. Internet Passport Authentication System Using Multiple Biometric Identification Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic passports (e-Passports have known a wide and fast deployment all around the world since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO the world has adopted standards whereby passports can store biometric identifiers. The purpose of biometric passports is to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. The paper consider only those passport scenarios whose passport protocols base on public-key cryptography, certificates, and a public key infrastructure without addressing the protocols itself detailed, but this is no strong constraint. Furthermore assume the potential passport applier to use ordinary PCs with Windows or Linux software and an arbitrary connection to the Internet. Technological securities issues are to be found in several dimension, but below paper focus on hardware, software, and infrastructure as some of the most critical issues.

  19. Biometrics and smart cards combine to offer high security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Smart Card a plastic credit card sized package with an embedded computer chip which encompasses a level of technical sophistication which makes it virtually impossible to counterfeit. The question of legitimacy of the person using the Card for physical, computer, or network access can be answered by storing a biometric template of the authorized user in the Smart Card's unalterable memory. The bimetric template can be based upon a retina print, a hand print, a finger print, a wrist-vein print, a voice print, or pseudo-biometrics, such as signature dynamics, gait dynamics or keyboard typing patterns. These Cards will function only when they are being used by the authorized individuals to whom they are issued

  20. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  1. Development of a Mobile EEG-based Biometric Authentication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonovs, Juris; Petersen, Christoffer Kjeldgaard; Olesen, Henning;

    In recent years the need for greater security for storing personal and business data or accessing corporate networks on mobile devices is growing rapidly, and one of the potential solutions is to employ the innovative biometric authentication techniques. This paper presents the development...... of a mobile biometric authentication system based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in combination with already proven technologies such as facial detection and near-field communication (NFC). The overall goal of this work is to fill the gap between mobile web technologies and wireless EEG devices...... and present a mobile prototype system capable of authenticating users based on the uniqueness of their brainwaves. Furthermore, we implement a novel authentication process, which leads the authentication system to be more secure. We also give suggestions for future improvements of the system....

  2. Performance of Personal Identification System Technique Using Iris Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iris identification as one of the significant techniques of biometric identification systems s and iris recognition algorithm is described. Biometric technology advances intellectual properties are wanted by many unauthorized personnel. As a result many researchers have being searching ways for more secure authentication methods for the user access. Iris recognition uses iris patterns for personnel identification. The system steps are capturing iris patterns; determining the location of iris boundaries; converting the iris boundary to the stretched polar coordinate system; extracting iris code based on texture analysis. The system has been implemented and tested using dataset of number of samples of iris data with different contrast quality. The developed algorithm performs satisfactorily on the images, provides 93% accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance.

  3. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Sign...

  4. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    OpenAIRE

    André Lourenço; Hugo Silva; Ana Fred

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with...

  5. Perfect Match: Biometrics and Body Patterning in a Networked World

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Fuller

    2003-01-01

    Bodies are increasingly becoming collectively integrated into informational processes which are open to biotechnical forms of regulation. Biometrics, the use of body measurements such as retina scanning, face recognition and fingerprinting is now being uncontroversially introduced throughout the world under the aegis of security and efficient traffic management. Fields that once molded the individual through bodily confinement and observation are dispersing and converging into the regimes of ...

  6. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  7. Biometric based Security Solutions for MANET: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Jangra; Shivi Goel

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are self organizing, infrastructure-less, low power networks, design to deploy bandwidth-shared radio channel communication and to work under vulnerable environment. Security is primary concern in MANETs and in order to achieve high security (confidentiality, integrity, authentication, availability and non repudiation), several techniques have been explored in which biometrics with cryptography or intrusion detection has gained a momentum in recent years. This paper cri...

  8. Enhancing information security and privacy by combining biometrics with cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    KANADE, Sanjay Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Securing information during its storage and transmission is an important and widely addressed issue. Generally, cryptographic techniques are used for information security. Cryptography requires long keys which need to be kept secret in order to protect the information. The drawback of cryptography is that these keys are not strongly linked to the user identity. In order to strengthen the link between the user's identity and his cryptographic keys, biometrics is combined with cryptography. In ...

  9. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    OpenAIRE

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last two decades. Its contribution is represented in research concepts, methodology, and practical research results that help increase land and animal productivity, human welfare, and efficient conservation and management of natural resources.The selected Case Studies we...

  10. Behavioural Biometrics and Cognitive Security Authentication Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Khare; Surbhi Rautji; Deepak Gaur

    2013-01-01

    Behaviouralbiometrics is a scientific study with the primary purpose of identifying the authenticity of auser based on the way they interact with an authentication mechanism. While Association based passwordauthentication is a cognitive model of authentication system.The work done shows the implementation of Keyboard Latency technique for Authentication,implementation of Association Based Password authentication and comparison among two. There areseveral forms of behavioural biometrics such a...

  11. Soft Biometrics for a Socially Assistive Robotic Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagnì Pierluigi; Cazzato Dario; Del Coco Marco; Mazzeo Pier Luigi; Leo Marco; Distante Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    In thiswork, a real-time system able to automatically recognize soft-biometric traits is introduced and used to improve the capability of a humanoid robot to interact with humans. In particular the proposed system is able to estimate gender and age of humans in images acquired from the embedded camera of the robot. This knowledge allows the robot to properly react with customized behaviors related to the gender/age of the interacting individuals. The system is able to ...

  12. The biometric analysis of wall of human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our research was an establishment of regional morphological features of wall of human heart at fetuses, newborns and children. As a material for the research hearts of fetuses of 28-32 weeks (n=9), newborns (n=12) and children (n=14), who have died from reasons not connected with cardiovascular pathology, have served. By the methods of organometrii and variation statistics, the conducted biometric analysis of wall of heart has shown, that structural-functional reorganization of...

  13. ATM Security Using Fingerprint Biometric Identifer: An Investigative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moses Okechukwu Onyesolu; Ignatius Majesty Ezeani

    2012-01-01

    The growth in electronic transactions has resulted in a greater demand for fast and accurate user identification and authentication. Access codes for buildings, banks accounts and computer systems often use personal identification numbers (PIN's) for identification and security clearances. Conventional method of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like a social security number or a password are not all together reliable. An embedded fingerprint biometric auth...

  14. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinct from the populations on Tenerife and Gran Canaria than the two latter are mutually. An apparent decline in the number of adults occurs in July, which is related to a decrease in the number of egg...

  15. The state of the art in abuse of biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, Ileana; Hartel, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the standard architecture of a biometric system is extended by adding components like crypto, audit logging, power, and environment to increase the analytic power of the threat model. Our threat model gives new insight into false rejection attacks, emphasizing the role of an external attacker. Th...

  16. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecki Maciej J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio, based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2 and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98 respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  17. Accuracy, security, and processing time comparisons of biometric fingerprint recognition system using digital and optical enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Jagapathi, Rajendarreddy

    2011-06-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most commonly used forms of biometrics and has been widely used in daily life due to its feasibility, distinctiveness, permanence, accuracy, reliability, and acceptability. Besides cost, issues related to accuracy, security, and processing time in practical biometric recognition systems represent the most critical factors that makes these systems widely acceptable. Accurate and secure biometric systems often require sophisticated enhancement and encoding techniques that burdens the overall processing time of the system. In this paper we present a comparison between common digital and optical enhancementencoding techniques with respect to their accuracy, security and processing time, when applied to biometric fingerprint systems.

  18. Biometric template data protection in mobile device environment using XML-database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirumathyam, Rubathas; Derawi, Mohammad; Fischer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    recognition or gait recognition. To gain a real understanding of how it is possible to protect the biometric data, this paper first starts out with introducing a technique for security in a biometric system and emphasizes that template protection is important by going through the vulnerabilities and threats......This paper proposes a non-traditional XML database which supports biometric templates and provides an API which can be used by independent applications in mobile device environments. Until recently biometric systems are becoming more and more visible in mobile phone devices including fingerprint...

  19. A SCHEME FOR TEMPLATE SECURITY AT FEATURE FUSION LEVEL IN MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  20. Biometric-based personal identity-authentication system and security analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YANG Yi-xian; NIU Xin-xin

    2006-01-01

    The traditional authentication system is based on the secret key, and is mainly based on public key infrastructure (PKI). Unfortunately, a key has many disadvantages, for example, the key can be forgotten or stolen, and can be easily cracked. Nowadays, authentication systems using biometric technology have become more prevalent because of the advantages over password-based authentication systems. In this article, several biometric authentication models are presented,upon which most biometric authentication systems are based.Biometric authentication systems based-on these models provide high security for access control in non-face-to-face environment such as e-commerce, over open network.

  1. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  2. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc. are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print can be picked from glass on synthetic skin and in face recognition system due to genetic factors identical twinsor father-son may have the same facial appearance. ECG does not have these problems. It can not be recorded without theknowledge of the person and ECG of every person is unique even identical twins have different ECG. In this paper an ECGbasedbiometrics verification system which was developed using Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench(LabVIEW version 7.1 is discussed. Experiments were conducted on the database stored in the laboratory of 20 individualshaving 10 samples each and the results revealed a false rejection rate (FRR of 3% and false acceptance rate (FAR of 3.21%.

  3. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  4. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization. PMID:22175066

  5. Body identification, biometrics and medicine: ethical and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Ottolini, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Identity is important when it is weak. This apparent paradox is the core of the current debate on identity. Traditionally, verification of identity has been based upon authentication of attributed and biographical characteristics. After small scale societies and large scale, industrial societies, globalization represents the third period of personal identification. The human body lies at the heart of all strategies for identity management. The tension between human body and personal identity is critical in the health care sector. The health care sector is second only to the financial sector in term of the number of biometric users. Many hospitals and healthcare organizations are in progress to deploy biometric security architecture. Secure identification is critical in the health care system, both to control logic access to centralized archives of digitized patients' data, and to limit physical access to buildings and hospital wards, and to authenticate medical and social support personnel. There is also an increasing need to identify patients with a high degree of certainty. Finally there is the risk that biometric authentication devices can significantly reveal any health information. All these issues require a careful ethical and political scrutiny. PMID:17536154

  6. Correlations of third-trimester hiatal biometry obtained using four-dimensional translabial ultrasonography with the delivery route in nulliparous pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerayut Temtanakitpaisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate normal hiatal dimensions in the third trimester in nulliparous Thai pregnant women and to establish which biometric factors were associated with various pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Fifty-seven consecutive nulliparous pregnant Thai women in their third trimester were recruited on a voluntary basis from April to October 2014. All subjects underwent four-dimensional (4D translabial ultrasonography. Hiatal biometric parameters were measured at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction. Information about the patients’ eventual deliveries was obtained from their medical records. Results: The mean values of the patients’ age, body mass index, and gestational age at the time of examination were 27.4±5.47 years, 26.7±3.48 kg/m2, and 36.6±1.49 weeks, respectively. No subjects had vaginal lumps or experienced prolapse greater than stage 1 of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system. Ultrasonography showed that the mean values of the hiatal area at rest, while performing a Valsalva maneuver, and during contraction were 13.10±2.92 cm2, 17.50±4.81 cm2, and 9.69±2.09 cm2, respectively. The hiatal area at rest, the axial measurement at rest, and the axial measurement while performing a Valsalva maneuver were significantly associated with the route of delivery (P=0.02, P=0.04, and P=0.03, respectively. Conclusion: The route of delivery was associated with hiatal biometric values measured using 4D translabial ultrasonography, based on the results of nulliparous Thai women in the third trimester.

  7. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  8. Petroleum and petroleum/coal blends as feedstocks in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale cokers to obtain carbons of potentially high value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escallon, Maria M.

    2008-12-01

    The main goal of this research is to understand how the chemical composition of the feedstock and reactor design affects the quality of the coke toward the formation of a needle (premium) coke. Although a lot of information has been published related to the production of the premium coke, via mesophase formation, some contradictory results have been reported because the conclusions are reached based on chemical composition of the feedstock alone or reactor design alone. A raw decant oil, EI-107, was hydrotreated to different levels giving origin to six derivatives. Based on greater differences in chemical composition between the hydrotreated decant oils and the raw decant oil, and the sample quantity, three out of six derivatives were selected to continue with the carbonization process. It was found that the quality of the coke obtained through the pyrolysis of the four decant oils using the reactor operated at atmospheric pressure and 465°C (LSCopen) is related to the chemical composition of the decant oil. The coke that displays the lowest coke quality is EI-135, which is explained by the presence of five-membered rings and biphenyls in the decant oil that are detrimental to the mesophase formation due to the loss of planarity and free rotation. Even though this decant oil has alkylbenzenes which improve the mesophase formation, it appears that the amount of these compounds is not enough to compensate the negative effect that five-membered rings and biphenyls exert on the mesophase. The next best coke in quality is EI-107. While its feedstock (EI-107) has the lowest amount of alkylbenzenes and naphthenic compounds, the decant oil EI-107 displays little or no presence of five-membered rings and biphenyls making its quality higher than coke EI-135. The cokes EI-134 and EI-138 display, respectively, the highest coke quality among the four cokes tested. Their feedstocks have the highest amount of alkylbenzenes and naphthenic compounds but an intermediate content of

  9. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in X-ray detection efficiency are common in a normal population of individuals of differing body composition and have been determined in the past by means of elaborate and costly ultrasonic measurements of the subject's chest. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques have been investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods compare favorably with ultrasonic measurements and allow laboratories not possessing ultrasonic equipment to make appropriate corrections for x-ray detection efficiency. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. (author)

  10. Fingerprint Registration Using Zernike Moments : An Approach for a Supervised Contactless Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahirou DJARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we deal with contactless fingerprint biometrics. More specifically, we are interested in solving the problem of registration by taking into consideration some constraints such as finger rotation and translation. In the proposed method, the registration requires: (1 a segmentation technique to extract streaks, (2 a skeletonization technique to extract the center line streaks and (3 and landmarks extraction technique. The correspondence between the sets of control points, is obtained by calculating the descriptor vector of Zernike moments on a window of size RxR centered at each point. Comparison of correlation coefficients between the descriptor vectors of Zernike moments helps define the corresponding points. The estimation of parameters of the existing deformation between images is performed using RANSAC algorithm (Random SAmple Consensus that suppresses wrong matches. Finally, performance evaluation is achieved on a set of fingerprint images where promising results are reported.

  11. Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness in female nonradiation workers of a monazite processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest wall thickness (CWT) was estimated in fifty four female nonradiation workers of a monazite processing plant by biometric measurements. The CWT ranged from 4.12 cm to 6.94 cm giving an average of 5.19 ± 0.76 cm. CWT was found to have very good correlation with percent Body Fat and abdominal circumference but poor correlation with Body Mass Index, Body Build Index, Slenderness, age etc. CWT increases with age especially in the upper middle-aged group (> 35 years). A single measurement of abdominal circumference can be used to estimate CWT with 94 % accuracy. A factor of 0.0587 was derived to estimate CWT from abdominal circumference. The study also showed that about 11 % of the subjects were obese. The results obtained will be very useful for the accurate measurement of Low Energy Photons like 239Pu and 241Am deposited in the lung. (author)

  12. Biometric analysis of the intestine of the Southern Caracara (Polyborus plancus, Miller, 1777

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carime Moraes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the biometric parameters for the enteric tract of eight Southern Caracaras (Polyborus plancus, Miller 1777. The study was carried out on eight adult animals of both sexes (four males and four females having different ages and weights. The animals were sacrificed and dissected, and their visceral tracts were placed on a horizontal plane surface. The lengths were measured and the weights were obtained on electronic precision scales. The statistical analysis utilized was Student’s t-test with a significance level p=0.05. The results showed that the Southern Caracara possessed a duodenum and an ileum longer than those of the chicken. It was concluded that the small intestine of the Southern Caracara is relatively extensive, mainly on account of the duodenum that is similar in length to that of the goose. This bird had a vestige of the cecum that it is different to that of the chicken.

  13. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhuang; Simon Fong

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defin...

  14. Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufi, Fahim; Khalil, Ibrahim; Mahmood, Abdun

    2011-12-01

    Adoption of compression technology is often required for wireless cardiovascular monitoring, due to the enormous size of Electrocardiography (ECG) signal and limited bandwidth of Internet. However, compressed ECG must be decompressed before performing human identification using present research on ECG based biometric techniques. This additional step of decompression creates a significant processing delay for identification task. This becomes an obvious burden on a system, if this needs to be done for a trillion of compressed ECG per hour by the hospital. Even though the hospital might be able to come up with an expensive infrastructure to tame the exuberant processing, for small intermediate nodes in a multihop network identification preceded by decompression is confronting. In this paper, we report a technique by which a person can be identified directly from his / her compressed ECG. This technique completely obviates the step of decompression and therefore upholds biometric identification less intimidating for the smaller nodes in a multihop network. The biometric template created by this new technique is lower in size compared to the existing ECG based biometrics as well as other forms of biometrics like face, finger, retina etc. (up to 8302 times lower than face template and 9 times lower than existing ECG based biometric template). Lower size of the template substantially reduces the one-to-many matching time for biometric recognition, resulting in a faster biometric authentication mechanism. PMID:20703779

  15. Biometric Template Security Using Invisible Watermarking With Minimum Degradation in Quality of Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Yadav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to enhance the Biometric Template Security by using Invisible Watermarking. For embedding the watermark in the Biometric Template, we used Parity Checker Method [2]. The use of Parity Checker Method ensures that the change in Biometric Template should be minimum. The watermark that is embedded in the Biometric Template may contain person’s name, person’s address or some unique features of the person. The same watermark is embedded four times in the Biometric Template to enhance its security so that if one watermark is changed by attacker, the other watermark remains intact. For each biometric template there will be a secret key that is used for embedding of watermark. The maintenance of secret key will be responsibility of database manager. The same key can be used for all biometric templates which reduces the responsibility of database manager up to a greater extent but at the cost of security. So, we used the separate key for each Biometric Template.

  16. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP, and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matched Filter (IGMF. Experimental results confirm that the proposed multimodal biometric process achieves excellent recognition performance compared to unimodal biometric system. The Area Under Curve (AUC of the proposed approach is very close to unity (0.98.

  17. Enhancement of Security and Privacy in Biometric Passport Inspection System Using Face, Fingerprint, and Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The biometric passports are to prevent the illegal entry of traveler into a specific country and limit the use of counterfeit documents by more accurate identification of an individual. Biometric Passports have been introduced in many countries to improve the security in Inspection Systems and enhance procedures and systems that prevent identity and passport fraud. The deployment of biometric technologies, countries need to test and evaluate its systems since the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO provides the guidelines, but the implementation is up to each issuing country. The paper also provides a cryptographic security analysis of the e-passport using face fingerprint, and iris biometric that are intended to provide improved security in protecting biometric information of the e-passport bearer.

  18. Determination of new European biometric equations for the calibration of in vivo lung counting systems using Livermore phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In vivo lung measurement is a widely used method for nuclear workers monitoring. This technique consists of assessing retained activity in lungs after an inhalation, by means of an external direct measurement of x- or gamma rays emitted during disintegration of incorporated nuclides. This estimation is always done by comparing the measurement of the subject to the measurement obtained using a physical calibration phantom. However, due to emissions by actinides of x and γ-rays with energies below 200 keV and low emission ratio, calibration of in vivo measurement systems is very delicate, leading to important systematic errors despite the improvements realized in the design of sophisticated phantoms. Moreover, in France, calibration factors for a given subject are generally corrected thanks to biometric equations determining chest wall thickness according to weight/height ratio of the measured person. Nevertheless these equations were determined for a 2, 3 or 6 detectors system in chair geometry and for American subjects, that doesn't represent the geometry encountered in French laboratories. The work presented here is dedicated to the determination of new biometric equations more adapted to the French measurement systems using 4 germanium detectors in bed geometry with a Livermore calibration phantom. These equations were determined on the basis of computed tomography (CT) images of 33 adult males and for energies of 17 and 60 keV (respectively full absorption peaks of 239Pu and 241Am). These biometric equations which can be directly converted into Livermore chest thicknesses, were calculated for all kinds of Livermore phantoms: 16 mm and 19 mm torso plate (100 % muscle equivalent) and for all composition of overlay plates (100 % muscle; 50 % muscle-50 % adipose; 13 % muscle-87 % adipose). The obtained results could directly be used in the different European radiobioassay laboratories to improve the calibration of in vivo lung counting systems. (author)

  19. SU-E-T-502: Biometrically Accepted Patient Records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavatia, A; Kalnicki, S; Garg, M; Lukaj, A; Hong, L [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Fret, J [Montefiore Information Technology, Yonkers, NY (United States); Yaparpalvi, R [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a clinically useful palm vein pattern recognition biometric system to treat the correct treatment plan to the correct patient each and every time and to check-in the patient into the department to access the correct medical record. Methods: A commercially available hand vein scanning system was paired to Aria and utilized an ADT interface from the hospital electronic health system. Integration at two points in Aria, version 11 MR2, first at the appointment tracker screen for the front desk medical record access and second at the queue screen on the 4D treatment console took place for patient daily time-out. A test patient was utilized to check accuracy of identification as well as to check that no unintended interactions take place between the 4D treatment console and the hand vein scanning system. This system has been in clinical use since December 2013. Results: Since implementation, 445 patients have been enrolled into our biometric system. 95% of patients learn the correct methodology of hand placement on the scanner in the first try. We have had two instances of patient not found because of a bad initial scan. We simply erased the scanned metric and the patient enrolled again in those cases. The accuracy of the match is 100% for each patient, we have not had one patient misidentified. We can state this because we still use patient photo and date of birth as identifiers. A QA test patient is run monthly to check the integrity of the system. Conclusion: By utilizing palm vein scans along with the date of birth and patient photo, another means of patient identification now exits. This work indicates the successful implementation of technology in the area of patient safety by closing the gap of treating the wrong plan to a patient in radiation oncology. FOJP Service Corporation covered some of the costs of the hardware and software of the palm vein pattern recognition biometric system.

  20. SU-E-T-502: Biometrically Accepted Patient Records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement a clinically useful palm vein pattern recognition biometric system to treat the correct treatment plan to the correct patient each and every time and to check-in the patient into the department to access the correct medical record. Methods: A commercially available hand vein scanning system was paired to Aria and utilized an ADT interface from the hospital electronic health system. Integration at two points in Aria, version 11 MR2, first at the appointment tracker screen for the front desk medical record access and second at the queue screen on the 4D treatment console took place for patient daily time-out. A test patient was utilized to check accuracy of identification as well as to check that no unintended interactions take place between the 4D treatment console and the hand vein scanning system. This system has been in clinical use since December 2013. Results: Since implementation, 445 patients have been enrolled into our biometric system. 95% of patients learn the correct methodology of hand placement on the scanner in the first try. We have had two instances of patient not found because of a bad initial scan. We simply erased the scanned metric and the patient enrolled again in those cases. The accuracy of the match is 100% for each patient, we have not had one patient misidentified. We can state this because we still use patient photo and date of birth as identifiers. A QA test patient is run monthly to check the integrity of the system. Conclusion: By utilizing palm vein scans along with the date of birth and patient photo, another means of patient identification now exits. This work indicates the successful implementation of technology in the area of patient safety by closing the gap of treating the wrong plan to a patient in radiation oncology. FOJP Service Corporation covered some of the costs of the hardware and software of the palm vein pattern recognition biometric system

  1. On the Privacy Protection of Biometric Traits: Palmprint, Face, and Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Saroj Kumar; Jena, Debasish; Korra, Sathya Babu; Jena, Sanjay Kumar

    Biometrics are expected to add a new level of security to applications, as a person attempting access must prove who he or she really is by presenting a biometric to the system. The recent developments in the biometrics area have lead to smaller, faster and cheaper systems, which in turn has increased the number of possible application areas for biometric identity verification. The biometric data, being derived from human bodies (and especially when used to identify or verify those bodies) is considered personally identifiable information (PII). The collection, use and disclosure of biometric data — image or template, invokes rights on the part of an individual and obligations on the part of an organization. As biometric uses and databases grow, so do concerns that the personal data collected will not be used in reasonable and accountable ways. Privacy concerns arise when biometric data are used for secondary purposes, invoking function creep, data matching, aggregation, surveillance and profiling. Biometric data transmitted across networks and stored in various databases by others can also be stolen, copied, or otherwise misused in ways that can materially affect the individual involved. As Biometric systems are vulnerable to replay, database and brute-force attacks, such potential attacks must be analysed before they are massively deployed in security systems. Along with security, also the privacy of the users is an important factor as the constructions of lines in palmprints contain personal characteristics, from face images a person can be recognised, and fake signatures can be practised by carefully watching the signature images available in the database. We propose a cryptographic approach to encrypt the images of palmprints, faces, and signatures by an advanced Hill cipher technique for hiding the information in the images. It also provides security to these images from being attacked by above mentioned attacks. So, during the feature extraction, the

  2. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  3. Una mirada a la biometría

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ MARÍN, MILTON; RODRÍGUEZ URIBE, JUAN CARLOS; OLIVARES MORALES, JUAN CARLOS

    2011-01-01

    La Identificación Biométrica, es decir, el reconocer a una persona por alguna característica biofísica o de comportamiento, está tomando cada vez más importancia en la actualidad ; su importancia radica en las limitaciones de los sistemas actuales de identificación personal, los cuales en su mayoría, están restringidos al uso de dispositivos externos como tarjetas inteligentes y claves personales. La biometría está basada en el principio de que cada individuo es único y posee rasgos físicos ...

  4. Biometric estimation of chest wall thickness of females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal use of whole-body counting data to estimate pulmonary deposition of many of the actinides is dependent upon accurate measurement of the thickness of the chest wall because of severe attenuation of low-energy x rays and photons associated with the decay of these radionuclides. An algorithm for estimation of female chest wall thicknesses, verified by real-time ultrasonic measurements, has been derived based on the correlation of measured chest wall thickness and other common biometric quantities. Use of this algorithm will reduce the error generally associated with estimation of internal actinide deposition previously resulting from assuming an average chest wall thickness for all female subjects

  5. Elastic Face, An Anatomy-Based Biometrics Beyond Visible Cue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsap, L V; Zhang, Y; Kundu, S J; Goldgof, D B; Sarkar, S

    2004-03-29

    This paper describes a face recognition method that is designed based on the consideration of anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of facial tissues. Elastic strain pattern inferred from face expression can reveal an individual's biometric signature associated with the underlying anatomical structure, and thus has the potential for face recognition. A method based on the continuum mechanics in finite element formulation is employed to compute the strain pattern. Experiments show very promising results. The proposed method is quite different from other face recognition methods and both its advantages and limitations, as well as future research for improvement are discussed.

  6. Real Time Smart Car Security System by Using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. S. P. Pingat; Shubham Rakhecha; Rishabh Agrawal; Sarika Mhetre; Pranay Raushan

    2013-01-01

    In this proposed paper, two tier security for car is achieved using Biometrics such as FDS (Face Detection System) and Finger Print Detection System. FDS is used to detect the face of the person driving the car and compare it with the training set. For example, during night when the owner of car is sleeping and someone tries to rob the car then initially the finger print of that person will be detected and matched with predefined image through handle of the car where the Finger print scanner ...

  7. Experimental Implementation of a Biometric Laser Synaptic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Pisarchik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We fabricate a biometric laser fiber synaptic sensor to transmit information from one neuron cell to the other by an optical way. The optical synapse is constructed on the base of an erbium-doped fiber laser, whose pumped diode current is driven by a pre-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron, and the laser output controls a post-synaptic FitzHugh–Nagumo electronic neuron. The implemented laser synapse displays very rich dynamics, including fixed points, periodic orbits with different frequency-locking ratios and chaos. These regimes can be beneficial for efficient biorobotics, where behavioral flexibility subserved by synaptic connectivity is a challenge.

  8. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  9. Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective study on the behaviour of values obtained by organ function studies, in particular scintiscan studies of pulmonary perfusion, during treatment of little to moderately advanced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. This prospective study analyses features of global and regional pulmonary function in 14 patients with little to moderately pronounced tuberculosis, shown by X-rays to involve one lobe of the lung. At the beginning of treatment, the global function values were not different from the values generally accepted as normal. Disturbed perfusion was determined in pulmonary sections where the X-ray pictures had revealed the presence of tuberculous foci. After therapy and inactivation of the tuberculosis the values were seen to remain unchanged. (MBC)

  10. Improving Atm Security Check Using DNA Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe, Agu Felix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes how DNA can be used to identify account owner of a particular bank.DNA samples were obtained from body fluid. Buccal swab was used for sample collection .Buccal cell collection involves wiping a small piece of filter paper or a cotton swab against the inside of armpit in order to collect shed epithelial cells. The swab was then air dried or could be pressed against a treated collection card in order to transfer epithelial cells for storage purposes. The stored samples were later amplified and separated .The data generated from the samples were stored and saved in the database so that if a customer comes to claim money, the system checks whether it matches with what is stored in the database ,if it matches with the one in the database, access is granted to the customer,.if it does not match with what is stored in the database ,access is denied from the customer

  11. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lourenço

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications.

  12. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Forgery quality and its implications for behavioral biometric security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Lucas; Lopresti, Daniel; Monrose, Fabian

    2007-10-01

    Biometric security is a topic of rapidly growing importance in the areas of user authentication and cryptographic key generation. In this paper, we describe our steps toward developing evaluation methodologies for behavioral biometrics that take into account threat models that have been largely ignored. We argue that the pervasive assumption that forgers are minimally motivated (or, even worse, naive) is too optimistic and even dangerous. Taking handwriting as a case in point, we show through a series of experiments that some users are significantly better forgers than others, that such forgers can be trained in a relatively straightforward fashion to pose an even greater threat, that certain users are easy targets for forgers, and that most humans are a relatively poor judge of handwriting authenticity, and hence, their unaided instincts cannot be trusted. Additionally, to overcome current labor-intensive hurdles in performing more accurate assessments of system security, we present a generative attack model based on concatenative synthesis that can provide a rapid indication of the security afforded by the system. We show that our generative attacks match or exceed the effectiveness of forgeries rendered by the skilled humans we have encountered. PMID:17926695

  14. Toward lightweight biometric signal processing for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, Roberto; Hooshmand, Mohsen; Gadaleta, Matteo; Grisan, Enrico; Yoon, Seung Keun; Rossi, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Wearable devices are becoming a natural and economic means to gather biometric data from end users. The massive amount of information that they will provide, unimaginable until a few years ago, owns an immense potential for applications such as continuous monitoring for personalized healthcare and use within fitness applications. Wearables are however heavily constrained in terms of amount of memory, transmission capability and energy reserve. This calls for dedicated, lightweight but still effective algorithms for data management. This paper is centered around lossy data compression techniques, whose aim is to minimize the amount of information that is to be stored on their onboard memory and subsequently transmitted over wireless interfaces. Specifically, we analyze selected compression techniques for biometric signals, quantifying their complexity (energy consumption) and compression performance. Hence, we propose a new class of codebook-based (CB) compression algorithms, designed to be energy efficient, online and amenable to any type of signal exhibiting recurrent patterns. Finally, the performance of the selected and the new algorithm is assessed, underlining the advantages offered by CB schemes in terms of memory savings and classification algorithms. PMID:26737218

  15. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  16. Behavioral Biometrics in Assisted Living: A Methodology for Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xefteris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral biometrics aim at providing algorithms for the automatic recognition of individual behavioral traits, stemming from a person’s actions, attitude, expressions and conduct. In the field of ambient assisted living, behavioral biometrics find an important niche. Individuals suffering from the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases (MCI, Alzheimer’s, dementia need supervision in their daily activities. In this context, an unobtrusive system to monitor subjects and alert formal and informal carers providing information on both physical and emotional status is of great importance and positively affects multiple stakeholders. The primary aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for recognizing the emotional status of a subject using facial expressions and to identify its uses, in conjunction with pre-existing risk-assessment methodologies, for its integration into the context of a smart monitoring system for subjects suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Paul Ekman’s research provided the background on the universality of facial expressions as indicators of underlying emotions. The methodology then makes use of computational geometry, image processing and graph theory algorithms for the detection of regions of interest and then a neural network is used for the final classification. Findings are coupled with previous published work for risk assessment and alert generation in the context of an ambient assisted living environment based on Service oriented architecture principles, aimed at remote web-based estimation of the cognitive and physical status of MCI and dementia patients.

  17. Obtaining of the cellular S values by means of Monte Carlo simulation with Penelope and MCNPX; Obtencion de los valores S celulares mediante simulacion Monte Carlo con PENELOPE y MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L.; Avila, O., E-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the simulation codes Monte Carlo, Penelope and MCNPX were used to calculate the doses by unit of accumulated activity S(N-N) in water spherical cells models of different radius exposed to mono-energetics electrons coming from punctual sources located in the center of the cellular nucleus. The studied cellular radii were: r{sub n}1=3 r{sub c}1=6; r{sub n}2=5 and r{sub c}2=10; r{sub n}3=9 and r{sub c}3=10 {mu}m; being r{sub n} and r{sub c} the nuclear and cellular radius, respectively. The following initial energies of the electrons were considered: 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 700 and 1000 keV. Additionally values S(N-N) were calculated for spherical cells of r= 3 {mu}m r{sub c}= 6 {mu}m due to the electrons coming from sources of {sup 111}In, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 186}Re. The obtained values are compared with those calculated by the MIRD Committee internationally accepted. The percentage differences between the values reported by this Committee and those calculated by Monte Carlo simulation are inside the interval that is considered valid for this dosimetry type. A major concordance was found among the values calculated by Monte Carlo simulation that among those calculated by MIRD and those obtained by simulation. Considering validated the use of both codes for similar applications, the values S(N-N) and S(N-C y) were obtained of prostate cancer real cells models of the PC3 line. The results were compared among them. The values of S(N-N) obtained with Penelope for the PC3 cells for the electron emissions of {sup 111}In, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 186}Re are: 3.19e{sup {sub {sup 4}}}, 3.24e{sup -4}, 1.37e{sup -4}, 1.11e{sup -4} and 1.91e{sup -4} Gy/Bq-s, respectively. Also the obtained results for S(N-C y) are: 2.95e{sup -6}, 3.17e{sup -5}, 2.09e{sup -6}, 1.41e{sup -5}, 1.86e{sup -5} Gy/Bq-s. (Author)

  18. Guidelines for the Deployment of Biometrics Technology in Blekinge Health Care System with the Focus on Human Perceptions and Cost Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Zeb, Falak; Naseem, Sajid

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics Technology is an authentication technology that identifies the individuals from their physical and behavioral characteristics. Despite the fact that biometrics technology provides robust authentication and enhanced security, it has not yet been implemented in many parts of the world due to certain issues i.e. human perceptions of the biometrics technology and cost factor, involved in the deployment of biometrics technology. As the biometrics technology involves identity management ...

  19. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities. PMID:21380485

  20. Unobtrusive Behavioral and Activity-Related Multimodal Biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drosou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities.

  1. Strategies for Exploiting Independent Cloud Implementations of Biometric Experts in Multibiometric Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the fastest growing areas of technology and offers a new computing model for various applications and services. This model is particularly interesting for the area of biometric recognition, where scalability, processing power, and storage requirements are becoming a bigger and bigger issue with each new generation of recognition technology. Next to the availability of computing resources, another important aspect of cloud computing with respect to biometrics is accessibility. Since biometric cloud services are easily accessible, it is possible to combine different existing implementations and design new multibiometric services that next to almost unlimited resources also offer superior recognition performance and, consequently, ensure improved security to its client applications. Unfortunately, the literature on the best strategies of how to combine existing implementations of cloud-based biometric experts into a multibiometric service is virtually nonexistent. In this paper, we try to close this gap and evaluate different strategies for combining existing biometric experts into a multibiometric cloud service. We analyze the (fusion strategies from different perspectives such as performance gains, training complexity, or resource consumption and present results and findings important to software developers and other researchers working in the areas of biometrics and cloud computing. The analysis is conducted based on two biometric cloud services, which are also presented in the paper.

  2. Thoracic and heart biometrics of non-anesthetized agouti (Dasyprocta primnolopha Wagler, 1831 measured on radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaemilia das N. Diniz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The agouti is a species intensively hunted throughout the Amazon and the semi-arid regions of northeastern Brazil. Considering the current trend in conservation management of wild species, the aim of this study was to determine the morphometric reference to the heart of agouti raised in captivity, based on thoracic and cardiac measurements in these animals. Thirty adult agoutis, 1 to 3 years of age, without clinical signs of cardiac disease were selected. The animals were physically restrained and radiographies in laterolateral (LL and ventrodorsal (VD recumbence were produced. The following measures were taken: the apicobasilar length of the heart (at the most cranial height of the Carina region to the heart apex (AB, maximum width of the heart perpendicular to AB (CD, heart inclination angle (AIC, trachea inclination angle (AIT, distance from the right heart wall (DPTd, distance from the left heart wall (DPTe and vertical depth of the thorax, and the ventral face of the vertebral column to the dorsal border of the sternum at the level of the trachea bifurcation (H. The ratios between AB/CD, AB/H and CD/H were also analyzed. To calculate the vertebral heart scale (VHS, the AB and CD measurements were laid over the thoracic vertebra starting at T4. Radiographic evaluation showed values consistent with those reported in small animals and some wild and exotic species. The main biometric values in the chest cavity and heart of agouti are arranged as follows: (1 The ratios between AB/H ratio and CD/H were not sensitive for identifying heart increases (p>0.05, while the ratio AB/CD was more sensitive in this identification (p<0.05; (2 AIC: 21.2±6.4º (mean between male and famale; (3 AIT for males and females: 9.93±3.23° and 8.4±3.94°; (4 DPTd and DPTe for males: 0.97±0.40cm and 0.7±0.30cm; (5 DPTd and DPTe for females: 1.12±0.42cm and 01.02±0.43cm; (6 VHS for males and females: 7.75±0.48v e 7.61±0.34v; (7 The caudal vena cava (CVC was

  3. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The security of bio-metric information - finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using arithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public key cryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  4. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of bio-metric information – finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some otherchemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth andunreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essentialrequirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient andeffective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by usingarithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed ofencryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public keycryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  5. New Biometric Approaches for Improved Person Identification Using Facial Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is measurable characteristics specific to an individual. Face detection has diverse applications especially as an identification solution which can meet the crying needs in security areas. While traditionally 2D images of faces have been used, 3D scans that contain both 3D data and registered color are becoming easier to acquire. Before 3D face images can be used to identify an individual, they require some form of initial alignment information, typically based on facial feature locations. We follow this by a discussion of the algorithms performance when constrained to frontal images and an analysis of its performance on a more complex dataset with significant head pose variation using 3D face data for detection provides a promising route to improved performance.

  6. Multimodal Biometrics and Multilayered IDM for Secure Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Abdullah; Santos, Henrique

    In the Electronic Society (e-world) users are represented by a set of data called Digital Identity (ID), which they must use for authentication purposes. Within the e-world it is certainly risky to lose the identity and this security threat must be ranking with the highest priority, forcing a solution that provides an amenable usage of digital identity. Efficient protection of the digital identity would also encourage users to enter the digital world without worries. Security needs to provide the necessary identity management (IDM) process to mitigate that threat. This paper gives an overview of IDM and suggests a framework that can be particularly useful for a secure user authentication. The proposed model appears as a multi-layered security approach, since it tries to integrate different security technologies and multimodal biometrics tools and practices, such as police, procedures, guidelines, standards and legislation. The advantages, limitations and requirements of the proposed model are discussed.

  7. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  8. Security of a biometric identity-based encryption scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Miaomiao; Huang, Liusheng

    2011-01-01

    Biometric identity-based encryption (Bio-IBE) is a kind of fuzzy identity-based encryption (fuzzy IBE) where a ciphertext encrypted under an identity w' can be decrypted using a secret key corresponding to the identity w which is close to w' as measured by some metric. Recently, Yang et al. proposed a constant-size Bio-IBE scheme and proved that it is secure against adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA2) in the random oracle model. Unfortunately, in this paper, we will show that their Bio-IBE scheme is even not chosen-plaintext secure. Specifically, user w using his secret key is able to decrypt any ciphertext encrypted under an identity w' even though w is not close to w'.

  9. Behavioural Biometrics and Cognitive Security Authentication Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Khare

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behaviouralbiometrics is a scientific study with the primary purpose of identifying the authenticity of auser based on the way they interact with an authentication mechanism. While Association based passwordauthentication is a cognitive model of authentication system.The work done shows the implementation of Keyboard Latency technique for Authentication,implementation of Association Based Password authentication and comparison among two. There areseveral forms of behavioural biometrics such as voice analysis, signature verification, and keystrokedynamics. In this study, evidence is presented indicating that keystroke dynamics is a viable method notonly for user verification, but also for identification as well. The work presented in this model borrowsideas from the bioinformatics literature such as position specific scoring matrices (motifs and multiplesequence alignments to provide a novel approach to user verification and identification within the contextof a keystroke dynamics based user authentication system. Similarly Cognitive approach can be defined inmany ways of which one is association based Technique for authentication

  10. Biometric Authentication Through a Virtual Keyboard for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Trojahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Security through biometric keystroke authentication on mobile phones with a capacitive display and aQWERTZ-layout is a new approach. Keystroke on mobile phones with a 12-key layout has already shownthe possibility for authentication on these devices. But with hardware changes, new general requirementshave been arisen.In this paper, we focus on the authentication with keystroke dynamics. Therefore, we are presenting newimplemented keyboard layouts to show differences between a 12-key layout and a QWERTZ-layout. Inaddition, we compare a numerical (PIN and alphabetic (password input for mobile phones. For this, weadded new features for a keystroke authentication with a capacitive display. With the knowledge of the faultrates, we discuss the improvement of the security for keystroke dynamics with different virtual keyboardlayouts. Our results show, even with new hardware factors, that an authentication via keystroke dynamicsis possible.

  11. The biometric analysis of wall of human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was an establishment of regional morphological features of wall of human heart at fetuses, newborns and children. As a material for the research hearts of fetuses of 28-32 weeks (n=9, newborns (n=12 and children (n=14, who have died from reasons not connected with cardiovascular pathology, have served. By the methods of organometrii and variation statistics, the conducted biometric analysis of wall of heart has shown, that structural-functional reorganization of a heart wall during studied age periods (along with the increase of linear-weight parameters of heart, growth-weight parameters of organism is connected with the increase in thickness of heart wall, changes of density of heart wall and redistribution of specific weight of heart wall at transition from intra-uterine to after birth lives. The redistribution of mass in a cardiac wall takes place both on a height and on its circumference.

  12. Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation Applied to Segmentation in Hand Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC and Normalized Cuts (NCuts. The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

  13. Personal Identification with Face Biometrics using Color Local Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A.Hiremani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition (FR has received a significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision due to the wide range of applications including video surveillance, biometric identification, and face indexing in multimedia contents. Recently, local texture features have gained reputation as powerful face descriptors because they are believed to be more robust to variations of facial pose, expression, occlusion, etc. In particular, local binary pattern (LBP texture feature has proven to be highly discriminative for FR due to different levels of locality. Hence, it is proposed to employ these features along with color local texture feature for efficient FR system. The personal identification accuracy with face modality using color local texture features is around 97% is achieved.

  14. Feature Level Fusion of Face and Fingerprint Biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rattani, Ajita; Bicego, Manuele; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the fusion at feature extraction level for face and fingerprint biometrics. The proposed approach is based on the fusion of the two traits by extracting independent feature pointsets from the two modalities, and making the two pointsets compatible for concatenation. Moreover, to handle the problem of curse of dimensionality, the feature pointsets are properly reduced in dimension. Different feature reduction techniques are implemented, prior and after the feature pointsets fusion, and the results are duly recorded. The fused feature pointset for the database and the query face and fingerprint images are matched using techniques based on either the point pattern matching, or the Delaunay triangulation. Comparative experiments are conducted on chimeric and real databases, to assess the actual advantage of the fusion performed at the feature extraction level, in comparison to the matching score level.

  15. Iris recognition: a biometric method after refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iris recognition, as a biometric method, outperforms others because of its high accuracy. Iris is the visible internal organ of human, so it is stable and very difficult to be altered. But if an eye surgery must be made to some individuals, it may be rejected by iris recognition system as imposters after the surgery, because the iris pattern was altered or damaged somewhat during surgery and cannot match the iris template stored before the surgery. In this paper, we originally discuss whether refractive surgery for vision correction (LASIK surgery) would influence the performance of iris recognition. And experiments are designed and tested on iris images captured especially for this research from patients before and after refractive surgery. Experiments showed that refractive surgery has little influence on iris recognition.

  16. Multimodal Biometrics at Feature Level Fusion using Texture Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya V. Karki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fusion of multiple biometric modalities for personal authentication has received considerable attention. This paper presents a feature level fusion algorithm based on texture features. The system combines fingerprint, face and off-line signature. Texture features are extracted from Curvelet transform. The Curvelet feature dimension is selected based on d-prime number. The increase in feature dimension is reduced by using template averaging, moment features and by Principal component analysis (PCA. The algorithm is tested on in-house multimodal database comprising of 3000 samples and Chimeric databases. Identification performance of the system is evaluated using SVM classifier. A maximum GAR of 97.15% is achieved with Curvelet-PCA features.

  17. Contact-free and pose-invariant hand-biometric-based personal identification system using RGB and depth data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can WANG; Hong LIU; Xing LIU

    2014-01-01

    Hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation is considered to be an effective method for automatic recognition. However, existing systems require strict constraints during data acquisition, such as costly devices, specifi ed postures, simple background, and stable illumination. In this paper, a contactless personal identifi cation system is proposed based on matching hand geometry features and color features. An inexpensive Kinect sensor is used to acquire depth and color images of the hand. During image acquisition, no pegs or surfaces are used to constrain hand position or posture. We segment the hand from the background through depth images through a process which is insensitive to illumination and background. Then fi nger orientations and landmark points, like fi nger tips or fi nger valleys, are obtained by geodesic hand contour analysis. Geometric features are extracted from depth images and palmprint features from intensity images. In previous systems, hand features like fi nger length and width are normalized, which results in the loss of the original geometric features. In our system, we transform 2D image points into real world coordinates, so that the geometric features remain invariant to distance and perspective effects. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed hand-biometric-based personal identifi cation system is effective and robust in various practical situations.

  18. An optical authentication system based on encryption technique and multimodal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Mingtang

    2013-12-01

    A major concern nowadays for a biometric credential management system is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources. To prevent a genuine user's templates from both internal and external threats, a novel and simple method combined optical encryption with multimodal biometric authentication technique is proposed. In this method, the standard biometric templates are generated real-timely by the verification keys owned by legal user so that they are unnecessary to be stored in a database. Compared with the traditional recognition algorithms, storage space and matching time are greatly saved. In addition, the verification keys are difficult to be forged due to the utilization of optical encryption technique. Although the verification keys are lost or stolen, they are useless for others in absence of the legal owner's biometric. A series of numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this method.

  19. Video-Object Oriented Biometrics Hiding for User Authentication under Error-Prone Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drigas Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic video-object oriented steganographic system is proposed for biometrics authentication over error-prone networks. Initially, the host video object is automatically extracted through analysis of videoconference sequences. Next, the biometric pattern corresponding to the segmented video object is encrypted by a chaotic cipher module. Afterwards, the encrypted biometric signal is inserted to the most significant wavelet coefficients of the video object, using its qualified significant wavelet trees (QSWTs. QSWTs provide both invisibility and significant resistance against lossy transmission and compression, conditions that are typical in error prone networks. Finally, the inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT is applied to provide the stego-object. Experimental results under various losses and JPEG compression ratios indicate the security, robustness, and efficiency of the proposed biometrics hiding system.

  20. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  1. A Multimodal Biometric System Using Linear Discriminant Analysis For Improved Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Aamir; Khurshid, Aasim; Akram, Adeel

    2012-01-01

    Essentially a biometric system is a pattern recognition system which recognizes a user by determining the authenticity of a specific anatomical or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. With the ever increasing integration of computers and Internet into daily life style, it has become necessary to protect sensitive and personal data. This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system which incorporates more than one biometric trait to attain higher security and to handle failure to enroll situations for some users. This paper is aimed at investigating a multimodal biometric identity system using Linear Discriminant Analysis as backbone to both facial and speech recognition and implementing such system in real-time using SignalWAVE.

  2. A review of data acquisition and difficulties in sensor module of biometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics refers to the recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Thebiometric traits which may be considered for the authentication of a person are face, hand geometry, finger print, vein, iris,etc. A competent selection of a sensor, its mechanism and adaptability is required, as the absence of these will leave thebiometric sensor deceptive to information sensing. Selecting a sensor for a biometric application from the large number ofavailable sensors with different technologies always brought the issue of performance and accuracy. Therefore, various errorrates and sensibility contention differentiate the available biometric sensors. This paper presents the difficulties faced in thesensor module of the biometric system and the incomparable alternatives on the basis of availability of information at sensormodule of the various systems.

  3. Physiological Biometric Authentication Systems Advantages Disadvantages And Future Development A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Alsaadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing users private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face finger iris scanning voice signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

  4. Sustaining Security In MANET: Biometric Stationed Authentication Protocol (BSAP Inculcating Meta-Heuristic Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Zafar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprehends an impending accost of intensifying biometric stationed authentication protocol(BSAP bestowing meta-heuristic genetic algorithm for securing MANET. Biometric authentication using fingerprint, facial, iris scan, voice recognition etc. have gain a lot of importance in recent years to provide security in MANET. Biometrics are more advantageous and secure as compared to prevailing data security techniques like password or token mechanisms. A higher level of security is achieved in our impending approach using genetic algorithm to overcome the security and privacy concerns that exist in biometric technology. The foremost requirement of our protocol is to overcome various data attacks such as wormhole, cache poisoning, invisible node attack etc. that are confronted by MANET and make the network more secure.

  5. Temporal stability of visual search-driven biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual's visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant's "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, temporally stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  6. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  7. Ocular biometrics by score-level fusion of disparate experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo

    2014-12-01

    The concept of periocular biometrics emerged to improve the robustness of iris recognition to degraded data. Being a relatively recent topic, most of the periocular recognition algorithms work in a holistic way and apply a feature encoding/matching strategy without considering each biological component in the periocular area. This not only augments the correlation between the components in the resulting biometric signature, but also increases the sensitivity to particular data covariates. The main novelty in this paper is to propose a periocular recognition ensemble made of two disparate components: 1) one expert analyses the iris texture and exhaustively exploits the multispectral information in visible-light data and 2) another expert parameterizes the shape of eyelids and defines a surrounding dimensionless region-of-interest, from where statistics of the eyelids, eyelashes, and skin wrinkles/furrows are encoded. Both experts work on disjoint regions of the periocular area and meet three important properties. First, they produce practically independent responses, which is behind the better performance of the ensemble when compared to the best individual recognizer. Second, they do not share particularly sensitivity to any image covariate, which accounts for augmenting the robustness against degraded data. Finally, it should be stressed that we disregard information in the periocular region that can be easily forged (e.g., shape of eyebrows), which constitutes an active anticounterfeit measure. An empirical evaluation was conducted on two public data sets (FRGC and UBIRIS.v2), and points for consistent improvements in performance of the proposed ensemble over the state-of-the-art periocular recognition algorithms. PMID:25296405

  8. Temporal Stability of Visual Search-Driven Biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual s visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant s "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, fairly stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  9. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Galbally Herrero, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fiérrez, Julián

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample, is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this work we present a novel software-based fake detection method which can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security ...

  10. Improved AFIS for Color and Gray Image based on Biometric Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Espino-Gudiño, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Hernández, Vicente; Terol Villalobos, Iván R.; Herrera Ruiz, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    This research presents a fingerprint image processing algorithm for personal automatic identification, which has been in development since 1998. It is principally based on the comparison of the fingerprint's biometric pattern between the fingerprint captured (original) in each session and the one stored in database. It is preferable to capture the image in color. The biometric pattern is formed by the Euclidean distances based on the triangulation of only three minutiae. This methodology loca...

  11. Neural Network Based Accurate Biometric Recognition and Identification of Human Iris Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gopikrishnan; T.Santhanam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Approach: Most commercial iris recognition systems use patented algorithms developed by Daugman and these algorithms are able to produce perfect recognition rates. However, published results have usually been produced under favor...

  12. Analysis of Voiceprint and Other Biometrics for Criminological and Security Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseyndoust Foomany, Farbod

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis examines the role and limitations of voice biometrics in the contexts of security and for crime reduction. The main thrust of the Thesis is that despite the technical and non-technical hurdles that this research has identified and sought to overcome, voice can be an effective and sustainable biometric if used in the manner proposed here. It is contended that focused and continuous evaluation of the strength of systems within a solid framework is essential to the development and...

  13. Democracies Restricting Democratic Rights: Some Classical Sources and Implications for Ethics of Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the...

  14. SilentSense: Silent User Identification via Dynamics of Touch and Movement Behavioral Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Cheng; Zhang, Lan; Li, Xiang-yang

    2013-01-01

    With the increased popularity of smartphones, various security threats and privacy leakages targeting them are discovered and investigated. In this work, we present \\ourprotocoltight, a framework to authenticate users silently and transparently by exploiting dynamics mined from the user touch behavior biometrics and the micro-movement of the device caused by user's screen-touch actions. We build a "touch-based biometrics" model of the owner by extracting some principle features, and then veri...

  15. Biometrics Technology : Attitudes & influencing factors when trying to adopt this technology in Blekinge healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Irfan; Qadir, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Context. Biometric technology is a secure and convenient identification method and it does not need to remember complex passwords, nor smart cards, keys, and the like. Biometrics is the measurable characteristics of individuals based on their behavioral patterns or physiological features that can be used to verify or recognize their identity. Physical characteristics include fingerprints, palm or hand geometry, iris, retina, and facial characteristics. Behavioral characteristics include signat...

  16. Large-scale Biometrics Deployment in Europe: Identifying Challenges and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, James; ANGELETTI Rina; HOLZBACH Manfred; KONRAD Daniel; SNIJDER Max

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale biometrics deployment in the EU still in its infancy and with stakeholders racing to position themselves in view of the lucrative market that is forecasted, a study to identify challenges and threats that need to be dealt with was launched. This is the result: a report on Biometrics large-scale Deployment in Europe. The report tackles three main issues namely, the status, security / privacy and testing / certification processes. A survey was launched so as to help reveal the ...

  17. A Framework for Token and Biometrics Based Authentication in Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zheng

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is of vital importance to the security of computer systems. This paper proposes a new framework for multifactor authentication using token and various biometrics, such as fingerprint, retina scan, hand geometry and face pattern, which allows the authenticator, usually runs as a  sever, to store only cipher texts, instead of the plaintexts of the biometrics templates, so as to reduce the risk of disclosing personal data of users. Another advantage of the framework is t...

  18. A Formal Study of the Privacy Concerns in Biometric-Based Remote Authentication Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Qiang; Bringer, Julien; Chabanne, Hervé; Pointcheval, David; Chen, L; Mu, Y.; Susilo, W.

    2008-01-01

    With their increasing popularity in cryptosystems, biometrics have attracted more and more attention from the information security community. However, how to handle the relevant privacy concerns remains to be troublesome. In this paper, we propose a novel security model to formalize the privacy concerns in biometric-based remote authentication schemes. Our security model covers a number of practical privacy concerns such as identity privacy and transaction anonymity, which have not been forma...

  19. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  20. Predicting sex as a soft-biometrics from device interaction swipe gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Stevenage, Sarah V.; Bevan, Chris; Guest, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Touch and multi-touch gestures are becoming the most common way to interact with technology such as smart phones, tablets and other mobile devices. The latest touch-screen input capacities have tremendously increased the quantity and quality of available gesture data, which has led to the exploration of its use in multiple disciplines from psychology to biometrics. Following research studies undertaken in similar modalities such as keystroke and mouse usage biometrics, the present work propos...