WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedicinethrough structured organization

  1. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  2. On Structure and Organization: An Organizing Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Nils A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the nature of structure and organization, and the process of making new Things. Hyperstructures are introduced as binding and organizing principles, and we show how they can transfer from one situation to another. A guiding example is the hyperstructure of higher order Brunnian rings and similarly structured many-body systems.

  3. Interfacial structure in organic optoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Turak, Ayse; Grozea, Dan; Huang, Chanjun; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial structure plays a critical role in modern optoelectronics. Currently multilayer electrodes are used to optimize the injection and lifetime properties. The choice of interlayer is not universal, with different effects for the same material with different capping metals. Using a novel in-situ characterization method with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the organic/inorganic interface in OLEDs was examined for two common cathode metals with a LiF interlayer. The impact of the i...

  4. 16 CFR 0.9 - Organization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization structure. 0.9 Section 0.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.9 Organization structure. The Federal Trade Commission comprises the following principal...

  5. The Design of Project Management Structural Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Constantinescu; Cristian Etegan

    2007-01-01

    The relationships organization-suppliers-customers have recently known major changes in the structure of services and have made the organization develop its managerial and professional competencies in order to do projects. The qualified organization is the most trust-worthy in the process of doing a project. The participation of an organization in doing projects depends on a multitude of factors. Out of these factors, the structural organization comes forth, as it represents the variable with...

  6. Structure and Structure-activity Relationship of Functional Organic Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research theme The group is made up of junior scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Elemento-organic Chemistry, Nankai University.The scientists focus their studis on the structure and structure-activity relationship of functional organic molecules not only because it has been the basis of their research, but also because the functional study of organic compounds is now a major scientific issue for organic chemists around the world.

  7. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  8. Getting from Organ- to Part- Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives definitions of organ and part and elaborate on the relations between organ, parts and production methods. The importance of the law of superimposed structures on part design is illustrated and a domain- and view concept is developed.The paper is a collective of overhead...

  9. Unit 051 - Information Organization and Data Structure

    OpenAIRE

    055, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit presents an overview of the terminology and concepts pertaining to information organization and data structure in the context of information science and management. The aim is to provide a general but articulate introduction to the principles and methods of information organization, with special reference to geographic information, that serves as a prerequisite for more advanced studies of data models and database in subsequent units.

  10. Growth of pseudomorphic structures through organic epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of molecular orientation in thin solid film phases of organic semiconductors is a basic factor for the exploitation of their physical properties for optoelectronic devices. We compare structural and optical properties of thin films of the organic semiconductor α-quarterthiophene grown by molecular beam epitaxy on different organic substrates. We show how epitactic interactions, characteristic of the surface of organic crystals, can drive the orientation of the crystalline overlayer and the selection of specific polymorphs and new pseudomorphic phases. We identify a key role in this phenomenon played by the marked groove-like corrugations present in some organic crystal surfaces. Since different polymorphs possess rather different performance in terms of, e.g., charge carrier mobility, this strategy is demonstrated to allow for the growth of oriented phases with enhanced physical properties, while keeping the substrate at room temperature. These results provide useful guidelines for the design of technological substrates for organic epitaxy and they substantiate the adoption of an organic epitaxy approach for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices based on thin films of organic semiconductors.

  11. Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Martin; Tress, Wolfgang; Beyer, Beatrice; Gao, Feng; Scholz, Reinhard; Poelking, Carl; Ortstein, Katrin; Günther, Alrun A; Kasemann, Daniel; Andrienko, Denis; Leo, Karl

    2016-06-17

    A key breakthrough in modern electronics was the introduction of band structure engineering, the design of almost arbitrary electronic potential structures by alloying different semiconductors to continuously tune the band gap and band-edge energies. Implementation of this approach in organic semiconductors has been hindered by strong localization of the electronic states in these materials. We show that the influence of so far largely ignored long-range Coulomb interactions provides a workaround. Photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors can be continuously tuned over a wide range by blending them with their halogenated derivatives. Correspondingly, the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells can be continuously tuned by the blending ratio of these donors. PMID:27313043

  12. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  13. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact.

  14. Organization structure. Main activities of the Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the organization structure as well as main activities of the Division for radiation safety, NPP decommissioning and radioactive waste management are presented. This Division of the VUJE, a.s. consists of the following sections and departments: Section for economic and technical services; Section for radiation protection of employees; Department for management of emergency situations and risk assessment; Department for implementation of nuclear power facilities decommissioning and RAW management; Department for personnel and environmental dosimetry; Department for preparation of NPP decommissioning; Department for RAW treatment technologies; Department for chemical regimes and physico-chemical analyses; Department for management of nuclear power facilities decommissioning and RAW management. Main activities of this Division are presented.

  15. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  16. Organic superconductors with an incommensurate anion structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kawamoto and Kazuo Takimiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting incommensurate organic composite crystals based on the methylenedithio-tetraselenafulvalene (MDT-TSF series donors, where the energy band filling deviates from the usual 3/4-filled, are reviewed. The incommensurate anion potential reconstructs the Fermi surface for both (MDT-TSF(AuI20.436 and (MDT-ST(I30.417 neither by the fundamental anion periodicity q nor by 2q, but by 3q, where MDT-ST is 5H-2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene-1,3-diselena-4,6-dithiapentalene, and q is the reciprocal lattice vector of the anion lattice. The selection rule of the reconstructing vectors is associated with the magnitude of the incommensurate potential. The considerably large interlayer transfer integral and three-dimensional superconducting properties are due to the direct donor–donor interactions coming from the characteristic corrugated conducting sheet structure. The materials with high superconducting transition temperature, Tc, have large ratios of the observed cyclotron masses to the bare ones, which indicates that the strength of the many-body effect is the major determinant of Tc. (MDT-TS(AuI20.441 shows a metal–insulator transition at TMI=50 K, where MDT-TS is 5H-2-(1,3-diselenol-2-ylidene-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene, and the insulating phase is an antiferromagnet with a high Néel temperature (TN=50 K and a high spin–flop field (Bsf=6.9 T. There is a possibility that this material is an incommensurate Mott insulator. Hydrostatic pressure suppresses the insulating state and induces superconductivity at Tc=3.2 K above 1.05 GPa, where Tc rises to the maximum, Tcmax=4.9 K at 1.27 GPa. This compound shows a usual temperature–pressure phase diagram, in which the superconducting phase borders on the antiferromagnetic insulating phase, despite the unusual band filling.

  17. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THYROID GLAND OF PIGS AT FEEDING CHLORELLA

    OpenAIRE

    GAEVA V.A.; MINCHENKO V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different feeding options plankton suspension strain IGF number C-111 on the morphological structure of the thyroid gland (TG) of fattening pigs was examined in the article. In studying of structural organization the thyroid gland of pigs, getting the suspension of chlorella with fodder, showed that its structural organization and functional activity depends on the mass of organs and multiplicity of the drug.

  18. STRUCTURE OF WAVE FRONT AND ORGANIZATION CENTER IN EXCITABLE MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘深泉

    2004-01-01

    With help of establishing the moving coordinate on the wave front surface and the perturbation analysis in the boundary layer, the structures of wave front and organization center in excitable media were studied. The eikonal equation of wave front surface and general equation of organization center were obtained. These eikonal equations reveal the wave front surfaces have structures of twisted scroll wave and Mobius band, the organization centers have structures of knotted and linked ring. These theoretical results not only explain the wave patterns of BZ ( Belousov-Zhabotinskii ) chemical reaction but also give several possibility structures of wave front surface and organization center in general excitable media.

  19. Metal Organic Frameworks: From Structure to Property

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Porous Materials are an important class of materials due to their large-scale industrial applications in gas adsorption, gas separation, heterogeneous catalysis and so on. Among many kinds of porous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as one of the favorites in the past fifteen years. MOFs are crystalline porous materials that are mainly made of inorganic metal containing units (secondary building units, also called SBUs), organic ligands and templates.Compared to commerci...

  20. Novel Structuring Routines for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices are promising candidates for a future energy production at low-costs. In the framework of this thesis, fundamental aspects of organic solar cells based on different blend systems were investigated. X-ray scattering revealed a strong dependency of the inner film morphology of such devices on the layer thickness and the film composition. Applying optical methods, an enhanced photochemical degradation of blend films upon UV-irradiation was observed if ...

  1. Demand structure and willingness to pay for organic dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses if the introduction of a new and “low fat” organic variety of fluid milk has any effect on consumers’ valuation of organic milk in general and can rewind the stagnating trend in the demand for organic milk. In order to analyse this, the consumers’ purchasing structure was anal...

  2. Interface Structure of MoO3 on Organic Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robin T.; Thibau, Emmanuel S.; Zheng-Hong Lu

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically studied interface structure formed by vapor-phase deposition of typical transition metal oxide MoO3 on organic semiconductors. Eight organic hole transport materials have been used in this study. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to measure the evolution of the physical, chemical and electronic structure of the interfaces at various stages of MoO3 deposition on these organic semiconductor surfaces. For the interface phy...

  3. Decentralization as Organizing Principle of Emergent Urban Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Rainer E.

    2002-01-01

    With a view to the ongoing Bologna project (www.arXiv.org/pdf/nlin.AO/0109025) general organizing principles of emergent structures in social systems are being discussed with a view to the meaning of decentralization. It is proposed to introduce decentralization as a principle for organizing emergent structures in a generic way utilizing aspects of the insight gained by the Santa Fe school dealing with self-organized criticality. The techniques utilized come from graph theory, category theory...

  4. The Temporal Organization of Syllabic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation develops analytical tools which enable rigorous evaluation of competing syllabic parses on the basis of temporal patterns in speech production data. The data come from the articulographic tracking of fleshpoints on target speech organs, e.g., tongue, lips, jaw, in experiments with native speakers of American English and Moroccan…

  5. Enhancing Tagging Systems with a Flexible, Faceted Organization Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Alexander Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In tagging systems, information resources are organized only by assigning keywords, so-called "tags". The thesis examines how accessing the contents of such system can be facilitated by means of a flexible organization structure that allows to relate tags to each other in a simple way. An appropriate structure is developed and implemented in a prototype system. In addition to user studies and interviews, the utility of the structure is evaluated in an experiment.

  6. [Classification of organisms and structuralism in biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Structuralism in biology is the oldest trend oriented to the search for natural "laws of forms" comparable with laws of growth of crystal, was revived at the end of 20th century on the basis of structuralist thought in socio-humanitarian sciences. The development of principal ideas of the linguistic structuralism in some aspects is similar to that of biological systematics, especially concerning the relationships between "system" and "evolution". However, apart from this general similarity, biological structuralism is strongly focused on familiar problems of the origin of diversity in nature. In their striving for the renovation of existing views, biological structuralists oppose the neo-darwinism emphasizing the existence of "law of forms", that are independent on heredity and genetic "determinism". The trend to develop so-called "rational taxonomy" is also characteristic of biological structuralism but this attempt failed being connected neither with Darwin's historicism nor with Plato's typology. PMID:11605547

  7. Simulating the Influence of Collaborative Networks on the Structure of Networks of Organizations, Employment Structure, and Organization Value

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Willy

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of reindustrialization, it is important to understand the evolution of the structure of the network of organizations employment structure, and organization value. Understanding the potential influence of collaborative networks (CNs) on these aspects may lead to the development of appropriate economic policies. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to analysis this potential influence, based on a model of dynamic networked ecosystem of organizations encompassing...

  8. Organization of Multinational Activities and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Mugele, Christian; Schnitzer, Monika

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model in which multinational investors decide about the modes of organization, the locations of production, and the markets to be served. Foreign investments are driven by market-seeking and cost-reducing motives. We further assume that investors face costs of control that vary among sectors and increase in distance. The results show that (i) production intensive sectors are more likely to operate a foreign business independent of the investment motive, (ii) that distance may hav...

  9. Structure and Organization of the Upper Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, C. M.; Landi, E.; Vourlidas, A.

    2005-05-01

    Over its past two flights, the VAULT sounding rocket instrument obtained a series of subarcsecond resolution images of the solar disk. These Lyman alpha images resolve and separate structures in the upper chromosphere. The observed plasmas are concentrated in larger diameter, optically thick loops. The images taken near the limb unambiguously identify the height of the upper chromosphere in the quiet sun. An unexpected level of evolution and activity is present in the "quiet sun" at small spatial scales. The third flight of the payload will investigate the interconnectivity of the observed structures with the photosphere.

  10. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Zamahani; Ali Akbar Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Sarlak; Hamideh Shekari

    2013-01-01

    For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and p...

  11. Structural hierarchy in flow-aligned hexagonally self-organized microphases with parallel polyelectrolytic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruotsalainen, T; Torkkeli, M; Serimaa, R; Makela, T; Maki-Ontto, R; Ruokolainen, J; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O; Mäkelä, Tapio; Mäki-Ontto, Riikka

    2003-01-01

    We report a novel structural hierarchy where a flow-aligned hexagonal self-organized structure is combined with a polyelectrolytic self-organization on a smaller length scale and where the two structures are mutually parallel. Polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-block-P4VP) is selected with

  12. Nuclear visions enhanced: chromatin structure, organization and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Meshorer, Eran; Herrmann, Harald; Raška, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The EMBO Workshop on ‘Chromatin Structure, Organization and Dynamics' took place in April 2011 in Prague, Czech Republic. Participants presented data on the generation of models of the genome, working to correlate changes in the organization of chromatin with the functional state of the genome.

  13. Controlled structuration and functionalization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials obtained by sol-gel process are very interesting materials. Indeed, these materials have both the properties of the organic phase and those of the inorganic matrix. Two functionalization and structuration ways are presented here: 1)the meso-porous hybrid materials formed in presence of structuring surfactant and the lamellar hybrid materials obtained by auto-assembling. (O.M.)

  14. Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures: design, morphology and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main approaches to the design of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures are generalized and systematized. Novel photovoltaic materials based on fullerenes, organic dyes and related compounds, graphene, conjugated polymers and dendrimers are considered. The emphasis is placed on correlations between the chemical structure and properties of materials. The effect of morphology of the photoactive layer on the photovoltaic properties of devices is analyzed. Main methods of optimization of the photovoltaic properties are outlined. The bibliography includes 338 references

  15. DOES ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE MATTER? ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONING AND EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    JON AARUM ANDERSEN; PATRIK JONSSON

    2006-01-01

    Managers often see new organizational design as the solution to many problems. This paper explores the relationship between organization structure (design), functioning of organizations, and effectiveness. A study of 320 companies showed that the structural variable, decentralization, marginally affected the way in which organizations function. Functional variables had a minor impact on profitability. No direct relationship between structure and effectiveness was found. When functioning is co...

  16. Principles of disaster management lesson. 12: structuring organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, F C

    2001-01-01

    This lesson discusses various structures for organizations that have functional roles in disaster responses, relief, and/or management activities. It distinguishes between pyramidal and matrix structures, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to disasters. Span of control issues are dissected including the impact of the "P" factor on the performance of disaster managers and workers including its relationship to the coordination and control function. The development of a Table of Organization and how it relates to departmentalization within an organization also is provided. PMID:11513284

  17. Polymeric Thin Films for Organic Electronics: Properties and Adaptive Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pignataro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the correlation between morphology, structure and performance of organic electronic devices including thin film transistors and solar cells. In particular, we report on solution processed devices going into the role of the 3D supramolecular organization in determining their electronic properties. A selection of case studies from recent literature are reviewed, relying on solution methods for organic thin-film deposition which allow fine control of the supramolecular aggregation of polymers confined at surfaces in nanoscopic layers. A special focus is given to issues exploiting morphological structures stemming from the intrinsic polymeric dynamic adaptation under non-equilibrium conditions.

  18. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  19. Organic carbon stabilization in the fractal pore structure of Andosols

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Tiphaine; Woignier, Thierry; Toucet, Joële; Blanchart, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Despite the outstanding potential of Andosols for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, the importance of the different mechanisms involved in protecting SOC against mineralization is still unclear. Previous studies have described allophane particles as having a fractal structure. One hypothesis is that SOC is adsorbed or trapped in this fractal structure and could be less available to microbes and enzymes. This paper aims to determine the fractal structure of allophanic soils, especially ...

  20. Self-organization and coherent structures in plasmas and fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    momentum the development into propagating dipolar structures is observed. This development is discussed by employing self-organization principles. The detailed structures of the evolving dipoles depends on the initial condition. It seems that there are no unique dipolar solutions, but a large class of...... solutions is possible. However, it is argued that the gross properties of the dipoles do not depend critically on the detailed structure. The vortical structures are found to trap particles and convect them over distances much larger than the scale size of the structure. Two examples of trapping...

  1. Structural Genomics of Minimal Organisms: Pipeline and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Hou; Shin, Dong-Hae; Kim, Rosalind; Adams, Paul; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2007-09-14

    The initial objective of the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center was to obtain a near complete three-dimensional (3D) structural information of all soluble proteins of two minimal organisms, closely related pathogens Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae. The former has fewer than 500 genes and the latter has fewer than 700 genes. A semiautomated structural genomics pipeline was set up from target selection, cloning, expression, purification, and ultimately structural determination. At the time of this writing, structural information of more than 93percent of all soluble proteins of M. genitalium is avail able. This chapter summarizes the approaches taken by the authors' center.

  2. The Structure and Profitability of Organic Field Corn Production

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, William D.; Greene, Catherine; Foreman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Results from long-term experimental trials suggest that similar yields and lower costs are possible from organic compared with conventional field crop production, but there is little information about the relative costs and returns on commercial farms. This study examines the structure and profitability of field corn production using a nationwide survey of corn producers for 2010 that includes a targeted sample of organic growers. Propensity score matching was used to develop a sample of simi...

  3. Self-assembled hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Designing bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composite materials is one of the most popular current research objectives. Due to the high complexity of biocomposite structures found in nacre and bone, for example, a one-pot scalable and versatile synthesis approach addressing structural key features of biominerals and affording bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composites with advanced physical properties is highly challenging. This article reviews recent progress in synthesizing organic-inorganic composite materials via various self-assembly techniques and in this context highlights a recently developed bio-inspired synthesis concept for the fabrication of hierarchically structured, organic-inorganic composite materials. This one-step self-organization concept based on simultaneous liquid crystal formation of anisotropic inorganic nanoparticles and a functional liquid crystalline polymer turned out to be simple, fast, scalable and versatile, leading to various (multi-)functional composite materials, which exhibit hierarchical structuring over several length scales. Consequently, this synthesis approach is relevant for further progress and scientific breakthrough in the research field of bio-inspired and biomimetic materials. PMID:27175790

  4. Self-organization and coherent structures in plasmas and fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    momentum the development into propagating dipolar structures is observed. This development is discussed by employing self-organization principles. The detailed structures of the evolving dipoles depends on the initial condition. It seems that there are no unique dipolar solutions, but a large class of......The formation and dynamics of vortical structures in two-dimensional flows are investigated numerically and theoretically. Localized initial distributions with random fluctuations are in general found to evolve into large scale vortical structures. If the initial perturbation contains a linear...... solutions is possible. However, it is argued that the gross properties of the dipoles do not depend critically on the detailed structure. The vortical structures are found to trap particles and convect them over distances much larger than the scale size of the structure. Two examples of trapping...

  5. Embedded Structural Tensions in the Organization of Japanese Advertising Production

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines embedded structural tensions in the organization of Japanese advertising production. Tensions arise from the fact that an advertising campaign, like many other creative products, is produced by motley crews of personnel from both within an agency contracted to carry out the campaign (an account team) and freelance professionals hired to assist in the creative work required (a production team). The structuring of advertising account teams in Japan, Europe ...

  6. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Meijaard; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of family ownership and management on firm performance. Other variables in the analysis include various organization structure variables including standard...

  7. Consumer knowledge structures with regards to organic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Thøgersen, John; Dean, Moira;

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of an empirical study conducted among European consumers to explore consumer knowledge structures with regard to organic foods and to identify the beliefs and the attribute-to-value chains that discriminate best among different consumer segments. Using means-end chain ...... of achieving important personal values among segments of snacking, impulsive and, partly also, rational food consumers. Similarly, regular consumers of organic foods exhibit more complex knowledge structures than non-organic consumers....... associated with self-relevant consequences do not appear to discriminate clearly among segments, however. Generally, organic origin has significant links to personal values among segments of adventurous, enthusiastic, hedonistic and eco-healthy food consumers while it appears a dysfunctional means......This paper presents results of an empirical study conducted among European consumers to explore consumer knowledge structures with regard to organic foods and to identify the beliefs and the attribute-to-value chains that discriminate best among different consumer segments. Using means-end chain...

  8. Stochastic models for plant microtubule self-organization and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ezgi C; Dixit, Ram; Gautam, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are not fast enough due to the spatio-temporal complexity of the system. To redress this shortcoming, we develop analytical models and methods for expeditiously computing CMT system metrics that are related to self-organization and array structure. In particular, we formulate a mean-field model to derive sufficient conditions for the organization to occur. We show that growth-prone dynamics itself is sufficient to lead to organization in presence of interactions in the system. In addition, for such systems, we develop predictive methods for estimation of system metrics such as expected average length and number of CMTs over time, using a stochastic fluid-flow model, transient analysis, and approximation algorithms tailored to our problem. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerical test instances and discuss biological insights. PMID:25700800

  9. Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure 'system,' including the people that come into contact with the structure during its life-cycle. This article reviews and discusss concepts and engineering approaches that can be used in such efforts. Two specific human factor issues are addressed: (1) real-time management of safety during operations, and (2) development of a Safety Management Assessment System to help improve the safety of offshore structures

  10. Supramolecular Assembly of Calcium Metal - Organic Frameworks with Structural Transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liang, P.-Ch.; Liu, H.-K.; Yeh, Ch.-T.; Lin, Ch.-H.; Zima, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2011), 699-708. ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : metal - organic frameworks * calcium * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.720, year: 2011

  11. Self-organized structures in soft confined thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashutosh Sharma

    2005-10-01

    We present a mini-review of our recent work on spontaneous, self-organized creation of mesostructures in soft materials like thin films of polymeric liquids and elastic solids. These very small scale, highly confined systems are inherently unstable and thus self-organize into ordered structures which can be exploited for MEMS, sensors, opto-electronic devices and a host of other nanotechnology applications. In particular, mesomechanics requires incorporation of intermolecular interactions and surface tension forces, which are usually inconsequential in classical macroscale mechanics. We point to some experiments and quasi-continuum simulations of self-organized structures in thin soft films which are germane not only to nanotechnology, but also to a spectrum of classical issues such as adhesion/debonding, wetting, coatings, tribology and membranes.

  12. Coevolution of the Organization and Structure of Prokaryotic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasm of prokaryotes contains many molecular machines interacting directly with the chromosome. These vital interactions depend on the chromosome structure, as a molecule, and on the genome organization, as a unit of genetic information. Strong selection for the organization of the genetic elements implicated in these interactions drives replicon ploidy, gene distribution, operon conservation, and the formation of replication-associated traits. The genomes of prokaryotes are also very plastic with high rates of horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. The evolutionary conflicts between plasticity and organization lead to the formation of regions with high genetic diversity whose impact on chromosome structure is poorly understood. Prokaryotic genomes are remarkable documents of natural history because they carry the imprint of all of these selective and mutational forces. Their study allows a better understanding of molecular mechanisms, their impact on microbial evolution, and how they can be tinkered in synthetic biology. PMID:26729648

  13. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  14. Structural diversity in serine derived homochiral metal organic frameworks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanay Kundu; Rahul Banerjee

    2014-09-01

    Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) based homochiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [SerCdOAc and Zn(Ser)2] have been synthesized using pyridyl functionalized amino acid, viz., serine, as an organic linker. The SerCdOAc structure is three dimensional, while that of the Zn(Ser)2 is two dimensional. The polar voids of the corresponding MOFs are filled with solvent molecules (water in the case of SerCdOAc and methanol in the case of Zn(Ser)2). In both cases, metal centres, i.e., Zn(II) and Cd(II), are hexacoordinated. However, with a change in the solvent for synthesis, ligand coordinationmode and incorporation of additional coordinated anion resulted in a great change in the final MOF architecture. Herein, for the first time, we could achieve structural variety and synthesize MOFs composed of only metal ion and pyridyl functionalized amino acid linker.

  15. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  16. [Structural components and peculiarities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, O B; Avdieieva, L V

    2010-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structural organization of bacterial biofilm during its formation and disintegration have been investigated on the model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCM B-900 (ATCC 9027). It was shown, that development of the biofilm in a stationary system on glass was a two-vector process with changes in time and space. P. aeruginosa UCM B-900 biofilm is formed from single cells, passes through the stages of base components, net structure, islands and comes to the end with integration into a complete monolayer. The biofilm degradation repeats the stages of its formation in the reverse sequence. PMID:20812507

  17. Organic and inorganic-organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Pia; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic-organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD), is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD) technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic-organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to, e.g., selectively decompose parts of the structure. Such layer-engineered and/or nanostructured hybrid materials with exciting combinations of functional properties hold great promise for high-end technological applications. PMID:25161845

  18. Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Sundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic–organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD, is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic–organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to, e.g., selectively decompose parts of the structure. Such layer-engineered and/or nanostructured hybrid materials with exciting combinations of functional properties hold great promise for high-end technological applications.

  19. Statistical theory of structure formation: self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Liu, Han-Li; Anderson, Johan

    2008-01-01

    We present the first prediction of the probability distribution function (PDF) for self-organization of shear flows modeled by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a stochastic forcing. A novel non-perturbative method based on a coherent structure is utilized for the prediction of the PDFs, revealing strong intermittency with exponential tails. Numerical simulations confirm these results. The predicted power spectra are also in a good agreement with simulation results. The results imply a sign...

  20. Differently Structured Advance Organizers Lead to Different Initial Schemata and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Dummel, Sebastian; Schuster, Silvia; Nuckles, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Does the specific structure of advance organizers influence learning outcomes? In the first experiment, 48 psychology students were randomly assigned to three differently structured advance organizers: a well-structured, a well-structured and key-concept emphasizing, and a less structured advance organizer. These were followed by a sorting task, a…

  1. Organic/metal interfaces. Electronic and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhm, Steffen

    2008-07-17

    This work addresses several important topics of the field of organic electronics. The focus lies on organic/metal interfaces, which exist in all organic electronic devices. Physical properties of such interfaces are crucial for device performance. Four main topics have been covered: (i) the impact of molecular orientation on the energy levels, (ii) energy level tuning with strong electron acceptors, (iii) the role of thermodynamic equilibrium at organic/ organic homo-interfaces and (iv) the correlation of interfacial electronic structure and bonding distance. To address these issues a broad experimental approach was necessary: mainly ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy was used, supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, metastable atom electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray standing waves, to examine vacuum sublimed thin films of conjugated organic molecules (COMs) in ultrahigh vacuum. (i) A novel approach is presented to explain the phenomenon that the ionization energy in molecular assemblies is orientation dependent. It is demonstrated that this is due to a macroscopic impact of intramolecular dipoles on the ionization energy in molecular assemblies. Furthermore, the correlation of molecular orientation and conformation has been studied in detail for COMs on various substrates. (ii) A new approach was developed to tune hole injection barriers ({delta}{sub h}) at organic/metal interfaces by adsorbing a (sub-) monolayer of an organic electron acceptor on the metal electrode. Charge transfer from the metal to the acceptor leads to a chemisorbed layer, which reduces {delta}{sub h} to the COM overlayer. This concept was tested with three acceptors and a lowering of {delta}{sub h} of up to 1.2 eV could be observed. (iii) A transition from vacuum-level alignment to molecular level pinning at the homo-interface between a lying monolayer and standing multilayers of a COM was observed, which depended on the amount of a pre-deposited acceptor. The

  2. Syntheses and crystal structures of two new organically templated borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new organically templated borates, [H3N(C6H10)NH3][B4O5(OH)4] (1) and [H3N(C6H10)NH3][B5O8(OH)] (2) have been synthesized in the presence of trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane acting as a structure-directing agent under mild solvothermal conditions. The structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and further characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c (No. 15), a=9.1325(3)A, b=11.4869(3)A, c=12.2756(5)A, β=105.258(6)o, V=1242.37(7)A3, Z=4. The structure contains supramolecular hydrogen-bonded network formed by isolated [B4O5(OH)4]2- polyanions. 2 is monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n (No. 14), a=6.5176(2)A, b=16.8861(5)A, c=11.1522(7)A, β=91.897(6)o, V=1226.70(9)A3, Z=4. The structure consists of layers of 3,9-membered boron rings constructed from pentaborate anion groups [B5O8(OH)]2-. The adjacent borate layers are further linked with each other by hydrogen bond to form a 3D supramolecular network. It is the first example of layered borates templated by an organic amine

  3. [Pore structure and desulfurization characteristics of organic calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-ping; Li, Jing-tao; Zhou, Jun-hu; Sun, Bao-min; Ye, Li-ping

    2008-08-01

    Calcination of oganic calcium was carried out in fixed bed, pore structure of tested sample was analyzed with auto-adsorption analyzer, and desulfurization experiment was studied by intelligent sulfur determination analyzer. Specific surface area of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was 46.6 m2/g after calcination at 900 degrees C, almost four times of that of limestone. Specific surface area of calcium acetate (CA) were mainly made up of pore of diameter less than 5 nm, and those of CMA was chiefly contributed by middle pore of diameter about 5 nm. Agglomeration of CA occurred in pore of diameter less than 5 nm, while CMA was sintered in whole range of pore size distribution. Agglomeration of organic calcium were slighter. Desulfurization efficiency of organic calcium ranged from 62.28% to 75.55% at 1000 degrees C as calcium/sulfur ratio being one, which was one time more than that of limestone. Perfect pore structure of organic calcium contributes to higher desulfurization efficiency. PMID:18839601

  4. Organization, Structure and Activity of Proteins in Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher,J.; Trudel, E.; Methot, M.; Desmeules, P.; Salesse, C.

    2007-01-01

    Many different processes take place at the cell membrane interface. Indeed, for instance, ligands bind membrane proteins which in turn activate peripheral membrane proteins, some of which are enzymes whose action is also located at the membrane interface. Native cell membranes are difficult to use to gain information on the activity of individual proteins at the membrane interface because of the large number of different proteins involved in membranous processes. Model membrane systems, such as monolayers at the air-water interface, have thus been extensively used during the last 50 years to reconstitute proteins and to gain information on their organization, structure and activity in membranes. In the present paper, we review the recent work we have performed with membrane and peripheral proteins as well as enzymes in monolayers at the air-water interface. We show that the structure and orientation of gramicidin has been determined by combining different methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin is indistinguishable from that in native membranes when appropriate conditions are used. We also show that the kinetics and extent of monolayer binding of myristoylated recoverin is much faster than that of the nonmyristoylated form and that this binding is highly favored by the presence polyunsaturated phospholipids. Moreover, we show that the use of fragments of RPE65 allow determine which region of this protein is most likely involved in membrane binding. Monomolecular films were also used to further understand the hydrolysis of organized phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and C.

  5. Experimental investigation of multiple self-organized structures in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex space charge configuration emerges by self-organization in front of an electrode immersed in plasma when its potential is increased at a certain critical value. Consisting from a nucleus protected from the surrounding plasma by an electrical double layer, the complexity reveals an internal structure and behaviour which remind us primitive organisms. Thus the complexity is not static but stationary open system in which continuous decay is constantly compensated by substance and energy from the surrounding plasma. Endowed with a special kind of memory the complexity can work as an intelligent multifunctional system and consequently it is also able to perform innovations after selective interaction with an environment in evolution. Additionally, the complexity is able to replicate by division. (authors)

  6. Structural templating of multiple polycrystalline layers in organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassiter, Brian E; Lunt, Richard R; Renshaw, Kyle; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate that organic photovoltaic cell performance is influenced by changes in the crystalline orientation of composite layer structures. A 1.5 nm thick self-organized, polycrystalline template layer of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) orients subsequently deposited layers of a diindenoperylene exciton blocking layer, and the donor, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). Control over the crystalline orientation of the CuPc leads to changes in its frontier energy levels, absorption coefficient, and surface morphology, resulting in an increase of power conversion efficiency at 1 sun from 1.42 ± 0.04% to 2.19 ± 0.05% for a planar heterojunction and from 1.89 ± 0.05% to 2.49 ± 0.03% for a planar-mixed heterojunction.

  7. Structural templating of multiple polycrystalline layers in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Brian E; Lunt, Richard R; Renshaw, C Kyle; Forrest, Stephen R

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate that organic photovoltaic cell performance is influenced by changes in the crystalline orientation of composite layer structures. A 1.5 nm thick self-organized, polycrystalline template layer of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) orients subsequently deposited layers of a diindenoperylene exciton blocking layer, and the donor, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). Control over the crystalline orientation of the CuPc leads to changes in its frontier energy levels, absorption coefficient, and surface morphology, resulting in an increase of power conversion efficiency at 1 sun from 1.42 ± 0.04% to 2.19 ± 0.05% for a planar heterojunction and from 1.89 ± 0.05% to 2.49 ± 0.03% for a planar-mixed heterojunction. PMID:21165074

  8. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  9. The International Atomic Energy Agency: Structure, organs, and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a special organization of the UN system the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) bears world-wide responsibility for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear power as well as for the control of preventing its misuse for non-peaceful purposes. Based on this fundamental objective of the IAEA a survey of structure, organs and practice of the Agency is given. Particularly, those special programmes are detailed which are of importance to the use of nuclear power for energy generation, and those contributions of the IAEA are concerned which it has to make as the international control authority to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In conclusions, the future activities of the IAEA and the cooperation of the GDR with the IAEA are dealt with. (author)

  10. Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Tandem Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takayuki; Pu, Yong-Jin; Kido, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have attracted considerable attention for solid-state lighting and flat panel displays because their tandem architecture enables high efficiency and long operational lifetime simultaneously. In the tandem OLED structure, plural light-emitting units (LEUs) are stacked in series through a charge generation layer (CGL) and an electron injection layer (EIL). In this chapter, we focus on the key features of tandem OLEDs for high efficiency and long operational lifetimes. We also demonstrate the effect of the CGL comprising a Lewis acid, an n-type semiconductor metal oxide, and an organic electron-accepting material. We discuss the two types of EILs in tandem OLEDs: alkali metals containing n-type compounds and ultra-thin metals. Finally, we focus on the recent progress of the state-of-the-art solution-processed tandem OLEDs. PMID:27573273

  11. Emergence, self-organization and morphogenesis in biological structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrescu, R; Purcarea, V I

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the connection between emergence, pattern formation and nonlinear dynamics, focusing on the similarity between discrete patterns and fractal structures, and then describes different solutions to model reaction-diffusion systems as representative processes in morphogenesis. A specific example is the diffusion limited aggregation growth process, illustrated by the simulation of the evolution of a bacterial colony that shows the roles of instability and sensitivity in non-equilibrium pattern formation. Based on this particular case, it is shown how self-organization could be achieved from non-organized agglomeration of separate entities, in a region of space. We conclude with some brief remarks about universality, predictability and long-term prospects for this field of research. PMID:21505578

  12. Modern electronic structure theory and applications in organic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, ER

    1997-01-01

    This volume focuses on the use of quantum theory to understand and explain experiments in organic chemistry. High level ab initio calculations, when properly performed, are useful in making quantitative distinctions between various possible interpretations of structures, reactions and spectra. Chemical reasoning based on simpler quantum models is, however, essential to enumerating the likely possibilities. The simpler models also often suggest the type of wave function likely to be involved in ground and excited states at various points along reaction paths. This preliminary understanding is n

  13. Self-organized percolation in multi-layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a self-organized model for the growth of two- and three-dimensional percolation clusters in multi-layered structures. Anisotropy in the medium is modeled by randomly allocating layers of different physical properties. A controlling mechanism for the growing aggregate perimeter is introduced in such a manner that the system self-tunes to a stationary regime that corresponds to the percolation threshold. The critical probability for infinite growth is studied as a function of the anisotropy of the medium

  14. Analyze Of Interrelation Between Knowledge Management And Organizatıonal Structure Of Organization

    OpenAIRE

    MLÁDKOVÁ, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss interrelation between knowledge management and organizational structure of organization. Organizational structure is a backbone of the organization. Type of organizational structure used has strong impact on everyday life of organization and influences all its activities, including knowledge management. From the point of view of knowledge management, three basic groups of organizational structures can be identified in organizations; top down structures, bo...

  15. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lohse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  16. Structure and organization of heteromeric AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguedas, Beatriz; García-Nafría, Javier; Cais, Ondrej; Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Krieger, James; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-04-29

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling. PMID:26966189

  17. Improved interconnecting structure for a tandem organic light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-unit tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing two kinds of interconnecting structures, i.e. 5 nm lithium carbonate doped PTCDA (1:2 Li2CO3:PTCDA)/5 nm MoO3 and 5 nm Li2CO3 doped BCP (1:4 Li2CO3:BCP)/5 nm MoO3, have been fabricated, where PTCDA and BCP stand for 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and bathocuproine, respectively. Compared to the tandem OLED using the interconnecting structure of 5 nm 1:4 Li2CO3:BCP/5 nm MoO3, the one utilizing 5 nm 1:2 Li2CO3:PTCDA/5 nm MoO3 showed nearly same power efficiency and decreased operating voltage, mainly attributed to the higher electron conductivity of 1:2 Li2CO3:PTCDA relative to 1:4 Li2CO3:BCP. The charge generation and electron injection processes based on the interconnecting structure of 5 nm 1:2 Li2CO3:PTCDA/5 nm MoO3 were also discussed. We provide a simple and effective connecting structure to enhance the current conduction for tandem OLEDs

  18. Computational Design of Photovoltaic Materials with Self Organized Nano Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Chalcopyrite and II-VI semiconductors, such as Cu(In, Ga)Se2, Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 and Cd(S, Te), are one of the most promising materials for low cost photovoltaic solar-cells. In this paper, based on first-principles calculations, we propose that self-organized nano-structures in these compounds will enhance the conversion efficiency. Our calculations are based on the KKR-CPA-LDA with the self-interaction correction. We also use VASP package for calculating mixing energy and effective interactions of the systems by using the cluster expansion method. For phase separating systems, we simulate nano-structure formation by using the Monte Carlo method. It is expected that the photo-generated electron-hole pairs are efficiently separated by the type-II interface and then effectively transferred along the quasi-one-dimensional structures. Moreover, we can expect multiplication of generated carriers due to the multi-exciton effects in nano-structures.

  19. Resolving detailed molecular structures in complex organic mixtures and modeling their secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Rendall, Kevin A. S.; Zhuang, Yang R.; Amirav, Aviv; Chan, Arthur W. H.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) remains an ongoing challenge towards developing detailed and accurate inputs for modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Traditional techniques based on gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry induce excessive fragmentation, making it difficult to speciate and quantify isomers precisely. The goal of this study is to identify individual organic isomers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beam (SMB-GC/MS, also known as GC/MS with Cold EI) and to incorporate speciated isomers into an SOA model that accounts for the specific structures elucidated. Two samples containing atmospherically relevant UCMs are analyzed. The relative isomer distributions exhibit remarkably consistent trends across a wide range of carbon numbers. Constitutional isomers of different alkanes are speciated and individually quantified as linear, branched - for the first time by position of branching - multiply branched, or unsaturated - by degree of ring substitution and number of rings. Relative amounts of exact molecular structures are used as input parameters in an SOA box model to study the effects of molecular structures on SOA yields and volatility evolution. Highly substituted cyclic, mono-substituted cyclic, and linear species have the highest SOA yields while branched alkanes formed the least SOA. The rate of functionalization of a representative UCM is found to be in agreement with current volatility basis set (VBS) parameterizations based on detailed knowledge of composition and known oxidation mechanisms, confirming the validity of VBS parameters currently used in air quality models.

  20. Syntheses, characterizations and crystal structures of three new organically templated or organically bonded zinc selenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new organically templated or organically bonded zinc selenates, namely, {H2bipy}Zn(SeO4)2(H2O)2 1 (bipy=4,4'-bipyridine), {H2pip}{Zn(SeO4)2(H2O)4}·2H2O 2 (pip=piprazine), and Zn(SeO4)(phen)(H2O)2 3 (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The structure of compound 1 features a 1D chain composed of [Zn(SeO4)2(H2O)2]2- anions. Compound 2 has a 2D layer structure built from {Zn(SeO4)2(H2O)4}2- anions that are cross-linked by doubly protonated piperazine cations via N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The structure of compound 3 contains a 1D chain of Zn(SeO4)(phen)(H2O)2, such chains are further interlinked by hydrogen bonds and π···π interactions to form a layer. The different roles the templates played have also been discussed

  1. Organic conductor/high-Tc superconductor bilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques are exploited to fabricate conducive polymer/high-Tc superconductor bilayer structures. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques are utilized to characterize the electrodeposition of polypyrrole layers grown onto YBa2Cu3O7-δ films. In such hybrid polymer/superconductor systems, it is found that when the polymer is oxidized to its conductive state, the transition temperature (Tc) and critical currents (Jc) of the underlying superconductor films are suppressed. Reversible modulation of the values of the transition temperatures of up to 50 K are noted for these structures. Upon reduction of the conductive polymer layer back to its non-conductive form, both Tc and Jc are found to return to values close to those acquired for the underivatized YBa2Cu3O7-δ films. Moreover, measurements as a function of temperature of the polymer/superconductor interface resistance show dramatic decrease in this value at Tc. Also, estimates of superconducting coherence lengths within the organic conductor samples suggest superconducting properties over macroscopically large distances within the organic materials can be expected. Collectively these results are consistent with the first observation of a conductive polymer proximity effect

  2. Colorectal cancers mimic structural organization of normal colonic crypts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cernat

    Full Text Available Colonic crypts are stereotypical structures with distinct stem cell, proliferating, and differentiating compartments. Colorectal cancers derive from colonic crypt epithelia but, in contrast, form morphologically disarrayed glands. In this study, we investigated to which extent colorectal cancers phenocopy colonic crypt architecture and thus preserve structural organization of the normal intestinal epithelium. A subset of colon cancers showed crypt-like compartments with high WNT activity and nuclear β-Catenin at the leading tumor edge, adjacent proliferation, and enhanced Cytokeratin 20 expression in most differentiated tumor epithelia of the tumor center. This architecture strongly depended on growth conditions, and was fully reproducible in mouse xenografts of cultured and primary colon cancer cells. Full crypt-like organization was associated with low tumor grade and was an independent prognostic marker of better survival in a collection of 221 colorectal cancers. Our findings suggest that full activation of preserved intestinal morphogenetic programs in colon cancer requires in vivo growth environments. Furthermore, crypt-like architecture was linked with less aggressive tumor biology, and may be useful to improve current colon cancer grading schemes.

  3. Using the Cambridge structure database of organic and organometalic compounds in structure biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, 1a (2010), b24-b26. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /8./. Nové Hrady, 18.03.2010-20.03.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic chemistry * Cambridge Structure Database * molecular structure Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://xray.cz/ms/bul2010-1a/friday2.pdf

  4. Structural investigation of diglycerol polyisostearate reverse micelles in organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Oyama, Keiichi; Matsuzawa, Makoto; Aramaki, Kenji

    2009-09-24

    The structure of glycerol-based reverse micelles in the surfactant/oil binary system without external water addition has been investigated using a small-angle X-ray scattering technique, and different tunable parameters for the structure control of reverse micelles are determined. The scattering data were evaluated by the generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method and complemented by model fitting. It was found that diglycerol polyisostearates (abbreviated as (iso-C18)nG2, n=2-4, where n represents the number of isosterate chains per surfactant molecule) form reverse micelles in a variety of organic solvents such as cyclohexane, n-decane, and n-hexadecane without the addition of water from outside, and their structure (shape and size) depends on solvent properties (alkyl chain length), tail architecture of the surfactant, temperature, and added water. Small globular types of micelles were observed in the (iso-C18)2G2/cyclohexane system at 25 degrees C. The micellar size and the aggregation number were increased with increasing the alkyl chain length of the oils resulting in elongated ellipsoidal prolate or rodlike type micelles in the (iso-C18)2G2/hexadecane system. This structural evolution is caused by the different penetration tendency depending on the chain length of oils to the lipophilic chain of the surfactant. At fixed oil, composition, and temperature, the tail architecture of the surfactant played a crucial role in the micellar structure. The micellar size and, hence, the aggregation number decreased monotonically with increasing number of isostearate chain per surfactant molecule due to the voluminous lipophilic part of the surfactant. Composition could not modulate the structure of micelles but led to strong repulsive interactions among the micelles due to reduced osmotic compressibility of the system at higher concentrations. Increasing temperature decreased the micellar size, while the cross-section structure remains essentially the

  5. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A2/mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A2/mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A2/mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  6. Thermodynamics of the structural transition in metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J; Beurroies, I; Coulet, M-V; Fabry, P; Devic, T; Serre, C; Denoyel, R; Llewellyn, P L

    2016-03-01

    A thermodynamic study of the structural large-pore (LP) to narrow pore (NP) transition in various Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is presented. First, the pressure induced transition at a constant temperature is investigated using a Tian-Calvet microcalorimeter set-up equipped with a high pressure cell. This device permits simultaneous measurements of the mechanical work and heat associated with the LP → NP transition. It is shown that MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53(Cr) have similar thermodynamic and mechanical behaviour whilst the MIL-47(V) system is characterized by much higher transition energy and mechanical work. Second, the temperature induced transition at ambient pressure is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This set-up enables one to follow simultaneously the structural changes associated with the phase transition detected by DSC. The MIL-53(Cr)-Br functionalized MOF is chosen here as a case study where both energetics and structural changes are discussed. PMID:26574728

  7. Nanoscale Structure Of Organic Matter Explain Its Recalcitrance To Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, M.; Salati, S.; Papa, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recalcitrance can be defined as the natural resistance of organic matter (OM) to microbial and enzymatic deconstruction (Himmel et al., 2007). The nature of OM recalcitrance remained not completely understood and more studies need above all to elucidate the role of the chemical topography of the OM at nanometer scale. Hydrolytic enzymes responsible of OM degradation have a molecular weight of 20-25 kD, corresponding to a size of about 4 nm, hardly penetrate into micropores (i.e. the pore having a diameter humic acid, was isolated and studied. Laboratory simulated landfill considered organic fraction of municipal solid waste sampled at different stages of evolution from a full scale plant and incubated under anaerobic condition for one year. In addition the nano-scale structure of fossilized OM (leonardite, chair coal and graphite) was detected as used as model of recalcitrant OM. Nano-scale structures were detected by using meso and microporosity detection. In particular microporosity was determined by adsorption method using CO2 at 273 K and Non Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) method was applied to measure the CO2 adsorption isotherms. On the other hand mesoporosity was detected by using N2 adsorption method at 77 K. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation and the BJH (Barret-Joyner-Halenda) equation were applied respectively to measure specific surface area and mesoporosity. Macromolecular composition of OM was investigated by using CP MAS 13NMR and wet chemical analyses. Results obtained showed how OM evolved increasing microporosity and decreasing meso porosity. This was the result of the preservation of recalcitrant OM versus degradation of the more labile fraction, suggesting that the more recalcitrant fraction was characterized by high microporosity. Another confirmation of these results comes from the analysis of the same OM after the removing of the labile fraction by acid hydrolysis to discover the core-OM, which was characterized by a higher

  8. Structure and function of vanadium compounds in living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, D

    1992-01-01

    Vanadium has been recognized as a metal of biological importance only recently. In this mini-review, its main functions uncovered during the past few years are addressed. These encompass (i) the regulation of phosphate metabolizing enzymes (which is exemplified for the inhibition of ribonucleases by vanadate), (ii) the halogenation of organic compounds by vanadate-dependent non-heme peroxidases from seaweeds, (iii) the reductive protonation of nitrogen (nitrogen fixation) by alternative, i.e. vanadium-containing, nitrogenases from N2-fixing bacteria, (iv) vanadium sequestering by sea squirts (ascidians), and (v) amavadine, a low molecular weight complex of V(IV) accumulated in the fly agaric and related toadstools. The function of vanadium, while still illusive in ascidians and toadstools, begins to be understood in vanadium-enzyme interaction. Investigations into the structure and function of model compounds play an increasingly important role in elucidating the biological significance of vanadium. PMID:1392470

  9. Chemical-Structural Changes of Organic Matter in a Semi-Arid Soil After Organic Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.NICOL(A)S; G.MASCIANDARO; T.HERN(A)NDEZ; C.GARCIA

    2012-01-01

    A 9-month incubation experiment using composted and non-composted amendments derived from vine pruning waste and sewage sludge was carried out to study the effects of the nature and stability of organic amendments on the structural composition of organic matter (OM) in a semi-arid soil. The changes of soil OM,both in the whole soil and in the extractable carbon with pyrophosphate,were evaluated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and chemical analyses.By the end of the experiment,the soils amended with pruning waste exhibited less organic carbon loss than those receiving sewage sludge.The non-composted residues increased the aliphatic-pyrolytic products of the OM,both in the whole soil and also in the pyrophosphate extract,with the products derived from peptides and proteins being significantly higher.After 9 months,in the soils amended with pruning waste the relative abundance of phenolic-pyrolytic products derived from phenolic compounds,lignin and proteins in the whole soil tended to increase more than those in the soils amended with sewage sludge.However,the extractable OM with pyrophosphate in the soils amended with composted residues tended to have higher contents of these phenolic-pyrolytic products than that in non-composted ones.Thus,despite the stability of pruning waste,the composting of this material promoted the incorporation of phenolic compounds to the soil OM.The pyrolytic indices (furfural/pyrrole and aliphatic/aromatic ratios) showed the diminution of aliphatic compounds and the increase of aromatic compounds,indicating the stabilization of the OM in the amended soils after 9 months.In conclusion,the changes of soil OM depend on the nature and stability of the organic amendments,with composted vine pruning waste favouring humification.

  10. Adaptive symbiotic organisms search (SOS algorithm for structural design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam G. Tejani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic organisms search (SOS algorithm is an effective metaheuristic developed in 2014, which mimics the symbiotic relationship among the living beings, such as mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism, to survive in the ecosystem. In this study, three modified versions of the SOS algorithm are proposed by introducing adaptive benefit factors in the basic SOS algorithm to improve its efficiency. The basic SOS algorithm only considers benefit factors, whereas the proposed variants of the SOS algorithm, consider effective combinations of adaptive benefit factors and benefit factors to study their competence to lay down a good balance between exploration and exploitation of the search space. The proposed algorithms are tested to suit its applications to the engineering structures subjected to dynamic excitation, which may lead to undesirable vibrations. Structure optimization problems become more challenging if the shape and size variables are taken into account along with the frequency. To check the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, six different planar and space trusses are subjected to experimental analysis. The results obtained using the proposed methods are compared with those obtained using other optimization methods well established in the literature. The results reveal that the adaptive SOS algorithm is more reliable and efficient than the basic SOS algorithm and other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  11. Topology and structural self-organization in folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M.; Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J.

    2013-10-01

    Topological methods are indispensable in theoretical studies of particle physics, condensed matter physics, and gravity. These powerful techniques have also been applied to biological physics. For example, knowledge of DNA topology is pivotal to the understanding as to how living cells function. Here, the biophysical repertoire of topological methods is extended, with the aim to understand and characterize the global structure of a folded protein. For this, the elementary concept of winding number of a vector field on a plane is utilized to introduce a topological quantity called the folding index of a crystallographic protein. It is observed that in the case of high resolution protein crystals, the folding index, when evaluated over the entire length of the crystallized protein backbone, has a very clear and strong propensity towards integer values. The observation proposes that the way how a protein folds into its biologically active conformation is a structural self-organization process with a topological facet that relates to the concept of solitons. It is proposed that the folding index has a potential to become a useful tool for the global, topological characterization of the folding pathways.

  12. Self-organizing input space for control of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel type of neural networks for structural control, which comprises an adaptive input space. This feature is purposefully designed for sequential input selection during adaptive identification and control of nonlinear systems, which allows the input space to be organized dynamically, while the excitation is occurring. The neural network has the main advantages of (1) automating the input selection process for time series that are not known a priori; (2) adapting the representation to nonstationarities; and (3) using limited observations. The algorithm designed for the adaptive input space assumes local quasi-stationarity of the time series, and embeds local maps sequentially in a delay vector using the embedding theorem. The input space of the representation, which in our case is a wavelet neural network, is subsequently updated. We demonstrate that the neural net has the potential to significantly improve convergence of a black-box model in adaptive tracking of a nonlinear system. Its performance is further assessed in a full-scale simulation of an existing civil structure subjected to nonstationary excitations (wind and earthquakes), and shows the superiority of the proposed method. (paper)

  13. Structural order in additive processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James Thomas

    Considerable academic and industrial efforts have been dedicated to resolving scientific and technological issues associated with the fabrication of efficient plastic solar cells via solution deposition techniques. The most successful strategy used to generate solution processable devices implements a two component donor-acceptor type system composed of a (p-type) narrow bandgap conjugated polymer donor blended with a (n-type) fullerene acceptor. Due to the limited exciton diffusion lengths (~10 nm) inherent to these materials, efficient photoinduced charge generation requires heterojunction formation (i.e. donor/acceptor interfaces) in close proximity to the region of exciton generation. Maximal charge extraction therefore requires that donor and acceptor components form nanoscale phase separated percolating pathways to their respective electrodes. Devices exhibiting these structural characteristics are termed bulk heterojunction devices (BHJ). Although the BHJ architecture highlights the basic characteristics of functional donor-acceptor type organic solar cells, device optimization requires internal order within each phase and proper organization relative to the substrate in order to maximize charge transport efficiencies and minimize charge carrier recombination losses. The economic viability of BHJ solar cells hinges upon the minimization of processing costs; thus, commercially relevant processing techniques should generate optimal structural characteristics during film formation, eliminating the need for additional post deposition processing steps. Empirical optimization has shown that solution deposition using high boiling point additives (e.g. octanedithiol (ODT)) provides a simple and widely used fabrication method for maximizing the power conversion efficiencies of BHJ solar cells. This work will show using x-ray scattering that a small percentage of ODT (~2%) in chlorobenzene induces the nucleation of polymeric crystallites within 2 min of deposition

  14. Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Luca; Lajoie, Bryan R; Carter, Ava C; Attia, Mikael; Zhan, Ye; Xu, Jin; Chen, Chong Jian; Kaplan, Noam; Chang, Howard Y; Heard, Edith; Dekker, Job

    2016-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions,remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes indifferent neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD

  15. Structure of vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ) in male Camelus Domesticus Var. dromedaris persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Mansoori Ale Hashem, R; Ardalani, G; Sadrkhanloo, R; Hayatgheibi, H

    2014-12-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a tubular structure in the roof of nasal cavity. The important role of this organ is olfaction of sexual odour. In this study, position, anatomical structure and histology of VNO in Iranian camels (camelus domesticus var. dromedaris persica) were determined. Fourteen healthy male camel heads were collected from an industrial slaughterhouse in Tehran, Iran, for anatomical and histological studies (seven each). The length of VNO and width of dental pad and the number and width of palatine crests were measured. For anatomical studies, the mandible was removed, and maxilla and nasal cavity was cut longitudinally and transversely. For histological studies, the mandible was removed, and first 0.5 cm of initial part of VNO was cut. Then, nasal cavity was cut in some segments with 2 cm thickness. The width of VNO was 3.85 ± 0.31 cm and 1.57 ± 0.18 cm in front and distal parts, respectively. The length of VNO was 15.61 ± 0.59 cm. In histological examinations, VNO was surrounded by J-shape hyaline cartilage. The lining epithelium of lateral wall of VNO was originated from respiratory epithelium, while it had an olfactory epithelium origin in the medial wall. Lamina propria and tunica submucosa were a cavernous connective tissue with seromucous gland with abundant of serous secretory units. The lumen of VNO opens into nasal cavity. The presence of olfactory epithelium found in our study indicates an important role for VNO in pheromone perception and beginning of sexual behaviour. PMID:24611976

  16. Functional and Structural Microbial Diversity in Organic and Conventional Viticulture: Organic Farming Benefits Natural Biocontrol Agents ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Florian; Moser, Gerit; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Statistically significant differences in the structure and function of above-ground grapevine-associated microorganisms from organically and conventionally managed vineyards were found. Aureobasidium pullulans, a copper-detoxifying fungus and biocontrol agent, plays a key role in explaining these differences. The black fungus was strongly enriched in the communities of organically managed plants and yielded a higher indigenous antiphytopathogenic potential.

  17. Innovative culture of the organization: essence, structure, approaches to estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.S. Shypulina

    2010-01-01

    In the article approaches to the determination of essence of the category innovative culture as one of directions of corporate culture of the organization are analysed. Author's determination of essence and maintenance of the category innovative culture of the organization is offered, its primary goals in provision of innovatively favourable climate of the organization are specified.

  18. Phase behavior and self-organized structures of diglycerol monolaurate in different nonpolar organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Sato, Takaaki; Aramaki, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    Nonaqueous phase behavior and reverse micellar structures of diglycerol monolaurate (DGL) in different nonpolar organic solvents, such as n-decane, n-tetradecane, and n-hexadecane, have been studied over a wide range of compositions and temperatures. The equilibrium phases are identified by means of visual observation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). A solid phase present at lower temperature swells small amount of oils and transforms into a lamellar liquid crystalline structure at higher temperature. The melting temperature of the solid phase is virtually constant at all mixing ratios of the surfactant and oil. With the further increase of temperature, the liquid crystal transforms into an isotropic single-liquid phase near the surfactant axis, whereas there is a coexistence region of two isotropic phases near the solvent axis. The area of the two-liquid (II) phase region depends largely on the hydrocarbon chain length of the oils, the longer chain leading to the wider II area. Accordingly, the DGL surfactant is most miscible with decane, exhibiting a reduced miscibility with increasing solvent hydrocarbon chain length. Increasing temperature enhances the dissolution tendency of the surfactant in oil, where the two-liquid phase transforms into an isotropic single phase. SAXS analysis based on the GIFT technique is used to characterize the structure of the reverse micellar aggregates in the isotropic single-phase liquids. We have demonstrated that instead of changing polarity or a functional group of the solvent molecules, if we optimize the hydrophilic nature of the surfactant head group, the alkyl chain length of the solvent oils can serve as a tunable parameter of the micellar geometry. The hydrophilic surfactant DGL interestingly forms cylindrical micelles in nonpolar oils, decane, and tetradecane in the dilute region above the II phase region. The micellar size shows temperature dependence behavior, and the micellar length goes on increasing with

  19. Study on the local atomic structure of germanium in organic germanium compounds by EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Organic germanium compounds have been extensively applied in medicine as tonics,In this paper,the local structures of two organic germanium compounds,carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and polymeric germanium glutamate,were determined by EXAFS.The structure parameters including coordination numbers and bond lengths were reported,and possible structure patterns were discussed.

  20. Organic Dielectrics Influence the Crystallographic Structure of Pentacene Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: X-ray diffraction as well as atomic force microscopy experiments have been performed to investigate thin films of pentacene. The films were deposited on thermally grown SiO2 pre-covered by different organic layers. Modifying substrates that the substrate pre-treatments have a strong impact on the performance of the device as well as on the growth of the active layer. However, there are few reports about the influence on the crystalline properties of pentacene. In this work three different systems have been investigated. For one sample series vacuum deposited polymeric Parylene C - with varying thicknesses - was used as the dielectric layer. A second series of dielectric layers was prepared by spin coating a photoreactive polymer (PBHND [poly(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-(2- nitrobenzyl)dicarboxylate)]) onto the wafer. Subsequently the samples were exposed to UV-light for different time spans. For the third class of systems, a self assembled film of T-SC/SA [4-(2-(trichlorosilyl)ethyl)benzene-1-sulfonyl chloride (TSC), 30% sulfonic acid T-SA] was used to modify the SiOx surface. From the obtained x-ray data we find that the investigated pentacene films are polymorphic and consist of the two commonly observed crystal phases, namely the thin film phase and the Campbell phase. On weakly interacting substrates, these phases are typically oriented with their (001) lattice planes parallel to the substrate surface. Yet in the present investigation it is found that for some dielectric layers the (001) planes of the thin film phase are tilted approximately 3o and of the Campbell phase about 10o with respect to the substrate surface. These small deviations in the structure have a large influence to the in-plane diffraction patterns. Therefore, the changes in the patterns can be unambiguously attributed to the change of preferred orientation. (author)

  1. Automatic Structure Determination of Organic Molecules: Principle and Implementation of the LSD Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUZILLARD,Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    The LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) program generates organic molecular structures from 1D and 2D NMR data without resorting to chemical shift databases. Its use in the resolution of natural product structure determination problems has been already reported in the literature. This paper describes how data and structures are internally represented and processed by LSD to build solution structures.

  2. Study on the Coupling Mechanism of Urban Spatial Structure and Urban Traffic Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Han; Yachen Liu

    2009-01-01

    From the angle of the high relationship between the traffic organization and urban spatial structure, the geographic concept, coupling, was proposed in the article, and the coupling mechanism of urban spatial structure and traffic organization was studied primarily based on the analysis of the connotation of the coupling, and the coupling function of main associated factors between the urban spatial structure and traffic organization was analyzed.

  3. Technological knowledge base, R&D organization structure and alliance formation: Evidence from the biopharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Baden-Fuller, C.; Mangematin, V.

    2007-01-01

    We explore how an incumbent firm's internal knowledge and organization structure influences its strategic alliance formation. We propose that the firm's knowledge breadth and the centrality of its R&D organization structure positively influence its absorptive capacity, and consequently, its propensity to form strategic alliances. We also argue that the centrality of the R&D organization structure may be a substitute for the breadth of the knowledge base. We validate our ideas using data on 26...

  4. Perceptual Organization of Visual Structure Requires a Flexible Learning Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Bhatt and Quinn (2011) provide a compelling and comprehensive review of empirical evidence that supports the operation of principles of perceptual organization in young infants. They also have provided a comprehensive list of experiences that could serve to trigger the learning of at least some of these principles of perceptual organization, and…

  5. Giddens' "structuration," Luhmann's "self-organization," and the operationalization of the dynamics of meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Luhmann's social systems theory and Giddens' structuration theory of action share an emphasis on reflexivity, but focus on meaning along a divide between inter-human communication and intentful action as two different systems of reference. Recombining these two theories, simulations of interaction, organization, and self-organization of intentional communication can be distinguished by using algorithms from the computation of anticipatory systems. The self-organizing and organizing layers remain rooted in the double contingency of the human encounter which provides the variation. Organization and self-organization of communication are reflexive upon and therefore reconstructive of each other. Using mutual information in three dimensions, the imprint of meaning processing in the modeling system on the historical organization of uncertainty in the modeled system can be measured. This is shown empirically in the case of intellectual organization as "structurating" structure in the textual domain of scientific ar...

  6. ERC Safety and Hygiene Programs functional organization structure and mission statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of the functions, structure, commitments, and goals of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Safety and Hygiene Program. The current structure of the ERC Safety and Hygiene organization is described herein

  7. INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRUCTURE LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT MODELING AND ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Naumenko, M.; Morozova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated business structure presented as complementary pool of its participants skills. The methodical approach to integrated business structure life cycle modeling proposed. Recommendations of enterprises life cycles stages correlate are submitted.

  8. Crystal structure prediction of organic pigments: quinacridone as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Panina, N.; Leusen, F. J. J.; Janssen, F.F.B.J.; Verwer, P.; Meekes, H.; Vlieg, E.; Deroover, G.

    2007-01-01

    The structures of the α, β and γ polymorphs of quinacridone (Pigment Violet 19) were predicted using Polymorph Predictor software in combination with X-ray powder diffraction patterns of limited quality. After generation and energy minimization of the possible structures, their powder patterns were compared with the experimental ones. On this basis, candidate structures for the polymorphs were chosen from the list of all structures. Rietveld refinement was used to validate the choice of struc...

  9. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  10. Teachers' Organization of Participation Structures for Teaching Science with Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that investigated the nature of the participation structures and how the participation structures were organized by four science teachers when they constructed and communicated science content in their classrooms with computer technology. Participation structures focus on the activity structures and…

  11. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  12. Integration versus separation: structure and strategies of the technology transfer office (TTO) in medical research organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick, GE

    2014-01-01

    Establishing technology transfer offices (TTOs) within research organizations is one initiative used to facilitate successful commercialization. Research organizations may choose to either outsource the commercialization expertise (separation model) or incorporate it within their organizational structure (integration model). Ensuring the success of these integration TTOs, face many challenges, including challenges based on tensions from researchers within research organizations about the perc...

  13. 47 CFR 27.1308 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz... Partnership § 27.1308 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700... the Upper 700 MHz D Block license shall also form the Operating Company, which must also be a...

  14. 47 CFR 90.1408 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz... Partnership § 90.1408 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700... winning bidder of the Upper 700 MHz D Block license shall also form the Operating Company, which must...

  15. A Study on the Organization Structure of Third-party Logistics Enterprise Servicing for Manufacturing Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoye Zhou; Xiuyi Xie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces ways and advantages of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, analyses supply-chain of manufacturing enterprise and further studies for the organization structure of third-party logistics enterprise servicing manufacturing enterprise, to seek to the enterprise organization structure which has the best combination in third-party logistics enterprise with manufacturing enterprise.

  16. Spiral organization of periodic structures in the Lorenz–Stenflo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Paulo C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the existence of organized periodic structures embedded in chaotic regions of a parameter plane of the Lorenz–Stenflo system. More specifically, this work reports on spiral organization of periodic structures observed in the (σ, s) parameter plane of the Lorenz–Stenflo system.

  17. Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformations by designed multi-component structures and assemblies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Amit P Singh; Rajeev Gupta

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the recent developments in designing multi-component structures including metal-organic frameworks containing Lewis acidic metal ions. The emphasis has been given to understand the design elements adopted to synthesize such structures bearing Lewis acidic metal ion. Further, few important Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformation reactions have been discussed demonstrating the importance of such materials for practical purposes.

  18. Structure of the Buried Metal-Molecule Interface in Organic Thin Film Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Rein; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Glyvradal, Magni; Larsen, Jacob; Eisenhardt, Sara H.; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Feidenhans'l, Robert Krarup; Laursen, Bo Wegge

    2009-01-01

    comparison of XR data for the five-layer Pb2+ arachidate LB film before and after vapor deposition of the Ti/Al top electrode, a detailed account of the structural damage to the organic film at the buried metal-molecule interface is obtained. We find that the organized structure of the two topmost LB layers...

  19. Design of control adaptability system model for TV media organization structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-dong; WANG Ya-lin; MA Tao

    2008-01-01

    To resolve the control adaptability problem of TV media in complex competitive environment, a con-trol system model of TV media organization structure was designed. Based on the designed system model for TV media organization structure, the relations among the main factors of the system constitution, missions, organi-zing decision entity, and carrying bodies were analyzed. By means of applying multi-objective decision method and complex control system theory, and combining the integration model of TV media organization structure, the basic model was concluded and the corresponding parameters were designed. The current organization process of TV media is analyzed by this model, which comes to the adaptability appearance with different parameters. The results indicate that the model can estimate current TV media organization structure for the chain appearance of communications and the correlation between platforms and policy-making agencies.

  20. Studies on the Structure Evolvement of Organic Agricultural Industry in Taiwan and its Influential Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; XU; Zheng; ZHANG; Li; KONG

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the development of organic agriculture in Taiwan in recent years,and based on relevant agriculture,economic and social statistics,the general scale of organic agriculture and industrial structure were treated with statistic analysis. Results suggest that the general scale of organic agriculture in Taiwan grew rapidly from 2004 to 2011. The certified organic farmers grew by 140. 59%,and the area with organic plantation grew by 302. 40%. The industrial structure has changed significantly as vegetables have become the No. 1 organic crop instead of rice. Besides of the four major crops,organic plantation has played an increasingly important role. Essential factors influencing the great-leap-forward development include the general trend of agricultural industrial structure adjustment,proliferation of management system and strategic opportunities brought by economic cycles.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN IT IN ORGANIZATIONS: A STRUCTURATIONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Bittencourt Dolci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability has become increasingly important to businesses as a response to the rapid depletion of natural resources. Information Technology (IT in particular represents a meaningful part of the environmental issues that society has been facing. Therefore, Green IT emerges as a way of combining available resources and sustainable and economic policies, thus, generating benefits for both the environment and businesses. The purpose of this paper, hence, is to explain the dynamics of Green IT implementation in organizations in light of the structurationist view of technology. We conducted a case study research based on the cases of three Brazilian companies interested in this movement. Results provide a better understanding of the relationship among technology, individuals, and organization institutional properties, thus enhancing the role played by IT teams in institutionalizing the environmental dimension of sustainability in organizations.

  2. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  3. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  4. Structural organization of mammalian prions as probed by limited proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GPI- transgenic mouse model was used to study the structure of GPI- prions. We obtained valuable information about the structure of prions by performing limited proteolysis of the GPI- prions and analyzing the results by mass spectrometry and Western blot. This information coupled with previous ...

  5. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Ping WANG

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  6. Organizational Structures and Data Use in Volunteer Monitoring Organizations (VMOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shelby Gull; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Stubbs, Harriett S.; James, April L.; Menius, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Complex environmental problems call for unique solutions to monitoring efforts alongside developing a more environmentally literate citizenry. Community-based monitoring (CBM) through the use of volunteer monitoring organizations helps to provide a part of the solution, particularly when CBM groups work with research scientists or government…

  7. The Communication of Meaning and the Structuration of Expectations: Giddens' "structuration theory" and Luhmann's "self-organization"

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The communication of meaning as different from (Shannon-type) information is central to Luhmann's social systems theory and Giddens' structuration theory of action. These theories share an emphasis on reflexivity, but focus on meaning along a divide between inter-human communication and intentful action as two different systems of reference. Recombining these two theories into a theory about the structuration of expectations, interactions, organization, and self-organization of intentional co...

  8. Structure and Organization of Computing (Draft v1)

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Overview of the CS field's structure including historical evolution, body of knowledge, great principles, and relationships with other fields.An article for CRC Handbook of Computer Science and Engineering DRAFT v1– 5/24/12

  9. Structural elements and organization of the ancestral translational machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, R.; Srinivasan, S.; McDonald, J.; Raghunathan, G.; Shibata, M.

    1987-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the primitive translational apparatus have been studied in light of present day protein biosynthesis. Using the structural information available from the contemporary system as a key to its function, both the structural necessities for an early adaptor and the multipoint recognition properties of such adaptors have been investigated. This was done by first critically examining the potential feasibility of right- and left-handed hairpin adaptor models. Second, a molecular model of the contemporary transpeptidation complex has been constructed in order to ascertain the structural requirements of the adaptor molecule needed for peptidyl transfer. Third, a model of the tRNATyr-tyrosyl tRNA synthetase complex including the positioning of the disordered region is proposed. This model is used to illustrate those required recognition properties of aminoacyl synthetase which lead to a perspective on the structure of the ancestor synthetase.

  10. Lexical and constructional organization of argument structure: a contrastive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. In this chapter I outline some principles for a contrastive analysis of basic clausal expressions in English and Spanish. They are formulated within a general framework of Cognitive Linguistics. The proposed principles for cross-linguistic variation are a challenge to the principles of...... exclusive focus on lexicalization patterns. Contrastive analysis may provide insight into differing ways of organizing grammatical information. Construction grammar (CXG) suggests that clausal core information is organized by integrating at least two construction types: A) schematic constructions, B......) lexical constructions (e.g. Croft 2001; Fillmore 1988; Goldberg 1995, 2006). In addition, clausal expressions are, according to some CXG-frameworks (e.g. Croft 2001), supposed to be built on language-specific construction types. I hypothesize that languages may differ according to the level of...

  11. Understanding Structure and Bonding of Multilayered Metal–Organic Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, D; Ruiz, V; Saidi, W.; Bučko, T.; Tkatchenko, A.; Zojer, E.

    2013-01-01

    For organic and hybrid electronic devices, the physicochemical properties of the contained interfaces play a dominant role. To disentangle the various interactions occurring at such heterointerfaces, we here model a complex, yet prototypical, three-component system consisting of a Cu–phthalocyanine (CuPc) film on a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer adsorbed on Ag(111). The two encountered interfaces are similar, as in both cases there would be no bonding without ...

  12. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  13. Structure and transport properties in organized polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cheiellini, E

    1998-01-01

    This multi-authored book includes selected contributions reviewing the results achieved in the synthesis and characterization of organized polymeric materials. The focus is on competitive materials with liquid crystalline or electroconductive properties. The fine tuning of the properties offered by advanced chemical synthesis has been investigated by a large number of state-of-the-art techniques, including both microscopic (ESR, NMR, dielectrometry, fluorescence, IR, Raman spectroscopy) and macroscopic (calorimetric, mechanical) methodologies. The book also provides an updated coverage of the

  14. Microbial biofilm structure and organic matter use in mediterranean streams

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní i Cornet, Anna M.; Amalfitano, Stefano; Artigas Alejo, Joan; Fazi, Stefano; Sabater, Sergi; Timoner Amer, Xisca; Ylla i Monfort, Irene; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    River and stream biofilms in mediterranean fluvial ecosystems face both extreme seasonality as well as arrhythmic fluctuations. The hydrological extremes (droughts and floods) impose direct changes in water availability but also in the quantity and quality of organic matter and nutrients that sustain the microbial growth. This review analyzes how these ecological pulses might determine unique properties of biofilms developing in mediterranean streams. The paper brings together data from heter...

  15. Thematic and citation structure dynamics of Organic Food & Farming research

    OpenAIRE

    Ollivier, Guillaume; Bellon, Stephane; Penvern, Servane

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the Organic Food & Farming (OF&F) scientific domain dynamic throught a "progressive document co-citation analysis" based on peer-reviewed papers from Web of Science. The dataset of OF&F domain displayed an exponential growth and a thematic diversification pattern. Both dominant and marginal clusters in association with their main cited articles were identified. This study enables to pinpoint major themes addressed or emerging. It can feed further research work and projects...

  16. Perceptual organization in computer vision - A review and a proposal for a classificatory structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Boyer, Kim L.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of perceptual organization in biological vision, and its necessity in advanced computer vision systems, arises from the characteristic that perception, the extraction of meaning from sensory input, is an intelligent process. This is particularly so for high order organisms and, analogically, for more sophisticated computational models. The role of perceptual organization in computer vision systems is explored. This is done from four vantage points. First, a brief history of perceptual organization research in both humans and computer vision is offered. Next, a classificatory structure in which to cast perceptual organization research to clarify both the nomenclature and the relationships among the many contributions is proposed. Thirdly, the perceptual organization work in computer vision in the context of this classificatory structure is reviewed. Finally, the array of computational techniques applied to perceptual organization problems in computer vision is surveyed.

  17. Determination of organic crystal structures by X ray powder diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, L

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ibuprofen has been solved from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data using a genetic algorithm (GA). The performance of the GA is improved by incorporating prior chemical information in the form of hard limits on the values that can be taken by the flexible torsion angles within the molecule. Powder X-ray diffraction data were collected for the anti-convulsant compounds remacemide, remacemide nitrate and remacemide acetate at 130 K on BM 16 at the X-ray European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble. High quality crystal structures were obtained using data collected to a resolution of typically 1.5 A. The structure determinations were performed using a simulated annealing (SA) method and constrained Rietveld refinements for the structures converged to chi sup 2 values of 1.64, 1.84 and 1.76 for the free base, nitrate and acetate respectively. The previously unknown crystal structure of the drug famotidine Form B has been solved using X-ray powder diffraction data colle...

  18. Self-organizing Knotted Magnetic Structures in Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smiet, C B; Thompson, A; Swearngin, J; Dalhuizen, J W; Bouwmeester, D

    2015-01-01

    We perform full-MHD simulations on various initially helical configurations and show that they reconfigure into a state where the magnetic field lines span nested toroidal surfaces. This relaxed configuration is not a Taylor state, as is often assumed for relaxing plasma, but a state where the Lorentz force is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure, which is lowest on the central ring of the nested tori. Furthermore, the structure is characterized by a spatially slowly varying rotational transform, which leads to the formation of a few magnetic islands at rational surfaces. We then obtain analytic expressions that approximate the global structure of the quasi-stable linked and knotted plasma configurations that emerge, using maps from $S^3$ to $S^2$ of which the Hopf fibration is a special case. The knotted plasma configurations have a highly localized magnetic energy density and retain their structure on time scales much longer than the Alfvenic time scale.

  19. Self-Organizing Knotted Magnetic Structures in Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiet, C B; Candelaresi, S; Thompson, A; Swearngin, J; Dalhuisen, J W; Bouwmeester, D

    2015-08-28

    We perform full-magnetohydrodynamics simulations on various initially helical configurations and show that they reconfigure into a state where the magnetic field lines span nested toroidal surfaces. This relaxed configuration is not a Taylor state, as is often assumed for relaxing plasma, but a state where the Lorentz force is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure, which is lowest on the central ring of the nested tori. Furthermore, the structure is characterized by a spatially slowly varying rotational transform, which leads to the formation of a few magnetic islands at rational surfaces. We then obtain analytic expressions that approximate the global structure of the quasistable linked and knotted plasma configurations that emerge, using maps from S^{3} to S^{2} of which the Hopf fibration is a special case. The knotted plasma configurations have a highly localized magnetic energy density and retain their structure on time scales much longer than the Alfvénic time scale. PMID:26371659

  20. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  1. Microbial community structure affects marine dissolved organic matter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Kujawinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine microbes are critical players in the global carbon cycle, affecting both the reduction of inorganic carbon and the remineralization of reduced organic compounds back to carbon dioxide. Members of microbial consortia all depend on marine dissolved organic matter (DOM and in turn, affect the molecules present in this heterogeneous pool. Our understanding of DOM produced by marine microbes is biased towards single species laboratory cultures or simplified field incubations, which exclude large phototrophs and protozoan grazers. Here we explore the interdependence of DOM composition and bacterial diversity in two mixed microbial consortia from coastal seawater: a whole water community and a <1.0-μm community dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. Each consortium was incubated with isotopically-labeled glucose for 9 days. Using stable-isotope probing techniques and electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we show that the presence of organisms larger than 1.0-μm is the dominant factor affecting bacterial diversity and low-molecular-weight (<1000 Da DOM composition over this experiment. In the <1.0-μm community, DOM composition was dominated by compounds with lipid and peptide character at all time points, confirmed by fragmentation spectra with peptide-containing neutral losses. In contrast, DOM composition in the whole water community was nearly identical to that in the initial coastal seawater. These differences in DOM composition persisted throughout the experiment despite shifts in bacterial diversity, underscoring an unappreciated role for larger microorganisms in constraining DOM composition in the marine environment.

  2. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques, such as photol......-trapping efficiency for the selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM), resulting in an enhancement of about 34% on the solar cell efficiency. The presented method can be applied to a large variety of flexible nanostructured devices in future applications....

  3. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical...

  4. Managing University IT Risks in Structured and Organized Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayef Sami Hassen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this digital era, most universities rely heavily on Information Technology (IT to process their information for better support of their visions and missions. However, with this reliance, IT is facing different types of risks under expansions and complexities as experienced by most universities these days. IT risk is not bounded to only information systems and security, but unbounded to encompass the risk to financial, strategic, technological, as well as reputational. All these types of risk are prevalent in universities and hence the need to implement an effective risk management process including but not limited to IT. The best opportunities for managing IT risks can be achieved through managing it within an integrated approach and not to be carried out separately from managing risks of the organization. Such approach ensures that IT is achieving the goals and objectives of the organization by providing a reasonable basis for strategic planning and improves decision making for top management based on risk management value. This study identifies the current implementation of risk management at one Malaysian university to face all risks. The main findings of this study are: (1 The majority of staff supports the fundamental objectives of risk management; (2 The necessity to improve and enhance some procedures of risk management at the university. This study provide recommendations and improvements in some procedures of risk management to increase the awareness of risk management among all the university staff.

  5. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  6. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2010-11-16

    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Organization and structure of the mouse interleukin-2 gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuse, A; Fujita, T.; Yasumitsu, H; Kashima, N; Hasegawa, K; Taniguchi, T.

    1984-01-01

    We have cloned a chromosomal DNA segment which covers the entire sequence for the murine interleukin-2 gene and analysed the structure of the gene. The coding regions are separated into four blocks by three introns each of which is located similarly to the corresponding human gene. The exon sequences can be aligned perfectly with the previously cloned cDNA sequence. Of particular interests is the presence of sequences within the 5'-flanking region which are highly conserved between mouse and ...

  8. Designing Innovative Organizations in Malaysia: Do Structure and Culture Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Jantan; Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin; Nur Fitriah Ahmed Fadzil

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of organizational structure (formalization and centralization and culture (participative decision-making, support and collaboration, learning and development) on innovation (technological and process, administrative, product and overall) among firms operating in Malaysia. Regression analyses of 123 responses revealed that only cultural variables have positive effects on two forms of innovation (technological and process, and administra...

  9. Transport anb Structural Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Organic Solvents.

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Draghi, Carlos Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulation technique has been used in this work to obtain equilibrium as well as transport properties of different aqueoussolutions. The peculiar behavior observed in pure water and its mixtures with other substances at different thermodynamic conditions, and the knowledge and understanding of the properties of these systems are the motivations of this work. We have made a direct connection between the local tetrahedral structure of water, created by the presence of hydroge...

  10. Structural and Computational Studies of Small Organic and Biological Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Casal, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques have been widely utilised to perform structural studies in many areas of research. For example, physicists make use of these experimental techniques to investigate metals, conductor and semi-conductor compounds among others, whereas geochemists apply them to study the conditions deep within the Earth’s interior. Furthermore, pressure studies have reached an important status in chemistry, biology and planetary science, and ...

  11. Understanding Structure and Bonding of Multilayered Metal-Organic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, David A; Ruiz, Victor G; Saidi, Wissam A; Bučko, Tomáš; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Zojer, Egbert

    2013-02-14

    For organic and hybrid electronic devices, the physicochemical properties of the contained interfaces play a dominant role. To disentangle the various interactions occurring at such heterointerfaces, we here model a complex, yet prototypical, three-component system consisting of a Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) film on a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer adsorbed on Ag(111). The two encountered interfaces are similar, as in both cases there would be no bonding without van der Waals interactions. Still, they are also distinctly different, as only at the Ag(111)-PTCDA interface do massive charge-rearrangements occur. Using recently developed theoretical tools, we show that it has become possible to provide atomistic insight into the physical and chemical processes in this comparatively complex nanostructure distinguishing between interactions involving local rearrangements of the charge density and long-range van der Waals attraction. PMID:23447750

  12. Understanding Structure and Bonding of Multilayered Metal–Organic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For organic and hybrid electronic devices, the physicochemical properties of the contained interfaces play a dominant role. To disentangle the various interactions occurring at such heterointerfaces, we here model a complex, yet prototypical, three-component system consisting of a Cu–phthalocyanine (CuPc) film on a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer adsorbed on Ag(111). The two encountered interfaces are similar, as in both cases there would be no bonding without van der Waals interactions. Still, they are also distinctly different, as only at the Ag(111)–PTCDA interface do massive charge-rearrangements occur. Using recently developed theoretical tools, we show that it has become possible to provide atomistic insight into the physical and chemical processes in this comparatively complex nanostructure distinguishing between interactions involving local rearrangements of the charge density and long-range van der Waals attraction. PMID:23447750

  13. Self-organization of punishment in structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is crucial for the remarkable evolutionary success of the human species. Not surprisingly, some individuals are willing to bare additional costs in order to punish defectors. Current models assume that, once set, the fine and cost of punishment do not change over time. Here we show that relaxing this assumption by allowing players to adapt their sanctioning efforts in dependence on the success of cooperation can explain both, the spontaneous emergence of punishment, as well as its ability to deter defectors and those unwilling to punish them with globally negligible investments. By means of phase diagrams and the analysis of emerging spatial patterns, we demonstrate that adaptive punishment promotes public cooperation either through the invigoration of spatial reciprocity, the prevention of the emergence of cyclic dominance, or through the provision of competitive advantages to those that sanction antisocial behavior. Presented results indicate that the process of self-organization significantly e...

  14. Dependence of interfacial film organization on lipid molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszewska, Dorota; Sek, Slawomir; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Pałys, Barbara; Pawlowski, Jan; Bilewicz, Renata; Konrad, Fabian; Osornio, Yazmin M; Landau, Ehud M

    2014-09-30

    Combination of surface analytical techniques was employed to investigate the interfacial behavior of the two designed lipids-N-stearoylglycine (1) and its bulky neutral headgroup-containing derivative N-stearoylvaline ethyl ester (2)-at the air-solution interface and as transferred layers on different substrates. Formation of monolayers at the air-water interface was monitored on pure water and on aqueous solutions of different pH. Crystallization effects were visualized at pure water by recording the hystereses in the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) isotherms and by transferring the layers onto mica, gold (111), and ITO (indium-tin oxide on glass) electrodes. Subphase pH affects the morphology and patch formation in monolayers of 1, as evidenced by BAM measurements. At pH 8.2, formation of well-ordered crystallites is observed, which upon compression elongate according to predominantly 1-D growth mechanism to form a dense layer of crystallites. This effect is not observed in monolayers of 2, whose headgroup is not protonated. The orientation of layers of 1 transferred to the solid supports is also pH dependent, and their stability can be related to formation of a hydrogen-bonded networks. AFM images of 1 exhibited platelets of multilayer phase. The IR spectra of the ITO substrates covered by 1 indicated formation of hydrogen bonds between the amide groups. The nature of the adsorption layer and its organization as a function of potential were studied in-depth by EC STM using Au(111) as the substrate. A model showing the arrangement of hydrogen bonds between adsorbed molecules is presented and related to the observed organization of the layer. PMID:25229461

  15. Cleave to Leave : Structural Insights into the Dynamic Organization of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokudovskaya, Svetlana; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Rout, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the fine structure of the nuclear pore complex has remained elusive. Now, studies on a small protein domain have shed light on the dynamic organization of this massive assembly.

  16. Large, highly organized radio structures near the galactic centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Chance, D. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Dept. of Astronomy); Morris, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1984-08-16

    A radio map of the galactic centre made at a wavelength of 20 cm with the Very Large Array telescope reveals that most of the radio emission arising within 50 pc of the galactic centre is not associated with ionizing radiation from recently formed stars. Rather, the large-scale geometry and the measured polarization of the radio emission strongly suggest that the nonthermally emitting gas is arranged along magnetic structures indicative of a substantial poloidal component to the magnetic field in the central region of the Galaxy.

  17. Large, highly organized radio structures near the galactic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radio map of the galactic centre made at a wavelength of 20 cm with the Very Large Array telescope reveals that most of the radio emission arising within 50 pc of the galactic centre is not associated with ionizing radiation from recently formed stars. Rather, the large-scale geometry and the measured polarization of the radio emission strongly suggest that the nonthermally emitting gas is arranged along magnetic structures indicative of a substantial poloidal component to the magnetic field in the central region of the Galaxy. (author)

  18. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Lucía; Peláez, Samuel; Caillard, Renaud; Serena, Pedro A.; Martín-Gago, José A.; Méndez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic c...

  19. Creating Structures for Network-Centric Warfare: Perspectives from Organization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Kishore; Carl R. Jones

    1999-01-01

    1999 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (CCRTS), June 29 - July 1, 1999, U.S. Naval War College, Rhode Island Combat organizations are increasingly faced with the challenge to adapt to new and diverse engagements. The pace of change is being accelerated by advances in information technology. This article offers perspectives from organization theory that can serve as design principles for enabling combat organizations to adopt flexible structures to cope with cha...

  20. Structure and Morphology of Organic Semiconductor–Nanoparticle Hybrids Prepared by Soft Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, R.; Novák, J.; Drnec, J.; Yu, S.; Schreiber, F.; C. Frank; Girleanu, M.; Ersen, O.; Brinkmann, M.; Anger, F.; Lorch, C.; Dieterle, J; Gerlach, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive structural analysis of hybrid architectures prepared by the “soft” incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within an organic semiconductor matrix of diindenoperylene (DIP). Such “soft” or noninvasive deposition of nanoparticles within organic semiconducting host matrices not only minimizes the influence of the deposition process on the order and properties of the organic host molecules, but also offers additional control in the process of incorporation. The hybrid ...

  1. Microbial Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter: Role of Chemical Composition and Structural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, M. M. R.; Chilom, G.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the effect of organic matter self-assembly on its resistance to microbial mineralization. Humic acids isolated from leonardite, two peats and a mineral soil were used as organic matter samples because they provide a broad range of variability in terms of the origin and nature of their organic components. Using a solvent-based fractionation method, humic acid samples were disassembled into a humic-like component and a humic-lipid composite. The humic-lipid composite was further disassembled into an amphiphilic and a lipid component using an alkaline aqueous solution. Mixtures that reproduced the composition of self-assembled samples were prepared by mixing the solid individual fractions in the exact proportions that they were present in the original material. The original humic acids or their corresponding mixtures were added as the sole carbon source in separate aerobic cultures containing a microbial consortium isolated from a mineral soil. After incubation for 125 days mineralization of the self-assembled samples was shown to be higher by as much as 70% compared to their corresponding physical mixtures. The extent of mineralization of the self-assembled samples was not correlated to the material's chemical composition or hydrophobicity index obtained from their 13C solid-state NMR spectra. In contrast, mineralization of the physical mixtures and the individual fractions did vary with chemical composition and was accompanied by preferential mineralization of alkyl carbon. These results suggest the microbial mineralization of humic acids is related to their self-assembly.

  2. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation

  3. Using Structure-Based Organic Chemistry Online Tutorials with Automated Correction for Student Practice and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P.; Hargaden, Gra´inne C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementation of an open-access organic chemistry question bank for online tutorials and assessments at University College Cork and Dublin Institute of Technology. SOCOT (structure-based organic chemistry online tutorials) may be used to supplement traditional small-group tutorials, thereby allowing…

  4. Structure of sperm, spermatozeugmata and 'lateral organs' in the bivalve Arthritica (Galeommatoidea: Leptonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse; Lützen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The position and structure of paired 'lateral organs' in the foot of Arthritica semen and Arthritica bifurca might indicate a chemosensory function. In both species part of the organ is also glandular. In A. semen the glandular epithelium is detached piecemeal and, probably by means of the foot, ...

  5. The control structure of team-based organizations : A diagnostic model for empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; de Witte, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a diagnostic model for empowerment in team-based organizations that portrays four dimensions of the organization's control structure: the level of routine, the nature of expertise, the level of dependence and the line of command. The combined positions of the set of job regula

  6. Structural and electronic properties of single molecules and organic layers on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sotthewes, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Single molecules and organic layers on well-defined solid surfaces have attracted tremendous attention owing to their interesting physical and chemical properties. The ultimate utility of single molecules or self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for potential applications is critically dependent on the structural, electronic and dynamic properties. Therefore is it important to study the structural and electronic properties as well as the dynamic processes of single molecules and organic layers on ...

  7. Laser Control of Self-Organization Process in Microscopic Region and Fabrication of Fine Microporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yukimasa Matsumura; Wataru Inami; Yoshimasa Kawata

    2012-01-01

    We present a controlling technique of microporous structure by laser irradiation during self-organization process. Self-organization process is fabrication method of microstructure. Polymer solution was dropped on the substrate at high humid condition. Water in air appears dropping air temperature below the dew point. The honeycomb structure with regularly aligned pores on the film was fabricated by attaching water droplets onto the solution surface. We demonstrate that it was possible to pre...

  8. Structure optimization of organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yu, Jun-Sheng; Li, Lu; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Jiang, Ya-Dong

    2009-03-01

    A triple layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with two heterostructure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/ N, N'-diphenyl- N, N'-bis(1-naphthyl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/ 8-Hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3)/Mg:Ag has been fabricated by using the vacuum deposition method. The influence of different film thickness of BCP layer on the performance of the OLEDs has been investigated. The results show that when the thickness of the BCP layer film gradually ranges from 0.1-4.0 nm, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the OLEDs shift from green to greenish-blue to blue, and the BCP layer acts as the role for the recombination region of charge carriers related to EL spectrum, which enhances the brightness and power efficiency. The power efficiency of the OLEDs reaches to as high as 7.3 lm/W.

  9. Direct measurement of riverine particulate organic carbon age structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Brad E.; Galy, Valier

    2012-10-01

    Carbon cycling studies focusing on transport and transformation of terrigenous carbon sources toward marine sedimentary sinks necessitate separation of particulate organic carbon (OC) derived from many different sources and integrated by river systems. Much progress has been made on isolating and characterizing young biologically-formed OC that is still chemically intact, however quantification and characterization of old, refractory rock-bound OC has remained troublesome. Quantification of both endmembers of riverine OC is important to constrain exchanges linking biologic and geologic carbon cycles and regulating atmospheric CO2 and O2. Here, we constrain petrogenic OC proportions in suspended sediment from the headwaters of the Ganges River in Nepal through direct measurement using ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon analysis. The unique results apportion the biospheric and petrogenic fractions of bulk particulate OC and characterize biospheric OC residence time. Compared to the same treatment of POC from the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system, contrast in age spectra of the Ganges tributary samples illustrates the difference between small mountainous river systems and large integrative ones in terms of the global carbon cycle.

  10. Cloud motions on Venus - Global structure and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, S. S.; Suomi, V. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results on cloud motions on Venus obtained over a period of 3.5 days from Mariner 10 television images are presented. The implied atmosphere flow is almost zonal everywhere on the visible disk, and is in the same retrograde sense as the solid planet. Objective analysis of motions suggests the presence of jet cores (-130 m/s) and organized atmospheric waves. The longitudinal mean meridional profile of the zonal component of motion of the ultraviolet features shows presence of a midlatitude jet stream (-110 m/s). The mean zonal component is -97 m/s at the equator. The mean meridional motion at most latitudes is directed toward the pole in either hemisphere and is at least an order of magnitude smaller so that the flow is nearly zonal. A tentative conclusion from the limited coverage available from Mariner 10 is that at the level of ultraviolet features mean meridional circulation is the dominant mode of poleward angular momentum transfer as opposed to the eddy circulation.

  11. Molar crown inner structural organization in Javanese Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément

    2015-01-01

    This contribution investigates the inner organizational pattern (tooth tissue proportions and enamel-dentine junction morphology) of seven Homo erectus permanent molar crowns from the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation of the Sangiran Dome (Central Java, Indonesia). The previous study of their external characteristics confirmed the degree of time-related structural reduction occurred in Javanese H. erectus, and also revealed a combination of nonmetric features which are rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene dental record, but more frequently found in recent humans. In accordance with their outer occlusal morphology, the specimens exhibit a set of derived internal features, such as thick to hyperthick enamel, an incomplete expression of the crest patterns at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) level, a sharp EDJ topography. As a whole, these features differ from those expressed in some penecontemporaneous specimens/samples representing African H. erectus/ergaster and H. heidelbergensis, as well as in Neanderthals, but occur in recent human populations. Further research in virtual dental paleoanthropology to be developed at macroregional scale would clarify the polarity and intensity of the intermittent exchanges between continental and insular Southeast Asia around the Lower to Middle Pleistocene boundary, as well as should shed light on the still poorly understood longitudinal evolutionary dynamics across continental Asia. PMID:25209431

  12. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  13. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration

  14. Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein fold usage and evolutionary implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2006-03-15

    Background: Determining the complete repertoire of proteinstructures for all soluble, globular proteins in a single organism hasbeen one of the major goals of several structural genomics projects inrecent years. Results: We report that this goal has nearly been reachedfor several "minimal organisms"--parasites or symbionts with reducedgenomes--for which over 95 percent of the soluble, globular proteins maynow be assigned folds, overall 3-D backbone structures. We analyze thestructures of these proteins as they relate to cellular functions, andcompare conservation off old usage between functional categories. We alsocompare patterns in the conservation off olds among minimal organisms andthose observed between minimal organisms and other bacteria. Conclusion:We find that proteins performing essential cellular functions closelyrelated to transcription and translation exhibit a higher degree ofconservation in fold usage than proteins in other functional categories.Folds related to transcription and translation functional categories werealso over represented in minimal organisms compared to otherbacteria.

  15. Discussion on organization structure system of nuclear power projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of the nuclear power industry in China, several AE companies were born and now play a major role in building nuclear power projects in China and overseas. After studying current organization structure systems of all nuclear power AE companies in China and comparing with successful foreign ones, this paper proposes some approaches to optimize the structure. (author)

  16. Structure and Organization of the SWRL Drama and Public Speaking Program for 1972-73 Tryout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; And Others

    The structure and organization of the first four levels of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Drama and Public Speaking Program to be tried out in 1972-1973 are described in this paper. The program structure is defined in terms of skill, content, and assessment areas. Specific subareas of content are listed and are to be used to guide lesson…

  17. Studying of shale organic matter structure and pore space transformations during hydrocarbon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    Due to the increased interest in the study of the structure, composition, and oil and gas potential of unconventional hydrocarbon resources, investigations of the transformation of the pore space of rocks and organic matter alterations during the generation of hydrocarbon fluids are getting attention again. Due to the conventional hydrocarbon resources decreasing, there will be a necessity to develop new unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Study of the conditions and processes of hydrocarbon generation, formation and transformation of the pore space in these rocks is pivotal to understand the mechanisms of oil formation and determine the optimal and cost effective ways for their industrial exploration. In this study, we focus on organic matter structure and its interaction with the pore space of shales during hydrocarbon generation and report some new results. Collected rock samples from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method and SEM were used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space and organic matter structure within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that

  18. An investigation on a production company via the scope of Mintzberg’s adhocratic organization structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Toker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the importance of innovation for enterprises, increase each passing day. As a result of globalization, enterprises are under intense competitive pressure. They have to make innovation for increasing to market share or for protecting to it at least. Non-innovative firms lose their customers and their existence is face to threat from other innovative actors in the market. Therefore firms have to design their organization structure that encourage to innovation. Mintzberg’s adhocratic organization structure was investigated in this article.  Thus, its aim of this study leads to resemblance and diversity between theory and practice via of the theoretical knowledge.  As a result of study; high degree of similarity between the application and Mintzberg’s theory, which is related to adhocratic organization structure, has been identified.Keywords: Innovation, Organizational Structure, Mintzberg, Adhocracy, Media Sector

  19. The Impact of the Demand for Integration in the Large Multi-Business Unit Firm on the IT Organization Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Large, multi-business unit firms are decentralizing their overall corporate structures. At the same time, the structures of their IT organizations are becoming more centralized. This is contrary to current wisdom that the IT organization structure will mimic the structure of the corporation, all else being equal. Because the general business…

  20. Parameterizing liquid crystal variable retarder structural organization with a fractal-Born approximation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladish, James C.; Duncan, Donald D.

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) are computer-controlled birefringent devices that contain nanometer-sized birefringent liquid crystals (LCs). These devices impart retardance effects through a global, uniform orientation change of the LCs, which is based on a user-defined drive voltage input. In other words, the LC structural organization dictates the device functionality. The LC structural organization also produces a spectral scatter component which exhibits an inverse power law dependence. We investigate LC structural organization by measuring the voltage-dependent LC spectral scattering signature with an integrating sphere and then relate this observable to a fractal-Born model based on the Born approximation and a Von Kármán spectrum. We obtain LCVR light scattering spectra at various drive voltages (i.e., different LC orientations) and then parameterize LCVR structural organization with voltage-dependent correlation lengths. The results can aid in determining performance characteristics of systems using LCVRs and can provide insight into interpreting structural organization measurements.

  1. Studying the operation characteristics and structure of vertical channel copper-phthalocyanine organic semiconductor transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Min; SONG Ming-xin; GUI Tai-long; WANG Xuan; YIN Jing-hua; WANG Dong-xing; ZHAO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The creation of Au/CuPc/Al/CuPc/structure is a perpendicular type electricity found in the channel of organic static induction transistor. In the following we analyze transistor operation characteristics and machine structural relation. The results express that the transistor drives the voltage low and has no-saturation currentvoltage characteristics. Its operation characteristics are dependant on gate bias voltage and the construction of the aluminum electrode.The vertical channel of organic static induction transistor (OSIT) , with structure of Au/CuPc/Al/CuPc/Cu, has been determined. According to the test results, the relation of its operation characteristics and device structure was analyzed. The results show that this transistor has a low driving voltage and unsaturation Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics. Its operation characteristics are dependant on gate bias voltage and the structure of the aluminum electrode.

  2. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superla...

  3. A German survey on structure and developments of anaerobic digestion in organic farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Blumenstein; Torsten Siegmeier; Carsten Bruckhaus; Victor Anspach; Detlev Möller

    2015-01-01

    Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD) in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas pr...

  4. Significance of the astrocyte domain organization for qualitative information structuring in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard J Mitterauer

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytes, the dominant glial cell type, modulate synaptic information transmission. Each astrocyte is organized in non-overlapping domains. Here, a formally based model of the possible significance of astrocyte domain organization is proposed. It is hypothesized that each astrocyte contacting n neurons with m synapses via its processes generates dynamic domains of synaptic interactions based on qualitative criteria so that it exerts a structuring of neuronal information processing. The form...

  5. Synthesis, structure, and opto-electronic properties of organic-based nanoscale heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cimrová Vĕra; Rezek Bohuslav; Čermák Jan; Kromka Alexander; Ledinský Martin; Hubík Pavel; Mareš Jiří; Purkrt Adam; Fejfar Antonín; Kočka Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Enormous research effort has been put into optimizing organic-based opto-electronic systems for efficient generation of free charge carriers. This optimization is mainly due to typically high dissociation energy (0.1-1 eV) and short diffusion length (10 nm) of excitons in organic materials. Inherently, interplay of microscopic structural, chemical, and opto-electronic properties plays crucial role. We show that employing and combining advanced scanning probe techniques can provide us...

  6. Family Structure as a Correlate of Organized Sport Participation among Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McMillan

    Full Text Available Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201. Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61 to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08. The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate. In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant

  7. Lipase in aqueous-polar organic solvents: Activity, structure, and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Yedavalli, Poornima; Deshmukh, Mandar V; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2013-01-01

    Studying alterations in biophysical and biochemical behavior of enzymes in the presence of organic solvents and the underlying cause(s) has important implications in biotechnology. We investigated the effects of aqueous solutions of polar organic solvents on ester hydrolytic activity, structure and stability of a lipase. Relative activity of the lipase monotonically decreased with increasing concentration of acetone, acetonitrile, and DMF but increased at lower concentrations (upto ∼20% v/v) ...

  8. Biogas and Organic Farming: Empirical evidence on production structure and economics in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anspach, Dipl.-Ing.agr. Victor; Möller, Prof. Dr. Detlev

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production has an increasing importance on organic farms in Germany. Biogas plants have the possibility to produce energy, soil fertility and positive returns on capital. Yet previously no studies on the structure, economic outcomes and internal benefits of biogas production on organic farms existed. Therefore in 2006 and 2007 an empirical study, designed as a census, has been carried out to investigate these questions. Based on the empirical study a simulation model was built to analy...

  9. An Investigation on a Production Company via the Scope of Mintzberg’s Adhocratic Organization Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Cakirel

    2016-01-01

    Today, the importance of innovation for enterprises, increase each passing day. As a result of globalization, enterprises are under intense competitive pressure. They have to make innovation for increasing to market share or for protecting to it at least. Noninnovative firms lose their customers and their existence is face to threat from other innovative actors in the market. Therefore firms have to design their organization structure that encourage to innovation. Mintzberg’s adhocratic organ...

  10. The Electronic Structure of Organic Molecular Materials : Theoretical and Spectroscopic Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia

    2014-01-01

    In the present thesis the electronic properties of two organic molecules were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) in connection to their possible applications in organic photovoltaics and molecular spintronics respectively. The first analysed system is the C60 derivative PCBM extensively used in polymer solar cells for the charge separation process. Since fullerenes have been shown to undergo modifications as a result of light exposure, investigating their electronic structure...

  11. Estimation of carrier mobility at organic semiconductor/insulator interface using an asymmetric capacitive test structure

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Agarwal; Ashish K. Agarwal; Baquer Mazhari

    2016-01-01

    Mobility of carriers at the organic/insulator interface is crucial to the performance of organic thin film transistors. The present work describes estimation of mobility using admittance measurements performed on an asymmetric capacitive test structure. Besides the advantage of simplicity, it is shown that at low frequencies, the measured capacitance comes from a large area of channel making the capacitance-voltage characteristics insensitive to contact resistances. 2-D numerical simulation a...

  12. The role of the organization structure in the diffusion of innovations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sáenz-Royo

    Full Text Available Diffusion and adoption of innovations is a topic of increasing interest in economics, market research, and sociology. In this paper we investigate, through an agent based model, the dynamics of adoption of innovative proposals in different kinds of structures. We show that community structure plays an important role on the innovation diffusion, so that proposals are more likely to be accepted in homogeneous organizations. In addition, we show that the learning process of innovative technologies enhances their diffusion, thus resulting in an important ingredient when heterogeneous networks are considered. We also show that social pressure blocks the adoption process whatever the structure of the organization. These results may help to understand how different factors influence the diffusion and acceptance of innovative proposals in different communities and organizations.

  13. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lucía; Peláez, Samuel; Caillard, Renaud; Serena, Pedro A; Martín-Gago, José A; Méndez, Javier

    2010-07-30

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules. PMID:20603531

  14. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks: structure, properties, methods of synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butova, V. V.; Soldatov, M. A.; Guda, A. A.; Lomachenko, K. A.; Lamberti, C.

    2016-03-01

    This review deals with key methods of synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The modular structure affords a wide variety of MOFs with different active metal sites and organic linkers. These compounds represent a new stage of development of porous materials in which the pore size and the active site structure can be modified within wide limits. The set of experimental methods considered in this review is sufficient for studying the short-range and long-range order of the MOF crystal structure, determining the morphology of samples and elucidating the processes that occur at the active metal site in the course of chemical reactions. The interest in metal-organic frameworks results, first of all, from their numerous possible applications, ranging from gas separation and storage to chemical reactions within the pores. The bibliography includes 362 references.

  16. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Lucia; Caillard, Renaud; MartIn-Gago, Jose A; Mendez, Javier [Grupo ESISNA, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pelaez, Samuel; Serena, Pedro A, E-mail: jmendez@icmm.csic.es [Grupo de Teoria y Simulacion de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules.

  17. Growth and characterization of para-hexaphenyl based organic hetero-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of organic semiconductors have been studied intensively in the last two decades. The main motivation for these research efforts are possible applications of this material class as building blocks of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Additionally, there is considerable interest concerning the optical properties of this material class including strong fluorescence and a high absorption cross section for stimulated emission. Consequently, it seems to be promising to utilize such molecules for organic solid state lasers. A profound understanding of the crystallization processes of organic semiconductor materials is necessary in order to realize such applications. The latter statement motivates the main focus of this work, which is the preparation and characterization of crystalline organic nanostructures consisting of oligomer molecules vacuum deposited on inorganic substrates by means of hot wall epitaxy (HWE). With this respect, the molecule para-Hexaphenyl (6P) and the substrate muscovite mica have achieved outstanding importance, because this combination leads to the formation of crystalline and highly anisotropic nano-needles. These nano-needles exhibit intense polarized fluorescence in the blue spectral regime and they can be utilized as wave-guides and as sources for laser radiation. To enlarge the spectrum of conceivable applications and to change the emission properties of the nano-structures, 6P can be replaced by other organic molecules. However this usually leads to multiple (non-parallel) needle orientations causing crossing points, which is cumbersome for the proposed optical applications. Organic-organic multilayer systems are discussed in this work as a possible strategy to overcome these limitations, which combines the outstanding structural properties of 6P with different optical properties of molecules like sexithiophene (6T). The morphology and structure of such multilayer organic

  18. Types of Complementarity, Combinative Organization Forms and Structural Heterogeneity: Beyond Discrete Structural Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Grandori, A.; FURNARI, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, applied studies have shown widespread, profound and increasing heterogeneity across firms in terms of their strategy, organization arrangement and performance. This book investigates the diversity of business firms, offering a picture of the different organizational settings they adopt in their endeavour to cope with increasing competitive pressure.

  19. Confirmation of the Dimensional Adjustment Model of Organizational Structure in Municipal Sports Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nikolaidou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of municipal sport organizations indicates the priority, which is given from the local authority in the well-being of citizens. On the other hand, it constitutes the basis upon which sports are built in national level. The whole body of the organizations has an organizational structure. The organizational structure is a system of registration of employment and the relations that govern them. The basic dimensions are: concentration, complexity and formalization. The purpose of this study is to confirm or contradict the proposed, based on the literature, model of organizational structure in municipal sports organizations. The Sport Commission Organization Structure Survey questionnaire was used in order to conduct it. The participants were 100 Greek municipal sport organizations. Factor analysis detected four factors: departmentalization, concentration, specialization and formalization. The results confirmed partially the proposed model. The ‘Cronbach a’ was used to calculate the reliability factors ranged from .40 to .70. The confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the adjustment or not to the new model in the data. Based on the model of the confirmatory factor analysis it is revealed that it was slightly acceptable. Finally, although there was a marginal confirmation of the new model, it appears that questions of this survey require further improvement.

  20. Possibilities of binding organic molecules within the enamel crystal structure in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihaček-Šojić Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine the possibilities of binding organic molecules to the enamel crystal structure. The experimental study in vivo was performed on maxillar molars in dogs. Time in vivo was 12 months after which animals were executed. All intact teeth were extracted and the study of the enamel crystal structure was continued in vitro. After treating the enamel tissue with the solution of organic spin marker 4-Amino-Tempo, the follow-up of the changes of values of the apatite crystal unit cell parameters was done by X-ray diffraction. The following conclusions may be reached after evaluation of the obtained results: in addition to the process of diffusion through the interprysmatic space of the enamel tissue, the organic molecules also play a crucial role in the changes of the crystal grid size, due to binding of organic parts of molecules in the enamel crystal structure. Permanent oscillations of the existing oxygen bonds in the enamel crystal structure have been determined every few weeks and depend on the process of substitution and resubstitution of OH ions by ions from organic and inorganic molecules and various dental materials. The local application of the fluorine based preparations on permanent teeth must be repeated every two months due to breakedown of oxygen bond and resubstitution.

  1. Possibilities of binding organic molecules within the enamel crystal structure in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tihaček-Šojić Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to determine the possibilities of binding organic molecules to the enamel crystal structure. The experimental study in vivo was performed on maxillar molars in dogs. Time in vivo was 12 months after which animals were executed. All intact teeth were extracted and the study of the enamel crystal structure was continued in vitro. After treating the enamel tissue with the solution of organic spin marker 4-Amino-Tempo, the follow-up of the changes of values of ...

  2. Organic structure determination using 2-D NMR spectroscopy a problem-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    Organic Structure Determination Using 2-D NMR Spectroscopy: A Problem-Based Approach, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the use of two-dimensional (2-D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine organic structure. The book begins with a discussion of the NMR technique, while subsequent chapters cover instrumental considerations; data collection, processing, and plotting; chemical shifts; symmetry and topicity; through-bond effects; and through-space effects. The book also covers molecular dynamics; strategies for assigning resonances to atoms within a molecule; s

  3. Structural characterization of wind-sheared turbulent flow using self-organized mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas V.; Handler, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    A nonlinear cluster analysis algorithm is used to characterize the spatial structure of a wind-sheared turbulent flow obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three-dimensional temperature and momentum fields. The application of self-organizing mapping to DNS data for data reduction is utilized because of the dimensional similitude in structure between DNS data and remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data where the technique has been used extensively. For the three Reynolds numbers of 150, 180, and 220 used in the DNS, self-organized mapping is successful in the extraction of boundary layer streaky structures from the turbulent temperature and momentum fields. In addition, it preserves the cross-wind scale structure of the streaks exhibited in both fields which loosely scale with the inverse of the Reynolds number. Self-organizing mapping of the along wind component of the helicity density shows a layer of the turbulence field which is spotty suggesting significant direct coupling between the large and small-scale turbulent structures. The spatial correlation of the temperature and momentum fields allows for the possibility of the remote extrapolation of the momentum structure from thermal structure.

  4. Impact of Structures on Knowledge Contribution in Virtual Organizations: The Asian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As multi-culture virtual teams become more prevalent in organizations, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand knowledge sharing dynamics. This paper uses Adaptive Structuration Theory extended to address proactive structuration as a foundation from which a model is developed to include aspects of knowledge sharing. Propositions are established, and evidence is provided based on a project involving 119 participants comprising 13 teams of nominally nine members. Each team was composed...

  5. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    OpenAIRE

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a string of dimeric ATP synthase (complex V(2)). A row-like organization of OXPHOS complexes 1, III and IV into respiratory strings has also been proposed. These transient strings cannot be purified...

  6. Evidence of a new form of self-organization in DBD Plasmas: the quincunx structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bernecker, B; Callegari, T; Boeuf, J P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Self-organized, stable or dynamic, filamentary structures are known to form in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) operating in a glow regime. The common " classical " understanding of stable filamentary structures in DBDs is that a glow discharge filament forms at each half-cycle of the sinusoidal applied voltage at the same spatial location along the dielectric surface. The " memory " charges deposited by the previous filament on the dielectric surfaces are responsible for the ...

  7. Organization Structure and Credibility: Evidence from Commercial Bank Securities Activities Before the Glass-Steagall Act

    OpenAIRE

    Randall S. Kroszner; Raghuram G. Rajan

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates how organizational structure can affect a firm's ability to compete. In particular, we examine the two ways in which U.S. commercial banks organized their investment banking operations before the 1933 Glass-Steagall Act forced the banks to leave the securities business: as an internal securities department within the bank and as a separately incorporated and capitalized securities affiliate. We document a strong movement toward the use of the affiliate structure during...

  8. A Task-Based Approach to Organization: Knowledge, Communication and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Garicano; Yanhui Wu

    2010-01-01

    We bridge a gap between organizational economics and strategy research by developing a task-based approach to analyze organizational knowledge, process and structure, and deriving testable implications for the relation between production and organizational structure. We argue that organization emerges to integrate disperse knowledge and to coordinate talent in production and is designed to complement the limitations of human ability. The complexity of the tasks undertaken determines the optim...

  9. Macrozoobenthic community structure in two Portuguese estuaries: Relationship with organic enrichment and nutrient gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana Paula; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work consists in the study of the structural and functional aspects of the macrozoobenthic communities and their relationships with the organic enrichment and nutrient gradients in water and sediment. The study was carried out in two coastal ecosystems under strong anthropogenic pressure: the Sado estuary and the Aveiro Lagoon. Samples were collected at four stations between October 1994 and April 1995. The results obtained allowed us to state that spatial variability, both horizontal and vertical, was higher than the temporal variability. This was due to local hydrodynamism, organic load and granulometric structure of the sediment. Comparing the community structure at the different stations, it was possible to observe the existence of disturbance cases not directly related to organic enrichment gradients. The interpretation of the functional role of the macrozoobenthic communities at the water-sediment interface was based on the trophodynamic group classification. This approach allowed us to state that the sensitivity of different groups to organic enrichment, confirming the role of burrower subsurface-deposit feeders as opportunists associated with organic enrichment and, on the other hand, the influence of certain trophodynamic groups in the nutrient transfer processes, particularly the association between tube-builder omnivores and burrower carnivore and nitrate content in interstitial water.

  10. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by self-organized dust structures: Degree of coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated explicitly that the scattering of electromagnetic waves by dust structures can be strongly enhanced as compared to incoherent scattering by random electrons. If the size of the dust structure is much less than the wavelength of the incident radiation, the scattering is coherent. In this case, the scattering is proportional to the square of the total number of electrons in the structure. In the opposite limit, the scattering is incoherent being proportional to the total number of electrons in the structure. The factor describing the degree of coherency is calculated numerically for several models of self-organized structures. It is demonstrated in general way that for sudden heating of electrons, the factor of coherency in scattering by structures can decrease by several orders of magnitude with subsequent increase after the heating is switched off. In laboratory dusty plasmas, the coherent scattering is proposed for diagnostics of universal structuring instability and as a probe for determining the properties typical for self-organized nature of structures that are observed in recent experiments

  11. Teachers' Organization of Participation Structures for Teaching Science with Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that investigated the nature of the participation structures and how the participation structures were organized by four science teachers when they constructed and communicated science content in their classrooms with computer technology. Participation structures focus on the activity structures and processes in social settings like classrooms thereby providing glimpses into the complex dynamics of teacher-students interactions, configurations, and conventions during collective meaning making and knowledge creation. Data included observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. Analysis revealed that the dominant participation structure evident within participants' instruction with computer technology was (Teacher) initiation-(Student and Teacher) response sequences-(Teacher) evaluate participation structure. Three key events characterized the how participants organized this participation structure in their classrooms: setting the stage for interactive instruction, the joint activity, and maintaining accountability. Implications include the following: (1) teacher educators need to tap into the knowledge base that underscores science teachers' learning to teach philosophies when computer technology is used in instruction. (2) Teacher educators need to emphasize the essential idea that learning and cognition is not situated within the computer technology but within the pedagogical practices, specifically the participation structures. (3) The pedagogical practices developed with the integration or with the use of computer technology underscored by the teachers' own knowledge of classroom contexts and curriculum needs to be the focus for how students learn science content with computer technology instead of just focusing on how computer technology solely supports students learning of science content.

  12. Teachers' Organization of Participation Structures for Teaching Science with Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that investigated the nature of the participation structures and how the participation structures were organized by four science teachers when they constructed and communicated science content in their classrooms with computer technology. Participation structures focus on the activity structures and processes in social settings like classrooms thereby providing glimpses into the complex dynamics of teacher-students interactions, configurations, and conventions during collective meaning making and knowledge creation. Data included observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. Analysis revealed that the dominant participation structure evident within participants' instruction with computer technology was ( Teacher) initiation-( Student and Teacher) response sequences-( Teacher) evaluate participation structure. Three key events characterized the how participants organized this participation structure in their classrooms: setting the stage for interactive instruction, the joint activity, and maintaining accountability. Implications include the following: (1) teacher educators need to tap into the knowledge base that underscores science teachers' learning to teach philosophies when computer technology is used in instruction. (2) Teacher educators need to emphasize the essential idea that learning and cognition is not situated within the computer technology but within the pedagogical practices, specifically the participation structures. (3) The pedagogical practices developed with the integration or with the use of computer technology underscored by the teachers' own knowledge of classroom contexts and curriculum needs to be the focus for how students learn science content with computer technology instead of just focusing on how computer technology solely supports students learning of science content.

  13. Modeling the influence of alkane molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumont, Bernard; Camredon, Marie; Mouchel-Vallon, Camille; La, Stéphanie; Ouzebidour, Farida; Valorso, Richard; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) production and ageing is a multigenerational oxidation process involving the formation of successive organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds (IVOC) emitted to the atmosphere are expected to be a substantial source of SOA. These emitted IVOC constitute a complex mixture including linear, branched and cyclic alkanes. The explicit gas-phase oxidation mechanisms are here generated for various linear and branched C10-C22 alkanes using the GECKO-A (Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere) and SOA formation is investigated for various homologous series. Simulation results show that both the size and the branching of the carbon skeleton are dominant factors driving the SOA yield. However, branching appears to be of secondary importance for the particle oxidation state and composition. The effect of alkane molecular structure on SOA yields appears to be consistent with recent laboratory observations. The simulated SOA composition shows, however, an unexpected major contribution from multifunctional organic nitrates. Most SOA contributors simulated for the oxidation of the various homologous series are far too reduced to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). On a carbon basis, the OOA yields never exceeded 10% regardless of carbon chain length, molecular structure or ageing time. This version of the model appears clearly unable to explain a large production of OOA from alkane precursors. PMID:24600999

  14. Fine structure of uterus and non-functioning paruterine organ in Orthoskrjabinia junlanae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-06-01

    Some cyclophyllidean cestodes provide protection for their eggs in the external environment by providing them with additional protective layers around the egg membranes. In attempting to examine such adaptations, the microanatomy and fine structure of the uterus of pregravid and gravid proglottids of the cyclophyllidean cestode Orthoskrjabinia junlanae, a parasite of mammals that inhabit a terrestrial but moist environment, were studied. In the initial stages of uterine development, developing embryos locate freely in the lumen of a saccate uterus that later partitions into chambers. Each chamber that forms encloses several embryos. The chambers are surrounded by muscle cells that synthesize extracellular matrix actively. The paruterine organs consist of stacks of flattened long outgrowths of muscular cells, interspersed with small lipid droplets. In the gravid proglottids, the size of paruterine organ increases and consists of flattened basal and small rounded apical parts separated by constrictions. The fine structure of the organ wall remains the same: sparse nuclei and stacks of flattened cytoplasmic outgrowths but internal invaginations or lumen in the paruterine organ are absent. Completely developed eggs remain localized in the uterus. Based on the comparative morpho-functional analysis of uterine and paruterine organs and uterine capsules in cestodes, we conclude that these non-functioning paruterine organ in O. junlanae is an example of an atavism. We postulate that the life cycle of the parasite, which infects mammals living in wet habitats, where threats of desiccation of parasite ova is reduced, has favoured a reversion to a more ancestral form of uterine development. PMID:26997340

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks with d-f Cyanide Bridges: Structural Diversity, Bonding Regime, and Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ferbinteanu; F. Cimpoesu; S. Tanase

    2015-01-01

    We present a selection of metal-organic frameworks based on d-f and f-f linkages, discussing their structural features and properties from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. We give an overview of our own synthetic and modeling methodologies, highlighting the complexity of the interdisciplinar

  16. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    oriented on the surface of cells. A study of the structure and organization of calcium deposits is very much essential in the taxonomy of calcareous algae, which is possible by using SEM. Various studies have proved that this tool offers a great potential...

  17. Structural organization of surfactant aggregates in vacuo: a molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Giovanna; Fornili, Sandro L; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    Experimental investigations using mass spectrometry have established that surfactant molecules are able to form aggregates in the gas phase. However, there is no general consensus on the organization of these aggregates and how it depends on the aggregation number and surfactant molecular structure. In the present paper we investigate the structural organization of some surfactants in vacuo by molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations to widely explore the space of their possible conformations in vacuo. To study how the specific molecular features of such compounds affect their organization, we have considered as paradigmatic surfactants, the anionic single-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the anionic double-chain sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and the zwitterionic single-chain dodecyl phosphatidyl choline (DPC) within a wide aggregation number range (from 5 to 100). We observe that for low aggregation numbers the aggregates show in vacuo the typical structure of reverse micelles, while for large aggregation numbers a variety of globular aggregates occur that are characterized by the coexistence of interlaced domains formed by the polar or ionic heads and by the alkyl chains of the surfactants. Well-tempered metadynamics simulations allows us to confirm that the structural organizations obtained after 50 ns of molecular dynamics simulations are practically the equilibrium ones. Similarities and differences of surfactant aggregates in vacuo and in apolar media are also discussed. PMID:26050747

  18. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of new organic compounds containing cyanoacrylic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Mogheiseh, M.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Chow, T.J.; Maddahi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1098, Oct (2015), s. 318-323. ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic compounds * cyanoacrylic acid * single-crystal structure analysis * dye-sensitized solar cells * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2014

  19. Relationship between chemical structure and the occupational asthma hazard of low molecular weight organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, J; Seed, M; Elton, R; Sawyer, L.; Agius, R.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate quantitatively, relationships between chemical structure and reported occupational asthma hazard for low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds; to develop and validate a model linking asthma hazard with chemical substructure; and to generate mechanistic hypotheses that might explain the relationships.

  20. Correlations between the motion and the structure of nonionic surfactant aggregates in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether is dissolved at 200C in a variety of organic solvents (methanol, benzene, chloroform, hydrocarbons). The formation of aggregates in hydrocarbon solvents and the effect of added water on their structural and dynamic properties are studied by neutron scattering and nuclear relaxation experiments. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid organic-inorganic structured materials as single-site heterogeneous catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Morales, Urbano Manuel; Boronat Zaragoza, Mercedes; Corma Canós, Avelino

    2012-01-01

    Catalyst selectivity is associated with well-defined homogeneous active sites. Transition metal complexes and organocatalysts are highly active and selective in the homogeneous phase, and their heterogenization by incorporating them into inorganic solid materials allows combining their excellent catalytic activity with improved separation, recovering and recycling properties. In this article, we present the structural characteristics and catalytic properties of hybrid organic inorganic materi...

  2. Ethnically Diverse Students' Knowledge Structures in First-Semester Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry courses remain a challenge for many undergraduate students. In particular, first-semester organic chemistry has been labeled as a gatekeeper with high attrition rates, especially among students of color. Our study examines a key factor related to conceptual understanding in science and predictive of course outcomes-knowledge structures.…

  3. SIDEBAR OF THE ORGANIZATION TRANSFORMATION MOVE REGULATION IN A BUSINESS INTEGRATED STRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MECHANISM DEVELOPMENT SHAPING

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkachina, M.; Naumenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of separation cognate morphological sign categories of management subjects development and integrations are correlated. The particularities of integrated subject managements coordinated development realization are considered. The changes parameters and directions in transformational process management are determined. The structuring of organizing change management mechanism is designed and its introduction is offered

  4. Modeling structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleiss Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in water and five different organic solvent models was investigated using multiple molecular dynamics simulations to describe the effect of solvents on structure and dynamics. Interactions of the solvents with the protein and the distribution of water molecules at the protein surface were examined. Results The simulated structure was independent of the solvent, and had a low deviation from the crystal structure. However, the hydrophilic surface of CALB in non-polar solvents decreased by 10% in comparison to water, while the hydrophobic surface is slightly increased by 1%. There is a large influence on the flexibility depending on the dielectric constant of the solvent, with a high flexibility in water and a low flexibility in organic solvents. With decreasing dielectric constant, the number of surface bound water molecules significantly increased and a spanning water network with an increasing size was formed. Conclusion The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents is caused by a spanning water network resulting from less mobile and slowly exchanging water molecules at the protein-surface. The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvent is not only caused by the interactions between solvent-protein, but mainly by the formation of a spanning water network.

  5. Structure of phase-separated ferroelectric/ semiconducting polymer blends for organic non-volatile memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcneill, C.R.; Asadi, K.; Watts, B.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2010-01-01

    The phase-separated structure of blends of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) and the semiconducting polymer P3HT used in organic non-volatile memories is revealed with soft X-ray spectromicroscopy. These thin-film blends show a columnar morphology, with P3HT-rich columns enclosed in a continuous

  6. A Conceptual Framework of Corporate and Business Ethics across Organizations: Structures, Processes and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Goran; Wood, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance. Design/methodology/approach: A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of…

  7. Estimation of Formation Enthalpies of Organic Pollutants from a New Structural Group Contribution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Bagheri; Afshin Bakhtiari; Masoume Jaberi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical stability and reactivity of organic pollutants is dependent to their formation enthalpies.The main objective of this study is to provide simple straightforward strategy for prediction of the formation enthalpies of wide range organic pollutants only from their structural functional groups.Using such an extended dataset comprising 1694 organic chemicals from 77 diverse material classes benefits the generalizability and reliability of the study.The new suggested collection of 12 functional groups and a simple linear regression lead to promising statistics of R2=0.958,Q2Loo =0.956,and δAEE=57 kJ·mol-1 for the whole dataset.Moreover,unknown experimental formation enthalpies for 27 organic pollutants are estimated by the presented approach.The resultant model needs no technical software/calculations,and thus can be easily applied by a non-specialist user.

  8. Long Range Modification of a Metal Surface Electronic Structure by an Organic Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Dougherty, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In an organic spintronic device the interaction between electrode surface and organic semiconductor layer plays an important role in spin injection at this interface. The antiferromagnetic material Cr(001) is known to have a spin-polarized state near Fermi level that could potentially hybridize with organic molecules. Here we report our STM/STS study of electronic structure at interface between an organic semiconductor, PTCDA, and Cr(001) surface. The study shows that the surface state at Fermi level of Cr(001) can be broadened by PTCDA molecules deposited on the surface due to hybridization of PTCDA molecular orbital and conduction sp band of Cr(001). This indirect modification is not only localized at molecular adsorption sites, but also extends several nm to bare surrounding Cr(001) surface and decays with distance away from PTCDA molecules.

  9. TERRITORIAL STRUCTURES AND THE POTENTIAL OF ROMANIA’S ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ALECU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to highlight the main issues that the implementation of organic agriculture in Romania has to face, at territorial and national level in regard to the situation of the vegetal and animal sector. The comparison of the percentages showed, on the one hand, a considerable organic potential at national level, and on the other hand, the necessity to embrace a different structure by means of organizational measures. The level of the used markers highlighted an increasing trend of organic agriculture, by means of the increase of the total area and of the areas in conversion. This can be achieved by increasing the average surface per holding and intensifying the average number of animals per organic agricultural holding, situations which at present, at national level, are associated with very noticeable variation forms.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naman; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  11. When hole extraction determines charge transfer across metal-organic-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govor, L. V.; Reiter, G.; Parisi, J.

    2016-03-01

    We examined the charge transfer in metal-organic-metal structure, where the contact resistance of the extracting interface is larger than the resistance of the organic crystalline material and the resistance of the injecting interface. If direct tunneling (low voltage) and Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling (high voltage) across both interfaces take place, part of the injected holes remains located in the organic crystal because of the blocking action of the extracting interface, but not because of traps within the organic crystalline material (which was negligible). If Fowler-Nordheim tunneling across the injecting interface and direct tunneling across the extracting interface take place for high voltages, the latter leads to the deviation of the total current-voltage characteristic from the power law I∼ Vγ with γ>2 to Ohm's law with γ≃1.0 .

  12. High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Multiple Quantum-Well Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yu; HOU Jing-Ying; WU Zhi-Jun; CHENG Gang; ZHAO Yi; LIU Shi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report the white organic-light devices (WOLEDs) employing a multiple quantum-well (MQW) structure,which consist of alternate layers of 4,48-bis(2,28-diphenylvinyl)-1,18-biphenyl (DPVBi) and (DPVBi:Rubrene) as the potential barrier and the potential well, respectively. The results demonstrate that the MQW structure can prominently increase the performance of WOLEDs, the double quantum well device exhibits the efficiency up to 5.4 cd/A, and yields a peak luminance of 14206 cd/m2. It is also interesting to find that the MQW structure can enhance the colour stability of WOLEDs at different voltages.

  13. Molecular design chemical structure generation from the properties of pure organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, AL

    1992-01-01

    This book is a systematic presentation of the methods that have been developed for the interpretation of molecular modeling to the design of new chemicals. The main feature of the compilation is the co-ordination of the various scientific disciplines required for the generation of new compounds. The five chapters deal with such areas as structure and properties of organic compounds, relationships between structure and properties, and models for structure generation. The subject is covered in sufficient depth to provide readers with the necessary background to understand the modeling

  14. Electronic structure of the organic semiconductor copper tetraphenylporphyrin (CuTPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of thin films of the organic semiconductor copper tetraphenylporphyrin (CuTPP) has been studied using synchrotron radiation-excited resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (RSXE), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The C and N partial density of states for both the valence and conduction band electronic structure has been determined, while XPS was used to provide information on the chemical composition and the oxidation states of the copper. Good agreement was found between the experimental measurements of the valence and conduction bands and the results of density functional theory calculations.

  15. The Changing Needs for Higher Education Organizations Structure in Vietnam: Evidence from Japanese, Taiwanese, and Thai Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Quang Duong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is the process of changing the structure of the organization and the attitudes of members in the organization. During the last decade, both Vietnamese social and educational organizations have slowly changed in their organizational structure as a barrier to the development in the era of globalization and internationalization in Vietnam. This paper is an attempt to discuss the factors which affect Vietnamese higher educational organization. Discussions on the viewpoint of higher educational organization structure of Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand. Furthermore, this paper will contribute to improve educational management, and serve as a useful reference for future higher education’s school mergers.

  16. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J L; Schmidt, Martin U

    2016-01-01

    A method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data. PMID:26697868

  17. Laser Control of Self-Organization Process in Microscopic Region and Fabrication of Fine Microporous Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimasa Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a controlling technique of microporous structure by laser irradiation during self-organization process. Self-organization process is fabrication method of microstructure. Polymer solution was dropped on the substrate at high humid condition. Water in air appears dropping air temperature below the dew point. The honeycomb structure with regularly aligned pores on the film was fabricated by attaching water droplets onto the solution surface. We demonstrate that it was possible to prevent forming pores at the region of laser irradiation and flat surface was fabricated. We also demonstrated that a combination structure with two pore sizes and flat surface was produced by a single laser-pulse irradiation. Our method is a unique microfabrication processing technique that combines the advantages of bottom-up and top-down techniques. This method is a promising technique that can be applied to produce for photonic crystals, biological cell culturing, surface science and electronics fields, and so forth.

  18. "Structuration" by Intellectual Organization: The Configuration of Knowledge in Relations among Structural Components in Networks of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Using aggregated journal-journal citation networks, the measurement of the knowledge base in empirical systems is factor-analyzed in two cases of interdisciplinary developments during the period 1995-2005: (i) the development of nanotechnology in the natural sciences and (ii) the development of communication studies as an interdiscipline between social psychology and political science. The results are compared with a case of stable development: the citation networks of core journals in chemistry. These citation networks are intellectually organized by networks of expectations in the knowledge base at the specialty (that is, above-journal) level. This "structuration" of structural components (over time) can be measured as configurational information. The latter is compared with the Shannon-type information generated in the interactions among structural components: the difference between these two measures provides us with a measure for the redundancy generated by the specification of a model in the knowledge b...

  19. Ordered structures based on self-organized Au and CdSe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for obtaining cadmium selenide and gold nanoparticles have been developed. The sizes of the nanoparticles are determined and the morphology, structure, and chemical composition of these nanoparticles and their ensembles are studied by a complex of structural methods: electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Gold nanoparticles are mainly spherical and have an average size of 10 nm. They are single-phase and have an fcc crystal structure. Samples of synthesized CdSe nanoparticles contain monodisperse spherical particles 12 nm in size with a wurtzite structure. The deposition of nanoparticles on a carbon substrate is accompanied by their self-organization into a closely packed two-dimensional structure with a pronounced texture in which all nanoparticles are oriented in the [001] direction perpendicularly to the carbon substrate plane.

  20. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  1. Structural properties of organic Langmuir-Blodgett thin films using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin film deposition technique is an elegant method in thin film technology to fabricate ultra-thin organic LB films on the nanoscale. This technique allows us to make monolayer or multilayer ultra-thin LB films by sequentially transferring monolayers from a water surface onto a solid substrate. During the last decade many scientists have a significant interest in Langmuir-Blodgett films because of potential applications of such films, which have many potential applications in physics, chemistry, biology and molecular electronics. There are a number of techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy, Surface Plasmon Resonance, X-ray diffraction, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, Ellipsometry etc that can be used to characterise and evaluate the optical and structural information of monolayer and multilayer organic LB films. In this work organic materials have been used to fabricate an ultra-thin LB film using a computer controlled alternate layer Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is employed to investigate the structural properties of such LB films. All results of the structural properties for organic ultra-thin LB films will be discussed in this paper

  2. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Grayson

    Full Text Available Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism.

  3. Metal–organic coordinated multilayer film formation: Quantitative analysis of composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal–organic coordinated multilayers are self-assembled thin films fabricated by alternating solution–phase deposition of bifunctional organic molecules and metal ions. The multilayer film composed of α,ω-mercaptoalkanoic acid and Cu (II) has been the focus of fundamental and applied research with its robust reproducibility and seemingly simple hierarchical architecture. However, internal structure and composition have not been unambiguously established. The composition of films up to thirty layers thick was investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle induced X-ray emission. Findings show these films are copper enriched, elucidating a 2:1 ratio for the ion to molecule complexation at the metal–organic interface. Results also reveal that these films have an average layer density similar to literature values established for a self-assembled monolayer, indicating a robust and stable structure. The surface structures of multilayer films have been characterized by contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and scanning probe microscopy. A morphological transition is observed as film thickness increases from the first few foundational layers to films containing five or more layers. Surface roughness analysis quantifies this evolution as the film initially increases in roughness before obtaining a lower roughness comparable to the underlying gold substrate. Quantitative analysis of topographical structure and internal composition for metal–organic coordinated multilayers as a function of number of deposited layers has implications for their incorporation in the fields of photonics and nanolithography. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer deposition is examined by scanning probe microscopy and ion beam analysis. • Film growth undergoes morphological evolution during foundational layer deposition. • Image analysis quantified surface features such as roughness, grain size, and coverage. • Molecular density of each film layer is found to

  4. Estimation of carrier mobility at organic semiconductor/insulator interface using an asymmetric capacitive test structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Agarwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility of carriers at the organic/insulator interface is crucial to the performance of organic thin film transistors. The present work describes estimation of mobility using admittance measurements performed on an asymmetric capacitive test structure. Besides the advantage of simplicity, it is shown that at low frequencies, the measured capacitance comes from a large area of channel making the capacitance-voltage characteristics insensitive to contact resistances. 2-D numerical simulation and experimental results obtained with Pentacene/Poly(4-vinyphenol system are presented to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique.

  5. Research progress of metal-organic framework nanomaterials with core-shell structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controllable integration of multicomponent inorganic nanoparticles (NPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs is leading to the creation of many new multifunctional materials.Metal-organic framework nanomaterials with core-shell structure possess synergy effect of inorganic NPs and MOFs for multifunctional applications.The outstanding advantages of NP@MOF,such as limitless selection of composition,tunable pore sizes of the shells,and multifunctional cores and shells,provide insight into their future development.The recent advances in the preparation of coordination polymer nanomaterials are reviewed.At last,the research progress in their applications in gas storage/separation and catalysis are introduced.

  6. Estimation of carrier mobility at organic semiconductor/insulator interface using an asymmetric capacitive test structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Ashish K.; Mazhari, Baquer

    2016-04-01

    Mobility of carriers at the organic/insulator interface is crucial to the performance of organic thin film transistors. The present work describes estimation of mobility using admittance measurements performed on an asymmetric capacitive test structure. Besides the advantage of simplicity, it is shown that at low frequencies, the measured capacitance comes from a large area of channel making the capacitance-voltage characteristics insensitive to contact resistances. 2-D numerical simulation and experimental results obtained with Pentacene/Poly(4-vinyphenol) system are presented to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique.

  7. The interplay between habitat structure and chemical contaminants on biotic responses of benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Matias, Miguel G; Coleman, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    Habitat structure influences the diversity and distribution of organisms, potentially affecting their response to disturbances by either affecting their 'susceptibility' or through the provision of resources that can mitigate impacts of disturbances. Chemical disturbances due to contamination are associated with decreases in diversity and functioning of systems and are also likely to increase due to coastal urbanisation. Understanding how habitat structure interacts with contaminants is essential to predict and therefore manage such effects, minimising their consequences to marine systems. Here, we manipulated two structurally different habitats and exposed them to different types of contaminants. The effects of contamination and habitat structure interacted, affecting species richness. More complex experimental habitats were colonized by a greater diversity of organisms than the less complex habitats. These differences disappeared, however, when habitats were exposed to contaminants, suggesting that contaminants can override effects of habitats structure at small spatial scales. These results provide insight into the complex ways that habitat structure and contamination interact and the need to incorporate evidence of biotic responses from individual disturbances to multiple stressors. Such effects need to be taken into account when designing and planning management and conservation strategies to natural systems. PMID:27168991

  8. Electronic couplings in organic/ZnO hybrid structures for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Na; Leung, Kevin; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structures are promising for photovoltaic applications. Interfacial charge separation and charge transfer must be optimized for efficient power conversion in these systems. While the role of these fundamental processes in interfacial structures has been recognized, the complex interplay between the crystal structure, interfacial molecular orientations, and electronic structure in organic-inorganic interfaces is not well understood at the atomic level. We have carried out large scale first principles calculations of the interfacial energy level alignment and electronic coupling between oligothiophene and ZnO for different molecular orientations at the interface. This allows us to elucidate the geometric dependence of the electronic interactions between the organic molecule and the substrate. The work is supported by EFRC:CST Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. DOE under Award number DE-SC0001091 and Texas Advanced Computing Center. KL is also supported by the DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Deparment of Energy.

  9. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6–V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO2), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO4), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO2, CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. ► Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. ► All the organic nanomaterials, TiO2 and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  10. High resolution intravital imaging of subcellular structures of mouse abdominal organs using a microstage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqin; Kobayakawa, Satoru; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Abe, Kuniya

    2012-01-01

    Intravital imaging of brain and bone marrow cells in the skull with subcellular resolution has revolutionized neurobiology, immunology and hematology. However, the application of this powerful technology in studies of abdominal organs has long been impeded by organ motion caused by breathing and heartbeat. Here we describe for the first time a simple device designated 'microstage' that effectively reduces organ motions without causing tissue lesions. Combining this microstage device with an upright intravital laser scanning microscope equipped with a unique stick-type objective lens, the system enables subcellular-level imaging of abdominal organs in live mice. We demonstrate that this technique allows for the quantitative analysis of subcellular structures and gene expressions in cells, the tracking of intracellular processes in real-time as well as three-dimensional image construction in the pancreas and liver of the live mouse. As the aforementioned analyses based on subcellular imaging could be extended to other intraperitoneal organs, the technique should offer great potential for investigation of physiological and disease-specific events of abdominal organs. The microstage approach adds an exciting new technique to the in vivo imaging toolbox. PMID:22479464

  11. Hierarchical pictorial structures for simultaneously localizing multiple organs in volumetric pre-scan CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillo, Albert; Song, Qi; Das, Bipul; Yin, Zhye

    2015-03-01

    Parsing volumetric computed tomography (CT) into 10 or more salient organs simultaneously is a challenging task with many applications such as personalized scan planning and dose reporting. In the clinic, pre-scan data can come in the form of very low dose volumes acquired just prior to the primary scan or from an existing primary scan. To localize organs in such diverse data, we propose a new learning based framework that we call hierarchical pictorial structures (HPS) which builds multiple levels of models in a tree-like hierarchy that mirrors the natural decomposition of human anatomy from gross structures to finer structures. Each node of our hierarchical model learns (1) the local appearance and shape of structures, and (2) a generative global model that learns probabilistic, structural arrangement. Our main contribution is twofold. First we embed the pictorial structures approach in a hierarchical framework which reduces test time image interpretation and allows for the incorporation of additional geometric constraints that robustly guide model fitting in the presence of noise. Second we guide our HPS framework with the probabilistic cost maps extracted using random decision forests using volumetric 3D HOG features which makes our model fast to train and fast to apply to novel test data and posses a high degree of invariance to shape distortion and imaging artifacts. All steps require approximate 3 mins to compute and all organs are located with suitably high accuracy for our clinical applications such as personalized scan planning for radiation dose reduction. We assess our method using a database of volumetric CT scans from 81 subjects with widely varying age and pathology and with simulated ultra-low dose cadaver pre-scan data.

  12. Structural elucidation of active layers in organic electronic devices via NEXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Y-L, E-mail: lloo@princeton.edu [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544-5263 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The electrically-active thin films within organic electronic devices are structurally complex; the details of which depend strongly on both inherent materials properties as well as processing history. Given structural heterogeneities within such electrically-active thin films can influence device characteristics dramatically, understanding - and ultimately, controlling - structural development is a necessary precursor to producing reliable and high-performance electronic devices. Highlighted herein are several examples from our laboratories in which synchrotron soft x-rays based near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy is used to elucidate (i) ensemble-average molecular orientation (ii) relative surface coverage and (iii) vertical compositional profile in such electrically-active thin films.

  13. Weak interactions involving organic fluorine: analysis of structural motifs in Flunazirine and Haloperidol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, M. D.; Row, T. N. Guru

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structure of Flunazirine, an anticonvulsant drug, is analyzed in terms of intermolecular interactions involving fluorine. The structure displays motifs formed by only weak interactions C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π. The motifs thus generated show cavities, which could serve as hosts for complexation. The structure of Flunazirine displays cavities formed by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π interactions. Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, shows F⋯F interactions in the crystalline lattice in lieu of Cl⋯Cl interactions. However, strong O-H⋯N interactions dominate packing. The salient features of the two structures in terms of intermolecular interactions reveal, even though organic fluorine has lower tendency to engage in hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions, these interactions could play a significant role in the design of molecular assemblies via crystal engineering.

  14. The structural organization and luminescence properties of macromolecular metal complexes containing terbium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of aminobenzoic acid (ABA)-groups effect on luminescence of Tb3+ ions in aqueous solutions of ABA-containing copolymers, as well as investigation into connection of Tb3+ luminescence with peculiarities of ABA structure, content of ABA in copolymer, structure of copolymer, and with conditions of formation and structure of metal complexes are the task of the research. Copolymers of N-alkylmethacrylamides with various isomers of N-methacryloylaminobenzoic acids were synthesized and used to obtain the macromolecular metal complexes (MMC) with Tb3+ ions in aqueous solutions. The luminescence spectra of Tb3+ ions in these systems were measured. The composition and stability of MMC are established. Polymer-competitor (polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids) were used for determination of stability of Tb3+ ion-copolymer bond. The effect of Tb3+ ions on the structural organization of macromolecules is characterized by the relaxation times determined using the method of polarized luminescence

  15. Effects of organic enrichment on macrofauna community structure: an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the resilience of benthic assemblages is a capital issue for the off-shore aquaculture industry in its attempts to minimize environmental disturbances. Experimental studies are an important tool for the establishment of thresholds for macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting sandy seabeds. An experiment was conducted with three treatments (Control, 1x and 3x,in which organic load (fish pellets was added (1x (10 g of fish pellets and 3x (30 g. A reduction in abundance of individuals and species richness was found as between the control and organic-enriched treatments. Significant changes in assemblage structure were also found, mainly due to the decrease of the sensitive tanaid Apseudes talpa in organically-enriched treatments. AMBI and M-AMBI indices were calculated and a decrease of ecological status was observed in treatment 3x.

  16. Fine structures of organic photovoltaic thin films probed by frequency-shift electrostatic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kento; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    The localized charge and electrostatic properties of organic photovoltaic thin films are predominating factors for controlling energy conversion efficiency. The surface potential and electrostatic structures of organic photovoltaic thin films were investigated by frequency shift mode Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The KFM images of a poly[2-methoxy-5-(3‧,7‧-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]/phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM) blend thin film reveals that the PCBM domains precipitate as the topmost layer on the thin films. We find fine structures that were not observed in the topography and KFM images. The bias dependence of the EFM images suggests that the EFM contrast reflects the field-induced polarization, indicating the presence of charge trapping sites.

  17. Buildup of multilayer structures of organic-inorganic hybrid ultra thin films by wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer structures of alternate organic and inorganic semiconductors were fabricated by the wet processes that control thickness of each layer with nanometre level. Organic layers were deposited as electron-donor including poly(p-phenylene vinylene) by the layer-by-layer adsorption method. Inorganic layers composed of titanium oxide were fabricated as electron-acceptor by the surface sol-gel process. Clearly, periodic and uniform nanostructures were confirmed by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The multilayer exhibited a photovoltaic effect under illumination. The fabrication of those structures by wet process under room temperature and normal pressure will be one of the important methods in energy-saving nano-technology

  18. Optimal organization of structural analysis and site inspection for the seismic requalification of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis described in this report deals with a numerical procedure aimed for the assessment of a methodology for the optimal organization of data collection, in the context of seismic requalification of structures and components of existing nuclear power plants. The presented procedure has quite a general application and an example was chosen for the Paks NPP where seismic requalification is in progress. The assessment was carried out in reference to the following main tasks: structure and soil data analysis; numerical model generation; deterministic dynamic analysis description; reliability analysis framework discussion; transfer function calculation via response surface approach; and the sensitivity evaluation

  19. Gold Nanoparticle Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by DNA Origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baoquan; Deng, Zhengtao; Yan, Hao; Cabrini, Stefano; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2010-03-17

    Here we demonstrate Au nanoparticle self-similar chain structure organized by triangle DNA origami with well-controlled orientation and <10 nm spacing. We show for the first time that a large DNA complex (origami) and multiple AuNP conjugates can be well-assembled and purified with reliable yields. The assembled structure could be used to generate high local-field enhancement. The same method can be used to precisely localize multiple components on a DNA template for potential applications in nanophotonic, nanomagnetic, and nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Structural organization of normally located mitral valve chordae tendineae of the human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonyuk L.Ya.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mitral valve complex of the human heart consists of: the fibrous annulus, valve leaflets, chordae tendineae and papillary muscles. Deficiency or degeneration one of these structures may result in the dysfunction of the valvular apparatus. Topography and structure of the chordae tendineae effect to the normal functioning of heart valve complex and its hemodynamics, due to the aim of our research was to examine the peculiarities of the structural organization normally located mitral valve chordae tendineae of the human heart. Methods. The investigation was made on sectional material. We used light microscopy and immunohistochemistry methods. Results. The chordae tendineae are cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the valve leaflets in the heart. The chordeae tendineae were covered by endocardium which contained superficial layer of endothelium. Subendocardial layer includes loosely located collagen and elastic fibers which were interwoven with each other. Cor of the chordae are composed of bundles of densely packed collagen fibrils with few elastic fibers. Conclusion. The investigations allowed to receive a new objective data on some structural peculiarities of chordae tendineae of the human mitral valve that later can become the basis for the differential diagnosis of disease, including valvular heart pathology. Citation: Fedonyuk LYa, Malyk YuYu. [Structural organization of normally located mitral valve chordae tendineae of the human heart]. Morphologia. 2014;8(3:61-6. Ukrainian.

  1. SANS studies of space-time organization of structure in polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-organization of structure in polymer blends via spinodal decomposition (SD) was studied over a wide spatial-scale and time-scale (both being covered over 4 orders of magnitude) by using a combined time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and light scattering method. The system studied was a binary critical fluids of deuterated polybutadiene and protorated polyisoprene having a narrow molecular weight distribution in a weak segregation limit. The scattering analyses made it possible to study space-time organization of various elements of the structures: (1) global structure, (2) interfacial structure such as mean curvature of the tangled interface, interfacial area density, and interfacial thickness, (3) 'interphase', i.e., interfacial region with characteristic thermal concentration fluctuations, and (4) the local structure characterized by the thermal concentration fluctuations within each domain. In the late stage SD, the form factor from the 'interphase' was found to be time-independent, having the q-dependence of q-2.5. (author)

  2. Structure and mechanical properties of selected protective systems in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleway, Steven E; Taylor, Jennifer R A; Porter, Michael M; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Marine organisms have developed a wide variety of protective strategies to thrive in their native environments. These biological materials, although formed from simple biopolymer and biomineral constituents, take on many intricate and effective designs. The specific environmental conditions that shape all marine organisms have helped modify these materials into their current forms: complete hydration, and variation in hydrostatic pressure, temperature, salinity, as well as motion from currents and swells. These conditions vary throughout the ocean, being more consistent in the pelagic and deep benthic zones while experiencing more variability in the nearshore and shallows (e.g. intertidal zones, shallow bays and lagoons, salt marshes and mangrove forests). Of note, many marine organisms are capable of migrating between these zones. In this review, the basic building blocks of these structural biological materials and a variety of protective strategies in marine organisms are discussed with a focus on their structure and mechanical properties. Finally, the bioinspired potential of these biological materials is discussed. PMID:26652472

  3. Highly conductive transparent organic electrodes with multilayer structures for rigid and flexible optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xingyuan; Lin, Fengyuan; Li, Hailing; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Transparent electrodes are essential components for optoelectronic devices, such as touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. ITO has high transparency and low resistance but contains expensive rare elements, and ITO-based devices have poor mechanical flexibility. Therefore, alternative transparent electrodes with excellent opto-electrical performance and mechanical flexibility will be greatly demanded. Here, organics are introduced into dielectric-metal-dielectric structures to construct the transparent electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates. We show that organic-metal-organic (OMO) electrodes have excellent opto-electrical properties (sheet resistance of below 10 Ω sq(-1) at 85% transmission), mechanical flexibility, thermal and environmental stabilities. The OMO-based polymer photovoltaic cells show performance comparable to that of devices based on ITO electrodes. This OMO multilayer structure can therefore be used to produce transparent electrodes suitable for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. PMID:26014889

  4. Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Hee Bae; Sang Hyun Park; Byung-Cheon Lee; Min-Ho Nam; Ji Woong Yoon; Hee-Min Kwon; Seung Zhoo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a...

  5. Structure, organization and dynamics of a Sardinian sand dune plant community

    OpenAIRE

    Cusseddu, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes have attracted the attention of plant ecologists for over a century, but have largely relied on correlations to explain striking dune plant community organization. We experimentally examined longstanding hypotheses that sand binding, interspecific interactions, abiotic factors and seedling recruitment are drivers of sand dune plant community structure in Sardinia, Italy. Removing foundation species from the fore, middle and back dune over 3 years led to erosion and habitat ...

  6. New insights into the structural organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoskeletons using cryo-electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging imaging technology that combines the potential of three-dimensional (3-D) imaging at molecular resolution (<5 nm) with a close-to-life preservation of the specimen. In conjunction with pattern recognition techniques, it enables us to map the molecular landscape inside cells. The application of cryo-ET to intact cells provides novel insights into the structure and the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

  7. Organization of activities in the structure of logistics enterprises value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Shandrivska, О.; Lendyel, О.

    2013-01-01

    The questions of organization of enterprises activities management within value chain basen on logistics are investigated in the article. The structure and framework model of the management system of enterprise logistic activities are identified and suggested. The usage of integrated approach to the management of enterprises logistic activities simultaneously on different organizational and economic directions (management of business process, including reengineeriny of business-process, situa...

  8. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonov S.F.; Shusterman T.Y.; Rokutov S.V.; Shornikov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  9. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review).

    OpenAIRE

    Spirina, I. D.; Leonov, S. F.; Shusterman, T. Y.; Rokutov, S. V.; Shornikov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli­nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  10. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Rozycki, Bartosz; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermo...

  11. Report on the sixth blind test of organic crystal structure prediction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R; others

    2016-01-01

    The sixth blind test of organic crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods has been held, with five target systems: a small nearly rigid molecule, a polymorphic former drug candidate, a chloride salt hydrate, a co-crystal and a bulky flexible molecule. This blind test has seen substantial growth in the number of participants, with the broad range of prediction methods giving a unique insight into the state of the art in the field. Significant progress has been seen in treating flexible molecu...

  12. DEFINING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Getman, O.

    2014-01-01

    Being a theme for scientific research, the strategy of an enterprise development, is an absolutely pressing question for present-day Ukraine when enterprises and organizations need a systemic and long-term planning of development. The development of an enterprise depends on the way the process of transformation of the enterprise structural configuration being done during the realization of the development strategy. The article deals with the issue of revealing the pattern system between build...

  13. An investigation on a production company via the scope of Mintzberg’s adhocratic organization structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Toker; Dilaysu Çınar; Yasin Çakırel

    2013-01-01

    Today, the importance of innovation for enterprises, increase each passing day. As a result of globalization, enterprises are under intense competitive pressure. They have to make innovation for increasing to market share or for protecting to it at least. Non-innovative firms lose their customers and their existence is face to threat from other innovative actors in the market. Therefore firms have to design their organization structure that encourage to innovation. Mintzberg’s adhocratic orga...

  14. Unraveling the multiscale structural organization and connectivity of the human brain: the role of diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eBastiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain show different organizational principles at distinct spatial scales. Histological staining and light microscopy techniques have been widely used in classical neuroanatomical studies to unravel brain organization. Using such techniques is a laborious task performed on 2-dimensional histological sections by skilled anatomists possibly aided by semi-automated algorithms. With the recent advent of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast mechanisms, cortical layers and columns can now be reliably identified and their structural properties quantified post mortem. These developments are allowing the investigation of neuroanatomical features of the brain at a spatial resolution that could be interfaced with that of histology. Diffusion MRI and tractography techniques, in particular, have been used to probe the architecture of both white and gray matter in three dimensions. Combined with mathematical network analysis, these techniques are increasingly influential in the investigation of the macro-, meso- and microscopic organization of brain connectivity and anatomy, both in vivo and ex vivo. Diffusion MRI-based techniques in combination with histology approaches can therefore support the endeavor of creating multimodal atlases that take into account the different spatial scales or levels on which the brain is organized. The aim of this review is to illustrate and discuss the structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain at different spatial scales and how recently developed diffusion MRI techniques can help investigate these.

  15. The influence of the enantiomeric ratio of an organic ligand on the structure and chirality of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burneo, Iván; Stylianou, Kyriakos C.; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared three distinct polyamino acid-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different chirality and porosity using the same chemistry, by simply modifying the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral organic ligand used. PMID:25253285

  16. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  17. Equilibrium Sorption of Structurally Diverse Organic Ions to Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2016-05-17

    Reliable partitioning data are essential for assessing the bioaccumulation potential and the toxicity of chemicals. In contrast to neutral organic chemicals, the partitioning behavior of ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) is still a black box for environmental scientists. Partitioning to serum albumin, the major protein in blood plasma, strongly influences the freely dissolved concentration of many chemicals (including IOCs), which affects their transport and distribution in the body. Because consistent data sets for partitioning of IOCs are rarely available, bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients (KBSA/w) were measured in this study for 45 anionic and 4 cationic organic chemicals, including various substituted benzoic and naphthoic acids, sulfonates and several pesticides and pharmaceuticals. The results of this study suggest that binding to BSA is substantially influenced by the three-dimensional structure of the chemicals and the position of substitutions on the sorbing molecules. For example, we found a difference of >1.5 log units between isomeric chemicals such as 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid and 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 1-naphthoic acid and 2-naphthoic acid. Conventional modeling approaches (e.g., based on octanol-water partition coefficients) poorly predict log KBSA/w of organic ions (R(2) ≤ 0.5), partially because they do not capture the observed steric effects. Hence, alternative modeling strategies will be required for accurate prediction of serum albumin-water partition coefficients of organic ions. PMID:27098963

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tien Huang; Ming-Shen Wang

    2013-01-01

    The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does peopleâs awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide th...

  19. Structure-Property of Metal Organic Frameworks Calcium Terephthalates Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical Abstract: Effects of hydration water in calcium terephthalates anodes on the structure, operational voltage and electrochemical performance are systematically studied. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Metal organic frameworks CaC8H4O4·3H2O and CaC8H4O4 are applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. •Appearance of hydration water leads different crystallography structures and electrochemical performance. •Anhydrous CaC8H4O4 has a spacious ordered layer structure, a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction and a higher transparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC8H4O4·3H2O. -- Abstract: Metal organic frameworks have attracted considerable interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the metal organic frameworks hydrated calcium terephthalate (CaC8H4O4·3H2O) and anhydrous calcium terephthalate (CaC8H4O4) as anodes for lithium ion batteries are comparatively studied. Crystallography and local chemical bond analysis are combined to interpret the structure-property of calcium terephthalates. Results show that the anhydrous CaC8H4O4 has a spacious ordered layer structure and a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC8H4O4·3H2O

  20. Self-organized structures in a superorganism: do ants “behave” like molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrain, Claire; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2006-09-01

    While the striking structures (e.g. nest architecture, trail networks) of insect societies may seem familiar to many of us, the understanding of pattern formation still constitutes a challenging problem. Over the last two decades, self-organization has dramatically changed our view on how collective decision-making and structures may emerge out of a population of ant workers having each their own individuality as well as a limited access to information. A variety of collective behaviour spontaneously outcome from multiple interactions between nestmates, even when there is no directing influence imposed by an external template, a pacemaker or a leader. By focussing this review on foraging structures, we show that ant societies display some properties which are usually considered in physico-chemical systems, as typical signatures of self-organization. We detail the key role played by feed-back loops, fluctuations, number of interacting units and sensitivity to environmental factors in the emergence of a structured collective behaviour. Nonetheless, going beyond simple analogies with non-living self-organized patterns, we stress on the specificities of social structures made of complex living units of which the biological features have been selected throughout the evolution depending on their adaptive value. In particular, we consider the ability of each ant individual to process information about environmental and social parameters, to accordingly tune its interactions with nestmates and ultimately to determine the final pattern emerging at the collective level. We emphasize on the parsimony and simplicity of behavioural rules at the individual level which allow an efficient processing of information, energy and matter within the whole colony.

  1. Composite organic-inorganic butterfly scales: production of photonic structures with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, Davy P; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Wagner, Brent K; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Summers, Christopher J

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in the photonics and optics industries have produced great demand for ever more sophisticated optical devices, such as photonic crystals. However, photonic crystals are notoriously difficult to manufacture. Increasingly, therefore, researchers have turned towards naturally occurring photonic structures for inspiration and a wide variety of elaborate techniques have been attempted to copy and harness biological processes to manufacture artificial photonic structures. Here, we describe a simple, direct process for producing an artificial photonic device by using a naturally occurring structure from the wings of the butterfly Papilio blumei as a template and low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 to create a faithful cast of the structure. The optical properties of the organic-inorganic diffraction structures produced are assessed by normal-incidence specular reflectance and found to be well described by multilayer computation method using a two-dimensional photonic crystal model. Depending on the structural integrity of the initially sealed scale, it was found possible not only to replicate the outer but also the inner and more complex surfaces of the structure, each resulting in distinct multicolor optical behavior as revealed by experimental and theoretical data. In this paper, we also explore tailoring the process to design composite skeleton architectures with desired optical properties and integrated multifunctional (mechanical, thermal, optical, fluidic) properties. PMID:18851080

  2. Structure transformations of endocrine system organs during adaptation to increased radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakova, O.V. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that during ecological monitoring of contaminated territories registration of early abnormalities in an organism is hampered by man-caused influence of habitat. Under these circumstances study of both structural and functional changes in organs and tissues of rodents inhabiting radioactive contaminated territories is of great importance. Study of structural features of endocrine glands, hormones of which trigger the process of active adaptive changes in an organism, is very important in radioecological surveys. Basing on long-term study of voles we have determined that long-term living by rodents on the territories characterized by increased natural and artificial radioactivity (radium contaminated fields in the Komi Republic and 30-km zone of Chernobyl APS) substantially influences morpho-functional state of endocrine system organs, causing quantitative and qualitative changes. It is demonstrated that population processes modify biological consequences of small doze chronic ionizing radiation in habitat. We noticed the following: high heterogeneity of histological changes of thyroid gland and adrenal gland as a response to radioactive habitat contamination; disorder of interconnection among different links of endocrine system; dependence of radiation effects on gender, age, degree and character of radiation contamination of a habitat as well as duration of radioactive influence. We have got data on morphological characteristics of thyroid gland and adrenal gland during different phases of population amount of this kind of rodents. It was discovered that effectiveness of radiation influence is not the same during different periods of population cycle. Presence of voles on the territories characterized by increased radioactivity causes chronic tension of adrenal cortex (increasing of the organ mass, enlarging of thickness of zona fasciculata and zona reticularis). Destructive-necrotic processes combine with manifestation of reparative regeneration

  3. Structure transformations of endocrine system organs during adaptation to increased radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that during ecological monitoring of contaminated territories registration of early abnormalities in an organism is hampered by man-caused influence of habitat. Under these circumstances study of both structural and functional changes in organs and tissues of rodents inhabiting radioactive contaminated territories is of great importance. Study of structural features of endocrine glands, hormones of which trigger the process of active adaptive changes in an organism, is very important in radioecological surveys. Basing on long-term study of voles we have determined that long-term living by rodents on the territories characterized by increased natural and artificial radioactivity (radium contaminated fields in the Komi Republic and 30-km zone of Chernobyl APS) substantially influences morpho-functional state of endocrine system organs, causing quantitative and qualitative changes. It is demonstrated that population processes modify biological consequences of small doze chronic ionizing radiation in habitat. We noticed the following: high heterogeneity of histological changes of thyroid gland and adrenal gland as a response to radioactive habitat contamination; disorder of interconnection among different links of endocrine system; dependence of radiation effects on gender, age, degree and character of radiation contamination of a habitat as well as duration of radioactive influence. We have got data on morphological characteristics of thyroid gland and adrenal gland during different phases of population amount of this kind of rodents. It was discovered that effectiveness of radiation influence is not the same during different periods of population cycle. Presence of voles on the territories characterized by increased radioactivity causes chronic tension of adrenal cortex (increasing of the organ mass, enlarging of thickness of zona fasciculata and zona reticularis). Destructive-necrotic processes combine with manifestation of reparative regeneration

  4. Enhanced Structural Support of Metal Sites as Nodes in Metal-Organic Frameworks Compared to Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sanjit

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks are a new class of crystalline, porous solid-state materials with metal ions periodically linked by organic linkers. This gives rise to one-, two- or three-dimensional structures. Here, we compare the stability of similar metal sites toward external ligand (solvent) induced disruption of the coordination environment in metal complexes and in metal-organic frameworks. Our experimental results show that a metal site as node of a metal-organic framework retains much high...

  5. Novel threadlike structures may be present on the large animal organ surface: evidence in Swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Min-Ho; Yoon, Ji Woong; Kwon, Hee-Min; Yoon, Seung Zhoo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure) that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens. PMID:23762159

  6. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. (paper)

  7. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2014-10-02

    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  8. Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hee Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens.

  9. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  10. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov S.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.

  11. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: Realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxuan

    2012-12-04

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++) 2-carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process.

  12. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  13. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  14. The Structure, Thermodynamics and Solubility of Organic Crystals from Simulation with a Polarizable Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Michael J; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Shi, Yue; Chattree, Gaurav; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei; Ren, Pengyu

    2012-05-01

    An important unsolved problem in materials science is prediction of the thermodynamic stability of organic crystals and their solubility from first principles. Solubility can be defined as the saturating concentration of a molecule within a liquid solvent, where the physical picture is of solvated molecules in equilibrium with their solid phase. Despite the importance of solubility in determining the oral bioavailability of pharmaceuticals, prediction tools are currently limited to quantitative structure-property relationships that are fit to experimental solubility measurements. For the first time, we describe a consistent procedure for the prediction of the structure, thermodynamic stability and solubility of organic crystals from molecular dynamics simulations using the polarizable multipole AMOEBA force field. Our approach is based on a thermodynamic cycle that decomposes standard state solubility into the sum of solid-vapor sublimation and vapor-liquid solvation free energies [Formula: see text], which are computed via the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) sampling strategy. Application to the n-alkylamides series from aeetamide through octanamide was selected due to the dependence of their solubility on both amide hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect, which are each fundamental to protein structure and solubility. On average, the calculated absolute standard state solubility free energies are accurate to within 1.1 kcal/mol. The experimental trend of decreasing solubility as a function of n-alkylamide chain length is recapitulated by the increasing stability of the crystalline state and to a lesser degree by decreasing favorability of solvation (i.e. the hydrophobic effect). Our results suggest that coupling the polarizable AMOEBA force field with an orthogonal space based free energy algorithm, as implemented in the program Force Field X, is a consistent procedure for predicting the structure, thermodynamic stability and solubility of organic

  15. Self-Organization of Urea-Based Oligomers from Structure to Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Guichard

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The remarkable and highly diverse biological activities exhibited by proteins rely on the unique capacity of these intrinsically flexible α-polypeptide chains to fold into well ordered and compact structures. The formation of protein tertiary and quaternary structures is attainable only with a small set of distinct secondary structural elements: i) sheets, ii) helices, and iii) turns.These fascinating structures have undoubtedly stimulated chemists to elaborate new synthetic oligomeric materials that could self-organize spontaneously but in a controlled fashion to form defined structural motifs.In the field of biomimetic chemistry, seminal work by several research groups has demonstrated that properties such as folding and structural diversity are not restricted to natural linear α-polypeptides but are shared by a number of aliphatic (e. g. β- and γ-peptides)[1-3] and aromatic[4] oligo-amides. The predictability of folding in these oligomeric strands can be integrated to develop molecules with function (e. g. in biology).Aknowledgements:

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the transformation of organic micropollutants during oxidative water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunho; von Gunten, Urs

    2012-12-01

    Various oxidants such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ferrate(VI), ozone, and hydroxyl radicals can be applied for eliminating organic micropollutant by oxidative transformation during water treatment in systems such as drinking water, wastewater, and water reuse. Over the last decades, many second-order rate constants (k) have been determined for the reaction of these oxidants with model compounds and micropollutants. Good correlations (quantitative structure-activity relationships or QSARs) are often found between the k-values for an oxidation reaction of closely related compounds (i.e. having a common organic functional group) and substituent descriptor variables such as Hammett or Taft sigma constants. In this study, we developed QSARs for the oxidation of organic and some inorganic compounds and organic micropollutants transformation during oxidative water treatment. A number of 18 QSARs were developed based on overall 412 k-values for the reaction of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ferrate, and ozone with organic compounds containing electron-rich moieties such as phenols, anilines, olefins, and amines. On average, 303 out of 412 (74%) k-values were predicted by these QSARs within a factor of 1/3-3 compared to the measured values. For HO(·) reactions, some principles and estimation methods of k-values (e.g. the Group Contribution Method) are discussed. The developed QSARs and the Group Contribution Method could be used to predict the k-values for various emerging organic micropollutants. As a demonstration, 39 out of 45 (87%) predicted k-values were found within a factor 1/3-3 compared to the measured values for the selected emerging micropollutants. Finally, it is discussed how the uncertainty in the predicted k-values using the QSARs affects the accuracy of prediction for micropollutant elimination during oxidative water treatment. PMID:22939392

  17. Evidence of a new form of self-organization in DBD Plasmas: the quincunx structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, B; Callegari, T; Boeuf, J P, E-mail: jpb@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-06

    Self-organized, stable or dynamic, filamentary structures are known to form in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) operating in a glow regime. The common 'classical' understanding of stable filamentary structures in DBDs is that a glow-discharge filament forms at each half cycle of the sinusoidal applied voltage at the same spatial location along the dielectric surface. The 'memory' charges deposited by the previous filament on the dielectric surfaces are responsible for the ignition of a new discharge at the same location. On the other hand, the formation of a filamentary discharge at a given location inhibits discharge development in its vicinity because of charge spreading along the dielectric surface leading to a decrease in the gap voltage in this region. In this paper we show using experiments and models that another self-organized filamentary regime is possible and coexists with the 'classical' regime. In this regime, never reported before, discharge filaments at successive half cycles do not occur at the same location but are shifted by half a spatial period. We call this regime the 'quincunx' regime. We also show that the mechanisms of this regime may be responsible for some dynamical aspects of self-organization in DBDs. (fast track communication)

  18. Evidence of a new form of self-organization in DBD Plasmas: the quincunx structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-organized, stable or dynamic, filamentary structures are known to form in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) operating in a glow regime. The common 'classical' understanding of stable filamentary structures in DBDs is that a glow-discharge filament forms at each half cycle of the sinusoidal applied voltage at the same spatial location along the dielectric surface. The 'memory' charges deposited by the previous filament on the dielectric surfaces are responsible for the ignition of a new discharge at the same location. On the other hand, the formation of a filamentary discharge at a given location inhibits discharge development in its vicinity because of charge spreading along the dielectric surface leading to a decrease in the gap voltage in this region. In this paper we show using experiments and models that another self-organized filamentary regime is possible and coexists with the 'classical' regime. In this regime, never reported before, discharge filaments at successive half cycles do not occur at the same location but are shifted by half a spatial period. We call this regime the 'quincunx' regime. We also show that the mechanisms of this regime may be responsible for some dynamical aspects of self-organization in DBDs. (fast track communication)

  19. Synthesis, structure, and opto-electronic properties of organic-based nanoscale heterojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimrová Vĕra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enormous research effort has been put into optimizing organic-based opto-electronic systems for efficient generation of free charge carriers. This optimization is mainly due to typically high dissociation energy (0.1-1 eV and short diffusion length (10 nm of excitons in organic materials. Inherently, interplay of microscopic structural, chemical, and opto-electronic properties plays crucial role. We show that employing and combining advanced scanning probe techniques can provide us significant insight into the correlation of these properties. By adjusting parameters of contact- and tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM, we perform morphologic and mechanical characterizations (nanoshaving of organic layers, measure their electrical conductivity by current-sensing AFM, and deduce work functions and surface photovoltage (SPV effects by Kelvin force microscopy using high spatial resolution. These data are further correlated with local material composition detected using micro-Raman spectroscopy and with other electronic transport data. We demonstrate benefits of this multi-dimensional characterizations on (i bulk heterojunction of fully organic composite films, indicating differences in blend quality and component segregation leading to local shunts of photovoltaic cell, and (ii thin-film heterojunction of polypyrrole (PPy electropolymerized on hydrogen-terminated diamond, indicating covalent bonding and transfer of charge carriers from PPy to diamond.

  20. Structure and function of the elastic organ in the tibia of a tenebrionid beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Toh, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Many insects have a pair of claws on the tip of each foot (tarsus and pretarsus). The movement of the pretarsal claws is mediated by a long apodeme that originates from the claw retractor muscles in the femur. It is generally accepted that the pulling of the apodeme by the muscles flexes the claws to engage with a rough surface of a substrate, and the flexed claws return to their initial position by passive elastic forces within the tarso-pretarsal joint. We found that each tibia of the tenebrionid beetle Zophobas atratus had a chordal elastic organ that tied the apodeme to the distal end of the tibia and assisted the pulled apodeme to return smoothly. The elastic body of the elastic organ consists of a bundle of more than 1000 thin fibrils (0.3-1.5 μm in diameter) with a hairy yarn-shaped structure made by assemblies of intricately interwoven microfibers. Both ends of the fibrillar elastic body were supported by clusters of columnar cells. Ablation of the elastic organ often disturbed the rapid and smooth return of claws from a flexed position when the tarsal segments were forced to curve in order to increase the friction between the apodeme and surrounding tissues in the segments. The result suggests that rapid claw disengagement is an important step in each cycle of leg movements, and the elastic organ may have evolved to assist the reliable detachment of claws that engage tightly with the substrate when climbing or traversing inverted surfaces.

  1. Synthesis, structure, and opto-electronic properties of organic-based nanoscale heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Čermák, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.; Purkrt, Adam; Cimrová, Vĕra; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Enormous research effort has been put into optimizing organic-based opto-electronic systems for efficient generation of free charge carriers. This optimization is mainly due to typically high dissociation energy (0.1-1 eV) and short diffusion length (10 nm) of excitons in organic materials. Inherently, interplay of microscopic structural, chemical, and opto-electronic properties plays crucial role. We show that employing and combining advanced scanning probe techniques can provide us significant insight into the correlation of these properties. By adjusting parameters of contact- and tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), we perform morphologic and mechanical characterizations (nanoshaving) of organic layers, measure their electrical conductivity by current-sensing AFM, and deduce work functions and surface photovoltage (SPV) effects by Kelvin force microscopy using high spatial resolution. These data are further correlated with local material composition detected using micro-Raman spectroscopy and with other electronic transport data. We demonstrate benefits of this multi-dimensional characterizations on (i) bulk heterojunction of fully organic composite films, indicating differences in blend quality and component segregation leading to local shunts of photovoltaic cell, and (ii) thin-film heterojunction of polypyrrole (PPy) electropolymerized on hydrogen-terminated diamond, indicating covalent bonding and transfer of charge carriers from PPy to diamond.

  2. Zr-based metal-organic frameworks: design, synthesis, structure, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Dou, Yibo; Xie, Lin-Hua; Rutledge, William; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2016-04-21

    Among the large family of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Zr-based MOFs, which exhibit rich structure types, outstanding stability, intriguing properties and functions, are foreseen as one of the most promising MOF materials for practical applications. Although this specific type of MOF is still in its early stage of development, significant progress has been made in recent years. Herein, advances in Zr-MOFs since 2008 are summarized and reviewed from three aspects: design and synthesis, structure, and applications. Four synthesis strategies implemented in building and/or modifying Zr-MOFs as well as their scale-up preparation under green and industrially feasible conditions are illustrated first. Zr-MOFs with various structural types are then classified and discussed in terms of different Zr-based secondary building units and organic ligands. Finally, applications of Zr-MOFs in catalysis, molecule adsorption and separation, drug delivery, and fluorescence sensing, and as porous carriers are highlighted. Such a review based on a specific type of MOF is expected to provide guidance for the in-depth investigation of MOFs towards practical applications. PMID:26886869

  3. Structural and electronic properties of thin organic heterointerfaces SnPc/PTCDA/Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeming, Mark; Sauer, Christoph; Greif, Michael; Schoell, Achim [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Wuerzburg (Germany); Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Wuerzburg (Germany); KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of organic heterointerfaces is of vital importance for electronic devices based on organic semiconductors. Yet information about these systems is still scarce due to difficulties in preparing well defined interfaces. With tin-phtalocyanine (SnPc) deposited on a Ag(111) surface precovered by perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) we present a well suited model system to gain insight into such heterointerfaces. Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) as well as near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies are applied in order to gain both structural and electronic information. Distinct features in core-level and valence spectra allow us to unambiguously distinguish between both molecules. We show clear evidence that SnPc forms a flat lying wetting layer on top of PTCDA with a mainly physisorptive character. Moreover a rigid level shift of all spectroscopic SnPc features with respect to the homomolecular SnPc films is observed, similar to what is known for Schottky contacts, which corresponds to a change in work function. We demonstrate that the built-in electric field at the interface can be explained by the formation of an interface dipole, which extends over several adsorbate monolayers.

  4. Molecular Dynamics of Structural Organization in Binary Fluids with Fixed Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彦立; 马余强

    2002-01-01

    We have numerically studied the structural organization in binary immiscible fluids with fixed particles. The particles that have a finite excluded volume and a selective affinity for one fluid component have a significant influence on the organization process, where the hydrodynamic flows induced by the interface motion are suppressed and the domain growth is slowed down at late stages. Two different cases with weak and strong preferential interactions are considered, and the results show that the particles in the former can be left in the unfavourable phase during the process but are permanently surrounded by the favourable phase in the latter. The study indicates that the system would develop into a dynamical steady state and the final domain size might be dependent not only on the number of particles but also on the preferential interaction strength.

  5. Materials for organic photovoltaics: insights from detailed structural models and molecular simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief discussion of the role of detailed structural and computational studies, within the general field of organic photovoltaics. We review some of our recent work on poly(3-butylthiophene (P3BT and on [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM. The first is a prototypical hole-transporting material, whose crystal forms I.’ and II were solved by us through the combined use of powder Xray diffraction, electron diffraction and molecular modelling. PCBM is a widely used fullerene derivative with electron-transporting properties. It has a rich polymorphism, which to date remains largely unexplored. Our molecular dynamics simulations have revealed interesting features of its solid-state organization, including that in the amorphous phase.

  6. The brain imaging data structure, a format for organizing and describing outputs of neuroimaging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Auer, Tibor; Calhoun, Vince D; Craddock, R Cameron; Das, Samir; Duff, Eugene P; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Glatard, Tristan; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Handwerker, Daniel A; Hanke, Michael; Keator, David; Li, Xiangrui; Michael, Zachary; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, B Nolan; Nichols, Thomas E; Pellman, John; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rokem, Ariel; Schaefer, Gunnar; Sochat, Vanessa; Triplett, William; Turner, Jessica A; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has defined modern neuroimaging. Since its inception, tens of thousands of studies using techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging have allowed for the non-invasive study of the brain. Despite the fact that MRI is routinely used to obtain data for neuroscience research, there has been no widely adopted standard for organizing and describing the data collected in an imaging experiment. This renders sharing and reusing data (within or between labs) difficult if not impossible and unnecessarily complicates the application of automatic pipelines and quality assurance protocols. To solve this problem, we have developed the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS), a standard for organizing and describing MRI datasets. The BIDS standard uses file formats compatible with existing software, unifies the majority of practices already common in the field, and captures the metadata necessary for most common data processing operations. PMID:27326542

  7. Indigenous Knowledge Organization: A Study of Concepts, Terminology, Structure and (Mostly Indigenous Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of published information (especially in Canada on modified classification systems and thesauri for describing and organizing Aboriginal materials, I set out to conduct a survey on this topic. The surveys were distributed at five Indigenous-related conferences and gatherings in Canada and the United States between the Fall, 2009, and the Fall, 2010, and more than 50 completed surveys were collected. Research findings included preferred changes in terminology from Library of Congress subject headings (which were seen to be outdated and inappropriate but there was no resounding consensus on a “one-size fits all” terminology for thesauri terminology. However, this was not seen to be problematic given the diverse range of participants who took part in the survey. Respondents also commented on a survey question inquiring about the use of the “Medicine Wheel” concept as a way to organize Aboriginal-related materials, as well as other possible structures that might prove more culturally relevant for organizing these materials. There was both support for and strong opposition to the use of the Medicine Wheel for this purpose, for a variety of reasons. Participants indicated a preference for non-hierarchical and less linear structures than what current mainstream classification systems provide. There also seemed to be support for “landscape-based” structures. Although research findings were not conclusive, some valuable insights were gained from this study. The exploratory nature of this research project suggests more research (and more in-depth research in this area is required.

  8. Lead and zinc in the structure of organic and mineral soil components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Kummer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the more reactive forms, metals can occur in the structure of minerals, and the sum of all these forms defines their total contents in different soil fractions. The isomorphic substitution of heavy metals for example alters the dimensions of the unit cell and mineral size. This study proposed a method of chemical fractionation of heavy metals, using more powerful extraction methods, to remove the organic and different mineral phases completely. Soil samples were taken from eight soil profiles (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm in a Pb mining and metallurgy area in Adrianópolis, Paraná, Brazil. The Pb and Zn concentrations were determined in the following fractions (complete phase removal in each sequential extraction: exchangeable; carbonates; organic matter; amorphous and crystalline Fe oxides; Al oxide, amorphous aluminosilicates and kaolinite; and residual fractions. The complete removal of organic matter and mineral phases in sequential extractions resulted in low participation of residual forms of Pb and Zn in the total concentrations of these metals in the soils: there was lower association of metals with primary and 2:1 minerals and refractory oxides. The powerful methods used here allow an identification of the complete metal-mineral associations, such as the occurrence of Pb and Zn in the structure of the minerals. The higher incidence of Zn than Pb in the structure of Fe oxides, due to isomorphic substitution, was attributed to a smaller difference between the ionic radius of Zn2+ and Fe3+.

  9. The organization of mineral exploitation and the relationship to urban structures and local business development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    of the resources using immigrant and migrant labour, working intensively over a period of time, while living in shantytowns. Both local and international experiences show that such an organization of work life is not attractive for the population, and that it often provides significant human and social challenges......The paper explores relations between mining and urban structures as these are decisive for involving the local workforce and developing local businesses. A major challenge for Greenland is the on-going decoupling between existing settlements and the main export industry based on marine living...

  10. Structural Characterization and Infrared and Electrical Properties of the New Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; K. Adil; F. Hlel

    2013-01-01

    New inorganic-organic hybrid [(C3H7)4N]2Hg2Cl6 compound was obtained and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, and impedance spectroscopy. The latter crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group C 2/c, ) with the following unit cell dimensions: (1) Å, (6) Å, (2) Å, and (2). Besides, its structure was solved using 84860 independent reflections leading to . Electrical properties of the material were studied using impedance spectroscopic technique at different temper...

  11. Leadership and leadership communication in a matrix structured organization : some critical factors

    OpenAIRE

    Røsdal, Trude

    2005-01-01

    This case study has shown how nearly every success and failure in the matrix structured Segment X was a result of leadership behaviour. If Project I was to be an unreserved success every leader on every level had to succeed in their efforts. After having interviewed employees and leaders, and observed several meetings the overall impression was of a well-functioning, mature matrix organization. However, it is not correct to say that Project I was an unreserved success. There were some areas w...

  12. Core structures of haemosiderins deposited in various organs in β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectra were recorded of tissue from β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E spleen, liver, pancreas and heart and of crude haemosiderins (insoluble iron fraction) isolated from the organs. Iron in the crude haemosiderins from the spleen and heart remains paramagnetic below 4.2K indicating that the iron is in a non-crystalline form. Superparamagnetic behaviour of the crude haemosiderins from the pancreas and liver indicate the presence of ferrihydrite cores with some cores with a structure based on defect-goethite. (orig.)

  13. Core structures of haemosiderins deposited in various organs in β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin e disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, T. G.; Tran, K. C.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Pootrakul, P.; Dickson, D. P. E.

    1992-04-01

    Mössbauer spectra were recorded of tissue from β-thalassaemia/haemoglobin E spleen, liver, pancreas and heart and of crude haemosiderins (insoluble iron fractions) isolated from the organs. Iron in the crude haemosiderins from the spleen and heart remains paramagnetic below 4.2K indicating that the iron is in a non-crystalline form. Superparamagnetic behaviour of the crude haemosiderins from the pancreas and liver indicate the presence of ferrihydrite cores with some cores with a structure based on defect-goethite.

  14. Studies of the structure and properties of organic monolayers, multilayers and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic monolayers and multilayers are both scientifically fascinating and technologically promising; they are, however, both complex systems and relatively inaccessible to experimental probes. In this progress report, we describe our x-ray diffraction studies, which have given us substantial new information about the structures and phase transitions in monolayers on the surface of water; our use of these monolayers as a unique probe of the dynamics of wetting and spreading; and our studies of monolayer mechanical properties using a simple but effective technique available to anyone using the Wilhelmy method to measure surface tension. 20 refs., 11 figs

  15. Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconductor multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reufer, M.; Feldmann, J.; Rudati, P.; Ruhl, A.; Müller, D.; Meerholz, K.; Karnutsch, C.; Gerken, M.; Lemmer, U.

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate that the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold in multilayer waveguide structures suitable for the use in future organic injection lasers can be drastically reduced by inserting a crosslinked hole transport layer (HTL) between a highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the polymer emission layer. While no ASE is observed when the active layer material is directly spincoated onto the ITO electrode, it can be completely restored upon insertion of a 300-nm-thick HTL. This observation is attributed to reduced attenuation of the waveguided mode enabling the ASE process and is theoretically confirmed by calculations of the mode intensity fraction propagating in the absorptive ITO electrode.

  16. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinxuan; Lukose, Binit; Shekhah, Osama; Arslan, Hasan Kemal; Weidler, Peter; Gliemann, Hartmut; Bräse, Stefan; Grosjean, Sylvain; Godt, Adelheid; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Magdau, Ioan-Bogdan; Heine, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 × 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++)2- carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SUR...

  17. Structure and organic matter under different soil management conditions in the center of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Argentina, Cordoba Province, as in different parts of the world, the equilibrium state of soil under natural condition has been modified by both the replacement of natural vegetation and by tillage. With time, these two disturbing factors have led to a new soil state whose main characteristic is an important decrease of chemical, physical and biological soil functions. The degree of these changes is directly related to soil resistance according to soil genesis. The soil organic matter and the structure of the superficial profile of soil are suitable indicators mainly for physical functions. Recently, it became necessary to look for a combination of technologies leading to an energy input throughout conservation tillage systems, soil covering and agro-chemicals which tend to improve soil quality in order to obtain a sustainable production. The removal of natural vegetation and tillage systems have caused the following effects on the first centimetres of soils: A 77 to 80% loss of organic matter during a period of about 80 years. Changes in the water stable aggregates distribution. A 77% loss of large aggregates and a 55% gain of fine aggregates. Our results would indicate that the disturbance level was higher to the natural resistance of soil. The organic carbon content in the first centimetres of soil is increased when all crop stubble remains on the field and conservationist tillage is applied. Conservation tillages are more efficient in the lower position of relief, meaning the beginning of a change of organic matter tendency that would possibly tend to new equilibrium state. On the other hand, the percentage of water stable aggregates would also be increased as consequence of a higher organic carbon content

  18. Self-organizing biochemical cycle in dynamic feedback with soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Nadezda; Vladimirov, Artem; Smirnov, Alexander; Matveev, Sergey; Tyrtyshnikov, Evgeniy; Yudina, Anna; Milanovskiy, Evgeniy; Shein, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we perform bifurcation analysis of a physically-based mathematical model of self-organized structures in soil (Vasilyeva et al., 2015). The state variables in this model included microbial biomass, two organic matter types, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water content and capillary pore size. According to our previous experimental studies, organic matter affinity to water is an important property affecting soil structure. Therefore, organic matter wettability was taken as principle distinction between organic matter types in this model. It considers general known biological feedbacks with soil physical properties formulated as a system of parabolic type non-linear partial differential equations with elements of discrete modeling for water and pore formation. The model shows complex behavior, involving emergence of temporal and spatial irregular auto-oscillations from initially homogeneous distributions. The energy of external impact on a system was defined by a constant oxygen level on the boundary. Non-linear as opposed to linear oxygen diffusion gives possibility of modeling anaerobic micro-zones formation (organic matter conservation mechanism). For the current study we also introduced population competition of three different types of microorganisms according to their mobility/feeding (diffusive, moving and fungal growth). The strongly non-linear system was solved and parameterized by time-optimized algorithm combining explicit and implicit (matrix form of Thomas algorithm) methods considering the time for execution of the evaluated time-step according to accuracy control. The integral flux of the CO2 state variable was used as a macroscopic parameter to describe system as a whole and validation was carried out on temperature series of moisture dependence for soil heterotrophic respiration data. Thus, soil heterotrophic respiration can be naturally modeled as an integral result of complex dynamics on microscale, arising from biological processes

  19. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of new organic compounds containing cyanoacrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Mogheiseh, Mohsen; Eigner, Václav; Dusek, Michal; Chow, Tahsin J.; Maddahi, Elham

    2015-10-01

    New organic compounds, cin-aa (1) and mecin-aa (2), containing cyanoacrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized by the reaction of cinnamaldehyde or α-methylcinnamaldehyde with cyanoaceticacid in acetonitrile. The compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analyses (CHN), FT-IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and their monoclinic centrosymmetric structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, they were tested for their potential use as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Overall conversion efficiencies of 1 and 2 were determined as 0.04 and 0.09, respectively, under full sunlight irradiation. To get further insight into the molecular structure of 1 and 2, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03.

  20. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of two novel lanthanide-organic frameworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two novel metal-organic frameworks, {[Eu(phen)(NDA)1.5(H2O)]}n ((1); NDA = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate ions, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and {[Gd(phen)(NDA)1.5]·0.5H2NDA}n (2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The structure analyses of 1 and 2 reveal that the two compounds belong to the triclinic system with space group P-1. Compound 1 features a 2D lattice structure while compound 2 displays a novel 3D architecture. The two frameworks were further characterized by elemental analyses, luminescent spectrua, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities. The investigation of lumi-nescent property reveals that 1 exhibits characteristic red emission of Eu3+. Magnetic investigation suggests that the ferromagnetic coupling exists between adjacent Gd3+ in compound 2.

  1. "OrganicPad": An Interactive Freehand Drawing Application for Drawing Lewis Structures and the Development of Skills in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Grove, Nathaniel P.; Pargas, Roy; Bryfczynski, Sam P.; Gatlin, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Lewis structures are important for learning chemistry as they serve as an essential link between the structure of chemical compounds and their function. Unfortunately, the creation of valid Lewis structures remains an elusive goal for many students. In recent years, several web-based programs have been created that allow students to receive…

  2. Structure and composition of organic reefs and carbonate mud mounds: concepts and categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Defined here as 'essentially in place calcareous deposits created by sessile organisms', Organic Reefs are diverse and complex structures with a long geological history. Their classification has been the subject of fierce debate, often characterized by reliance on subjective features such as wave-resistance and qualitative attempts to discriminate between 'first' and 'second class' reefs. In contrast, emphasis is here placed on the objective characteristic of the type of sedimentary support, which largely determines the sedimentary composition of the deposit. Constructional and depositional processes result in three principal sedimentary components: matrix (M), essentially in place skeletons (S) and cavity/ cement (C), whose proportions can be represented on MSC triangular plots. Separately or together, these components also provide the structural support for the reef. On these compositional and structural bases, three main categories of Organic Reef are recognized: Matrix-supported reefs (Agglutinated Microbial Reefs, Cluster Reefs, Segment Reefs), Skeleton-supported reefs (Frame Reefs), Cement-supported reefs (Cement Reefs). Agglutinated Microbial Reefs: possess laminated, clotted, or aphanitic fabrics created by microbial trapping of particulate sediment; in place skeletons and large primary cavities are rare; early cementation may provide added support; topographic relief is limited by the need for currents to provide sediment to accreting surfaces. Cluster Reefs: skeletal reefs in which essentially in place skeletons are adjacent, but not in contact, resulting in matrix support; characterized by relatively high matrix/skeleton ratios and low volumes of extra-skeletal early cement. Sediment trapping is an important corollary of skeletal growth and Cluster Reef organisms are tolerant of loose sediment. Absence of framework limits the topographic relief that Cluster Reefs can attain relative to spatial extent, and may permit bedding to develop within the reef

  3. Analysis of the Molecules Structure and Vertical Electron Affinity of Organic Gas Impact on Electric Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juntao; Xiao, Dengming; Zhao, Xiaoling; Deng, Yunkun

    2016-05-01

    It is necessary to find an efficient selection method to pre-analyze the gas electric strength from the perspective of molecule structure and the properties for finding the alternative gases to sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). As the properties of gas are determined by the gas molecule structure, the research on the relationship between the gas molecule structure and the electric strength can contribute to the gas pre-screening and new gas development. In this paper, we calculated the vertical electron affinity, molecule orbits distribution and orbits energy of gas molecules by the means of density functional theory (DFT) for the typical structures of organic gases and compared their electric strengths. By this method, we find part of the key properties of the molecule which are related to the electric strength, including the vertical electron affinity, the lowest unoccupied molecule orbit (LUMO) energy, molecule orbits distribution and negative-ion system energy. We also listed some molecule groups such as unsaturated carbons double bonds (C=C) and carbonitrile bonds (C≡N) which have high electric strength theoretically by this method. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51177101 and 51337006)

  4. Roll-to-roll embedded conductive structures integrated into organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly conductive screen printed metallic (silver) structures (current collecting grids) combined with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are a viable replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) and inkjet printed silver as transparent electrode materials. To provide successful integration into organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, screen printed silver current collecting grids should be embedded into a substrate to avoid topology issues. In this study micron-thick conductive structures are embedded and integrated into OPV devices. The embedded structures are produced roll-to-roll with optimized process settings and materials. Topology measurements show that the embedded grids are well suited for integration into OPV devices since the surface is almost without spikes and has low surface roughness. JV measurements of OPV devices with embedded structures on a polyethylene terephthalate/silicon nitride (PET/SiN) substrate show an efficiency of 2.15%, which is significantly higher than identical flexible devices with ITO (1.02%) and inkjet printed silver (1.48%). The use of embedded screen printed silver instead of ITO and inkjet printed silver in OPV devices will allow for higher efficiency devices which can be produced with larger design and process freedom. (paper)

  5. Electronic, structural, and substrate effect properties of single-layer covalent organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liangbo; Zhu, Pan [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Meunier, Vincent, E-mail: meuniv@rpi.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Recently synthesized two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) exhibit high surface area, large pore size, and unique structural architectures, making them promising materials for various energy applications. Here, a total of nine COFs structures, including two deposited on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, are investigated using density functional theory, quasi-particle many-body theory within the GW approximation, and an image charge model. The structures considered belong to two major families (thiophene-based COF-n (T-COF-n) and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-x (TAPP-x)) differing from the presence of B—O or C=N linkers. While T-COF-n structures are shown to constitute planar networks, TAPP-x systems can display non-negligible corrugation due to the out-of-plane rotation of phenyl rings. We find that the electronic properties do not differ significantly when altering the chain molecules within each family. Many-body effects are shown to lead to large band-gap increase while the presence of the substrate yields appreciable reductions of the gaps, due to substrate polarization effects.

  6. Molecular structures of five adducts assembled from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Li; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi; Li, Minghui; Guo, Jianzhong; Guo, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Five adducts 1-5 derived from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde have been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five adducts two are organic salts (1, and 2) and the other three (3-5) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 2, the L molecules are protonated. The supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯S, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. The role of weak and strong non-covalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The complexes displayed 2D/3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions. The results presented herein tell that the strength and directionality of the N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  7. Influence of organic modification on the structure and properties of polyurethane/sepiolite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → KH550 was the best among the three organic modifiers by comparing tensile properties, water resistance and swelling rate. → FTIR revealed the strong interaction between KH550-Sp and the PU matrix. → TEM revealed the compatibility of KH550-Sp and PU was improved. → SEM confirmed the good dispersion of KH550-Sp in PU matrix. - Abstract: The polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared using organomodified sepiolite (organo-Sp) by in situ polymerization method. The clay was modified with three different organic modifiers such as γ-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (KH550), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and lauric acid (LA). The morphology and the dispersion of organo-Sp in polyurethane were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of organo-Sp on the tensile properties, water resistance and swelling rate of polyurethane composites was studied. The results showed the properties and structure of polyurethane nanocomposites were related to the kind of organic modifier.

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationship to predict acute fish toxicity of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, A; Bordes, C; Clément, Y; Mignon, P; Chermette, H; Marote, P; Cren-Olivé, C; Lantéri, P

    2013-10-01

    REACH regulation requires ecotoxicological data to characterize industrial chemicals. To limit in vivo testing, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are advocated to predict toxicity of a molecule. In this context, the topic of this work was to develop a reliable QSAR explaining the experimental acute toxicity of organic solvents for fish trophic level. Toxicity was expressed as log(LC50), the concentration in mmol.L(-1) producing the 50% death of fish. The 141 chemically heterogeneous solvents of the dataset were described by physico-chemical descriptors and quantum theoretical parameters calculated via Density Functional Theory. The best subsets of solvent descriptors for LC50 prediction were chosen both through the Kubinyi function associated with Enhanced Replacement Method and a stepwise forward multiple linear regressions. The 4-parameters selected in the model were the octanol-water partition coefficient, LUMO energy, dielectric constant and surface tension. The predictive power and robustness of the QSAR developed were assessed by internal and external validations. Several techniques for training sets selection were evaluated: a random selection, a LC50-based selection, a balanced selection in terms of toxic and non-toxic solvents, a solvent profile-based selection with a space filling technique and a D-optimality onions-based selection. A comparison with fish LC50 predicted by ECOSAR model validated for neutral organics confirmed the interest of the QSAR developed for the prediction of organic solvent aquatic toxicity regardless of the mechanism of toxic action involved. PMID:23866172

  9. Conventionalisation of organic farming practices: from structural criteria towards an assessment based on organic principles. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Darnhofer, Ika; Lindenthal, Thomas; Bartel-Kratochvil, Ruth; Zollitsch, Werner

    2010-01-01

    International audience Organic farming is widely perceived as being more environmentally friendly than conventional farming. As a form of sustainable agriculture, it receives substantial support from policy for its contribution to environmental protection as well as the provision of amenities such as biodiversity and cultural landscapes. Consumers are attracted to organic foods as they are produced without synthetic chemicals and comply with higher animal welfare standards. Although organi...

  10. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  11. Structuralization of Ca(2+)-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks Prepared via Coordination Replication of Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Kenji; Hu, Ming; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as potential candidates to supplant existing adsorbent types in real-world applications has led to an explosive growth in the number of compounds available to researchers, as well as in the diversity of the metal salts and organic linkers from which they are derived. In this context, the use of carbonate-based precursors as metal sources is of interest due to their abundance in mineral deposits and their reaction chemistry with acids, resulting in just water and carbon dioxide as side products. Here, we have explored the use of calcium carbonate as a metal source and demonstrate its versatility as a precursor to several known frameworks, as well as a new flexible compound based on the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone (H2dhbq) linker, Ca(dhbq)(H2O)2. Furthermore, inspired by the ubiquity and unique structures of biomineralized forms of calcium carbonate, we also present examples of the preparation of superstructures of Ca-based MOFs via the coordination replication technique. In all, the results confirm the suitability of carbonate-based metal sources for the preparation of MOFs and further expand upon the growing scope of coordination replication as a convenient strategy for the preparation of structuralized materials. PMID:27002690

  12. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  13. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures. PMID:26856789

  14. Role of α-Helical Structure in Organic Solvent-Activated Homodimer of Elastase Strain K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Fah Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3 was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.

  15. Structure Characterization and Properties of Metal-Surfactant Complexes Dispersed in Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Pablo; Jaeger, Vance W; Xi, Yuyin; Pfaendtner, Jim; Pozzo, Lilo D

    2015-08-25

    This work describes the synthesis and characterization of metal-surfactant complexes. Dioctyl sulfosuccinate and dodecylbenzenesulfonate are associated with multivalent aluminum, iron, and vanadium ions using an ion exchange reaction. The metal complexes are dispersible in various organic solvents. In solvents with low polarity, the complexes form "inverse" macromolecular structures with multiple metal ions. In contrast, in alcohols, the complex size is reduced, showing a more disperse conformation. The metal and surfactant ions are still strongly bonded to each other in all the solvents probed. Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are used to characterize the structures. Simultaneous fitting of neutron and X-ray scattering spectra is performed in order to obtain an accurate description of the system. Scattering results are also validated by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The conductive and electrochemical properties of the complexes in solution are also evaluated. The dispersion of metal-organic complexes significantly increases electric conductivity, and some metal ions in the core of the complexes are shown to be electrochemically active in apolar solvents. PMID:26212253

  16. Neutron reflectrometry reveals the internal structure of natural organic matter deposited onto an aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Ambaye, Haile Arena [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Lauter, Valeria [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils plays a significant role in the global C cycle, therefore understanding the structure and function of the OC soil mineral interface is of high importance. To study the interface, films of simple OC compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) were deposited onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3) using spin coating and were exposed to humidity. The thickness, density and structure of the films were studied using a depth-sensitive, nano-scale technique of neutron reflectometry. A single homogenous layer was observed when NOM and glucose (GL) were adsorbed onto Al2O3. However, when stearic acid (SA) was added to either NOM or GL, separate layers attributed to SA and either NOM or GL were detected. The formation of distinct, immiscible layers is due to insolubility of SA with NOM and GL. In contrast, GL and NOM are both water-soluble, and therefore soluble with each other, forming a homogenous layer on the mineral surface. Our results suggest that the extent of complex layering formed on the OC mineral interface may depend on the relative solubility of the compounds.

  17. Interactions between radionuclides and organic colloids. Structure and reactivity of humic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic compounds are the main organic colloids present in natural waters. These compounds can significantly modify the speciation of metals and control their properties, like migration, toxicity or bio-availability. It is thus important to study their speciation in conditions representative to those encountered in the natural environment. The aim of this work is to analyze the reactivity of these humic compounds. Two spectroscopic techniques have been used: the time-resolution laser spectro-fluorimetry, limited to the study of fluorescent elements, and the electro-spray source mass spectroscopy which requires the development of specific protocols for all elements of the periodic classification system. Europium, a fluorescent element analogue to trivalent actinides, has been chosen as test-metal for the intercomparison of both spectroscopic techniques. The first technique has permitted to determine the inorganic and organic speciation (spectra and lifetime of europium hydroxides and carbonates, and constants of interaction with humic acids, respectively). The limitations of this technique in the study of inorganic speciation has been evidenced. Humic compounds have a badly defined structure. The use of high-resolution mass spectroscopy has permitted to propose in a direct and experimental way, a molecular structure of aquatic fulvic acids in agreement with their known physico-chemical properties. (J.S.)

  18. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ∼ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker “spaghetti” model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near

  19. New double graded structure for enhanced performance in white organic light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Yu Chen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan (China); Herng Yih Ueng, E-mail: hueng@ee.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424 Taiwan (China); Yokoyama, Meiso [Department of Electronic Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study presents a new design that uses a combination of a graded hole transport layer (GH) structure and a gradually doped emissive layer (GE) structure as a double graded (DG) structure to improve the electrical and optical performance of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs). The proposed structure is ITO/m-MTDATA (15 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/NPB: 25% BAlq (15 nm)/NPB: 50% BAlq (15 nm)/BAlq: 0.5% Rubrene (10 nm)/BAlq: 1% Rubrene (10 nm)/BAlq: 1.5% Rubrene (10 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al (200 nm). (m-MTDATA: 4,4',4'' -tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine; NPB: N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine; BAlq: aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato) 4-phenylphenolate; Rubrene: 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene; Alq{sub 3}: tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum). By using this structure, the best performance of the WOLED is obtained at a luminous efficiency at 11.8 cd/A and the turn-on voltage of 100 cd/m{sup 2} at 4.6 V. The DG structure can eliminate the discrete interface, and degrade surplus holes, the electron-hole pairs are efficiently injected and balanced recombination in the emissive layer, thus the spectra are unchanged under various drive currents and quenching effects can be significantly suppressed. Those advantages can enhance efficiency and are immune to drive current density variations.

  20. INTRODUCING THE ORGANIZING STRUCTURES OF MANAGEMENT WITH MARKETING ORIENTATION ON ENTERPRISE OF THE BRANCHES TO DIFFICULT INDUSTRY OF THE UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Hussarov, O.; Antipceva, O.

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted the theoretical and practical aspects of organization of marketing activity on an industrial enterprise. Authors are expose failings in the field of organization of marketing activity on the enterprises of industries of heavy industry and suggestions are developed on their liquidation by the gradual passing to the computer-integrated marketings structures.

  1. Exact matrix treatment of an osmotic ensemble model of adsorption and pressure induced structural transitions in metal organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2016-03-01

    Here we present an exactly treated quasi-one dimensional statistical mechanical osmotic ensemble model of pressure and adsorption induced breathing structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The treatment uses a transfer matrix method. The model successfully reproduces the gas and pressure induced structural changes which are observed experimentally in MOFs. The model treatment presented here is a significant step towards analytical statistical mechanical treatments of flexible metal-organic frameworks. PMID:26514851

  2. Structural transformations related to organic solid-state reactions: correlation studies of NMR and X-ray analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M

    2008-01-01

    Deeper understanding of packing effects will expand control and design of organic solid-state reactions. The combination of organic solid-state chemistry, single crystal X-ray analysis and high resolution solid-state NMR have revealed valuable insights into the reaction mechanism that govern the resulting structures. In particular, the topotactic nature of the reaction intermediates and products as well as structural changes on molecular level occurring in [2+2] photodimerizations under tail ...

  3. Explaining the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Dimensions of Learning Organizations (Case study: Education Organization in Boroojerd County and the Related Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mehrabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey has been conducted to explain the relationship between organizational structure and dimensions of learning organizations. It was conducted using descriptive-field method. The statistical population included employees of Education Organization in Borujerd County and the related departments. Sample volume was selected through random sampling method and was equal to 140 persons using Morgan table. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed through content validity by professors and the clear-sighted. Its reliability was measured using pre-test and calculating Cronbach alpha. Pierson correlation coefficient, Friedman test and bi-nominal test using SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results of Pierson correlation coefficient test show there is a significant and negative relationship between organizational structure and fulfillment degree of learning organizations. This relationship is significant about all dimensions of learning organization. Given to results of Friedman test, the most important dimension of learning organizations is the component of team learning based on the viewpoint of employees of the Education Organization. According to results of bi-nominal test, there is only one variable in the statistical population and that is mental models. Also according to results of correlation coefficient matrix of research variables team learning and shared vision have the highest correlation.

  4. Control of local structures and photophysical properties of zinc porphyrin-based supramolecular assemblies structurally organized by regioselective ligand coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takao; Sakai, Hayato; Araki, Yasuyuki; Wada, Takehiko; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-02-10

    Nano- and micro-sized molecular assemblies of zinc porphyrins [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrinato-zinc(ii) (ZnTCPP)] utilizing bridging nitrogen ligands such as diazabicycro[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) were prepared to demonstrate the regioselective coordination by two different synthetic strategies such as (i) the solvothermal method and (ii) the colloidal metal organic framework (MOF) method. The initial organization process is a planar checkerboard patterned formation (2D platform) of zinc porphyrins organized by paddlewheel secondary building units (PSBUs) between carboxylate and zinc ions. Then, DABCO moieties are decorated on zinc atoms in the metal centres of the porphyrin rings (m-cPDC) in the solvothermal method, whereas the metal centres in the porphyrin rings (n-uPDC) remain uncoordinated in the colloidal MOF method. These internal structural changes between m-cPDC and n-uPDC are in sharp contrast with the corresponding reference systems using ZnTCPP and a 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY) ligand (i.e., m-cPBC and n-cPBC). Concretely, the metal centres of zinc porphyrins in n-uPDC were unsaturated and uncoordinated with the DABCO ligands, which was confirmed by XRD and steady-state spectroscopic measurements. These different coordination features have great effect on the spectroscopic and photophysical properties. For example, the average fluorescence lifetime of m-cPDC is much smaller than that of n-uPDC because of the acceleration of nonradiative processes, which are highly related with the coordination of DABCO to the Zn(ii) centre of the ZnTCPP unit. Finally, fluorescence quenching experiments via photoinduced electron transfer (PET) utilizing an electron acceptor: benzoquinone (BQ) were performed. The apparent association constant (Kapp) of n-uPDC is larger than that of m-cPDC. This suggested that the unsaturated ZnTCPP units embedded in n-uPDC easily accommodate guest molecules as compared to the other systems. PMID:26821786

  5. A novel characterization of organic molecular crystal structures for the purpose of crystal engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Noel W

    2015-08-01

    A novel analytical approach is proposed for the characterization of organic molecular crystal structures where close packing is an important factor. It requires the identification of a unique reference axis within the crystal, along which three-dimensional space is divided into close-packed blocks (CPB) and junction zones (JZ). The degree of close packing along the reference axis is quantified by a two-dimensional packing function, ϕ2D, of symmetry determined by the space group. Values of ϕ2D reflect the degree of area-filling in planes perpendicular to this axis. The requirement of close packing within CPB allows the planar structures perpendicular to the reference axis to be analysed as tessellations of area-filling molecular-based cells (MBC), which are generally hexagonal. The form of these cells reflects the molecular shape in the cross-section, since their vertices are given by the centres of the voids between molecules. There are two basic types of MBC, Type 1, of glide or pseudo-glide symmetry, and Type 2, which is formed by lattice translations alone and generally requires a short unit-cell axis. MBC at layers of special symmetry are used to characterize the structures in terms of equivalent ellipses with parameters aell, bell and χell. The ratio aell/bell allows the established α, β, γ classification to be integrated into the current framework. The values of parameters aell and bell arising from all the structures considered, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), substituted anthracenes and anthraquinones (SAA) and 2-benzyl-5-benzylidene (BBCP) are mapped onto a universal curve. The division of three-dimensional space into CPB and JZ is fundamentally useful for crystal engineering, since the structural perturbations brought about by substitution at hydrogen positions located within JZ are minimal. A contribution is also made to ongoing debate concerning the adoption of polar space groups, isomorphism and polymorphism. PMID:26208627

  6. Metal-organic fireworks: MOFs as integrated structural scaffolds for pyrotechnic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, L H; Colakel, A; Vrcelj, R M; Sinclair, I; Coles, S J

    2015-08-01

    A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is presented whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. This reduces the batch inconsistencies arising from the traditional approach of combining powders by ensuring the key ingredients are 'mixed' in appropriate quantities and are in intimate contact. Further benefits of these types of material are increased safety levels as well as simpler logistics, storage and manufacture. A systematic series of new frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents (group 1 and 2 metal nodes & terephthalic acid derivatives as linkers) has been synthesised and structurally characterised. These new materials have been assessed for pyrotechnic effect by calorimetry and burn tests. Results indicate that these materials exhibit the desired pyrotechnic material properties and the effect can be correlated to the dimensionality of the structure. A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is proposed whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. A series of Metal-organic framework frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents exhibits the desired properties of a pyrotechnic material and this effect is correlated to the dimensionality of the structure. PMID:26138789

  7. Molecular and evolutionary insights into the structural organization of cation chloride cotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cation chloride cotransporters (CCC play an essential role for neuronal chloride homeostasis. KCC2 is the principal Cl--extruder, whereas NKCC1 is the major Cl--uptake mechanism in many neurons. As a consequence, the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine strongly depend on the activity of these two transporters. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in ion transport and regulation is thus of great importance to better understand normal and disturbed brain function. Although no overall 3-dimensional crystal structures are yet available, recent molecular and phylogenetic studies and modeling have provided new and exciting insights into structure-function relationships of cation chloride cotransporters. Here, we will summarize our current knowledge of the gross structural organization of the proteins, their functional domains, ion binding and translocation sites, and the established role of individual amino acids. A major focus will be laid on the delineation of shared and distinct organizational principles between KCC2 and NKCC1. Exploiting the richness of recently generated genome data across the tree of life, we will also explore the molecular evolution of these features.

  8. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Różycki, Bartosz, E-mail: rozycki@ifpan.edu.pl; Cieplak, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-12-21

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme.

  9. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    RóŻycki, Bartosz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-01

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme.

  10. Altered topological organization of white matter structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaou Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO. METHODS: The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. RESULTS: The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. CONCLUSION: Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO.

  11. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxuan; Lukose, Binit; Shekhah, Osama; Arslan, Hasan Kemal; Weidler, Peter; Gliemann, Hartmut; Bräse, Stefan; Grosjean, Sylvain; Godt, Adelheid; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Magdau, Ioan-Bogdan; Heine, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 × 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++)2- carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process. PMID:23213357

  12. Citrate synthase proteins in extremophilic organisms: Studies within a structure-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study four citrate synthase homodimeric proteins within a structure-based coarse-grained model. Two of these proteins come from thermophilic bacteria, one from a cryophilic bacterium and one from a mesophilic organism; three are in the closed and two in the open conformations. Even though the proteins belong to the same fold, the model distinguishes the properties of these proteins in a way which is consistent with experiments. For instance, the thermophilic proteins are more stable thermodynamically than their mesophilic and cryophilic homologues, which we observe both in the magnitude of thermal fluctuations near the native state and in the kinetics of thermal unfolding. The level of stability correlates with the average coordination number for amino acid contacts and with the degree of structural compactness. The pattern of positional fluctuations along the sequence in the closed conformation is different than in the open conformation, including within the active site. The modes of correlated and anticorrelated movements of pairs of amino acids forming the active site are very different in the open and closed conformations. Taken together, our results show that the precise location of amino acid contacts in the native structure appears to be a critical element in explaining the similarities and differences in the thermodynamic properties, local flexibility, and collective motions of the different forms of the enzyme

  13. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  14. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the bio-available fraction of the largest amount of soil organic matter (SOM), even if it does represent only a very small proportion. Because most of the studies on DOC dynamics were mainly restricted to forest soils, studies on the factors governing the dynamics of DOC in deep soil horizons (>1 m) in arable system are still very little limited. The objective of this work is to better define the proportion of DOC in deep soil horizons and indicate their main characteristics and structural properties. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site). DOC collected using lysimeters plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. Depend on the amount of material; the chemical composition of DOC was performed using UV254 nm, fluorescence EEM, NMR and HPSEC/UV/COD. The results show that the concentration and structural properties of DOC in deep soil horizon were similar to those of groundwater (low SUVA (1.2 m-1.L.mg C-1), structures composed mainly of low molecular weight). Because of the relatively recent establishment of the treatment, the monitoring of the dynamics of the DOC concentrations did not show significant differences between arable and grassland. However, the temporal dynamic shows a slight increase in the DOC content regardless of the of land use. DOC concentrations between winter and the middle of spring tend to double going from 1 to 2.5 mg / L and then

  15. Mineralization of organic matter in gray forest soil and typical chernozem with degraded structure due to physical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Zhuravlev, N. S.; Tulina, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the organic matter mineralization in the gray forest soil and typical chernozem with structure disturbed by physical impacts (grinding and extraction of water-soluble substances) were studied in two long-term experiments at the constant temperature and moisture. The grinding of soil to particles of soils with water and leaching of water-soluble organic matter resulted in the significant decrease of the content of potentially mineralizable organic matter in the soils. The physical disturbance caused changes in the ratio of easily mineralizable ( k 1 > 0.1, day-1) and difficultly mineralizable (0.01 > k 3 > 0.001, day-1) fractions in the active pool of soil organic matter. The results of the studies show that the destruction of the structural-aggregate status is one of the reasons for the active soil organic matter depletion and, as a consequence, for the degradation of the properties inherent to the undisturbed soils.

  16. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  17. New hybrid organic-zincophosphate frameworks: single-crystal-to-single-crystal structural transformation and remarkable thermal and chemical stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Yan, Zhao-Nan; Wang, Chun-Chi; Li, Hsing-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Mei; Wang, Chih-Min

    2016-05-01

    This research is the first example of a hybrid metal phosphate that undergoes an SCSC structural transformation and provides a new route for the synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high stabilities via the introduction of nitrogen-donor ligands into a metal-phosphate system. The synthesis, structural diversity, and thermal and chemical stabilities are also discussed. PMID:27067382

  18. Structuring Job Related Information on the Intranet: An Experimental Comparison of Task vs. an Organization-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozijn, Reinier; Maes, Alfons; Schackman, Didie; Ummelen, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we present a usability experiment in which participants were asked to make intensive use of information on an intranet in order to execute job-related tasks. Participants had to work with one of two versions of an intranet: one with an organization-based hyperlink structure, and one with a task-based hyperlink structure.…

  19. Organization of the rabbit vitreous body : Lamellae, Cloquet's channel and a novel structure, the 'alae canalis Cloqueti'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van Luyn, MJA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    1999-01-01

    Even though the rabbit is a frequently used animal model for studies on Vitreous function and pathobiology, data on the structural organization of the rabbit Vitreous are scarce. The aim of the present study is to give a detailed description of rabbit vitreous structure in order to provide a basis f

  20. Electronic structure of planar-quasicycled organic molecules with intramolecular hydrogen bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXEI N. PANKRATOV

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the HF/6-311G(d,p method, the electronic structure of the series of organic molecules, among which are malonaldehyde, acetylacetone, thiomalonaldehyde,’the derivatives of aniline 2-XC6H4NH2, phenol 2-XC6H4OH, benzenethiol 2-XC6H4SH (X = CHO, COOH, COO-, NO, NO2, OH, OCH3, SH, SCH3, F, Cl, Br, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 8-mercaptoquinoline, tropolone, has been studied. The intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB has been established to lead to a local electron redistribution in quasicycle, and primarily to the electron density transfer between the direct IHB participants – from the hydrogen atom toward the proton-aceptor atom. On forming the IHB of the S–H···O type, the electron density in general decreases on the sulphohydryl hydrogen atom and increases on the sulphur atom.

  1. Structural organization of water-based ferrofluids with sterical stabilization as revealed by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasoiu, M. [Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest (Romania) and Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: balasoiumaria@yahoo.com; Avdeev, M.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Aksenov, V.L. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Hasegan, D. [Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest (Romania); Garamus, V.M. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Schreyer, A. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Bica, D. [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Timisoara (Romania); Vekas, L. [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-05-15

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation is applied to reveal structural organization of a water-based ferrofluid where magnetite nanoparticles are sterically stabilized by the double layer of dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (DBS). The contrast is changed by the use of different ratios between light and heavy water in the carrier. The modified basic functions are introduced and determined following the analysis of the shape scattering from the colloidal particles in the fluid. Three types of particles are detected, which are presumably initial particles (size {approx}20 nm), secondary fractal aggregates (size >250 nm) and micelles of DBS (size {approx}5 nm). The found effective match point (35% of D{sub 2}O) gives the 26 vol% content of magnetite in the initial particles.

  2. Tuning the Interfacial Electronic Structure at Organic Heterojunctions by Chemical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothy, Sébastien; Guillaume, Maxime; Idé, Julien; Castet, Frédéric; Ducasse, Laurent; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David

    2012-09-01

    Quantum-chemical techniques are applied to assess the electronic structure at donor/acceptor heterojunctions of interest for organic solar cells. We show that electrostatic effects at the interface of model 1D stacks profoundly modify the energy landscape explored by charge carriers in the photoconversion process and that these can be tuned by chemical design. When fullerene C60 molecules are used as acceptors and unsubstituted oligothiophenes or pentacene are used as donors, the uncompensated quadrupolar electric field at the interface provides the driving force for splitting of the charge-transfer states into free charges. This quadrupolar field can be either enhanced by switching from a C60 to a perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) acceptor or suppressed by grafting electron-withdrawing groups on the donor. PMID:26292117

  3. General structure and organization of the IHEP booster synchrotron on-line control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and organization of data collecting and exchange of the IHEP booster synchrotron on-line control system are described. Booster and control desk technological system servicing is carried out with the help of the MEh-80 microcomputers, produced on the basis of the K580 series microprocessors and the two ES 1010 minicomputers. Minicomputers are responsible for carrying out of main calculation tasks and functions of storing the programs, measured data and their processing results and with servicing of interface with the user. Microcomputers carry out data collection and system parameter monitoring and provide for the system engineering servicing and adjustment from the local terminals. A special working data base is provided for current synchrotron system condition control

  4. On the inference of function from structure using biomechanical modelling and simulation of extinct organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R

    2012-02-23

    Biomechanical modelling and simulation techniques offer some hope for unravelling the complex inter-relationships of structure and function perhaps even for extinct organisms, but have their limitations owing to this complexity and the many unknown parameters for fossil taxa. Validation and sensitivity analysis are two indispensable approaches for quantifying the accuracy and reliability of such models or simulations. But there are other subtleties in biomechanical modelling that include investigator judgements about the level of simplicity versus complexity in model design or how uncertainty and subjectivity are dealt with. Furthermore, investigator attitudes toward models encompass a broad spectrum between extreme credulity and nihilism, influencing how modelling is conducted and perceived. Fundamentally, more data and more testing of methodology are required for the field to mature and build confidence in its inferences. PMID:21666064

  5. Guest driven structural transformation studies of a luminescent metal-organic framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Manna; Shweta Singh; Sujit K Ghosh

    2014-09-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) porous metal-organic framework (MOF) [{Zn2(L)4(OTf)4}.2(DCM).xG] (1 ⊃ G) (OTf = trifluoro methane sulfonate, DCM = Dichloromethane, L (1, 4-bis (4-pyridyl)-2, 3-diaza-1, 3-butadiene) synthesized at room temperature. Free guests DCM were encapsulated in the pores of the MOF. On air drying the MOF loses free DCM molecules and changed its structure in a crystal to crystal manner to produce compound 1 [{Zn(L)2(OTf)2}.XG](1). This guest-induced breathing of the framework was also supported from PXRD patterns. Solid state photoluminescence properties of the dynamicMOF were studied at room temperature.

  6. Experimental and modelling study of organization phenomena in dielectric barrier discharges with structurally inhomogeneous wood substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial organization of dielectric barrier discharges operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of complex wood substrates was analysed using optical imaging, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, and optical emission spectroscopy combined with a collisional–radiative model to extract the average electron energy. The structural inhomogeneities of selected wood species produced non-uniform light emission patterns while maintaining homogeneous-like I–V characteristics and spatially uniform average electron energy. Based on a simple electrical model of the discharge, this localization was ascribed, at least partially, to a spatial modulation of the relative dielectric permittivity on ‘early’ versus ‘late’ wood affecting the local voltage applied to the gas, and thus the local discharge current. (paper)

  7. Thienoacene-fused pentalenes: Syntheses, structures, physical properties and applications for organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2014-11-27

    Three soluble and stable thienoacene-fused pentalene derivatives (1-3) with different π-conjugation lengths were synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed their unique geometric and electronic structures due to the interaction between the aromatic thienoacene units and antiaromatic pentalene moiety. As a result, they all possess a small energy gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour. Time dependent (TD) DFT calculations were used to explain their unique electronic absorption spectra. These new compounds exhibited good thermal stability and ordered packing in solid state and thus their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were also investigated. The highest field-effect hole mobility of 0.016, 0.036 and 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for solution-processed thin films of 1-3, respectively.

  8. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Zincophosphite Containing Two-dimensional Inorganic-organic Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Ya-Li(杨雅莉); LI,Niu(李牛); XIANG,Shou-He(项寿鹤)

    2004-01-01

    A novel 1,6-hexamethylenediamine-zincophosphite has been synthesized hydrothermally.Its single-crystal structure refinement has shown the zincophosphite with the composition(CH2)6[Zn(HPO3)2]2-,Mr=343.55.It crystallizes in monoclinic,space group C2/c(No.15),a=2.2391nm,b=0.8695nm,c=0.7919nm,β=101.062(6)°,V=1.513nm3,Dc=1.508kg/m3,Z=4,F(000)=712,μ=1.849mm-1,R1=0.0416,Wr2=0.1023.This phase exhibits infinite inorganic chains of vertex-linked ZnO4 and HPO3.Via the electrostatic attraction,1,6-hexamethylenediamine cations and inorganic chains construct a novel interesting two-dimensional inorganic-organic network.

  9. Non-targeted Explorations in the Compositional and Structural Space of Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertkorn, N.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Perdue, E. M.

    2009-05-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) occurs in soils, freshwater and marine environments, in the atmosphere and in the form of prebiotic organic matter and represents an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibits a nearly continuous range of properties (size-reactivity continuum). The fate NOM in the bio- and geosphere is governed according to the rather fundamental restraints of thermodynamics and kinetics. In these intricate materials, the "classical" signatures of the (geogenic or ultimately biogenic) precursor molecules, like lipids, glycans, proteins and natural products have been attenuated, often beyond recognition, during a succession of biotic and abiotic (e.g. photo- and redox chemistry) reactions. Because of this loss of biochemical signature, these materials can be designated non- repetitive complex systems. The most informative, "bottom-up" approach to molecularly characterize these complex materials necessarily relies upon spectroscopic methods which translate high-precision frequency measurements into very significant molecular-level information. Frequencies can be measured with an accuracy of 15 digits. This extent of accuracy in frequency measurements translates directly into high resolution, itself a very useful and even indispensable feature to produce information-rich data with sufficient resolution to overcome the otherwise common and detrimental effects of intrinsic averaging, which deteriorate spectral resolution to the degree of a bulk-type characterization rather than to a molecular resolution analysis. High-precision frequency measurements, which can be translated into isotope-specific molecular resolution detail of unprecedented significance and richness, define the core of the two most influential methods of organic structural spectroscopy for the investigation of complex materials, namely NMR spectroscopy (provide unsurpassed insight into close-range molecular order to assess the structural space) and FTICR mass

  10. Nanobiohybrid structures based on the organized films of photosensitive membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental principles and technologies for the design of stable film systems based on biomembranes, photosensitive membrane proteins and complexes (retinal-containing proteins, reaction centres of photosynthetic bacteria, light-harvesting complexes of photosystems I and II), including their associates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles or quantum dots are described. The advantages of controlled incorporation of the semiconductor or plasmonic nanocrystals into the biohybrid film structures are analyzed, first of all, the increase in the wavelength range of solar light harvesting and effective transfer of collected energy to the biological chromophores. Particular attention is devoted to the production of ultrathin and highly organized films at interfaces as the key stage of the design of nanobiohybrid materials with particular properties for photovoltaics, optoelectronics and nanophotonics. The bibliography includes 182 references

  11. Structure and Magnetic Interactions in the Organic-based Ferromagnet Decamethylferrocenium Tetracyanoethenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of three temperature-dependent polymorphs of solvent-free decamethylferrocenium tetracyanoethenide, (FeCp*2)(TCNE), are determined from high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data. (FeCp*2)(TCNE) is the first organic-based ferromagnetic material to be synthesized and is known to have two structural phase transitions at 249 and 282 K. The low-temperature phase, which exhibits spontaneous ferromagnetic order below 4.8 K, was determined at 12 K. At that temperature, it has monoclinic space group P21/c (a = 9.6637(4) A, b = 14.1217(5) A, c = 18.6256(7) A, ? = 113.231(2) degrees, Z = 4) and consists of parallel chains of alternating (Fe(C5Me5)2) + and (TCNE) - ions, with an intrachain Fe Fe distance of 10.45 A. Structures of the intermediate and ambient temperature phases, also studied here, are characterized by increasing disorder. At 250 K, the unit cell space group is P21/m (a = 9.7100(3) A, b = 14.4926(4) A, c = 9.4997(3) A, ? = 113.153(1) degrees, Z = 2). At ambient temperature, the lattice, albeit quite disordered, belongs to the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (a = 10.629(1) A, b = 16.128(1) A, c = 14.593(1) A, Z = 4). Nearest-neighbor magnetic interactions were evaluated for the 12 K structure by CASSCF and CASSCF/MCQDPT calculations (a methodology similar to the CASPT2 method). Similar trends are observed in computations with and without inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. The strongest are two intrachain (FeCp*2)- (TCNE) - interactions (ferromagnetic with values of 45 and 29 cm-1), although weaker, nonnegligible, ferro- or antiferromagnetic interchain interactions of less than ± 0.2 cm-1 are also present. Magnetic interactions that lead to ordering are therefore three-dimensional, despite the vastly different intra- and interchain coupling strengths.

  12. High Resolution Imaging of Defect Structures in Polymer and Organic Molecular Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David

    2003-03-01

    We have been developing techniques for the low dose High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging of defect structures in polymer and organic molecular crystals. We have examined a variety of technologically important materials systems including rigid-rod polymers, poly(imides), poly(diacetylenes), poly(bisthiazoles), poly(bisoxazoles), and aromatic polyamides such as poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA or Kevlar(R)) and poly(metaphenylene diisophthalamide) (MPDI or Nomex(R)). These studies have made it possible for us to image the molecular reorganization in the vicinity of dislocations, surfaces, and grain boundaries. We have also learned about the micromechanisms of lattice bending and twisting. Most recently we have been examining the microstructure of pentacene, a highly-crystalline conjugated organic small molecule that is of interest for making flexible electronic devices such as thin-film transistors. We have also been examing the utility of low voltage techniques using a table-top sized electron microscope that operates near 5 kV.

  13. Real-time deformations of organ based on structural mechanics for surgical simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tagaya, Masashi; Tamura, Nobuhiko; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2006-03-01

    This research proposes the deformation model of organs for the development of the medical training system using Virtual Reality (VR) technology. First, the proposed model calculates the strains of coordinate axis. Secondly, the deformation is obtained by mapping the coordinate of the object to the strained coordinate. We assume the beams in the coordinate space to calculate the strain of the coordinate axis. The forces acting on the object are converted to the forces applied to the beams. The bend and the twist of the beams are calculated based on the theory of structural mechanics. The bend is derived by the finite element method. We propose two deformation methods which differ in the position of the beams in the coordinate space. One method locates the beams along the three orthogonal axes (x, y, z). Another method locates the beam in the area where the deformation is large. In addition, the strain of the coordinate axis is attenuated in proportion to the distance from the point of action to consider the attenuation of the stress which is a viscoelastic feature of the organs. The proposed model needs less computational cost compared to the conventional deformation method since our model does not need to divide the object into the elasticity element. The proposed model was implemented in the laparoscopic surgery training system, and a real-time deformation can be realized.

  14. Crosslinked copolyazoles with a zwitterionic structure for organic solvent resistant membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of crosslinked membranes with a zwitterionic structure based on a facile reaction between a newly synthesized copolyazole with free OH groups and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is reported. The new OH-functionalized copolyazole is soluble in common organic solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N′-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and can be easily processed by phase inversion. After crosslinking with GPTMS, the membranes acquire high solvent resistance. We show the membrane performance and the influence of the crosslinking reaction conditions on the thermal stability, surface polarity, pore morphology, and solvent resistance. By using UV-spectroscopy we monitored the solvent resistance of the membranes in four aggressive solvents (THF, DMSO, DMF and NMP) for 30 days. After this time, only minor changes (less than 2%) were detected for membranes subjected to a crosslinking reaction for 6 hours or longer. Our data suggest that the novel crosslinked membranes can be used for industrial applications in wide harsh environments in the presence of organic solvents.

  15. Invited paper: Fabrication of complexly patterned wavy structures using self-organized anisotropic wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Pil J.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we review a novel means of self-organized anisotropic wrinkling, which enables the patterning of wavy microstructures that are rarely achievable with conventional patterning approaches. The surface wrinkling phenomenon usually occurs in a system of stacked layers in the course of relieving the accumulated stress therein. For example, the polymer/metal bilayer system supported on a rigid substrate can generate random wrinkles on the surface due to the compressive stress resulting from thermal annealing. However, these random and isotropic wrinkles can be self-organized and ordered by an external confinement effect being guided in periodic microstructures of a patterned mold material. By exploiting the competitive wave interactions between the intrinsic wrinkling wavelength and periodic spacing of the externally imposed mold, complex wavy structures can be created with designed shape of the wrinkles. In addition, manipulating the contact condition of the external mold can allow controllability over the phase of patterned wrinkles. Therefore, the proposed technique is anticipated to be useful in a broad range of applications in micro-optics, microfluidic devices, and flexible electronics.

  16. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaji, A. D., E-mail: alidkhalaji@yahoo.com [Golestan University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddahi, E. [Iran University of Science & Technology, Ms.C Educated, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Chow, T. J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-12-15

    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  17. Primary structure of the human follistatin precursor and its genomic organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follistatin is a single-chain gonadal protein that specifically inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone release. By use of the recently characterized porcine follistatin cDNA as a probe to screen a human testis cDNA library and a genomic library, the structure of the complete human follistatin precursor as well as its genomic organization have been determined. Three of eight cDNA clones that were sequenced predicted a precursor with 344 amino acids, whereas the remaining five cDNA clones encoded a 317 amino acid precursor, resulting from alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA. Mature follistatins contain four contiguous domains that are encoded by precisely separated exons; three of the domains are highly similar to each other, as well as to human epidermal growth factor and human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. The genomic organization of the human follistatin is similar to that of the human epidermal growth factor gene and thus supports the notion of exon shuffling during evolution

  18. Electronic structure of ultra thin organic hetero-interfaces - SnPc/PTCDA/Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoell, Achim; Haeming, Marc; Greif, Michael; Wiessner, Michael [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    While the interfaces of molecules to a substrate have been studied extensively, knowledge about the interface between different molecular compounds is still relatively scarce. This is to some extend caused by the fact that these interfaces, which are of great relevance for opto-electronic devices consisting out of multiple organic compounds, are more complicated to access experimentally. Structurally well defined model systems, which allow for a systematic and detailed investigation of the interface characteristics, are thus of great importance. In this work we provide data from x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy on the organic heterolayer system tin-phthalocyanine (SnPc)/perylen-tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA). We show, that SnPc, prepared on a Ag(111) surface precovered by a monolayer of PTCDA, forms a well defined interface with a closed first layer of flat lying molecules. Moreover, the bonding of the SnPc molecules to the PTCDA interlayer is clearly non-covalent and a detailed inspection of the valence spectra shows that the respective molecular signatures can be distinguished well. The SnPc/PTCDA/Ag(111) system is thus well-suited for further investigations employing complicated techniques.

  19. Anatomical structure of Trapa natans L. submerged organs in context of the species ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena M. Nedukha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of anatomical study of submerged organs of Trapa natans (water chestnut in budding-flowering stage are presented. The plants were collected along the shore of the Rusanivsky channel (left shore of Dnepr River, in Kiev. The light and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used. Anatomical structure of the submerged secondary roots, the submerged dissected leaves and stem had the signs that are typical for submerged organs of some hydrophytes. But, the roots are characterized by the peculiarity, they were photosynthesizing. Chloroplasts are revealed in root core cells. The middle number of chloroplasts in one parenchyma cell of submerged leaf was four times more than in one core cell of root. The fluorescence intensity of leaf chloroplasts was also more than that in root or stem chloroplasts. The very developed aerenchyma was characterized for roots and submerged stem in comparison with the submerged dissected leaves, in which an aerenchyma was weak developed and it was presented by very small air space between the cells of inner layer in parenchyma.

  20. Cop-like operon: Structure and organization in species of the Lactobacillale order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA REYES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential and toxic trace metal for bacteria and, therefore, must be tightly regulated in the cell. Enterococcus hirae is a broadly studied model for copper homeostasis. The intracellular copper levels in E. hirae are regulated by the cop operon, which is formed by four genes: copA and copB that encode ATPases for influx and efflux of copper, respectively; copZ that encodes a copper chaperone; and copY, a copper responsive repressor. Since the complete genome sequence for E. hirae is not available, it is possible that other genes may encode proteins involved in copper homeostasis. Here, we identified a cop-like operon in nine species of Lactobacillale order with a known genome sequence. All of them always encoded a CopY-like repressor and a copper ATPase. The alignment of the cop-like operon promoter region revealed two CopY binding sites, one of which was conserved in all strains, and the second was only present in species of Streptococcus genus and L. johnsonii. Additional proteins associated to copper metabolism, CutC and Cupredoxin, also were detected. This study allowed for the description of the structure and organization of the cop operon and discussion of a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the differences observed in this operon's organization and its regulation in Lactobacillale order.

  1. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, A. D.; Maddahi, E.; Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K.; Chow, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC (( E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC (( E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  2. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC

  3. Periodic surface structures on titanium self-organized upon double femtosecond pulse exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LIPSS self-formed on Ti surface upon irradiations by 25 double pulses. • A surface plasma density variation leads to a variation of LIPSS features. • Data from double pulse irradiations well agree with the parametric decay model. • Results confirm the formation of surface plasma during the ultra-short interaction. • Results support once again the validity of the parametric decay model. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) self-organized on Ti surface after irradiations by femtosecond laser beam composed by double pulses with a fixed time delay of 160 fs. The fluence of the first pulse (FPP), responsible for surface plasma formation, was varied in the range 10–50 mJ cm−2 and always kept below the LIPSS formation threshold fluence (FLIPSS) on Ti for 50-single-shots exposure. The fluence of the delayed pulse (FLP), responsible for LIPSS self-organization, was varied in the range 60–150 mJ cm−2 and always kept above FLIPSS. Regardless the specific fluence FLP of the delayed pulse, the interspace of the grating structures increases with the increase of FPP, that is an increase of the surface plasma density. This tendency suggests that a variation of the surface plasma density, due to a variation of FPP, actually leads to a modification of the grating features. Moreover, we observed that the LIPSS periodicities after double pulse exposures are in quite good agreement with data on LIPSS periodicities after single 160 fs pulse irradiations on Ti surface and with the curve predicted by the parametric decay model. This experimental result suggests that the preformed plasma might be produced in the rising edge of the temporal profile of the laser pulse

  4. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-08-01

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs.A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation results of total (bottom and top) radiance of TOLEDs with the RSL depending on HTL and ETL thicknesses. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01520g

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence of four novel metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the principle of crystal engineering, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, {[Cd1(nic)2(H2O)]2[Cd2(nic)2(H2O)2]} n (1), [Cd2(fma)2(phen)2] n (2), [Cd(fma)(bipy)(H2O)] n (3) and [Zn(mal)(bipy).3H2O] n (4) (nic=nicotinate, fma=fumarate, mal=malate, phen=phenanthroline, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of M(CH3COO)2.2H2O (M=Zn, Cd) with nicotinic acid, fumaric acid and cooperative L (L=phen, bipy), respectively. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 possesses an unprecedented two-dimensional topology structure constructed from three-ply-like layers, complex 2 is an infinite 2D undulating network, complex 3 is a 1D zigzag chain and complex 4 belongs to a 1D chain. The results indicate a transformation of fumarate into malate during the course of hydrothermal treatment of complex 4. The photophysical properties have been investigated with luminescent excitation and emission spectra. -- Graphical abstract: Using the principle of crystal engineering, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, {[Cd1(nic)2(H2O)]2[Cd2(nic)2(H2O)2]} n , [Cd2(fma)2(phen)2] n , [Cd(fma)(bipy)(H2O)] n and [Zn(mal)(bipy).3H2O] n have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 possesses an unprecedented two-dimensional topology structure constructed from three-ply-like layers, complex 2 is an infinite 2D undulating network, complexes 3 and 4 belong to a 1D chain. The results indicate a transformation of fumarate into malate during the course of hydrothermal treatment of complex 4

  6. INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE DEVELOMENT IN THE FIELD OF ORGANIC FARMING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KARAARSLAN, VİLDAN

    2014-01-01

    Practices in the field of organic farming have been carried out within the scope of legal framework since 2003. In Turkey, organic farming activities are conducted under the auspices of Department of Good Agriculture Practices and Organic Farming of the General Directorate of Plant Production of the Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock. There are Organic Farming Committee and Organic Farming National Guidance Committee. Besides, there are Organic Farming Units in 81 Provincial Directora...

  7. Structural Characterization and Reactivity of Pyrogenic Water-Soluble Organic Matter Derived from Biomass Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, M. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Combustion processes, whether from natural or anthropogenic origin, are major sources of particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere as well as soils and aquatic environments. The ubiquitous presence of biomass combustion by-products in atmospheric particles and soils could potentially lead to a large transfer of pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Pyr-WSOM) to the surface of watersheds and aquatic systems. In spite of this, there is a dearth of studies that have characterized the sources, and particularly the fate, of Pyr-WSOM to aquatic systems. In the present study, Pyr-WSOM was extracted from plant-derived chars (feedstocks: honey mesquite, cordgrass, and loblolly pine) produced at a range of temperatures (150-850C), and were then characterized using elemental analyses and ATR-FTIR. Low temperature (250C) Pyr-WSOM, extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass biochars, were then incubated with aliquots of filtered water from the Trinity River (TX) for one month under dark conditions. Consistent with prior studies on combustion molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols, the total amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from biochars peaks around 200-250C and then decreases with increasing temperature of combustion. Elemental and structural analyses of biochar-derived WSOM reflect the selective solubility of certain functional groups. For example, despite the predominance of aromatic units and soot structures in biochars formed at high temperatures, such functionalities are not as predominant in their respective Pyr-WSOM. In addition, the high proportion of O-containing functionalities suggests that Pyr-WSOM may be more biodegradable than the particulate residues of biomass combustion. Indeed, low temperature Pyr-WSOM decomposed rapidly with half-lives ranging ~30 days for total DOC to 4-5 days for specific molecular markers of biomass combustion. These rapid turnover rates are in

  8. Tunable porous structure of metal organic framework derived carbon and the application in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Sun, Qian; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Biwei; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we report a facile approach to fabricate metal organic framework derived carbon (MOF-C) with tunable porous structure. Different from direct pyrolysis of MOFs and blind attempt in application, the in-situ ammonia treatment enables MOF-C with desired porous structure from enriched microporous structure to hierarchically mesoporous structure. Further, NH3 treated MOF-C as carbon host for sulfur loading performing as the cathode for Li-S batteries results in twice higher capacity retention than that of pristine MOF-C. Besides, different Li-S electrochemical mechanisms regarding the different porous structures of carbon are also revealed and investigated in this paper.

  9. Studies on growth, crystal structure and characterization of novel organic nicotinium trifluoroacetate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Good quality crystals of nicotinium trifluoroacetate in monoclinic system were grown for first time. → Nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal exhibits third order nonlinear optical properties. → The optical spectrum of nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal reveals the wide transmission in the entire range with cutoff wavelength at 286 nm. → Nicotinium trifluoroacetate is a low dielectric constant material. - Abstract: An organic material, nicotinium trifluoroacetate (NTF) was synthesized and single crystals in monoclinic system were grown from aqueous solution for the first time. Its solubility and metastable zone width were estimated. The crystal structure of NTF was analyzed to reveal the molecular arrangements and the formation of hydrogen bonds in the crystal. High-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements were performed to analyze the structural perfection of the grown crystals. Functional groups in NTF were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Thermal behaviour and stability of NTF were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical and dielectric properties of NTF crystals were analyzed. Optical studies reveal that NTF crystals are transparent in the wavelength range 286-1100 nm. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of NTF were derived by the Z-scan technique.

  10. Studies on growth, crystal structure and characterization of novel organic nicotinium trifluoroacetate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanaraj, P.V. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Rajesh, N.P., E-mail: rajeshnp@hotmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Sundar, J. Kalyana; Natarajan, S. [Department of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, Crescent Engineering College, Chennai 600 048 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Good quality crystals of nicotinium trifluoroacetate in monoclinic system were grown for first time. {yields} Nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal exhibits third order nonlinear optical properties. {yields} The optical spectrum of nicotinium trifluoroacetate crystal reveals the wide transmission in the entire range with cutoff wavelength at 286 nm. {yields} Nicotinium trifluoroacetate is a low dielectric constant material. - Abstract: An organic material, nicotinium trifluoroacetate (NTF) was synthesized and single crystals in monoclinic system were grown from aqueous solution for the first time. Its solubility and metastable zone width were estimated. The crystal structure of NTF was analyzed to reveal the molecular arrangements and the formation of hydrogen bonds in the crystal. High-resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements were performed to analyze the structural perfection of the grown crystals. Functional groups in NTF were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Thermal behaviour and stability of NTF were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical and dielectric properties of NTF crystals were analyzed. Optical studies reveal that NTF crystals are transparent in the wavelength range 286-1100 nm. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of NTF were derived by the Z-scan technique.

  11. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  12. Chemical and structural effects on the electronic transport in organic single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects induced by chemical and structural inhomogeneities on the electronic transport in organic crystals with the focus on highly-ordered polyacenes are discussed in this paper. The material class chosen is of great importance as polyacenes are widely studied with perspectives on applications in thin film devices. As will be shown, the charge carrier mobility in these long-range ordered molecular systems is limited by chemical impurities rather than by structural inhomogeneities. Time-of-flight spectroscopy on polyacenes purified by zone-refinement does not only show coherent carrier movement for holes but also for electrons, which is rarely observed for compounds that can be purified by sublimation only. Finally, we will present a direct comparison between the chemical species and their amount on the surface and in the volume of tetracene crystals. The significantly higher impurity concentration at the surfaces is relevant for the mobility estimated by field-effect transistor (FET) studies on single crystals in planar-geometry

  13. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena

  14. Structural basis for integration of GluD receptors within synaptic organizer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegheert, Jonathan; Kakegawa, Wataru; Clay, Jordan E; Shanks, Natalie F; Behiels, Ester; Matsuda, Keiko; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Miura, Eriko; Rossmann, Maxim; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Motohashi, Junko; Chang, Veronica T; Siebold, Christian; Greger, Ingo H; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Aricescu, A Radu

    2016-07-15

    Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family members are integrated into supramolecular complexes that modulate their location and function at excitatory synapses. However, a lack of structural information beyond isolated receptors or fragments thereof currently limits the mechanistic understanding of physiological iGluR signaling. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the prototypical molecular bridge linking postsynaptic iGluR δ2 (GluD2) and presynaptic β-neurexin 1 (β-NRX1) via Cbln1, a C1q-like synaptic organizer. We show how Cbln1 hexamers "anchor" GluD2 amino-terminal domain dimers to monomeric β-NRX1. This arrangement promotes synaptogenesis and is essential for D: -serine-dependent GluD2 signaling in vivo, which underlies long-term depression of cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses and motor coordination in developing mice. These results lead to a model where protein and small-molecule ligands synergistically control synaptic iGluR function. PMID:27418511

  15. Electronic Structure of Fullerene Acceptors in Organic Bulk-Heterojunctions. A Combined EPR and DFT Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardis, Kristy L. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States); Webb, J. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States); Holloway, Tarita [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States); Niklas, Jens [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poluektov, Oleg G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are a promising alternative energy source. Attempts to improve their performance have focused on the optimization of electron-donating polymers, while electron-accepting fullerenes have received less attention. Here, we report an electronic structure study of the widely used soluble fullerene derivatives PC61BM and PC71BM in their singly reduced state, that are generated in the polymer:fullerene blends upon light-induced charge separation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations characterize the electronic structures of the fullerene radical anions through spin density distributions and magnetic resonance parameters. The good agreement of the calculated magnetic resonance parameters with those determined experimentally by advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allows the validation of the DFT calculations. Thus, for the first time, the complete set of magnetic resonance parameters including directions of the principal g-tensor axes were determined. For both molecules, no spin density is present on the PCBM side chain, and the axis of the largest g-value lies along the PCBM molecular axis. While the spin density distribution is largely uniform for PC61BM, it is not evenly distributed for PC71BM.

  16. Electronic Structure of Fullerene Acceptors in Organic Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Combined EPR and DFT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Kristy L; Webb, Jeremy N; Holloway, Tarita; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2015-12-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are a promising alternative energy source. Attempts to improve their performance have focused on the optimization of electron-donating polymers, while electron-accepting fullerenes have received less attention. Here, we report an electronic structure study of the widely used soluble fullerene derivatives PC61BM and PC71BM in their singly reduced state, that are generated in the polymer:fullerene blends upon light-induced charge separation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations characterize the electronic structures of the fullerene radical anions through spin density distributions and magnetic resonance parameters. The good agreement of the calculated magnetic resonance parameters with those determined experimentally by advanced electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allows the validation of the DFT calculations. Thus, for the first time, the complete set of magnetic resonance parameters including directions of the principal g-tensor axes were determined. For both molecules, no spin density is present on the PCBM side chain, and the axis of the largest g-value lies along the PCBM molecular axis. While the spin density distribution is largely uniform for PC61BM, it is not evenly distributed for PC71BM. PMID:26569578

  17. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W., E-mail: dawen.sun@ucd.ie [School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland); Drakakis, K. [Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-02-14

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  18. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Drakakis, K.; Sun, D.-W.

    2014-02-01

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic, thermal and dielectric properties of a novel semi-organic pentachloroantimonate (III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahbib, Ikram; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Smirani, Wajda

    2016-09-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material of formula (C10H15N2F)5(SbCl5)5.2H2O was synthesized and characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with the following unit cell parameters a = 15.819(4) Å, b = 17.685(3) Å, c = 30.529(4) Å, Z = 4 and V = 8540(3) Å3. The examination of the structure shows that the three-dimensional frameworks are produced by Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯F, Csbnd H⋯F hydrogen bonding and Cl⋯Cl interactions. IR, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopies were also used to characterize this compound. In addition, the fluorescent properties of this compound have been investigated in the liquid state at room temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has revealed a structural phase transition of the order-disorder type around 370 K. Dielectric investigations revealed a step-wise change of the electric permittivity at Ttr characteristic of the crystal in the high-temperature phase. The evolution of dielectric constant as a function of temperature of the sample has been investigated in order to determine some related parameters. Measurements of AC conductivity as a function of frequency at different temperatures indicated a hopping conduction mechanism and/or reorientational motion.

  20. Angular Dependence of the Sharply Directed Emission in Organic Light Emitting Diodes with a Microcavity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Laih, Li-Hong; Lin, Chia-Ju; Hsu, Yu-Jen

    2002-04-01

    An optical microcavity structure was used in organic light emitting diodes. We succeeded in fabricating a device with sharply directed emission vertical to an emission surface. The device shows green emission (bright green) at normal position which turns red (bright red) at the 30° position. The angular dependences of the electroluminescence and the emission patterns versus viewing angle in the microcavity OLED were studied. The resonance wavelength λ decreases with viewing angle. The emission peak at 490 nm is directed vertically to the device surface more sharply than that at 632 nm. The microcavity structure shows non-Lambertian emission. The spectra appear more blue off-axis and the intensity of the green-like emission decreases rapidly with increasing viewing angle. A significantly narrow linewidth of 7.4 nm in the 0° direction for the 490 nm peak was observed. The full-widths at half maximum (FWHM) of the green-like spectra are much smaller than those of the red-like ones, indicating better cavity quality.

  1. Insight into sodium silicate glass structural organization by multinuclear NMR combined with first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short and medium range order of silica and sodium silicate glasses have been investigated from a quantitative analysis of 29Si MAS NMR and 23Na, 17O MQMAS NMR spectra. The method described enables the extraction of the underlying 17O NMR parameter distributions of bridging oxygens (BOs) and non-bridging oxygens (NBOs), and yields site populations which are confirmed by 29Si NMR data. The extracted NMR parameter distributions and their variations with respect to the glass chemical composition can then be analyzed in terms of local structural features (bond angles and bond lengths, coordination numbers) with the help of molecular dynamics simulations combined with first-principles calculations of NMR parameters. Correlations of relevant structural parameters with 23Na, 29Si and 17O NMR interactions (isotropic chemical shift δ(iso), quadrupolar coupling constant C(Q) and quadrupolar asymmetry parameter ηQ are re-examined and their applicability is discussed. These data offer better insights into the structural organization of the glass network, including both chemical and topological disorder. Adding sodium to pure silica significantly diminishes the Si-O-Si bond angles and leads to a longer mean Si-O bond length with a slight decrease of the mean Na-O bond length. Moreover, the present data are in favor of a homogeneous distribution of Na around both oxygen species in the silicate network. Finally, our approach was found to be sensitive enough to investigate the effect of addition of a small quantity of molybdenum oxide (about 1 mol%) on the 17O MAS spectrum, opening new possibilities for investigating the Mo environment in silicate glasses. (authors)

  2. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this work is to quantity the DOC that percolates in deep horizons of an arable soil, and to characterize the structural properties of the main fractions. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site-France. DOC collected using lysimeter plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. The hydrophilic fraction is purified according the protocol proposed by Aiken and Leenheer (1993). The isolated fractions were subjected to several characterization tools: UV/Vis, fluorescence EEM, HPSEC/UV/DOC, 13C NMR, 14C dating, FT-IR, pyrolysis, thermochemolysis and MSSV GC/MS. The DOC content ranged from 1 to 2.5 mg / L between winter and the middle of spring and then to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. For all isolated fractions HPSEC analyses indicated the predominance of low molecular structures with a low aromatic character. Fluorescence EEM confirmed the non-humic character of the DOM. 13C-NMR spectra showed that the aromatic character decreased from HPO to TPH, and HPI character. Molecular size follows the same trend. HPI DOM was found to be strongly enriched in carboxyl groups. The 14C concentration of the HPO fraction corresponds to an apparent calibrated age around AD 1500. For the same fraction isolated from the 0 - 30 cm horizon, the measured 14C concentration 131.9 pMC corresponds to that in the atmosphere around AD 1978. Significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC

  3. Controlling hierarchical structures in organic solar cell using π- π interactions and their analysis using SANS and PSoXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the morphology of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) films in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is critical in overcoming inherent drawbacks (short exciton diffusion length and low charge mobility) of organic materials and achieving optimal device efficiency. Taking into account the energy conversion process, it is important to understand the hierarchical structure in organic solar cells ranging from molecule-scale and domain-scale to device-scale structure to realize efficient charge separation, transfer, and extraction. However, most of research has so far focused on the domain-level structure such as crystallinity, domain size, and domain orientation because there lacks methods to control hierarchical structures and systematic studies on it. In the present study, we report a new approach to control hierarchical structures in organic solar cells, which was characterized by PSoXS and SANS and their relationship with device performance. We could induce highly anisotropic P3HT crystalline structures (P3HT nanowires), which were grown in a direction of pi-pi stack, facilitating charge transport, through adding poor solvents for P3HT. In addition, the anisotropy of P3HT nanowire was controlled by utilizing additives which have different affinity with PCBM. By employing controlled P3HT nanowires having different anisotropy and following thermal annealing process, we could control the molecular orientation of P3HT at PCBM interfaces (molecular-scale), domain sizes of P3HT and PCBM (domain-scale) and network structures (device-scale). Based on our new method, we could effectively control the hierarchical structures of organic solar cells with an overall view on the relationship between multiscale nanostructure and device performance.

  4. Serum albumin binding of structurally diverse neutral organic compounds: data and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2011-12-19

    Binding to serum albumin has a strong influence on freely dissolved, unbound concentrations of chemicals in vivo and in vitro. For neutral organic solutes, previous studies have suggested a log-log correlation between the albumin-water partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and postulated highly nonspecific binding that is mechanistically analogous to dissolution into solvents. These relationships and concepts were further explored in this study. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-water partition coefficients (K(BSA/w)) were measured for 83 structurally diverse neutral organic chemicals in consistent experimental conditions. The correlation between log K(BSA/w) and log K(ow) was moderate, with R(2) = 0.76 and SD = 0.43. The log K(BSA/w) of low-polarity compounds including a series of chlorobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased with log K(ow) linearly up to log K(ow) = 4-5, but then the linear relationship apparently broke off, and the increase became gradual. The fitting of polyparameter linear free energy relationship models with five solute descriptors was just comparable to that of the log K(ow) model (R(2) = 0.78-0.79, SD = 0.41-0.42); the relatively high SD obtained suggests that solvent dissolution models are not capable of modeling albumin binding accurately. A size limitation of the binding site(s) of albumin is suggested as a possible reason for the high SD. An equilibrium distribution model indicates that serum albumin generally has high contributions to the binding in the serum of polar compounds and relatively small low-polarity compounds, whereas albumin binding for large low-polarity compounds is outcompeted by the strong partitioning into lipids due to low relative affinity of albumin for these compounds. PMID:22070391

  5. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  6. Silver-halide/organic-composite structures: Toward materials with multiple photographic functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the synthesis and structure of the novel silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids Ag2Br6(PPD)2, Ag2Br6(CD-2)2.H2O, Ag2Br4(TMBD), and Ag2I6(CD-2)2.H2O. 1,4-phenylenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) [Ag2Br6(PPD)2] crystals are monoclinic (P21/n), with unit-cell dimensions, a=10.1915(3)A, b=7.7562(2)A, c=12.4340(5)A and β=93.109(1)o. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) monohydrate [Ag2Br6(CD-2)2.H2O] crystals are monoclinic (space group P21/c) with a=10.8434(2)A, b=11.4293(2)A, c=14.3729(1)A, and β=96.153(1)o. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-benzenediammonium tetrabromodiargentate(I) [Ag2Br4(TMBD)] crystals are orthorhombic (space group Pbcn) with a=17.0030(6)A, b=6.6163(2)A, and c=15.9762(6)A. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexaiododiargentate(I) monohydrate, [Ag2I6(CD-2)2.H2O], are monoclinic (C2/c), with unit-cell dimensions, a=21.4691(4)A, b=12.1411(2)A, c=14.3102(2)A, and β=98.657(1)o. The novel structures are members of a class of silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids based upon the assembly of [AgaXb]n- clusters and protonated organoamines in aqueous mineral acids. The clusters display short intracluster Ag-Ag distances, and computational methods are used to evaluate intracluster Ag-Ag bonding. The diverse stoichiometries and cluster connectivities observed suggest a rich compositional and structural chemistry based upon the general assembly method. We have extended the methodology to include a silver-halide-organoamonium chemistry in which the organic moiety is chosen to serve a specific photographic function and demonstrate the first examples of such materials. The methodology allows for the direct assembly of [AgaXb]n- clusters with commercial photographic color developer molecules, and we show that development is repressed but can later be 'switched on' in a unique photographic scheme. The photographic properties of Ag2Br6(PPD)2 are examined and show an extremely facile development rate owing

  7. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (<1.6 and 1.6-1.8 g cm(-3) ) and bulk soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tien Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

  9. Identification of locally available structural material as co-substrate for organic waste composting in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C; Heldt, N

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the lack in structural strength while composting certain kinds of organic wastes, 11 co-substrates were tested that are generally locally available in rural areas of northern Tamil Nadu, India. In addition to the classical composting parameters such as carbon/nitrogen ratio, moisture content, dry matter and organic dry matter, a compression test was conducted to evaluate the structural strength and the suitability as bulking agent for composting processes. Additionally, with respect to the climatic conditions in India, the water holding capacity was also evaluated. PMID:27126983

  10. Bimetallic nanoalloys in heterogeneous catalysis of industrially important reactions: synergistic effects and structural organization of active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review is concerned with correlations between the synergistic effects and structural organization of the surface of bimetallic alloys that are used as active components of catalysts for selective hydrogenation of organic compounds and for CO oxidation in hydrogen-rich mixtures. Studies on the preparation of novel highly efficient catalysts using modern theoretical approaches, computer-assisted molecular design and original synthetic procedures are considered. It is shown that introduction of the second metal into the monometallic catalyst and subsequent formation of alloy particles with modified structure of the surface and near-surface layers leads to nonadditive enhancement of catalytic activity and/or selectivity. The bibliography includes 203 references

  11. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this thesis was to apply the analytical methods of the scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures. With the imaging methods Z contrast and bright field (position resolutions in the subnanometer range) and especially with the possibilities of the quantitative chemical EELS analysis of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fundamental questions concerning morphology and chemical properties of self-organized quantum structures should be answered. By the high position resolution of the STEM among others essentail morphological and structural parameters in the growth behaviour of ''dot in a well'' (DWell) structures and of vertically correlated quantum dots (QDs) could be analyzed. For the optimization of DWell structures samples were studied, the nominal InAs-QD growth position was directedly varied within the embedding InGaAs quantum wells. The STEM offers in connection with the EELS method a large potential for the chemical analysis of quantum structures. Studied was a sample series of self-organized InGaAs/GaAs structures on GaAs substrate, the stress of which was changed by varying the Ga content of the INGaAs material between 2.4 % and 4.3 %

  12. Comparative organization of the claustrum: what does structure tell us about function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan S Baizer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is a subcortical nucleus present in all placental mammals. Many anatomical studies have shown that its inputs are predominantly from the cerebral cortex and its outputs are back to the cortex. This connectivity thus suggests that the claustrum serves to amplify or facilitate information processing in the cerebral cortex. The size and the complexity of the cerebral cortex change dramatically over evolution. Rodents are lissencephalic, with few cortical areas, while many primates have a greatly expanded cortex and many cortical areas. This evolutionary diversity in the cerebral cortex raises several questions about the claustrum. Does its volume expand in coordination with the expansion of cortex and does it acquire new functions related to the new cortical functions? We have examined the organization of the claustrum in animals with large brains, including great apes and cetaceans. Our data suggest that the claustrum is not always a continuous structure. In monkeys and gorillas there are a few isolated islands of cells near the main body of the nucleus. In cetaceans, however, there are many isolated cell islands. These data suggest constraints on the possible function of the claustrum. Some authors propose that the claustrum has a more global role in perception or consciousness that requires intraclaustral integration of information. These theories postulate mechanisms like gap junctions between claustral cells or a “syncytium” to mediate intraclaustral processing. The presence of discontinuities in the structure of the claustrum, present but minimal in primates, but dramatically clear in cetaceans, argues against the proposed mechanisms of intraclaustral processing of information. The best interpretation of function, then, is that each functional subdivision of the claustrum simply contributes to the function of its cortical partner.

  13. Structural measurements of polymer-fullerene blend films for organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delongchamp, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology has the potential to greatly lower the cost of solar cell fabrication by enabling ink-based deposition of active layers. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OPV devices, the power conversion efficiency critically depends on the distribution of the polymer absorber and the fullerene electron acceptor (e.g., the blend morphology). I will describe measurement methods to probe the structure of OPV devices, with a focus on the morphology of the BHJ layer. For example, the vertical distribution of absorber and electron acceptor in BHJ films follows segregation behavior similar to that of miscible polymer blends. The top (air) interface becomes rich in the polymer absorber, whereas the bottom interface composition depends on the substrate surface energy. Thin film transistors fabricated from BHJs can therefore exhibit ambipolar or hole-only transport depending on the dielectric, because of different interfacial segregation. We extend these results to practical photovoltaic devices by comparing BHJs cast upon hole transport layers that have similar work functions but different surface energies. This study includes the application of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) to BHJ films, and emphasizes the importance of absorber anisotropy and vertical heterogeneity in the optical model. Additional results will describe the nanometer-scale structure in the BHJ interior. The application of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) can reveal details about the segregation of absorber and acceptor in a BHJ film. Nanoscale BHJ morphology information can also be collected using tomographic transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Together these measurements allow us to reveal a detailed picture of BHJ morphology, explain how the morphology originates from materials and processing choices, and relate the morphology to device performance and stability.

  14. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship (QSAR) for the Oxidation of Trace Organic Contaminants by Sulfate Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruiyang; Ye, Tiantian; Wei, Zongsu; Luo, Shuang; Yang, Zhihui; Spinney, Richard

    2015-11-17

    The sulfate radical anion (SO4•–) based oxidation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) has recently received great attention due to its high reactivity and low selectivity. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to better understand the role of functional groups on the reactivity between SO4•– and TrOCs. The results indicate that compounds in which electron transfer and addition channels dominate tend to exhibit a faster second-order rate constants (kSO4•–) than that of H–atom abstraction, corroborating the SO4•– reactivity and mechanisms observed in the individual studies. Then, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed using a sequential approach with constitutional, geometrical, electrostatic, and quantum chemical descriptors. Two descriptors, ELUMO and EHOMO energy gap (ELUMO–EHOMO) and the ratio of oxygen atoms to carbon atoms (#O:C), were found to mechanistically and statistically affect kSO4•– to a great extent with the standardized QSAR model: ln kSO4•– = 26.8–3.97 × #O:C – 0.746 × (ELUMO–EHOMO). In addition, the correlation analysis indicates that there is no dominant reaction channel for SO4•– reactions with various structurally diverse compounds. Our QSAR model provides a robust predictive tool for estimating emerging micropollutants removal using SO4•– during wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26451961

  15. Efficient Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes for Application of Triplet Harvesting with Simple Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Kyo Min; Lee, Sungkyu; Yoo, Han Kyu; Baek, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jwajin; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on triplet harvesting with simple structure. All the hole transporting material and host in emitting layer (EML) of devices were utilized with same material by using N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1':4',1":4",1"'-quaterphenyl]-4,4"'-diamine (4P-NPD) which were known to be blue fluorescent material. Simple hybrid WOLEDs were fabricated three color with blue fluorescent and green, red phosphorescent materials. We was investigated the effect of triplet harvesting (TH) by exciton generation zone on simple hybrid WOLEDs. Characteristic of simple hybrid WOLEDs were dominant hole mobility, therefore exciton generation zone was expected in EML. Additionally, we was optimization thickness of hole transporting layer and electron transporting layer was fabricated a simple hybrid WOLEDs. Simple hybrid WOLED exhibits maximum luminous efficiency of 29.3 cd/A and maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.2%. Commission Internatio...

  16. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel organic optical crystal: 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Good quality crystals of 2-aminopyridinium trichloroacetate were grown for first time. → 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c. → 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate crystal exhibits third order nonlinear optical properties. → 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate is a low dielectric constant material. -- Abstract: 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate, a novel organic optical material has been synthesized and crystals were grown from aqueous solution employing the technique of controlled evaporation. 2-Aminopyridinium trichloroacetate crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c and the lattice parameters are a = 8.598(5) A, b = 11.336(2) A, c = 11.023(2) A, β = 102.83(1)o and volume = 1047.5(3) A3. High-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to analyze the structural perfection of the grown crystals. Thermal analysis shows a sharp endothermic peak at 124 oC due to melting reaction of 2-aminopyridinium trichloroacetate. UV-vis-NIR studies reveal that 2-aminopyridinium trichloroacetate has UV cutoff wavelength at 354 nm. Dielectric studies show that dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increasing frequency and finally it becomes almost a constant at higher frequencies for all temperatures. The negative nonlinear optical parameters of 2-aminopyridinium trichloroacetate were derived by the Z-scan technique.

  17. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Els M; Angelini, Christine; Govers, Laura L; Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Altieri, Andrew H; van der Reijden, Karin J; Silliman, Brian R; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Geest, Matthijs; van Gils, Jan A; van der Veer, Henk W; Piersma, Theunis; de Ruiter, Peter C; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-03-16

    The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity. PMID:26962135

  18. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks – Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  19. Structure and logical organization of current studies in track and field sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnik V.I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a system of assessment and prediction of technical skill athletes-athletes. Material : the study involved 450 athletes qualifications. Results : in the process of preparing members of the Ukrainian national team implemented a system of assessment of mental state. It includes: a set of informative indicators biomechanical laws and their changes; biomechanical model of motor actions; technology operational biomechanical modeling, changes in the functional state of the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle vestibulomotornoy system and speed- force readiness, evaluation and prediction of physical condition of athletes qualified. And complex pedagogical tests and scorecards. For the evaluation of the functional state of the autonomic nervous, cardiovascular system, external respiration system by analyzing the electrocardiogram, heart rate variability, the definition of autonomic balance, state of the myocardium, cardiac arrhythmias, spirometric studies, system performance evaluation of the athlete in extreme conditions by identifying the type and properties of temperament, level of personal anxiety and psychological evaluation reliability athletes. Conclusions : the structure and logical organization of modern studies of different primary focus, based on the assessment of technical skills, physical fitness, functional and mental state of highly skilled athletes.

  20. C60-dyad aggregates: Self-organized structures in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive full-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-organization of C60-fullerene dyad molecules in water, namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and fulleropyrrolidines, which have two elements of ordering, the hydrophobic fullerene cage and the hydrophilic/ionic group. While pristine fullerene or phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester forms spherical droplets in order to minimize the surface tension, the amphiphilic nature of charged solute molecules leads to the formation of supramolecular assemblies having cylindrical shape driven by charge repulsion between the ionic groups located on the surface of the aggregates. We show that formation of non-spherical micelles is the geometrical consequence if the fullerene derivatives are considered as surfactants where the ionized groups are only hydrophilic unit. The agglomeration behavior of fullerenes is evaluated by determining sizes of the clusters, solvent accessible surface areas, and shape parameters. By changing the size of the counterions from chloride over iodide to perchlorate we find a thickening of the cylinder-like structures which can be explained by stronger condensation of larger ions and thus partial screening of the charge repulsion on the cluster surface. The reason for the size dependence of counterion condensation is the formation of a stronger hydration shell in case of small ions which in turn are repelled from the fullerene aggregates. Simulations are also in good agreement with the experimentally observed morphologies of decorated C60-nanoparticles

  1. Bridging Between Proline Structure, Functions, Metabolism, and Involvement in Organism Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Yacoubi, Ines; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-08-01

    Much is now known about proline multifunctionality and metabolism; some aspects of its biological functions are still unclear. Here, we discuss some cases in the proline, structure, definition, metabolism, compartmentalization, accumulation, plausible functions and also its implication in homeostasis and organism physiology. Indeed, we report the role of proline in cellular homeostasis, including redox balance and energy status and their implication as biocatalyst for aldolase activity. Proline can act as a signaling molecule to modulate mitochondrial functions, influence cell proliferation or cell death, and trigger specific gene expression, which can be essential for plant recovery from stresses. Although, the regulation and the function of proline accumulation, during abiotic stresses, are not yet completely understood. The engineering of proline metabolism could lead to new opportunities to improve plant tolerance against environmental stresses. This atypical amino acid has a potential role in the toxicity during growth of some microorganism, vegetal, and mammalian species. Furthermore, we note that the purpose through the work is to provide a rich, concise, and mostly cohesive source on proline, considered as a platform and an anchor between several disciplines and biological functions. PMID:26100388

  2. Polymer-ultrathin graphite sheet-polymer composite structured flexible nonvolatile bistable organic memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ick; Park, Dong Hee; Choi, Won Kook [Future Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, PO Box 131, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Ho; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan [Division of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min; Park, Won Il, E-mail: wkchoi@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    We present data, which were obtained before bending and after bending, for the electrical bistabilities, memory stabilities, and memory mechanisms of three-layer structured flexible bistable organic memory (BOM) devices, which were fabricated utilizing the ultrathin graphite sheets (UGS) sandwiched between insulating poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) polymer layers. The UGS were formed by transferring UGS (about 30 layers) and using a simple spin-coating technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were performed to investigate the microstructural properties of the PMMA/UGS/PMMA films. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out to investigate the electrical properties of the BOM devices containing the UGS embedded in the PMMA polymer. Current-time (I-t) and current-cycle measurements under flat and bent conditions were performed to investigate the memory stabilities of the BOM devices. The memory characteristics of the BOM maintained similar device efficiencies after bending and were stable during repeated bendings of the BOM devices. The mechanisms for these characteristics of the fabricated BOM are described on the basis of the I-V results.

  3. Structural organization of large and very-large scales in turbulent pipe flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Jon; Adrian, Ronald; Wu, Xiaohua

    2012-11-01

    The physical structures of velocity are examined in a recent DNS of fully developed incompressible turbulent pipe flow at ReD = 24 580 (R+ = 684 . 8) with a periodic domain length of 30 pipe radii R (Wu, Baltzer, & Adrian, J. Fluid Mech., 2012). In this simulation, the long motions of negative velocity fluctuation correspond to large fractions of energy present at very long streamwise wavelengths (>= 3 R). We study how long motions are composed of smaller motions. We characterize the spatial arrangements of very large scale motions (VLSMs) and find that they possess dominant helix angles (azimuthal inclinations relative to streamwise) that are revealed by 2D and 3D two-point spatial correlations of velocity. The correlations also reveal that the shorter, large scale motions (LSMs) that concatenate to comprise the VLSMs are themselves more streamwise aligned. We show that the largest VLSMs possess a form similar to roll cells and that they appear to play an important role in organizing the flow, while smaller scales of motion are necessary to create the strong streaks of velocity fluctuation that characterize the flow. Supported by NSF Award CBET-0933848.

  4. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present. PMID:26329924

  5. A genome-wide survey of switchgrass genome structure and organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sharma

    Full Text Available The perennial grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., is a promising bioenergy crop and the target of whole genome sequencing. We constructed two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries from the AP13 clone of switchgrass to gain insight into the genome structure and organization, initiate functional and comparative genomic studies, and assist with genome assembly. Together representing 16 haploid genome equivalents of switchgrass, each library comprises 101,376 clones with average insert sizes of 144 (HindIII-generated and 110 kb (BstYI-generated. A total of 330,297 high quality BAC-end sequences (BES were generated, accounting for 263.2 Mbp (16.4% of the switchgrass genome. Analysis of the BES identified 279,099 known repetitive elements, >50,000 SSRs, and 2,528 novel repeat elements, named switchgrass repetitive elements (SREs. Comparative mapping of 47 full-length BAC sequences and 330K BES revealed high levels of synteny with the grass genomes sorghum, rice, maize, and Brachypodium. Our data indicate that the sorghum genome has retained larger microsyntenous regions with switchgrass besides high gene order conservation with rice. The resources generated in this effort will be useful for a broad range of applications.

  6. Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): preliminary psychometrics in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Barry L; Caligor, Eve; Clarkin, John F; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Horz, Susanne; MacCornack, Verna; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Kernberg, Otto F

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO), a semistructured interview designed for the dimensional assessment of identity, primitive defenses, and reality testing, the three primary content domains in the model of personality health and disorder elaborated by Kernberg (1984; Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Results of this investigation, conducted in a clinical sample representing a broad range of personality pathology, indicate that identity and primitive defenses as operationalized in the STIPO are internally consistent and that interrater reliability for all 3 content domains is adequate. Validity findings suggest that the assessment of one's sense of self and significant others (Identity) is predictive of measures of positive and negative affect, whereas the maladaptive ways in which the subject uses his or her objects for purposes of regulating one's self experience (Primitive Defenses) is predictive of measures of aggression and personality disorder traits associated with cluster B personality disorders. We discuss implications of these findings in terms of the theory-driven and trait-based assessment of personality pathology. PMID:20013454

  7. Structuring learning environments: Lessons from the organization of post-literacy programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter A.

    1989-12-01

    New conceptual and historical work on the nature of literacy and information on several bellwether post-literacy efforts in developing countries furnish a basis for diagnosing some of the deficiencies in current approaches to post-literacy programming. The key issue is the design of a `literate environment'. Heretofore attention has been concentrated too exclusively on the reading materials and continuing education side of the problem, and insufficient attention has been given to the more critical and difficult aspect: ensuring adequate opportunities for the application of new literate skills. The availability of these functional opportunities is closely related to the possibilities for accumulation and reinvestment of economic surplus in the environment, and to the way in which the related activities are organized. Literacy programs can unite skills relevant to management of local resources with strategies of cultural, political or religious revitalization that mobilize people to use their human resources. They therefore continue to offer an attractive means of initiating a reinvestment spiral from limited initial capital. To realize these potentials at the post-literacy stage, however, requires planning post-literacy before literacy, broadening programs to address primary school leavers as well, and paying greatly increased attention to the economic and social structure of the learning environment.

  8. Tillage-induced changes to soil structure and organic carbon fractions in New Zealand soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of increasing cropping and soil compaction on aggregate stability and dry-sieved aggregate-size distribution, and their relationship to total organic C (TOC) and the major functional groups of soil organic carbon, were investigated on 5 soils of contrasting mineralogy. All soils except the allophanic soil showed a significant decline in aggregate stability under medium- to long-term cropping. Mica-rich, fine-textured mineral and humic soils showed the greatest increase in the mean weight diameter (MWD) of dry aggregates, while the oxide-rich soils, and particularly the allophanic soils, showed only a slight increase in the MWD after long-term cropping. On conversion back to pasture, the aggregate stability of the mica-rich soils increased and the MWD of the aggregate-size distribution decreased, with the humic soil showing the greatest recovery. Aggregate stability and dry aggregate-size distribution patterns show that soil resistance to structural degradation and soil resilience increased from fine-textured to coarse-textured to humic mica-rich soils to oxide-rich soils to allophanic soils. Coarse- and fine-textured mica-rich and oxide-rich soils under pasture contained medium amounts of TOC, hot-water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), and acid hydrolysable carbohydrate (AHC), all of which declined significantly under cropping. The rate of decline varied with soil type in the initial years of cropping, but was similar under medium- and long-term cropping. TOC was high in the humic mica-rich and allophanic soils, and levels did not decline appreciably under medium- and long-term cropping. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance evidence also indicates that all major functional groups of soil organic carbon declined under cropping, with O-alkyl C and alkyl C showing the fastest and slowest rate of decline, respectively. On conversion back to pasture, both WSC and AHC returned to levels originally present under long-term pasture. TOC recovered to original pasture levels

  9. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yuankun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    rate due to microheterogeneity. Effect of TiO2 doping was also discussed. Stretched exponential analysis also generates calibration curves with higher sensitivity, which is preferred from the operational point of view. The work of enhanced integration was shown in chapter 7 with a polymer photodetector, which enables the preferred operation mode, decay time measurement, due to fast reponse (<20 μs). Device thickness was enlarged for maximum absorption of the PL, which was realized by slow spincoating rate and shorter spincoating time. Film prepared this way shows more crystalline order by Raman spectra, probably due to slow evaporation. This also ensures charge transport is not affected even with a thick film as indicated in the response time. Combination of OLEDs and polymer photodetectors present opportunities for solution processed all-organic sensors, which enables cheap processing at large scale. Future development can focus on monolithically integration of OLEDs and organic photodetectors (OPD) on the same substrate at a small scale, which could be enabled by inkjet printing. As OLED and OPD technologies continue to advance, small-sized, flexible and all-organic structurally integrated sensor platforms will become true in the near future.

  10. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-05-16

    microheterogeneity. Effect of TiO{sub 2} doping was also discussed. Stretched exponential analysis also generates calibration curves with higher sensitivity, which is preferred from the operational point of view. The work of enhanced integration was shown in chapter 7 with a polymer photodetector, which enables the preferred operation mode, decay time measurement, due to fast reponse (<20 {mu}s). Device thickness was enlarged for maximum absorption of the PL, which was realized by slow spincoating rate and shorter spincoating time. Film prepared this way shows more crystalline order by Raman spectra, probably due to slow evaporation. This also ensures charge transport is not affected even with a thick film as indicated in the response time. Combination of OLEDs and polymer photodetectors present opportunities for solution processed all-organic sensors, which enables cheap processing at large scale. Future development can focus on monolithically integration of OLEDs and organic photodetectors (OPD) on the same substrate at a small scale, which could be enabled by inkjet printing. As OLED and OPD technologies continue to advance, small-sized, flexible and all-organic structurally integrated sensor platforms will become true in the near future.

  11. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    doping was also discussed. Stretched exponential analysis also generates calibration curves with higher sensitivity, which is preferred from the operational point of view. The work of enhanced integration was shown in chapter 7 with a polymer photodetector, which enables the preferred operation mode, decay time measurement, due to fast reponse (<20 μs). Device thickness was enlarged for maximum absorption of the PL, which was realized by slow spincoating rate and shorter spincoating time. Film prepared this way shows more crystalline order by Raman spectra, probably due to slow evaporation. This also ensures charge transport is not affected even with a thick film as indicated in the response time. Combination of OLEDs and polymer photodetectors present opportunities for solution processed all-organic sensors, which enables cheap processing at large scale. Future development can focus on monolithically integration of OLEDs and organic photodetectors (OPD) on the same substrate at a small scale, which could be enabled by inkjet printing. As OLED and OPD technologies continue to advance, small-sized, flexible and all-organic structurally integrated sensor platforms will become true in the near future.

  12. Excited states structure and processes: Understanding organic light-emitting diodes at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo- or electro-excited states in polyatomic molecules, aggregates, and conjugated polymers are at the center of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These can decay radiatively or non-radiatively, determining the luminescence quantum efficiency of molecular materials. According to Kasha’s rule, light-emission is dictated by the lowest-lying excited state. For conjugated polymers, the electron correlation effect can lead the lowest-lying excited state to the even-parity 2Ag state which is non-emissive. To understand the nature of the low-lying excited state structure, we developed the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) theory and its symmetrization scheme for quantum chemistry applied to calculate the excited states structure. We found there are three types of 1Bu/2Ag crossover behaviors: with electron correlation strength U, with bond length alternation, and with conjugation length. These directly influence the light-emitting property. For the electro-excitation, carriers (electron and hole) are injected independently, forming both singlet and triplet excited bound states with statistically 25% and 75% portions, respectively. We found that the exciton formation rate can depend on spin manifold, and for conjugated polymers, the singlet exciton can have larger formation rate leading to the internal electroluminescence quantum efficiency larger than the 25% spin statistical limit. It is originated from the interchain electron correlation as well as intrachain lattice relaxation. For the dipole allowed emissive state, the radiative decay process via either spontaneous emission or stimulated emission can be computed from electronic structure plus vibronic couplings. The challenging issue lies in the non-radiative decay via non-adiabatic coupling and/or spin–orbit coupling. We developed a unified correlation function formalism for the excited state radiative and non-radiative decay rates. We emphasized the low-frequency mode mixing (Duschinsky rotation

  13. Furosemide's one little hydrogen atom: NMR crystallography structure verification of powdered molecular organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdifield, Cory M; Robson, Harry; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2016-05-10

    The potential of NMR crystallography to verify molecular crystal structures deposited in structural databases is evaluated, with two structures of the pharmaceutical furosemide serving as examples. While the structures differ in the placement of one H atom, using this approach, we verify one of the structures in the Cambridge Structural Database using quantitative tools, while establishing that the other structure does not meet the verification criteria. PMID:27115483

  14. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  15. Obligation for the reporting of events and internal organization structure for information of the authorities by the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligation of the utilities for the reporting of events to the authorities responsible for nuclear regulation and safety of the public is shown in this report. As an example the nuclear power plants of PreussenElektra Brokdorf and Stade are taken. The internal organization structure and the ways of communication to the authorities are discribed. Furthermore, the outlook and structure of the report which is used for alarm and information of the authorities is shown. (orig.)

  16. Influence of commercially available polyimide and formation conditions on the performance and structure of asymmetric polyimide organic solvent nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa

    2009-01-01

    This work covers experimental and theoretical research related to the impact of the polymer structure of commercially available polyimide and polyetherimides as well as the formation conditions on the performance and structure of polyimide Organic Solvent Nanofiltration membranes. The influence in some membrane formation parameters such as polymer choice, solvent system composition, chemical crosslinking, solubility, humidity and coagulation bath temperature on the performance of PI membra...

  17. Patterns of capital structure and dividend policy in Pakistani corporate sector and their impact on organization performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Bilal, Muhammad; Shafi, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Rehman, Kashif-Ur-

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the patterns of capital structure decisions and dividend policy as well as their level of application in Pakistani corporate sector and also to check the impact of capital structure and dividend policy on organization performance. A total of ninety one questionnaires were distributed in different companies but seventy three filled were received and sixty one were processed for the analysis. The potential respondents were finance executives and financi...

  18. The Impact of Structural Empowerment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior-Organization and Job Performance: A Mediating Role of Burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Jaffery; Hassan Farooq

    2015-01-01

    The banking sector employees are usually exposed to potential job burnout which impacts their employee performance. This study examined the impact of structural empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior-organization (henceforth, OCBO) and job performance and further examined the mediating effect of job burnout in the relationships of structural empowerment, OCBO and job performance. In this study, data from 282 employees was taken from four banks: both public and private sectors. Two...

  19. An Application of Self-Organizing Maps to Financial Structure Analysis of Keiretsu versus Non-Keiretsu Firms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Cheh; Evgeny A. Lapshin; Il-Woon Kim

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that keiretsu in Japan allows its member firms to maintain a financial structure different from that of non-keiretsu member firms. In this paper, we use two different types of financial statement ratio analysis techniques to discover whether Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) is able to uncover the differences in financial structures between keiretsu and non-keiretsu firms: ad hoc financial ratios and valuation-based financial ratios. We have found some evidence that SOM e...

  20. A First-Principles Study on the Structural and Electronic Properties of Sn-Based Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Qian; Pan, Hui; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have attracted increasing interest on solar-energy harvesting because of their outstanding electronic properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of Sn-based hybrid perovskites MASnX3 and FASnX3 (X = I, Br) based on density-functional-theory calculations. We find that their electronic properties strongly depend on the organic molecules, halide atoms, and structures. We show that there is a general rule to predict the band gap of the Sn-based hybrid perovskite: its band gap increases as the size of halide atom decreases as well as that of organic molecule increase. The band gap of high temperature phase (cubic structure) is smaller than that of low temperature phase (orthorhombic structure). The band gap of tetragonal structure (medium-temperature phase) may be larger or smaller than that of cubic phase, depending on the orientation of the molecule. Tunable band gap within a range of 0.73-1.53 eV can be achieved by choosing halide atom and organic molecule, and controlling structure. We further show that carrier effective mass also reduces as the size of halide atom increases and that of molecule decreases. By comparing with Pb-based hybrid perovskites, the Sn-based systems show enhanced visible-light absorption and carrier mobility due to narrowed band gap and reduced carrier effective mass. These Sn-based organic-inorganic halide perovskites may find applications in solar energy harvesting with improved performance.

  1. Probing Carrier Transport and Structure-Property Relationship of Highly Ordered Organic Semiconductors at the Two-Dimensional Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhan; Qiao, Jingsi; Gao, Si; Hu, Fengrui; He, Daowei; Wu, Bing; Yang, Ziyi; Xu, Bingchen; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Ji, Wei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min; Xu, Hangxun; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Xinran

    2016-01-01

    One of the basic assumptions in organic field-effect transistors, the most fundamental device unit in organic electronics, is that charge transport occurs two dimensionally in the first few molecular layers near the dielectric interface. Although the mobility of bulk organic semiconductors has increased dramatically, direct probing of intrinsic charge transport in the two-dimensional limit has not been possible due to excessive disorders and traps in ultrathin organic thin films. Here, highly ordered single-crystalline mono- to tetralayer pentacene crystals are realized by van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy on hexagonal BN. We find that the charge transport is dominated by hopping in the first conductive layer, but transforms to bandlike in subsequent layers. Such an abrupt phase transition is attributed to strong modulation of the molecular packing by interfacial vdW interactions, as corroborated by quantitative structural characterization and density functional theory calculations. The structural modulation becomes negligible beyond the second conductive layer, leading to a mobility saturation thickness of only ˜3 nm . Highly ordered organic ultrathin films provide a platform for new physics and device structures (such as heterostructures and quantum wells) that are not possible in conventional bulk crystals.

  2. Magnetic field-dependent electronic structures of low-dimensional organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, David E.

    Organic systems provide the opportunity to study physics in lower dimensions. Rather than interactions between atomic sites, organic systems are comprised of molecules with the general shape of flat bricks. The stacking of these bricks produces a wide variety of structures with equally diverse ground states. The tau-phase molecular conductors are comprised of the asymmetric DMEDT-TTF molecule. These donors are arranged into a grid-like pattern to create two-dimensional planes of high conductivity. Materials based on stacks of perylene (Per) donor molecules have a conductivity anisotropy which makes them effectively one-dimensional and therefore susceptible to lattice instabilities. Systematic studies of both materials are reported in this dissertation. The donor molecules of the tau-phase systems, tau-(P-(S,S)-DMEDT-TTF) 2(AuBr2)1+y and tau-(EDO-(S,S)-DMEDT-TTF) 2(AuBr2)1+y, only differ by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen yet measurements reveal vastly different results. Measurements of magnetoresistance reveal metallic character in increasing magnetic fields followed by a rapid transition to a bulk insulator, followed by a large hysteresis as the material returns to a metal as the field returns to zero. Comparison between the above mentioned systems for magnetization and pressure dependence suggest a weakly coupled lattice for the nitrogen-based material, which distorts in high fields. With transition temperatures of 8 K and 12 K for (Per)2Pt(mnt) 2 and (Per)2Au(mnt)2, respectively, readily available fields are capable of producing large changes in the low temperature, charge density wave (CDW) states of the systems. When the Au metal sites within the anion chains are replaced with Pt (S = ½), magnetism is introduced to the system. When (Per)2Pt(mnt)2 is subjected to increasing fields beyond ˜ 20 T, the conventional CDW is suppressed and a new density wave state is formed in high fields. Further measurements have been performed observing the change is the

  3. Drift-Diffusion Modeling of the Effects of Structural Disorder and Carrier Mobility on the Performance of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Benjamin Y.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    We probe the effects of structural disorder on the performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices via drift-diffusion modeling. We utilize ensembles of spatially disordered one-dimensional mobility profiles to approximate the three-dimensional structural disorder present in actual devices. Each replica in our ensemble approximates one high-conductivity pathway through the three-dimensional network(s) present in a polymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cell, so that the ensemble-averaged behavior provides a good approximation to a full three-dimensional structurally disordered device. Our calculations show that the short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency of simulated devices are all negatively impacted by the inclusion of structural disorder, but that the open-circuit voltage is nearly impervious to structural defects. This is in contrast to energetic disorder, where previous studies found that spatial variation in the energy in OPV active layers causes a decrease in the open-circuit voltage. We also show that structural disorder causes the greatest detriment to device performance for feature sizes between 2 and 10 nm. Since this is on the same length scale as the fullerene crystallites in experimental devices, it suggests both that controlling structural disorder is critical to the performance of OPV devices and that the effects of structural disorder should be included in future drift-diffusion modeling studies of organic solar cells.

  4. Determination of crystal structures by x-ray diffraction: applications to a lanthanide complex and a natural organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study fir determining crystal structures of the Ho (ReO sub(4)) sub(3) 4 TDTD 3 H sub(2) O complex and the natural organic compound C sub(14) H sub(16) O sub(6) by X-ray diffraction are presented. The experimental equipments are described in details. (M.C.K.)

  5. Structure and genome organization of AFV2, a novel archaeal lipothrixvirus with unusual terminal and core structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häring, Monika; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Brügger, Kim; Rachel, Reinhard; Garrett, Roger A; Prangishvili, David

    2005-01-01

    A novel filamentous virus, AFV2, from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus shows structural similarity to lipothrixviruses but differs from them in its unusual terminal and core structures. The double-stranded DNA genome contains 31,787 bp and carries eight open reading frames homologous...

  6. Synthesis,crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxyl-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  7. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Ifkovits

    Full Text Available Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus. The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS, with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA versus aligned (AL and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO. PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important

  8. Effects of aneuploidy on genome structure, expression, and interphase organization in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Huettel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy refers to losses and/or gains of individual chromosomes from the normal chromosome set. The resulting gene dosage imbalance has a noticeable affect on the phenotype, as illustrated by aneuploid syndromes, including Down syndrome in humans, and by human solid tumor cells, which are highly aneuploid. Although the phenotypic manifestations of aneuploidy are usually apparent, information about the underlying alterations in structure, expression, and interphase organization of unbalanced chromosome sets is still sparse. Plants generally tolerate aneuploidy better than animals, and, through colchicine treatment and breeding strategies, it is possible to obtain inbred sibling plants with different numbers of chromosomes. This possibility, combined with the genetic and genomics tools available for Arabidopsis thaliana, provides a powerful means to assess systematically the molecular and cytological consequences of aberrant numbers of specific chromosomes. Here, we report on the generation of Arabidopsis plants in which chromosome 5 is present in triplicate. We compare the global transcript profiles of normal diploids and chromosome 5 trisomics, and assess genome integrity using array comparative genome hybridization. We use live cell imaging to determine the interphase 3D arrangement of transgene-encoded fluorescent tags on chromosome 5 in trisomic and triploid plants. The results indicate that trisomy 5 disrupts gene expression throughout the genome and supports the production and/or retention of truncated copies of chromosome 5. Although trisomy 5 does not grossly distort the interphase arrangement of fluorescent-tagged sites on chromosome 5, it may somewhat enhance associations between transgene alleles. Our analysis reveals the complex genomic changes that can occur in aneuploids and underscores the importance of using multiple experimental approaches to investigate how chromosome numerical changes condition abnormal phenotypes and

  9. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  10. Organization and Finance of China's Health Sector: Historical Antecedents for Macroeconomic Structural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hilsenrath, Peter

    2016-01-01

    China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China's shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China's evolution, adding another layer of complexity to policy. PMID

  11. Structure-activity relationships to estimate the effective Henry's law coefficients of organics of atmospheric interest

    OpenAIRE

    Raventos-Duran, T.; M. Camredon; R. Valorso; B. Aumont

    2010-01-01

    The Henry's law coefficient is a key property needed to address the multiphase behaviour of organics in the atmosphere. Methods that can reliably predict the values for the vast number of organic compounds of atmospheric interest are therefore required. The effective Henry's law coefficient H* in air-water systems at 298 K was compiled from literature for 488 organic compounds bearing functional groups of atmospheric relevance. This data set was used to assess the reliabili...

  12. Structure-activity relationships to estimate the effective Henry's law constants of organics of atmospheric interest

    OpenAIRE

    Raventos-Duran, T.; M. Camredon; R. Valorso; C. Mouchel-Vallon; Aumont, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Henry's law constant is a key property needed to address the multiphase behaviour of organics in the atmosphere. Methods that can reliably predict the values for the vast number of organic compounds of atmospheric interest are therefore required. The effective Henry's law constant H* in air-water systems at 298 K was compiled from literature for 488 organic compounds bearing functional groups of atmospheric relevance. This data set was used to ass...

  13. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 2. Lubricatory capacity of the vomeronasal organ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan J Rehorek; Bruce T Firth; Mark N Hutchinson

    2000-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ is a poorly understood accessory olfactory organ, present in many tetrapods. In mammals, amphibians and lepidosaurian reptiles, it is an encapsulated structure with a central, fluid-filled lumen. The morphology of the lubricatory system of the vomeronasal organ (the source of this fluid) varies among classes, being either intrinsic (mammalian and caecilian amphibian vomeronasal glands) or extrinsic (anuran and urodele nasal glands). In the few squamate reptiles thus far examined, there are no submucosal vomeronasal glands. In this study, we examined the vomeronasal organs of several species of Australian squamates using histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques, with the goal of determining the morphology of the lubricatory system in the vomeronasal organ. Histochemically, the fluid within the vomeronasal organ of all squamates is mucoserous, though it is uncertain whether mucous and serous constituents constitute separate components. The vomeronasal organ produces few secretory granules intrinsically, implying an extrinsic source for the luminal fluid. Of three possible candidates, the Harderian gland is the most likely extrinsic source of this secretion.

  14. Study on organization transform of public organizations based on organization structure%基于组织结构的公共部门组织变革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朗峰; 伏玉林

    2013-01-01

    通过组织变革来提高组织收益是公共部门机构改革的重要课题.已有文献表明,因为无法描述组织的结构特征和公共事务的差异性,组织变革的研究正面临瓶颈.本文根据公共事务发生地区性和职能性特征,构建了描述公共事务多重多任务特征的概率模型,用于分析公共部门的组织结构特征,并从组织收益提高视角研究了组织变革.研究结果表明,基于公共部门组织结构进行的组织变革可以明显提高组织收益.相关结果可以为公共部门的机构改革提供组织变革方面的参考.%It' s an important subject for bureaucracy reform of public sectors to improve the organization' s gain through organizational structure change. Previous studies cannot give efficient methods for organization structure change because they cannot describe the organizational structure features and differences of public affairs. This paper described multiple & the multi-task features of public affairs, presented organizational structures of the public sector based on the probabilistic model, and optimized organizational structures by organizational gains. Mathematical analysis result shows that the organizations gains can be improved significantly based on the organizational structure change in the public sector. Results can be provided for reference to the organizational structure change for bureaucracy reform of public sector.

  15. Self-Organization of Temporal Structures — A Possible Solution for the Intervention Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lucadou, Walter

    2006-10-01

    -local correlations. The structure of the data, however, allows the conclusion, that all observed correlations can be considered as entanglement-correlations. The number of entanglement-correlations was significantly higher for the highly motivated group (data set 2) than for the unselected group of the exhibition participants (data set 3). The latter, however, where not completely unsuccessful: A subgroup who showed "innovative" behavior also showed significant entanglement-correlations. It could further be shown, that the structure of the matrix of entanglement-correlations is not stable in time and changes if the experiment is repeated. In comparison with previous correlation-experiments, no decline of the effect size was observed. These results are in agreement with the predictions of the "Weak Quantum Theory (WQT)" and the "Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI)". These models interpret the measured correlations as entanglement-correlations within a self-organizing, organizationally closed, psycho-physical system that exist during a certain time-interval (as long as the system is active). The entanglement-correlations cannot be considered as a causal influence (in the sense of a PK-Influence) and thus are called "micro-synchronicity". After a short introduction (1.), the question is discussed how non-local correlations can be created in psycho-physical systems (2.). In chapter (3.) the description of the experimental setting is given and the apparatus (4.) and randomness test of the random event generator (5.) are described. Additionally, an overview of the structure of the data is given (6.) and the analysis methods are described (7.). In chapter (8.) the experimental hypotheses are formulated and the results are reported (9.). After the discussion of the results (10.) the conclusions (11).) of the study are presented.

  16. White emission from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated that white emission can be obtained from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) based on a blue emitting layer (EML). The nano-structured TEOLEDs were fabricated on nano-patterned substrates, in which both optical micro-cavity and scattering effects occur simultaneously. Due to the combination of these two effects, the electroluminescence spectra of the nano-structured device with a blue EML exhibited not only blue but also yellow colours, which corresponded to the intrinsic emission of the EML and the resonant emission of the micro-cavity effect. Consequently, it was possible to produce white emission from nano-structured TEOLEDs without employing a multimode micro-cavity. The intrinsic emission wavelength can be varied by altering the dopant used for the EML. Furthermore, the emissive characteristics turned out to be strongly dependent on the nano-pattern sizes of the nano-structured devices. (paper)

  17. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  18. Capturing neon - the first experimental structure of neon trapped within a metal-organic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter A; Sarjeant, Amy A; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Ward, Suzanna C; Groom, Colin R

    2016-08-21

    Despite being the fifth most abundant element in the atmosphere, neon has never been observed in an organic or metal-organic environment. This study shows the adsorption of this highly unreactive element within such an environment and reveals the first crystallographic observation of an interaction between neon and a transition metal. PMID:27452474

  19. Designing HR Organizational Structures in terms of the HR Business Partner Model Principles from the Perspective of Czech Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stříteský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new trends related to the concepts contained in HR organizational structures within Czech organizations. In addition, it describes the specifics of the roles played by HR in those organizations which have transformed their HR departments in terms of the principles of the HR Business Partner Model, both in theory based on available resources, and at the practical level based on the results of primary examination. The goal of this paper is to present the key perceptions of the changes made in the HR structure within the organizations, as well as the impact of these changes on the effectiveness of the HR departments concerned. Another goal of the paper is to summarize the responsibilities of the newly created position known as the HR Business Partner in these organizations as well as the demands placed upon the personnel employed in the HR Business Partner role. The paper offers conclusions based on the results of both quantitative and qualitative surveys. It also contains a case study of one organization which has one of the best transformed HR departments, and whose services are classified, by internal clients, as being of high quality.

  20. Optical nonlinearity and structural phase-transition observation of organic dye-doped polymer silica hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Hou, Z; Liu, L; Xu, Z; Wang, W; Li, F; Ye, M

    1999-10-01

    The optical nonlinearity of organic dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-silica-gel hybrid material was investigated by second-harmonic-generation measurement. We found that incorporation of in situ polymerized solgel precursors into the organic dye-doped PMMA significantly improved the nonlinear optical stability of the system. However, improvement of thermal stability occurred only when a sufficient amount of silica gel was incorporated. A structural phase transition from pure polymer to a hybrid system was found near a 10-mol.% silica-gel concentration. The optimum polymer/tetraethoxysilane molar ratio is 2:1 to 1:1. PMID:18079805

  1. Comparison of Structural and Electrochemical Properties of V2O5 Thin Films Prepared by Organic/Inorganic Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium pentoxide thin films were produced from organic and inorganic precursors by sol gel dip-coating method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV Vis spectroscopy were made to figure out structural properties of the films. Electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The shape of the curves was in agreement with a typical diffusion controlled cyclic voltammograms of amorphous V2O5 films for a reversible lithium ion intercalation/deintercalation process showing yellow–green–blue multi-electrochromism. V2O5 films, synthesized from organic precursor, indicated lower band gap energy, higher charge capacity as well as homogeneous and low granule size compared to inorganic route

  2. Electronic structure of self-organized InAs/GaAs quantum dots bounded by {136} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments indicate that the shape of self-organized InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs [001] is an elongated pyramid with bounding facets corresponding to a family of four {136} planes. This structure, which possesses C2v symmetry, is quite different from square-base pyramidal or lens geometries, which have been assumed in previous electronic structure calculations for this system. In this paper, we consider theoretically the influence of the {136} shape on the electronic structure and optical properties of the quantum dots. We present a valence force-field calculation of the inhomogeneous strain and incorporate the results into an eight band k(vector sign)·p(vector sign) electronic structure calculation. The size dependence of the electronic structure is calculated and compared to experimental photoluminescence spectra. The effects of perturbations on the {136} shape are also considered. Calculations based on the {136} shape give good agreement with the observed level structure and optical polarization properties of self-organized InAs/GaAs quantum dots. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. The Impact of Structural Empowerment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior-Organization and Job Performance: A Mediating Role of Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Jaffery

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector employees are usually exposed to potential job burnout which impacts their employee performance. This study examined the impact of structural empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior-organization (henceforth, OCBO and job performance and further examined the mediating effect of job burnout in the relationships of structural empowerment, OCBO and job performance. In this study, data from 282 employees was taken from four banks: both public and private sectors. Two stage sampling technique was carried out to collect data. In the first stage probability cluster sampling and in the second stage convenience sampling was used. Different data analysis techniques like correlation, regression analysis, were used to test the four hypotheses of the study. Findings show that there are strong positive relationships of structural empowerment with OCBO and job performance. It has also proved that job burnout strongly mediates the relationship of structural empowerment and organizational citizenship-behavior (OCBO and weakly mediates the relationship between structural empowerment and job performance. The findings would help the HR executives of the organizations to formulate future development to combat the burnout and ensure effective overall performance of employees through structurally empowering them.

  4. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Huai Chen; Zhi-Jian Yao; Jiao-Long Qin; Rui Yan; Ling-Ling Hua; Qing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD).Moreover,the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear.This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients.Methods:The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls.The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed,and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory.Results:Compared with the healthy controls,the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology,but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found.Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions.Conclusions:All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients,including an impaired capability of local information processing,reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions.Thus,these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  5. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel luminescent 2D metal-organic framework, poly[aquaitaconatocalcium(II)] possessing an open framework structure with hydrophobic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Remya M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.; Prathapachandra Kurup, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    A novel 2D metal-organic framework poly[aquaitaconatocalcium(II)] with an open framework structure has been successfully grown by single gel diffusion technique. Sodium metasilicate was used for gel preparation. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c with hydrophobic 1D channels. The obtained crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The luminescent property of the complex was also discussed.

  6. Structurally integrated organic light emitting device-based sensors for gas phase and dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Ruth; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Shinar, Joseph

    2006-05-24

    A compact photoluminescence (PL)-based O2 sensor utilizing an organic light emitting device (OLED) as the light source is described. The sensor device is structurally integrated. That is, the sensing element and the light source, both typically thin films that are fabricated on separate glass substrates, are attached back-to-back. The sensing elements are based on the oxygen-sensitive dyes Pt- or Pd-octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP or PdOEP, respectively), which are embedded in a polystyrene (PS) matrix, or dissolved in solution. Their performance is compared to that of a sensing element based on tris(4,7-diphenyl-l,10-phenanthroline) Ru II (Ru(dpp)) embedded in a sol-gel film. A green OLED light source, based on tris(8-hydroxy quinoline Al (Alq3), was used to excite the porphyrin dyes; a blue OLED, based on 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylviny1)-1,1'-biphenyl, was used to excite the Ru(dpp)-based sensing element. The O2 level was monitored in the gas phase and in water, ethanol, and toluene solutions by measuring changes in the PL lifetime tau of the O2-sensitive dyes. The sensor performance was evaluated in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, gas flow rate, and temperature effect, including the temperature dependence of tau in pure Ar and O2 atmospheres. The dependence of the sensitivity on the preparation procedure of the sensing film and on the PS and dye concentrations in the sensing element, whether a solid matrix or solution, were also evaluated. Typical values of the detection sensitivity in the gas phase, S(g) identical with tau(0% O2)/tau(100% O2), at 23 degrees C, were approximately 35 to approximately 50 for the [Alq3 OLED[/[PtOEP dye] pair; S(g) exceeded 200 for the Alq3/PdOEP sensor. For dissolved oxygen (DO) in water and ethanol, S(DO) (defined as the ratio of tau in de-oxygenated and oxygen-saturated solutions) was approximately 9.5 and approximately 11, respectively, using the PtOEP-based film sensor. The oxygen level in toluene was measured with Pt

  7. THE STORY OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME IN NIGERIA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANIZED LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NWAGBARA, EUCHARIA NWABUGO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of achieving the set objectives of structural adjustment programme (SAP produced adverse social effects that put to question the sincerity of purpose of the SAP policy designers and implementers. To be able to generate conclusions concerning how the politics of enhancing the “well-being” of the people via SAP played out in the Nigerian society, in terms of how well the programme served the intended purpose, questions have to be asked, and responses elicited. Earlier attempts at appraising the SAP were geared toward examining the successes or failures of the adjusting countries in implementing the policies. Such appraisal gave rise to concern on the issue of good governance as a necessary and inevitable prerequisite of effective economic reform. At the same time, not much effort was made at ascertaining the social fallouts of the entire reform process. Even when the outburst of public outcry within the adjusting countries necessitated the recognition of the importance of the social dimension of SAP, little effort was made at understanding the problem from the perspective of the aggrieved populace. What we see is a proliferation of World Bank sponsored studies on the issue that hardly take cognizance of the people‟s feelings. Thus the findings of such studies cannot be said to be representative of the views of all the stakeholders. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining organized labour‟s/interest groups‟ response to SAP from the lens of the public sector workers and why they reacted the way they did toward the entire process. A sample of 357 respondents was randomly selected from university teachers, students and other public servants within Calabar metropolis. The findings, which were described in simple percentages, show significant relationship between economic hardship, repressive attitude of government, political uncertainty and interest groups‟ protests against SAP. The author recommends the provision of

  8. Management-induced Soil Structure Degradation: Organic Matter Depletion and Tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, B.D.; Munkholm, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Soil structure is an important element of soil quality since changes in structural characteristics can cause changes in the ability of soil to fulfil different functions and services. Emphasis in this chapter is placed on the role of soil structure in biological productivity of agroecosystems. Combinations of management practices in which the extent of the degradation of soil structure caused by one practice is balanced or exceeded by the extent of regeneration by other practices will help su...

  9. Conjugated organic framework with three-dimensionally ordered stable structure and delocalized π clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Long; Kaji, Toshihiko; Honsho, Yoshihito; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Kim, Jangbae; Saeki, Akinori; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Seki, Shu; Irle, Stephan; Hiramoto, Masahiro; Gao, Jia; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-11-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline organic porous materials that can utilize π-π-stacking interactions as a driving force for the crystallization of polygonal sheets to form layered frameworks and ordered pores. However, typical examples are chemically unstable and lack intrasheet π-conjugation, thereby significantly limiting their applications. Here we report a chemically stable, electronically conjugated organic framework with topologically designed wire frameworks and open nanochannels, in which the π conjugation-spans the two-dimensional sheets. Our framework permits inborn periodic ordering of conjugated chains in all three dimensions and exhibits a striking combination of properties: chemical stability, extended π-delocalization, ability to host guest molecules and hole mobility. We show that the π-conjugated organic framework is useful for high on-off ratio photoswitches and photovoltaic cells. Therefore, this strategy may constitute a step towards realizing ordered semiconducting porous materials for innovations based on two-dimensionally extended π systems.

  10. High Performance Work Systems as an Enabling Structure for Self-organized Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wallner; Martin Menrad

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Work Systems (HPWSs) as a new way of organizing work in general and of production work in particular provide an environment, where self-organized learning processes are enabled and fostered. In an extensive research project in 2 major Austrian manufacturing companies we currently investigate the applicability and the effects of HPWS including issues of learning and knowledge management. In this contribution we present the results of the first phase of this project discussing ...

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of a New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material:

    OpenAIRE

    Hela Ferjani; Habib Boughzala; Ahmed Driss

    2013-01-01

    The title compound is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation reveals that the studied compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca with the following lattice parameters:  (4) Å,  (3) Å,  (6) Å, and . The crystal lattice is composed of a discrete anion surrounded by piperazinium cations, chlorine anions, and water molecules. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between , , organic cations, and water molecules form a three...

  12. STRUCTURE, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF NI HYDROTALCITE AS SOLID BASE CATALYSTS FOR ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ATEEQ RAHMAN; Salem S. Al-Deyab

    2011-01-01

    Ni hydrotalcites with different kinds of metals, ions exhibit considerable activity for organic transformations. Various ratios of Ni-Al hydrotalcites are prepared by using different compositions are characterized by XRD, IR and TPR analysis. Carbonate in the brucite sheets is active for selective oxidation reactions. Upon calcination the dehydroxylation of the hydrotalcite and concurrent decomposition of the carbonate ions produce mixed oxides which exhibits activity for variety of organic t...

  13. Spatial variability of microbial richness and diversity and relationships with soil organic carbon, texture and structure across an agricultural field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Herath, Lasantha; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Silstrup Denmark, extends over 1.69 ha, and slopes 1–2° to the north. Soil samples for 454-pyrosequencing were extracted by pushing 50-mL sterilized plastic vials into the soil. Bulk soil samples were used for the measurement of pH, organic carbon, and soil texture. Intact 100 cm3 soil cores, collected in...... organic carbon nor clay content was significantly correlated with fungal richness and diversity indices. For soil structural parameters, soil water retention in the pF range 5–6.8 (parameter B) was significantly correlated with both bacterial and fungal Shannon diversities. Amount of macropores (> 30 μm......) and total porosity (ϕ) were only significantly correlated with fungal Shannon diversity. These results suggest that variation in microbial communities is not random but strongly related with variations in organic carbon, clay content, and soil water characteristics at the field scale....

  14. Layered inorganic-organic hybrid with talc-like structure for cation removal at the solid/liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badshah, Syed [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-20

    Graphical abstract: A lamellar inorganic-organic hybrid with talc-like structure has been synthesized through a single sol-gel step. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New silylating agent isolated from acrylamide includes basic centers attached to enlarged chain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamellar inorganic-organic talc-like structure has been synthesized through a single sol-gel step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High basal distance accommodates the pendant chain in the cavities only in inclined disposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pendant chain sorbs spontaneously and favorable cations as demonstrated by thermodynamic data. - Abstract: A new silylating agent N-((3-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylthio)propanamido)methyl)acrylamide synthesized from the reaction of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane yielded layered inorganic-organic talc-like magnesium phyllosilicate through the sol-gel process. Elemental analysis data based on sulfur demonstrated incorporation of 2.70 mmol g{sup -1} of organic moiety inside the lamellar cavities and the X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the talc-like structure with a basal distance of 2.11 nm. Infrared spectroscopy, {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si NMR in the solid state are in agreement with the presence of organic chains covalently bonded to the inorganic lamellar framework, as also supported by the presence of T{sup n} silicon species. Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur basic centers sorb divalent lead, copper and cobalt cations with maximum capacity of 5.30, 3.82 and 1.60 mmol g{sup -1}. The thermodynamic data for cation/basic center interactions at the solid/liquid interface were determined through calorimetric titration with exothermic enthalpy, negative Gibbs energy and positive entropy, as expected for spontaneous and favorable reaction conditions.

  15. Control of electrochemical signals from quantum dots conjugated to organic materials by using DNA structure in an analog logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yoo, Si-Youl; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Various bio-logic gates have been studied intensively to overcome the rigidity of single-function silicon-based logic devices arising from combinations of various gates. Here, a simple control tool using electrochemical signals from quantum dots (QDs) was constructed using DNA and organic materials for multiple logic functions. The electrochemical redox current generated from QDs was controlled by the DNA structure. DNA structure, in turn, was dependent on the components (organic materials) and the input signal (pH). Independent electrochemical signals from two different logic units containing QDs were merged into a single analog-type logic gate, which was controlled by two inputs. We applied this electrochemical biodevice to a simple logic system and achieved various logic functions from the controlled pH input sets. This could be further improved by choosing QDs, ionic conditions, or DNA sequences. This research provides a feasible method for fabricating an artificial intelligence system. PMID:27116705

  16. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF SELF-ORGANIZED STRUCTURE IN MICRO-PHASE SEPARATION OF NANO-SCALE FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexiang Tang; Wei Ge; Jinghai Li

    2004-01-01

    Self-organization in thin micro-films has shown potential for the production of microelements with specific structures and functions; however, little is known about its mechanism of formation. A 2-D molecular dynamics (MD)simulation on this process is carried out in this paper for films between two parallel walls (substrates) under different initial conditions. The films consist of two immiscible components (A and B). The simulation results in alternative columns perpendicular to the walls, which are rich either in A or in B molecules, respectively, apparently owing to their different interactions with the walls. The characteristic breadths of the columns depend on the distance between the two walls. By providing microscopic details of the self-organization processes and the resulted structures, MD simulation proves itself as a unique way for analyzing the dynamics of thin films.

  17. CONJUNCTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE POSITION OF NEWSPAPER HEADLINES AND THEIR COMMUNICATIVE ORGANIZATION (ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinina Elena Aleksandrovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The language of modern Arabic press is developing extensively, which manifests itself in the special syntactical structure of headlines. The article describes the communicative organization of conjunctive structures in the position of modern Arabic newspaper headlines. The academic novelty of the paper lies in the topic of Arabic newspaper headlines, which hasn’t received adequate scientific attention in native Arab studies yet. Besides, the conjunctive coordinating structures selected for research are analyzed not formally, but in the context of actual division of the sentence. The article considers the structural peculiarities of conjunctive headlines and the functions of word order, coordinating conjunction and punctuation marks in their communicative division. The results of the study show that Arabic conjunctive headlines have a multilevel communicative structure, where word order plays a big role in the formation of communicative organization of such constructions. A special emphasis is placed on the functions of punctuation marks in the delivery of non-verbal context of situation. The study of the examined phenomenon enables not only to clarify the peculiarities of syntactic models of Arabic coordinating headlines, but also makes a weighty contribution to the description of syntax of written texts in modern Arabic.

  18. CONJUNCTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE POSITION OF NEWSPAPER HEADLINES AND THEIR COMMUNICATIVE ORGANIZATION (ON THE BASIS OF ARABIC PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Александровна Сабинина

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The language of modern Arabic press is developing extensively, which manifests itself in the special syntactical structure of headlines. The article describes the communicative organization of conjunctive structures in the position of modern Arabic newspaper headlines. The academic novelty of the paper lies in the topic of Arabic newspaper headlines, which hasn’t received adequate scientific attention in native Arab studies yet. Besides, the conjunctive coordinating structures selected for research are analyzed not formally, but in the context of actual division of the sentence. The article considers the structural peculiarities of conjunctive headlines and the functions of word order, coordinating conjunction and punctuation marks in their communicative division. The results of the study show that Arabic conjunctive headlines have a multilevel communicative structure, where word order plays a big role in the formation of communicative organization of such constructions. A special emphasis is placed on the functions of punctuation marks in the delivery of non-verbal context of situation. The study of the examined phenomenon enables not only to clarify the peculiarities of syntactic models of Arabic coordinating headlines, but also makes a weighty contribution to the description of syntax of written texts in modern Arabic.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-31

  19. Optimal organization of structural analysis and site inspection for the seismic requalification of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis described in this report deals with a numerical procedure aimed at the assessment of a methodology for the optimal organization of data collection, in a contest of seismic requalification of structures and components of existing nuclear power stations (NPPs). The activity has been carried out in the frame of IAEA benchmark study for the seismic analysis of existing Nuclear Power Plants. This study starts from the assumption that seismic qualification of existing NPPs usually has to be carried out even in lack of sufficient data on structural behaviour and site conditions. In this framework, the organization of the analysis possibly requires a special approach, based on reliability analysis, able to give the distributions of dependent structural variables. This result can in fact be used in iterative updating of the analysis, leading at last at a required uncertainty target level for the structural evaluation. Therefore, the global uncertainty can be reduced by the reduction of the uncertainties of the variables that affect most the structural behaviour: the proposed procedure is able to drive this process in an optimal way. The analysis manager can therefore organize additional experimental inspections (for example in geotechnics, geophysics, structural behaviour)and data collections with the confidence of a minimum effort required for the prescribed target in terms of seismic safety. The procedure presented in this report has quite a general application following the general description is provided; therefore the example test has been chosen for the Paks NPP in Hungary, where a seismic requalification is in progress. To this aim, in the following specific reference will be made to the variables of interest for the on going job, namely: the probability distribution of some structural parameters, such as acceleration or shear force in critical points, giving a global overview on the reliability of structural calculations; the sensitivity coefficient

  20. Progress and perspectives of quantitative structure-activity relationships used for ecological risk assessment of toxic organic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingWen; LI XueHua; YU HaiYing; WANG YaNan; QIAO XianLiang

    2008-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), collec-tively referred to as (Q)SARs, play an important role in ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organic chemicals. (Q)SARs can fill the data gap for physical-chemical, environmental behavioral and ecotoxicological parameters of organic compounds; they can decrease experimental expenses and reduce the extent of experimental testing (especially animal testing); they can also be used to assess the uncertainty of the experimental data. With the development for several decades, (Q)SARs in envi-ronmental sciences show three features: application orientation, multidisciplinary integration, and in-telligence. Progress of (Q)SAR technology for ERA of toxic organic compounds, including endpoint selection and mathematic methods for establishing simple, transparent, easily interpretable and portable (Q)SAR models, is reviewed. The recent development on defining application domains and diagnosing outliers is summarized. Model characterization with respect to goodness-of-fit, stability and predictive power is specially presented. The purpose of the review is to promote the development of (Q)SARs orientated to ERA of organic chemicals.

  1. Synergetic effect of organic cores and inorganic shells for core/shell structured composite abrasives for chemical mechanical planarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy.jpu@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Li, Zhina [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Miao, Naiming [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213016 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • The damage-free polishing mechanism of core/shell composite abrasive was explored. • The organic core is help to decrease surface roughness and mechanical damages. • The inorganic shell is in favor of improving material removal rate. • The enhanced CMP behavior is due to the synergistic effect between core and shell. - Abstract: Core/shell structured organic/inorganic composite microspheres has an important potential application in efficient and damage-free chemical mechanical planarization/polishing (CMP) as a kind of novel abrasive due to its uniform non-rigid mechanical property. However, the synergistic effect of material removal between organic cores and inorganic shells of composite abrasives is ambiguous. In this work, oxide-CMP performances of various slurries, containing polystyrene (PS) spheres, solid abrasives (SiO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2}), mixed abrasives ((PS + SiO{sub 2}) or (PS + CeO{sub 2})), core/shell composites (PS/SiO{sub 2} or PS/CeO{sub 2}), were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Experiment results indicated that the surfaces polished by composite abrasives exhibited lower surface roughness, fewer scratches as well as lower topographical variations than those by other type of abrasives. The core/shell structure of composite abrasives plays an important role in improving CMP behavior. Moreover, the organic cores are mainly beneficial to decrease surface roughness and mechanical damages, and the inorganic shells are in favor of improving material removal rate.

  2. Synergetic effect of organic cores and inorganic shells for core/shell structured composite abrasives for chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The damage-free polishing mechanism of core/shell composite abrasive was explored. • The organic core is help to decrease surface roughness and mechanical damages. • The inorganic shell is in favor of improving material removal rate. • The enhanced CMP behavior is due to the synergistic effect between core and shell. - Abstract: Core/shell structured organic/inorganic composite microspheres has an important potential application in efficient and damage-free chemical mechanical planarization/polishing (CMP) as a kind of novel abrasive due to its uniform non-rigid mechanical property. However, the synergistic effect of material removal between organic cores and inorganic shells of composite abrasives is ambiguous. In this work, oxide-CMP performances of various slurries, containing polystyrene (PS) spheres, solid abrasives (SiO2 or CeO2), mixed abrasives ((PS + SiO2) or (PS + CeO2)), core/shell composites (PS/SiO2 or PS/CeO2), were investigated by atomic force microscopy. Experiment results indicated that the surfaces polished by composite abrasives exhibited lower surface roughness, fewer scratches as well as lower topographical variations than those by other type of abrasives. The core/shell structure of composite abrasives plays an important role in improving CMP behavior. Moreover, the organic cores are mainly beneficial to decrease surface roughness and mechanical damages, and the inorganic shells are in favor of improving material removal rate

  3. A comparative study of the structural organization of spheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone and glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sphere forming assays have been useful to enrich for stem like cells in a range of tumors. The robustness of this system contrasts the difficulties in defining a stem cell population based on cell surface markers. We have undertaken a study to describe the cellular and organizational composition of tumorspheres, directly comparing these to neurospheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone (SVZ). Primary cell cultures from brain tumors were found to contain variable fractions of cells positive for tumor stem cell markers (CD133 (2-93%)/SSEA1 (3-15%)/CXCR4 (1-72%)). All cultures produced tumors upon xenografting. Tumorspheres contained a heterogeneous population of cells, but were structurally organized with stem cell markers present at the core of spheres, with markers of more mature glial progenitors and astrocytes at more peripheral location. Ultrastructural studies showed that tumorspheres contained a higher fraction of electron dense cells in the core than the periphery (36% and 19%, respectively). Neurospheres also contained a heterogeneous cell population, but did not have an organization similar to tumorspheres. Although tumorspheres clearly display irregular and neoplastic cells, they establish an organized structure with an outward gradient of differentiation. We suggest that this organization is central in maintaining the tumor stem cell pool.

  4. Progress and perspectives of quantitative structure-activity relationships used for ecological risk assessment of toxic organic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), collec- tively referred to as (Q)SARs, play an important role in ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organic chemicals. (Q)SARs can fill the data gap for physical-chemical, environmental behavioral and ecotoxicological parameters of organic compounds; they can decrease experimental expenses and reduce the extent of experimental testing (especially animal testing); they can also be used to assess the uncertainty of the experimental data. With the development for several decades, (Q)SARs in envi- ronmental sciences show three features: application orientation, multidisciplinary integration, and in- telligence. Progress of (Q)SAR technology for ERA of toxic organic compounds, including endpoint selection and mathematic methods for establishing simple, transparent, easily interpretable and portable (Q)SAR models, is reviewed. The recent development on defining application domains and diagnosing outliers is summarized. Model characterization with respect to goodness-of-fit, stability and predictive power is specially presented. The purpose of the review is to promote the development of (Q)SARs orientated to ERA of organic chemicals.

  5. A comparative study of the structural organization of spheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone and glioblastoma biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland, E-mail: e.o.vik-mo@medisin.uio.no [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sandberg, Cecilie [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Joel, Mrinal [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Stangeland, Biljana [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Watanabe, Yasuhiro [Division of Neurology, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Mackay-Sim, Alan [National Centre for Adult Stem Cell Research, Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Moe, Morten Carstens [Center for Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Murrell, Wayne [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Langmoen, Iver Arne [Vilhelm Magnus Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-04-15

    Sphere forming assays have been useful to enrich for stem like cells in a range of tumors. The robustness of this system contrasts the difficulties in defining a stem cell population based on cell surface markers. We have undertaken a study to describe the cellular and organizational composition of tumorspheres, directly comparing these to neurospheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone (SVZ). Primary cell cultures from brain tumors were found to contain variable fractions of cells positive for tumor stem cell markers (CD133 (2-93%)/SSEA1 (3-15%)/CXCR4 (1-72%)). All cultures produced tumors upon xenografting. Tumorspheres contained a heterogeneous population of cells, but were structurally organized with stem cell markers present at the core of spheres, with markers of more mature glial progenitors and astrocytes at more peripheral location. Ultrastructural studies showed that tumorspheres contained a higher fraction of electron dense cells in the core than the periphery (36% and 19%, respectively). Neurospheres also contained a heterogeneous cell population, but did not have an organization similar to tumorspheres. Although tumorspheres clearly display irregular and neoplastic cells, they establish an organized structure with an outward gradient of differentiation. We suggest that this organization is central in maintaining the tumor stem cell pool.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with HKUST-1 structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Meike A; Schoch, Roland; Wolf, Silke; Bauer, Matthias; Kleist, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with the stoichiometric formula Cu2.75Ru0.25(BTC)2·xH2O, which is isoreticular to HKUST-1, was successfully prepared in a direct synthesis using mild reaction conditions. The partial substitution of Cu(2+) by Ru(3+) centers in the paddlewheel structure and the absence of other Ru-containing phases was proven using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. PMID:25518915

  7. Influence of variety and site on yield structure and quality of potatoes for processing to chips in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Tanja; Haase, Thorsten; Böhm, Herwart; Heß, Jürgen; Loges, Ralf; Haase, Norbert U.

    2005-01-01

    Specific conditions of organic farming are often limited nitrogen supply and – depending on the year - early occurrence of P. infestans. In addition, genetic (variety) and environmental (site, year) factors may have strong effects on both the yield and quality of tubers with regard to their suitability for processing. This study examined the impact of variety and site on the yield structure and quality of tubers for processing to chips at three sites over two years. According to the results, ...

  8. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of lanthanide-organic frameworks based benzene carboxylates with two/three-dimensional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers, {[Dy3(1,3-BDC)4(NO3)(phen)3]·2H2O}n (1), {[Dy2(1,3-BDC)3(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ln4(1,3-BDC)6(DMF)(H2O)4]·DMF·2H2O}n (Ln=Tb (3), Ho (4), Er (5), 1,3-H2BDC=1,3-benzenedicarboxylate, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), have been synthesized and characterized. In coordination polymer 1, each Dy3+ ion is connected to its neighboring Dy3+ ion through bridging carboxyl oxygen atoms of the 1,3-BDC2− ligands to form a new three-dimensional open-framework structure which the Schläfli symbol of {64·82}2{66}. In coordination polymer 2, center metal dysprosium ions are interlaced and connected through bridging carboxyl oxygen atoms to form an infinite helix chain. Two helix chains are linked through the 1,3-BDC2− ligand to give rise to the two-dimensional layered structure. Coordination polymers 3–5 are isomorphous, which displays a (3,4)-connected net with the point symbol of {42·63·8}{42·6}. The solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetimes of the Dy (1 and 2) and Tb (3) coordination polymers have been measured at room temperature. Highlights: ► Five lanthanide coordination polymers based on 1,3-H2BDC were obtained. ► The polymers were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. ► Coordination polymers 1–5 display different topological structures. ► They show characteristic emissions of lanthanide ions in the solid state.

  9. Optimizing The Organic/Inorganic Barrier Structure For Flexible Plastic Substrate Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chiuan Lin; Quoc-Khoa Le; Li-Wei Lai; Ren-Mao Liao; Ming-Shin Jeng; Day-Shan Liu

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered barrier structure stacked with organosilicon and silicon oxide (SiOx) films consecutively prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was developed to encapsulate flexible plastic substrate. The evolution on the residual internal stress, structural quality of the organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure as well as its adhesion to the substrate were found to correlate closely with the thickness of the inset organosilicon layer. Due to the signif...

  10. Mobilization and transport of soil colloids as influenced by texture, organic matter, and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    measure soil dispersibility. Soils for this project were sampled from a wide variety of fields from five countries across different moisture and temperature regimes, with different contents of clay and organic carbon, and subjected to different management practices. The use of laser diffraction in...... method gave a remarkably good correlation to basic soil parameters across all the investigated sites. The results indicate that the soil water, clay, and organic carbon contents are by far the most important drivers of colloid mobilization. The effect of management practices and cropping rotation was...... mainly seen as an impact on soil organic carbon. Results from the column leaching experiments from three sites likewise indicate that basic soil properties, such as the clay content, were the main drivers of colloid mobilization and transport. Effects of management and cropping system seemed secondary in...

  11. Soil structure and microbial activity dynamics in 20-month field-incubated organic-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per;

    2014-01-01

    to determine compressive strength. During incubation, the amount of WDC depended on soil carbon content while the trends correlated with moisture content. Organic amendment only yielded modest decreases (mean of 14% across all sampling times and soils) in WDC, but it was sufficient to stimulate the...... microbial community (65–100% increase in FDA). Incubation led to significant macroaggregate formation (>2 mm) for all soils. Friability and strength of newly-formed aggregates were negatively correlated with clay content and carbon content, respectively. Soil workability was best for the kaolinite-rich soil...... and poorest for the smectite-rich soil; for illitic soils, workability increased with increasing organic carbon content. Organic amendment decreased the compression susceptibility of intact, incubated samples at smaller stress values (<200 kPa)....

  12. Tissue phenotype depends on reciprocal interactions between the extracellular matrix and the structural organization of the nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelie' vre, S.A.; Weaver, V.M.; Nickerson, J.A.; Larabell, C.A.; Bhaumik, A.; Petersen, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-08-14

    What determines the nuclear organization within a cell and whether this organization itself can impose cellular function within a tissue remains unknown. To explore the relationship between nuclear organization and tissue architecture and function, we used a model of human mammary epithelial cell acinar morphogenesis. When cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), HMT-3522 cells form polarized and growth-arrested tissue-like acini with a central lumen and deposit an endogenous BM. We show that rBM-induced morphogenesis is accompanied by relocalization of the nuclear matrix proteins NuMA, splicing factor SRm160, and cell cycle regulator Rb. These proteins had distinct distribution patterns specific for proliferation, growth arrest, and acini formation, whereas the distribution of the nuclear lamina protein, lamin B, remained unchanged. NuMA relocalized to foci, which coalesced into larger assemblies as morphogenesis progressed. Perturbation of histone acetylation in the acini by trichostatin A treatment altered chromatin structure, disrupted NuMA foci, and induced cell proliferation. Moreover, treatment of transiently permeabilized acini with a NuMA antibody led to the disruption of NuMA foci, alteration of histone acetylation, activation of metalloproteases, and breakdown of the endogenous BM. These results experimentally demonstrate a dynamic interaction between the extracellular matrix, nuclear organization, and tissue phenotype. They further show that rather than passively ref lecting changes in gene expression, nuclear organization itself can modulate the cellular and tissue phenotype.

  13. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  14. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  15. Interfacial Structures and Properties of Organic Materials for Biosensors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of biosensors for bio-environmental monitoring have profound influences on medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications. This paper provides an overview on the background and applications of the state-of-the-art biosensors. Different types of biosensors are summarized and sensing mechanisms are discussed. A review of organic materials used in biosensors is given. Specifically, this review focuses on self-assembled monolayers (SAM due to their high sensitivity and high versatility. The kinetics, chemistry, and the immobilization strategies of biomolecules are discussed. Other representative organic materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and conductive polymers are also introduced in this review.

  16. High Performance Work Systems as an Enabling Structure for Self-organized Learning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wallner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Work Systems (HPWSs as a new way of organizing work in general and of production work in particular provide an environment, where self-organized learning processes are enabled and fostered. In an extensive research project in 2 major Austrian manufacturing companies we currently investigate the applicability and the effects of HPWS including issues of learning and knowledge management. In this contribution we present the results of the first phase of this project discussing early empirical findings of an exploratory nature.

  17. Optimizing The Organic/Inorganic Barrier Structure For Flexible Plastic Substrate Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiuan Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A multilayered barrier structure stacked with organosilicon and silicon oxide (SiOx films consecutively prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD was developed to encapsulate flexible plastic substrate. The evolution on the residual internal stress, structural quality of the organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure as well as its adhesion to the substrate were found to correlate closely with the thickness of the inset organosilicon layer. Due to the significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and SiOx film, the thickness of the organosilicon layer deposited onto the substrate and SiOx film thus was crucial to optimize the barrier property of the organosilicon/SiOx structure. The organosilicon/SiOx barrier structure possessed a lowest residual compressive stress and quality adhesion to the substrate was achieved from engineering the organosilicon layer thickness in the multilayered structure. The relaxation of the residual internal stress in the barrier structure led to a dense SiOx film as a consequence of the enhancement in the Si-O-Si networks and thereby resulted in the reduction of the water vapor permeation. Accordingly, a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR below 1 × 10-2 g/m2 /day being potential for the application on the flexible optoelectronic device packaging was achievable from the 3-pairs organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate.

  18. Hierarchical modular structure enhances the robustness of self-organized criticality in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most prominent architecture properties of neural networks in the brain is the hierarchical modular structure. How does the structure property constrain or improve brain function? It is thought that operating near criticality can be beneficial for brain function. Here, we find that networks with modular structure can extend the parameter region of coupling strength over which critical states are reached compared to non-modular networks. Moreover, we find that one aspect of network function—dynamical range—is highest for the same parameter region. Thus, hierarchical modularity enhances robustness of criticality as well as function. However, too much modularity constrains function by preventing the neural networks from reaching critical states, because the modular structure limits the spreading of avalanches. Our results suggest that the brain may take advantage of the hierarchical modular structure to attain criticality and enhanced function. (paper)

  19. Synthesis of Silicate Zeolite Analogues Using Organic Sulfonium Compounds as Structure-Directing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Changbum; Lee, Sungjune; Cho, Sung June; Ryoo, Ryong

    2015-10-19

    A microporous crystalline silica zeolite of the MEL structure type and three other zeolite analogues composed of germanosilicate frameworks were synthesized using tributylsulfonium, triphenylsulfonium, or tri(para-tolyl)sulfonium as the structure-directing agent. The germanosilicates thus obtained had ISV, ITT, or a new zeolite structure depending on the synthesis conditions. The structure of the new germanosilicate was solved using X-ray powder diffraction data with the aid of a charge-flipping method. The solution indicated a crystal structure belonging to the P63/mmc space group with cell parameters of a=16.2003 Å and c=21.8579 Å. After calcination, the new germanosilicate material exhibited two types of accessible micropores with diameters of 0.61 and 0.78 nm. PMID:26302889

  20. Structure, functions and interguild relationships of the soil nematode assemblage in organic vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abundance and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes were quantified during four of eight years of an intensive organic vegetable production system. Treatment variables included cover crop mixtures and frequency, and compost application rates. The abundances of bacterivore and fungivore nematode...