WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical named entity

  1. Deep learning with word embeddings improves biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maryam; Weber, Leon; Neves, Mariana; Wiegandt, David Luis; Leser, Ulf

    2017-07-15

    Text mining has become an important tool for biomedical research. The most fundamental text-mining task is the recognition of biomedical named entities (NER), such as genes, chemicals and diseases. Current NER methods rely on pre-defined features which try to capture the specific surface properties of entity types, properties of the typical local context, background knowledge, and linguistic information. State-of-the-art tools are entity-specific, as dictionaries and empirically optimal feature sets differ between entity types, which makes their development costly. Furthermore, features are often optimized for a specific gold standard corpus, which makes extrapolation of quality measures difficult. We show that a completely generic method based on deep learning and statistical word embeddings [called long short-term memory network-conditional random field (LSTM-CRF)] outperforms state-of-the-art entity-specific NER tools, and often by a large margin. To this end, we compared the performance of LSTM-CRF on 33 data sets covering five different entity classes with that of best-of-class NER tools and an entity-agnostic CRF implementation. On average, F1-score of LSTM-CRF is 5% above that of the baselines, mostly due to a sharp increase in recall. The source code for LSTM-CRF is available at https://github.com/glample/tagger and the links to the corpora are available at https://corposaurus.github.io/corpora/ . habibima@informatik.hu-berlin.de. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Evaluating word representation features in biomedical named entity recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks.

  3. Various criteria in the evaluation of biomedical named entity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu-Chun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text mining in the biomedical domain is receiving increasing attention. A key component of this process is named entity recognition (NER. Generally speaking, two annotated corpora, GENIA and GENETAG, are most frequently used for training and testing biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER systems. JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE are two major Bio-NER tasks using these corpora. Both tasks take different approaches to corpus annotation and use different matching criteria to evaluate system performance. This paper details these differences and describes alternative criteria. We then examine the impact of different criteria and annotation schemes on system performance by retesting systems participated in the above two tasks. Results To analyze the difference between JNLPBA's and BioCreAtIvE's evaluation, we conduct Experiment 1 to evaluate the top four JNLPBA systems using BioCreAtIvE's classification scheme. We then compare them with the top four BioCreAtIvE systems. Among them, three systems participated in both tasks, and each has an F-score lower on JNLPBA than on BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 2, we apply hypothesis testing and correlation coefficient to find alternatives to BioCreAtIvE's evaluation scheme. It shows that right-match and left-match criteria have no significant difference with BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 3, we propose a customized relaxed-match criterion that uses right match and merges JNLPBA's five NE classes into two, which achieves an F-score of 81.5%. In Experiment 4, we evaluate a range of five matching criteria from loose to strict on the top JNLPBA system and examine the percentage of false negatives. Our experiment gives the relative change in precision, recall and F-score as matching criteria are relaxed. Conclusion In many applications, biomedical NEs could have several acceptable tags, which might just differ in their left or right boundaries. However, most corpora annotate only one of them. In our

  4. MetaMap Lite in Excel: Biomedical Named-Entity Recognition for Non-Technical Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupatiraju, Ravi Teja; Fung, Kin Wah; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We developed an easy-to-use tool for non-technical biomedical researchers to conduct Named-Entity Recognition (NER) on biomedical text, in a familiar spreadsheet environment. The system is a simple, offline, easy to install, end-user front-end to the new MetaMap Lite. Early adopters found it to be a quick starting-point to incorporate NER in their investigations.

  5. Exploiting and assessing multi-source data for supervised biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Dieter; Laponogov, Ivan; Veselkov, Kirill

    2018-03-10

    Recognition of biomedical entities from scientific text is a critical component of natural language processing and automated information extraction platforms. Modern named entity recognition approaches rely heavily on supervised machine learning techniques, which are critically dependent on annotated training corpora. These approaches have been shown to perform well when trained and tested on the same source. However, in such scenario, the performance and evaluation of these models may be optimistic, as such models may not necessarily generalize to independent corpora, resulting in potential non-optimal entity recognition for large-scale tagging of widely diverse articles in databases such as PubMed. Here we aggregated published corpora for the recognition of biomolecular entities (such as genes, RNA, proteins, variants, drugs, and metabolites), identified entity class overlap and performed leave-corpus-out cross validation strategy to test the efficiency of existing models. We demonstrate that accuracies of models trained on individual corpora decrease substantially for recognition of the same biomolecular entity classes in independent corpora. This behavior is possibly due to limited generalizability of entity-class-related features captured by individual corpora (model "overtraining") which we investigated further at the orthographic level, as well as potential annotation standard differences. We show that the combined use of multi-source training corpora results in overall more generalizable models for named entity recognition, while achieving comparable individual performance. By performing learning-curve-based power analysis we further identified that performance is often not limited by the quantity of the annotated data. Compiled primary and secondary sources of the aggregated corpora are available on: https://github.com/dterg/biomedical_corpora/wiki and https://bitbucket.org/iAnalytica/bioner. kirill.veselkov04@imperial.ac.uk. Supplementary data are

  6. A method for named entity normalization in biomedical articles: application to diseases and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyejin; Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Hyunju

    2017-10-13

    In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations. However, the dictionaries are not comprehensive except for some entities such as genes. In recent years, biomedical articles have accumulated rapidly, and neural network-based algorithms that incorporate a large amount of unlabeled data have shown considerable success in several natural language processing problems. In this study, we propose an approach for normalizing biological entities, such as disease names and plant names, by using word embeddings to represent semantic spaces. For diseases, training data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) disease corpus and unlabeled data from PubMed abstracts were used to construct word representations. For plants, a training corpus that we manually constructed and unlabeled PubMed abstracts were used to represent word vectors. We showed that the proposed approach performed better than the use of only the training corpus or only the unlabeled data and showed that the normalization accuracy was improved by using our model even when the dictionaries were not comprehensive. We obtained F-scores of 0.808 and 0.690 for normalizing the NCBI disease corpus and manually constructed plant corpus, respectively. We further evaluated our approach using a data set in the disease normalization task of the BioCreative V challenge. When only the disease corpus was used as a dictionary, our approach significantly outperformed the best system of the task. The proposed approach shows robust

  7. A neural network multi-task learning approach to biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gamal; Pyysalo, Sampo; Chiu, Billy; Korhonen, Anna

    2017-08-15

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key task in biomedical text mining. Accurate NER systems require task-specific, manually-annotated datasets, which are expensive to develop and thus limited in size. Since such datasets contain related but different information, an interesting question is whether it might be possible to use them together to improve NER performance. To investigate this, we develop supervised, multi-task, convolutional neural network models and apply them to a large number of varied existing biomedical named entity datasets. Additionally, we investigated the effect of dataset size on performance in both single- and multi-task settings. We present a single-task model for NER, a Multi-output multi-task model and a Dependent multi-task model. We apply the three models to 15 biomedical datasets containing multiple named entities including Anatomy, Chemical, Disease, Gene/Protein and Species. Each dataset represent a task. The results from the single-task model and the multi-task models are then compared for evidence of benefits from Multi-task Learning. With the Multi-output multi-task model we observed an average F-score improvement of 0.8% when compared to the single-task model from an average baseline of 78.4%. Although there was a significant drop in performance on one dataset, performance improves significantly for five datasets by up to 6.3%. For the Dependent multi-task model we observed an average improvement of 0.4% when compared to the single-task model. There were no significant drops in performance on any dataset, and performance improves significantly for six datasets by up to 1.1%. The dataset size experiments found that as dataset size decreased, the multi-output model's performance increased compared to the single-task model's. Using 50, 25 and 10% of the training data resulted in an average drop of approximately 3.4, 8 and 16.7% respectively for the single-task model but approximately 0.2, 3.0 and 9.8% for the multi-task model. Our

  8. Using Ontology Fingerprints to disambiguate gene name entities in the biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guocai; Zhao, Jieyi; Cohen, Trevor; Tao, Cui; Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Hua; Bernstam, Elmer V; Lawson, Andrew; Zeng, Jia; Johnson, Amber M; Holla, Vijaykumar; Bailey, Ann M; Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Litzenburger, Beate; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Jim Zheng, W

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguous gene names in the biomedical literature are a barrier to accurate information extraction. To overcome this hurdle, we generated Ontology Fingerprints for selected genes that are relevant for personalized cancer therapy. These Ontology Fingerprints were used to evaluate the association between genes and biomedical literature to disambiguate gene names. We obtained 93.6% precision for the test gene set and 80.4% for the area under a receiver-operating characteristics curve for gene and article association. The core algorithm was implemented using a graphics processing unit-based MapReduce framework to handle big data and to improve performance. We conclude that Ontology Fingerprints can help disambiguate gene names mentioned in text and analyse the association between genes and articles. Database URL: http://www.ontologyfingerprint.org © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  10. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  11. NAMED ENTITY DISAMBIGUATION: A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HienT. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic annotation of named entities for enriching unstructured content is a critical step in development of Semantic Web and many Natural Language Processing applications. To this end, this paper addresses the named entity disambiguation problem that aims at detecting entity mentions in a text and then linking them to entries in a knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method, combining heuristics and statistics, for named entity disambiguation. The novelty is that the disambiguation process is incremental and includes several rounds that filter the candidate referents, by exploiting previously identified entities and extending the text by those entity attributes every time they are successfully resolved in a round. Experiments are conducted to evaluate and show the advantages of the proposed method. The experiment results show that our approach achieves high accuracy and can be used to construct a robust entity disambiguation system.

  12. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  13. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  14. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  15. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no

  16. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  17. Entity recognition in the biomedical domain using a hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaldella, Marco; Furrer, Lenz; Tasso, Carlo; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-11-09

    This article describes a high-recall, high-precision approach for the extraction of biomedical entities from scientific articles. The approach uses a two-stage pipeline, combining a dictionary-based entity recognizer with a machine-learning classifier. First, the OGER entity recognizer, which has a bias towards high recall, annotates the terms that appear in selected domain ontologies. Subsequently, the Distiller framework uses this information as a feature for a machine learning algorithm to select the relevant entities only. For this step, we compare two different supervised machine-learning algorithms: Conditional Random Fields and Neural Networks. In an in-domain evaluation using the CRAFT corpus, we test the performance of the combined systems when recognizing chemicals, cell types, cellular components, biological processes, molecular functions, organisms, proteins, and biological sequences. Our best system combines dictionary-based candidate generation with Neural-Network-based filtering. It achieves an overall precision of 86% at a recall of 60% on the named entity recognition task, and a precision of 51% at a recall of 49% on the concept recognition task. These results are to our knowledge the best reported so far in this particular task.

  18. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V.Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Named entity recognition in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying occurrences of words or expressions as belonging to a particular category of a Named Entity (NE).The aim of the project was to test the feasibility of a probabilistic NER system using...

  20. Medical Named Entity Recognition for Indonesian Language Using Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arief

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, Named Entity Recognition (NER) system is used in medical texts to obtain important medical information, like diseases, symptoms, and drugs. While most NER systems are applied to formal medical texts, informal ones like those from social media (also called semi-formal texts) are starting to get recognition as a gold mine for medical information. We propose a theoretical Named Entity Recognition (NER) model for semi-formal medical texts in our medical knowledge management system by comparing two kinds of word representations: cluster-based word representation and distributed representation.

  1. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  2. Pair Hidden Markov Model for Named Entity Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabende, P.; Tiedemann, J.; Nerbonne, J.; Sobh, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a pair-Hidden Markov Model (pair-HMM) for the task of evaluating the similarity between bilingual named entities. The pair-HMM is adapted from Mackay and Kondrak [1] who used it on the task of cognate identification and was later adapted by Wieling et al. [5] for Dutch dialect

  3. Untangling the brand name from the branded entity

    OpenAIRE

    Round, Griff; Roper, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this study is to investigate the value to consumers of the brand name element for established brands, given that the focus in the literature has been on new brands. To accomplish this, conceptual development was initially undertaken to illuminate the links between the brand name element and the brand entity and to provide a theoretical framework for looking at changes in value of the brand name element to consumers over time.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud –...

  4. A transition-based joint model for disease named entity recognition and normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yinxia; Zhang, Yue; Qian, Tao; Li, Fei; Xiong, Shufeng; Ji, Donghong

    2017-08-01

    Disease named entities play a central role in many areas of biomedical research, and automatic recognition and normalization of such entities have received increasing attention in biomedical research communities. Existing methods typically used pipeline models with two independent phases: (i) a disease named entity recognition (DER) system is used to find the boundaries of mentions in text and (ii) a disease named entity normalization (DEN) system is used to connect the mentions recognized to concepts in a controlled vocabulary. The main problems of such models are: (i) there is error propagation from DER to DEN and (ii) DEN is useful for DER, but pipeline models cannot utilize this. We propose a transition-based model to jointly perform disease named entity recognition and normalization, casting the output construction process into an incremental state transition process, learning sequences of transition actions globally, which correspond to joint structural outputs. Beam search and online structured learning are used, with learning being designed to guide search. Compared with the only existing method for joint DEN and DER, our method allows non-local features to be used, which significantly improves the accuracies. We evaluate our model on two corpora: the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) corpus and the NCBI disease corpus. Experiments show that our joint framework achieves significantly higher performances compared to competitive pipeline baselines. Our method compares favourably to other state-of-the-art approaches. Data and code are available at https://github.com/louyinxia/jointRN. dhji@whu.edu.cn. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Active learning for ontological event extraction incorporating named entity recognition and unknown word handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Kim, Jung-jae; Kwoh, Chee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining may target various kinds of valuable information embedded in the literature, but a critical obstacle to the extension of the mining targets is the cost of manual construction of labeled data, which are required for state-of-the-art supervised learning systems. Active learning is to choose the most informative documents for the supervised learning in order to reduce the amount of required manual annotations. Previous works of active learning, however, focused on the tasks of entity recognition and protein-protein interactions, but not on event extraction tasks for multiple event types. They also did not consider the evidence of event participants, which might be a clue for the presence of events in unlabeled documents. Moreover, the confidence scores of events produced by event extraction systems are not reliable for ranking documents in terms of informativity for supervised learning. We here propose a novel committee-based active learning method that supports multi-event extraction tasks and employs a new statistical method for informativity estimation instead of using the confidence scores from event extraction systems. Our method is based on a committee of two systems as follows: We first employ an event extraction system to filter potential false negatives among unlabeled documents, from which the system does not extract any event. We then develop a statistical method to rank the potential false negatives of unlabeled documents 1) by using a language model that measures the probabilities of the expression of multiple events in documents and 2) by using a named entity recognition system that locates the named entities that can be event arguments (e.g. proteins). The proposed method further deals with unknown words in test data by using word similarity measures. We also apply our active learning method for the task of named entity recognition. We evaluate the proposed method against the BioNLP Shared Tasks datasets, and show that our method

  6. A Chinese Named Entity Recognition System with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity recognition (NER is a typical sequential labeling problem that plays an important role in natural language processing (NLP systems. In this paper, we discussed the details of applying a comprehensive model aggregating neural networks and conditional random field (CRF on Chinese NER tasks, and how to discovery character level features when implement a NER system in word level. We compared the difference between Chinese and English when modeling the character embeddings. We developed a NER system based on our analysis, it works well on the ACE 2004 and SIGHAN bakeoff 2006 MSRA dataset, and doesn’t rely on any gazetteers or handcraft features. We obtained F1 score of 82.3% on MSRA 2006.

  7. BEST: Next-Generation Biomedical Entity Search Tool for Knowledge Discovery from Biomedical Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwon Lee

    Full Text Available As the volume of publications rapidly increases, searching for relevant information from the literature becomes more challenging. To complement standard search engines such as PubMed, it is desirable to have an advanced search tool that directly returns relevant biomedical entities such as targets, drugs, and mutations rather than a long list of articles. Some existing tools submit a query to PubMed and process retrieved abstracts to extract information at query time, resulting in a slow response time and limited coverage of only a fraction of the PubMed corpus. Other tools preprocess the PubMed corpus to speed up the response time; however, they are not constantly updated, and thus produce outdated results. Further, most existing tools cannot process sophisticated queries such as searches for mutations that co-occur with query terms in the literature. To address these problems, we introduce BEST, a biomedical entity search tool. BEST returns, as a result, a list of 10 different types of biomedical entities including genes, diseases, drugs, targets, transcription factors, miRNAs, and mutations that are relevant to a user's query. To the best of our knowledge, BEST is the only system that processes free text queries and returns up-to-date results in real time including mutation information in the results. BEST is freely accessible at http://best.korea.ac.kr.

  8. CheNER: a tool for the identification of chemical entities and their classes in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usié, Anabel; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Small chemical molecules regulate biological processes at the molecular level. Those molecules are often involved in causing or treating pathological states. Automatically identifying such molecules in biomedical text is difficult due to both, the diverse morphology of chemical names and the alternative types of nomenclature that are simultaneously used to describe them. To address these issues, the last BioCreAtIvE challenge proposed a CHEMDNER task, which is a Named Entity Recognition (NER) challenge that aims at labelling different types of chemical names in biomedical text. To address this challenge we tested various approaches to recognizing chemical entities in biomedical documents. These approaches range from linear Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to a combination of CRFs with regular expression and dictionary matching, followed by a post-processing step to tag those chemical names in a corpus of Medline abstracts. We named our best performing systems CheNER. We evaluate the performance of the various approaches using the F-score statistics. Higher F-scores indicate better performance. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying unique chemical entities is 72.88%. The highest F-score we obtain in identifying all chemical entities is 73.07%. We also evaluate the F-Score of combining our system with ChemSpot, and find an increase from 72.88% to 73.83%. CheNER presents a valid alternative for automated annotation of chemical entities in biomedical documents. In addition, CheNER may be used to derive new features to train newer methods for tagging chemical entities. CheNER can be downloaded from http://metres.udl.cat and included in text annotation pipelines.

  9. 10 CFR 300.3 - Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. 300... PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.3 Guidance for defining and naming the reporting entity. (a) A reporting... under any Federal, State or local law or regulation. If a reporting entity is composed of more than one...

  10. Incorporating rich background knowledge for gene named entity classification and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene named entity classification and recognition are crucial preliminary steps of text mining in biomedical literature. Machine learning based methods have been used in this area with great success. In most state-of-the-art systems, elaborately designed lexical features, such as words, n-grams, and morphology patterns, have played a central part. However, this type of feature tends to cause extreme sparseness in feature space. As a result, out-of-vocabulary (OOV terms in the training data are not modeled well due to lack of information. Results We propose a general framework for gene named entity representation, called feature coupling generalization (FCG. The basic idea is to generate higher level features using term frequency and co-occurrence information of highly indicative features in huge amount of unlabeled data. We examine its performance in a named entity classification task, which is designed to remove non-gene entries in a large dictionary derived from online resources. The results show that new features generated by FCG outperform lexical features by 5.97 F-score and 10.85 for OOV terms. Also in this framework each extension yields significant improvements and the sparse lexical features can be transformed into both a lower dimensional and more informative representation. A forward maximum match method based on the refined dictionary produces an F-score of 86.2 on BioCreative 2 GM test set. Then we combined the dictionary with a conditional random field (CRF based gene mention tagger, achieving an F-score of 89.05, which improves the performance of the CRF-based tagger by 4.46 with little impact on the efficiency of the recognition system. A demo of the NER system is available at http://202.118.75.18:8080/bioner.

  11. Evaluation of Named Entity Recognition in Dutch online criminal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, M.P.; Brinkhuis, M.J.S.; Bex, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility for citizens to submit crime reports and criminal complaints online is becoming ever more common, especially for cyber- and internet-related crimes such as phishing and online trade fraud. Such user-submitted crime reports contain references to entities of interest, such as the

  12. Evaluation of Named Entity Recognition in Dutch Online Criminal Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, M.P.; Brinkhuis, M.J.S.; Bex, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility for citizens to submit crime reports and criminal complaints online is becoming ever more common, especially for cyber- and internet-related crimes such as phishing and online trade fraud. Such user-submitted crime reports contain references to entities of interest, such as the

  13. TwitterNEED: a hybrid approach for named entity extraction and disambiguation for tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    Twitter is a rich source of continuously and instantly updated information. Shortness and informality of tweets are challenges for Natural Language Processing tasks. In this paper, we present TwitterNEED, a hybrid approach for Named Entity Extraction and Named Entity Disambiguation for tweets. We

  14. Named entity recognition and resolution for literary studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; de Does, Jesse; Marx, Maarten; Sijaranamual, Isaac; Depuydt, Katrien; Verheij, Boukje; Geirnaert, Valentijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the project Namescape: Mapping the Landscape of Names in Modern Dutch Literature, funded by CLARIN-NL. The background of the project is research in literary onomastics, the study of the usage and functions of proper names in literary (i.e. ctional) texts. The two main tasks for

  15. Named Entity Recognition and Resolution for Literary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.; de Does, J.; Marx, M.; Sijaranamual, I.; Depuydt, K.; Verheij, B.; Geirnaert, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the project Namescape: Mapping the Landscape of Names in Modern Dutch Literature, funded by CLARIN-NL. The background of the project is research in literary onomastics, the study of the usage and functions of proper names in literary (i.e. fictional) texts. The two main tasks

  16. Named Entity Recognition in a Hungarian NL Based QA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkl, Domonkos; Szidarovszky, P. Ferenc; Kardkovacs, Zsolt T.; Magyar, Gábor

    In WoW project our purpose is to create a complex search interface with the following features: search in the deep web content of contracted partners' databases, processing Hungarian natural language (NL) questions and transforming them to SQL queries for database access, image search supported by a visual thesaurus that describes in a structural form the visual content of images (also in Hungarian). This paper primarily focuses on a particular problem of question processing task: the entity recognition. Before going into details we give a short overview of the project's aims.

  17. Assessment of disease named entity recognition on a corpus of annotated sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlanga Rafael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the recognition of semantic types from the biomedical scientific literature has been focused on named entities like protein and gene names (PGNs and gene ontology terms (GO terms. Other semantic types like diseases have not received the same level of attention. Different solutions have been proposed to identify disease named entities in the scientific literature. While matching the terminology with language patterns suffers from low recall (e.g., Whatizit other solutions make use of morpho-syntactic features to better cover the full scope of terminological variability (e.g., MetaMap. Currently, MetaMap that is provided from the National Library of Medicine (NLM is the state of the art solution for the annotation of concepts from UMLS (Unified Medical Language System in the literature. Nonetheless, its performance has not yet been assessed on an annotated corpus. In addition, little effort has been invested so far to generate an annotated dataset that links disease entities in text to disease entries in a database, thesaurus or ontology and that could serve as a gold standard to benchmark text mining solutions. Results As part of our research work, we have taken a corpus that has been delivered in the past for the identification of associations of genes to diseases based on the UMLS Metathesaurus and we have reprocessed and re-annotated the corpus. We have gathered annotations for disease entities from two curators, analyzed their disagreement (0.51 in the kappa-statistic and composed a single annotated corpus for public use. Thereafter, three solutions for disease named entity recognition including MetaMap have been applied to the corpus to automatically annotate it with UMLS Metathesaurus concepts. The resulting annotations have been benchmarked to compare their performance. Conclusions The annotated corpus is publicly available at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/textmining/corpora/diseases and can serve as

  18. Assessment of disease named entity recognition on a corpus of annotated sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Antonio; Jimenez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Lee, Vivian; Gaudan, Sylvain; Berlanga, Rafael; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2008-04-11

    In recent years, the recognition of semantic types from the biomedical scientific literature has been focused on named entities like protein and gene names (PGNs) and gene ontology terms (GO terms). Other semantic types like diseases have not received the same level of attention. Different solutions have been proposed to identify disease named entities in the scientific literature. While matching the terminology with language patterns suffers from low recall (e.g., Whatizit) other solutions make use of morpho-syntactic features to better cover the full scope of terminological variability (e.g., MetaMap). Currently, MetaMap that is provided from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the state of the art solution for the annotation of concepts from UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) in the literature. Nonetheless, its performance has not yet been assessed on an annotated corpus. In addition, little effort has been invested so far to generate an annotated dataset that links disease entities in text to disease entries in a database, thesaurus or ontology and that could serve as a gold standard to benchmark text mining solutions. As part of our research work, we have taken a corpus that has been delivered in the past for the identification of associations of genes to diseases based on the UMLS Metathesaurus and we have reprocessed and re-annotated the corpus. We have gathered annotations for disease entities from two curators, analyzed their disagreement (0.51 in the kappa-statistic) and composed a single annotated corpus for public use. Thereafter, three solutions for disease named entity recognition including MetaMap have been applied to the corpus to automatically annotate it with UMLS Metathesaurus concepts. The resulting annotations have been benchmarked to compare their performance. The annotated corpus is publicly available at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/textmining/corpora/diseases and can serve as a benchmark to other systems. In addition, we found

  19. Supporting inter-topic entity search for biomedical Linked Data based on heterogeneous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Nansu; Lee, Sungin; Ahn, Jinhyun; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2017-08-01

    The keyword-based entity search restricts search space based on the preference of search. When given keywords and preferences are not related to the same biomedical topic, existing biomedical Linked Data search engines fail to deliver satisfactory results. This research aims to tackle this issue by supporting an inter-topic search-improving search with inputs, keywords and preferences, under different topics. This study developed an effective algorithm in which the relations between biomedical entities were used in tandem with a keyword-based entity search, Siren. The algorithm, PERank, which is an adaptation of Personalized PageRank (PPR), uses a pair of input: (1) search preferences, and (2) entities from a keyword-based entity search with a keyword query, to formalize the search results on-the-fly based on the index of the precomputed Individual Personalized PageRank Vectors (IPPVs). Our experiments were performed over ten linked life datasets for two query sets, one with keyword-preference topic correspondence (intra-topic search), and the other without (inter-topic search). The experiments showed that the proposed method achieved better search results, for example a 14% increase in precision for the inter-topic search than the baseline keyword-based search engine. The proposed method improved the keyword-based biomedical entity search by supporting the inter-topic search without affecting the intra-topic search based on the relations between different entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Attention-based BiLSTM-CRF Approach to Document-level Chemical Named Entity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling; Yang, Zhihao; Yang, Pei; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Lei; Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2017-11-24

    In biomedical research, chemical is an important class of entities, and chemical named entity recognition (NER) is an important task in the field of biomedical information extraction. However, most popular chemical NER methods are based on traditional machine learning and their performances are heavily dependent on the feature engineering. Moreover, these methods are sentence-level ones which have the tagging non-consistency problem. In this paper, we propose a neural network approach, i.e., attention-based bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory with a conditional random field layer (Att-BiLSTM-CRF), to document-level chemical NER. The approach leverages document-level global information obtained by attention mechanism to enforce tagging consistency across multiple instances of the same token in a document. It achieves better performances with little feature engineering than other state-of-the-art methods on the BioCreative IV chemical compound and drug name recognition (CHEMDNER) corpus and the BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) task corpus (the F-scores of 91.14% and 92.57%, respectively). Data and code are available at https://github.com/lingluodlut/Att-ChemdNER. yangzh@dlut.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Graph-structured Conditional Random Fields for Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yotaro; Asahara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yuji

    This paper presents a method for categorizing named entities in Wikipedia. In Wikipedia, an anchor text is glossed in a linked HTML text. We formalize named entity categorization as a task of categorizing anchor texts with linked HTML texts which glosses a named entity. Using this representation, we introduce a graph structure in which anchor texts are regarded as nodes. In order to incorporate HTML structure on the graph, three types of cliques are defined based on the HTML tree structure. We propose a method with Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to categorize the nodes on the graph. Since the defined graph may include cycles, the exact inference of CRFs is computationally expensive. We introduce an approximate inference method using Tree-based Reparameterization (TRP) to reduce computational cost. In experiments, our proposed model obtained significant improvements compare to baseline models that use Support Vector Machines.

  2. Named-Entity Tagging a Very Large Unbalanced Corpus. Training and Evaluating NE classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Haider, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We describe a systematic and application-oriented approach to training and evaluating named entity recognition and classification (NERC) systems, the purpose of which is to identify an optimal system and to train an optimal model for named entity tagging DeReKo, a very large general-purpose corpus...... of contemporary German (Kupietz et al., 2010). DeReKo 's strong dispersion wrt. genre, register and time forces us to base our decision for a specific NERC system on an evaluation performed on a representative sample of DeReKo instead of performance figures that have been reported for the individual NERC systems...

  3. Named Entity Extraction and Linking Challenge: University of Twente at #Microposts2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice; Zhu, Zhemin; Rowe, Matthew; Stankovic, Milan; Dadzie, Aba-Sah

    Twitter is a potentially rich source of continuously and instantly updated information. Shortness and informality of tweets are challenges for Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach for Named Entity Extraction (NEE)and Linking (NEL) for tweets. Although

  4. Discovery of Predicate-Oriented Relations among Named Entities Extracted from Thai Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.

  5. A Novel Approach for Protein-Named Entity Recognition and Protein-Protein Interaction Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers focus on developing protein-named entity recognition (Protein-NER or PPI extraction systems. However, the studies about these two topics cannot be merged well; then existing PPI extraction systems’ Protein-NER still needs to improve. In this paper, we developed the protein-protein interaction extraction system named PPIMiner based on Support Vector Machine (SVM and parsing tree. PPIMiner consists of three main models: natural language processing (NLP model, Protein-NER model, and PPI discovery model. The Protein-NER model, which is named ProNER, identifies the protein names based on two methods: dictionary-based method and machine learning-based method. ProNER is capable of identifying more proteins than dictionary-based Protein-NER model in other existing systems. The final discovered PPIs extracted via PPI discovery model are represented in detail because we showed the protein interaction types and the occurrence frequency through two different methods. In the experiments, the result shows that the performances achieved by our ProNER and PPI discovery model are better than other existing tools. PPIMiner applied this protein-named entity recognition approach and parsing tree based PPI extraction method to improve the performance of PPI extraction. We also provide an easy-to-use interface to access PPIs database and an online system for PPIs extraction and Protein-NER.

  6. Optimising chemical named entity recognition with pre-processing analytics, knowledge-rich features and heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Navarro, Riza; Rak, Rafal; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    The development of robust methods for chemical named entity recognition, a challenging natural language processing task, was previously hindered by the lack of publicly available, large-scale, gold standard corpora. The recent public release of a large chemical entity-annotated corpus as a resource for the CHEMDNER track of the Fourth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation (BioCreative IV) workshop greatly alleviated this problem and allowed us to develop a conditional random fields-based chemical entity recogniser. In order to optimise its performance, we introduced customisations in various aspects of our solution. These include the selection of specialised pre-processing analytics, the incorporation of chemistry knowledge-rich features in the training and application of the statistical model, and the addition of post-processing rules. Our evaluation shows that optimal performance is obtained when our customisations are integrated into the chemical entity recogniser. When its performance is compared with that of state-of-the-art methods, under comparable experimental settings, our solution achieves competitive advantage. We also show that our recogniser that uses a model trained on the CHEMDNER corpus is suitable for recognising names in a wide range of corpora, consistently outperforming two popular chemical NER tools. The contributions resulting from this work are two-fold. Firstly, we present the details of a chemical entity recognition methodology that has demonstrated performance at a competitive, if not superior, level as that of state-of-the-art methods. Secondly, the developed suite of solutions has been made publicly available as a configurable workflow in the interoperable text mining workbench Argo. This allows interested users to conveniently apply and evaluate our solutions in the context of other chemical text mining tasks.

  7. REDEN: Named Entity Linking in Digital Literary Editions Using Linked Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Brando

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a graph-based Named Entity Linking (NEL algorithm named REDEN for the disambiguation of authors’ names in French literary criticism texts and scientific essays from the 19th and early 20th centuries. The algorithm is described and evaluated according to the two phases of NEL as reported in current state of the art, namely, candidate retrieval and candidate selection. REDEN leverages knowledge from different Linked Data sources in order to select candidates for each author mention, subsequently crawls data from other Linked Data sets using equivalence links (e.g., owl:sameAs, and, finally, fuses graphs of homologous individuals into a non-redundant graph well-suited for graph centrality calculation; the resulting graph is used for choosing the best referent. The REDEN algorithm is distributed in open-source and follows current standards in digital editions (TEI and semantic Web (RDF. Its integration into an editorial workflow of digital editions in Digital humanities and cultural heritage projects is entirely plausible. Experiments are conducted along with the corresponding error analysis in order to test our approach and to help us to study the weaknesses and strengths of our algorithm, thereby to further improvements of REDEN.

  8. Improving Biochemical Named Entity Recognition Using PSO Classifier Selection and Bayesian Combination Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkasi, Abbas; Varoglu, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a basic step for large number of consequent text mining tasks in the biochemical domain. Increasing the performance of such recognition systems is of high importance and always poses a challenge. In this study, a new community based decision making system is proposed which aims at increasing the efficiency of NER systems in the chemical/drug name context. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is chosen as the expert selection strategy along with the Bayesian combination method to merge the outputs of the selected classifiers as well as evaluate the fitness of the selected candidates. The proposed system performs in two steps. The first step focuses on creating various numbers of baseline classifiers for NER with different features sets using the Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). The second step involves the selection and efficient combination of the classifiers using PSO and Bayesisan combination. Two comprehensive corpora from BioCreative events, namely ChemDNER and CEMP, are used for the experiments conducted. Results show that the ensemble of classifiers selected by means of the proposed approach perform better than the single best classifier as well as ensembles formed using other popular selection/combination strategies for both corpora. Furthermore, the proposed method outperforms the best performing system at the Biocreative IV ChemDNER track by achieving an F-score of 87.95 percent.

  9. Annotating patient clinical records with syntactic chunks and named entities: the Harvey Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savkov, Aleksandar; Carroll, John; Koeling, Rob; Cassell, Jackie

    The free text notes typed by physicians during patient consultations contain valuable information for the study of disease and treatment. These notes are difficult to process by existing natural language analysis tools since they are highly telegraphic (omitting many words), and contain many spelling mistakes, inconsistencies in punctuation, and non-standard word order. To support information extraction and classification tasks over such text, we describe a de-identified corpus of free text notes, a shallow syntactic and named entity annotation scheme for this kind of text, and an approach to training domain specialists with no linguistic background to annotate the text. Finally, we present a statistical chunking system for such clinical text with a stable learning rate and good accuracy, indicating that the manual annotation is consistent and that the annotation scheme is tractable for machine learning.

  10. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  11. Adapting Web content for low-literacy readers by using lexical elaboration and named entities labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, W. M.; Candido, A.; Amâncio, M. A.; De Oliveira, M.; Pardo, T. A. S.; Fortes, R. P. M.; Aluísio, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for assisting low-literacy readers in accessing Web online information. The "Educational FACILITA" tool is a Web content adaptation tool that provides innovative features and follows more intuitive interaction models regarding accessibility concerns. Especially, we propose an interaction model and a Web application that explore the natural language processing tasks of lexical elaboration and named entity labeling for improving Web accessibility. We report on the results obtained from a pilot study on usability analysis carried out with low-literacy users. The preliminary results show that "Educational FACILITA" improves the comprehension of text elements, although the assistance mechanisms might also confuse users when word sense ambiguity is introduced, by gathering, for a complex word, a list of synonyms with multiple meanings. This fact evokes a future solution in which the correct sense for a complex word in a sentence is identified, solving this pervasive characteristic of natural languages. The pilot study also identified that experienced computer users find the tool to be more useful than novice computer users do.

  12. A study of active learning methods for named entity recognition in clinical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Lasko, Thomas A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Named entity recognition (NER), a sequential labeling task, is one of the fundamental tasks for building clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Machine learning (ML) based approaches can achieve good performance, but they often require large amounts of annotated samples, which are expensive to build due to the requirement of domain experts in annotation. Active learning (AL), a sample selection approach integrated with supervised ML, aims to minimize the annotation cost while maximizing the performance of ML-based models. In this study, our goal was to develop and evaluate both existing and new AL methods for a clinical NER task to identify concepts of medical problems, treatments, and lab tests from the clinical notes. Using the annotated NER corpus from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP challenge that contained 349 clinical documents with 20,423 unique sentences, we simulated AL experiments using a number of existing and novel algorithms in three different categories including uncertainty-based, diversity-based, and baseline sampling strategies. They were compared with the passive learning that uses random sampling. Learning curves that plot performance of the NER model against the estimated annotation cost (based on number of sentences or words in the training set) were generated to evaluate different active learning and the passive learning methods and the area under the learning curve (ALC) score was computed. Based on the learning curves of F-measure vs. number of sentences, uncertainty sampling algorithms outperformed all other methods in ALC. Most diversity-based methods also performed better than random sampling in ALC. To achieve an F-measure of 0.80, the best method based on uncertainty sampling could save 66% annotations in sentences, as compared to random sampling. For the learning curves of F-measure vs. number of words, uncertainty sampling methods again outperformed all other methods in ALC. To achieve 0.80 in F-measure, in comparison to random

  13. Life Sciences—Life Writing: PTSD as a Transdisciplinary Entity between Biomedical Explanation and Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W. Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, the life sciences have become one of the dominant explanatory models for almost every aspect of human life. Hand in hand with biomedical developments and technologies, the life sciences are constantly shaping and reshaping human lives and changing human biographies in manifold ways. The orientation towards life sciences and biomedicine from the very beginning to the end of human life is driven by the utopian notion that all forms of contingency could be technologically and medically controlled. This paper addresses the interrelatedness of life sciences and human biographies in a field where contingency and risk become essential and existential parts of lived experience: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. On the one hand, this diagnostic entity is related to (neuro-biological underpinnings of (a lack of psychic resilience as well as to those of contemporary pharmacotherapy. On the other hand, PTSD is also understood as based on a traumatic life event, which can be accessed through and addressed by talk therapy, particularly narrative exposure therapy (NET. We argue that a novel focus on concepts of narrativity will generate pathways for an interdisciplinary understanding of PTSD by linking biological underpinnings from neurobiological findings, to brain metabolism and pharmacotherapy via the interface of psychotherapy and the specific role of narratives to the lived experience of patients and vice versa. The goal of our study is to demonstrate why therapies such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy are successful in controlling the disease burden of PTSD to some extent, but the restitutio ad integrum, the reestablishing of the bodily and psychic integrity remains out of reach for most PTSD patients. As a test case, we discuss the complementary methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and the established procedures of talk therapy (NET to show how a methodological focus on narratives enhanced by

  14. "That thing in New York": Impaired naming vs. preserved recognition of unique entities following an anterior temporal lobe lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Anterior temporal lobe (aTL damage often results in semantic impairment. As such, the contribution of this region to semantic processing has received considerable attention. Two theories exist to explain aTL function based on conflicting neuropsychological investigations. The first proposes bilateral aTLs form a “hub” implicated in multimodal semantics (for review see: Jefferies, 2013. The second assumes distinct functions. The left is thought to function as a repertoire for knowledge of entities with unique lexical-conceptual associations (for review: Ross & Olson, 2012. These items represent an extreme end of a continuum of semantic specificity spanning unique (e.g., Eiffel Tower over less specific (e.g., tower to nonspecific (e.g., landmark – often denoted by famous faces, landmarks and proper names. LaTL function, therefore, is to link semantics to language systems for naming, whilst RaTL is involved in familiarity and recognition (e.g., Eiffel Tower -> a building in Paris; Drane et al., 2013. Evidence for each theory has proceeded in parallel but there has been no attempt to directly test them in a patient (Simmons & Martin, 2009. The novelty of this study, therefore, was to determine whether LaTL lesions disproportionately affect unique entity naming vs. recognition. Method WRP, a 51year old right-handed male, three year post-HSVE has a LaTL lesion with destruction of the temporal pole, extending to medial temporal, amygdala and hippocampus and atypical connectivity particularly involving the uncinate fasciculas. There is no evidence of either cortical or white matter damage in the right hemisphere. Previous work with WRP revealed a mild/moderate category-specific semantic deficit (Roberts et al., 2012. This new study focuses on unique entity picture naming, recognition and word-to-picture matching (WPM. Results & Discussion As predicted, results (Table 1 show that WRP was severely impaired in naming different categories

  15. OrganismTagger: detection, normalization and grounding of organism entities in biomedical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Nona; Kappler, Thomas; Baker, Christopher J O; Witte, René

    2011-10-01

    Semantic tagging of organism mentions in full-text articles is an important part of literature mining and semantic enrichment solutions. Tagged organism mentions also play a pivotal role in disambiguating other entities in a text, such as proteins. A high-precision organism tagging system must be able to detect the numerous forms of organism mentions, including common names as well as the traditional taxonomic groups: genus, species and strains. In addition, such a system must resolve abbreviations and acronyms, assign the scientific name and if possible link the detected mention to the NCBI Taxonomy database for further semantic queries and literature navigation. We present the OrganismTagger, a hybrid rule-based/machine learning system to extract organism mentions from the literature. It includes tools for automatically generating lexical and ontological resources from a copy of the NCBI Taxonomy database, thereby facilitating system updates by end users. Its novel ontology-based resources can also be reused in other semantic mining and linked data tasks. Each detected organism mention is normalized to a canonical name through the resolution of acronyms and abbreviations and subsequently grounded with an NCBI Taxonomy database ID. In particular, our system combines a novel machine-learning approach with rule-based and lexical methods for detecting strain mentions in documents. On our manually annotated OT corpus, the OrganismTagger achieves a precision of 95%, a recall of 94% and a grounding accuracy of 97.5%. On the manually annotated corpus of Linnaeus-100, the results show a precision of 99%, recall of 97% and grounding accuracy of 97.4%. The OrganismTagger, including supporting tools, resources, training data and manual annotations, as well as end user and developer documentation, is freely available under an open-source license at http://www.semanticsoftware.info/organism-tagger. witte@semanticsoftware.info.

  16. Case Study of Named Entity Recognition in Odia Using Crf++ Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Rakesh ch. Balabantaray; Suprava Das; Kshirabdhi Tanaya Mishra

    2013-01-01

    NER have been regarded as an efficient strategy to extract relevant entities for various purposes. The aim of this paper is to exploit conventional method for NER in Odia by parameterizing CRF++ tool in different ways. As a case study, we have used gazetteer and POS tag to generate different feature set in order to compare the performance of NER task. Comparison study demonstrates how proposed NER system works on different feature set.

  17. Semantic representation of scientific literature: bringing claims, contributions and named entities onto the Linked Open Data cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Sateli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Finding relevant scientific literature is one of the essential tasks researchers are facing on a daily basis. Digital libraries and web information retrieval techniques provide rapid access to a vast amount of scientific literature. However, no further automated support is available that would enable fine-grained access to the knowledge ‘stored’ in these documents. The emerging domain of Semantic Publishing aims at making scientific knowledge accessible to both humans and machines, by adding semantic annotations to content, such as a publication’s contributions, methods, or application domains. However, despite the promises of better knowledge access, the manual annotation of existing research literature is prohibitively expensive for wide-spread adoption. We argue that a novel combination of three distinct methods can significantly advance this vision in a fully-automated way: (i Natural Language Processing (NLP for Rhetorical Entity (RE detection; (ii Named Entity (NE recognition based on the Linked Open Data (LOD cloud; and (iii automatic knowledge base construction for both NEs and REs using semantic web ontologies that interconnect entities in documents with the machine-readable LOD cloud.Results. We present a complete workflow to transform scientific literature into a semantic knowledge base, based on the W3C standards RDF and RDFS. A text mining pipeline, implemented based on the GATE framework, automatically extracts rhetorical entities of type Claims and Contributions from full-text scientific literature. These REs are further enriched with named entities, represented as URIs to the linked open data cloud, by integrating the DBpedia Spotlight tool into our workflow. Text mining results are stored in a knowledge base through a flexible export process that provides for a dynamic mapping of semantic annotations to LOD vocabularies through rules stored in the knowledge base. We created a gold standard corpus from computer

  18. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  19. A New Data Representation Based on Training Data Characteristics to Extract Drug Name Entity in Medical Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaruddin, T.

    2016-01-01

    One essential task in information extraction from the medical corpus is drug name recognition. Compared with text sources come from other domains, the medical text mining poses more challenges, for example, more unstructured text, the fast growing of new terms addition, a wide range of name variation for the same drug, the lack of labeled dataset sources and external knowledge, and the multiple token representations for a single drug name. Although many approaches have been proposed to overwhelm the task, some problems remained with poor F-score performance (less than 0.75). This paper presents a new treatment in data representation techniques to overcome some of those challenges. We propose three data representation techniques based on the characteristics of word distribution and word similarities as a result of word embedding training. The first technique is evaluated with the standard NN model, that is, MLP. The second technique involves two deep network classifiers, that is, DBN and SAE. The third technique represents the sentence as a sequence that is evaluated with a recurrent NN model, that is, LSTM. In extracting the drug name entities, the third technique gives the best F-score performance compared to the state of the art, with its average F-score being 0.8645. PMID:27843447

  20. Recurrent neural networks with specialized word embeddings for health-domain named-entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi Unanue, Iñigo; Zare Borzeshi, Ehsan; Piccardi, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Previous state-of-the-art systems on Drug Name Recognition (DNR) and Clinical Concept Extraction (CCE) have focused on a combination of text "feature engineering" and conventional machine learning algorithms such as conditional random fields and support vector machines. However, developing good features is inherently heavily time-consuming. Conversely, more modern machine learning approaches such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have proved capable of automatically learning effective features from either random assignments or automated word "embeddings". (i) To create a highly accurate DNR and CCE system that avoids conventional, time-consuming feature engineering. (ii) To create richer, more specialized word embeddings by using health domain datasets such as MIMIC-III. (iii) To evaluate our systems over three contemporary datasets. Two deep learning methods, namely the Bidirectional LSTM and the Bidirectional LSTM-CRF, are evaluated. A CRF model is set as the baseline to compare the deep learning systems to a traditional machine learning approach. The same features are used for all the models. We have obtained the best results with the Bidirectional LSTM-CRF model, which has outperformed all previously proposed systems. The specialized embeddings have helped to cover unusual words in DrugBank and MedLine, but not in the i2b2/VA dataset. We present a state-of-the-art system for DNR and CCE. Automated word embeddings has allowed us to avoid costly feature engineering and achieve higher accuracy. Nevertheless, the embeddings need to be retrained over datasets that are adequate for the domain, in order to adequately cover the domain-specific vocabulary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-Cost Implementation of a Named Entity Recognition System for Voice-Activated Human-Appliance Interfaces in a Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonwoo Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available When we develop voice-activated human-appliance interface systems in smart homes, named entity recognition (NER is an essential tool for extracting execution targets from natural language commands. Previous studies on NER systems generally include supervised machine-learning methods that require a substantial amount of human-annotated training corpus. In the smart home environment, categories of named entities should be defined according to voice-activated devices (e.g., food names for refrigerators and song titles for music players. The previous machine-learning methods make it difficult to change categories of named entities because a large amount of the training corpus should be newly constructed by hand. To address this problem, we present a semi-supervised NER system to minimize the time-consuming and labor-intensive task of constructing the training corpus. Our system uses distant supervision methods with two kinds of auto-labeling processes: auto-labeling based on heuristic rules for single-class named entity corpus generation and auto-labeling based on a pre-trained single-class NER model for multi-class named entity corpus generation. Then, our system improves NER accuracy by using a bagging-based active learning method. In our experiments that included a generic domain that featured 11 named entity classes and a context-specific domain about baseball that featured 21 named entity classes, our system demonstrated good performances in both domains, with F1-measures of 0.777 and 0.958, respectively. Since our system was built from a relatively small human-annotated training corpus, we believe it is a viable alternative to current NER systems in smart home environments.

  2. NOMINAL MARKING SYSTEM OF BAHASA MANGGARAI AND ITS INTERRELATION TO NAMING SYSTEM OF ENTITIES: A CULTURAL LINGUISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kletus Erom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the cultural imagery of the Manggaraian SpeechCommunities (MSC in “Nominal Marking System (NMS of Bahasa Manggaraiand Its Interrelation with Naming Systems of Entity (NSE: A CulturalLinguistic Study”. The result of the analysis is useful for both the academic worldand the life of the society, especially the MSC.The study conducted in Manggarai Regency, Flores, East Nusa TenggaraProvince, is qualitative. The data were obtained through observation, elicitation,interview, documentation study, listening, and note taking. For this reason, a numberof questions were prepared in a written form. The data obtained were analyzedthrough steps of selection, listing, translation, and interpretation of the formallinguistic meaning and cultural imagery of the MSC. The result of the data analysisis informally reported and verbally described.To analyze the data, the Cultural Linguistic Theory was applied andsupported by the structural and the dynamic theories. To know the chance and toinspire the study, a number of previous studies were reviewed. To easily understand,direct, and limit the discussion of the study, a number of basic concepts weredefined.Syntactically and semantically, there are four kinds of nominal markers(NMs of BM. NMs in the forms of personal pronouns (PP: hau ‘you SG’, hia/hi‘he/she’, meu ‘you-PLUR’, and ise ‘they’ mark proper nouns (PN as theSubject/Agent or Object/Patient in a clause bearing the meaning of subject or objectposition of a clause and not common nouns (CN. NMs in the forms of de/ di/ disemark the noun (CN/pronoun or PN as the possessor of the possessed noun in aclause bearing the meaning of possession. NMs in the forms of le/ li/ lise mark thenoun (CN/pronoun or PN as the agent diathesis of an action targeted to a noun asthe patient diathesis in a clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/localityof an action. And NMs in the forms of ge/ gi/ gise mark the noun (CN/pronoun or

  3. A CRF-based system for recognizing chemical entity mentions (CEMs) in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Yunliang; Zhang, Haodong

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve information access on chemical compounds and drugs (chemical entities) described in text repositories, it is very crucial to be able to identify chemical entity mentions (CEMs) automatically within text. The CHEMDNER challenge in BioCreative IV was specially designed to promote the implementation of corresponding systems that are able to detect mentions of chemical compounds and drugs, which has two subtasks: CDI (Chemical Document Indexing) and CEM. Our system processing pipeline consists of three major components: pre-processing (sentence detection, tokenization), recognition (CRF-based approach), and post-processing (rule-based approach and format conversion). In our post-challenge system, the cost parameter in CRF model was optimized by 10-fold cross validation with grid search, and word representations feature induced by Brown clustering method was introduced. For the CEM subtask, our official runs were ranked in top position by obtaining maximum 88.79% precision, 69.08% recall and 77.70% balanced F-measure, which were improved further to 88.43% precision, 76.48% recall and 82.02% balanced F-measure in our post-challenge system. In our system, instead of extracting a CEM as a whole, we regarded it as a sequence labeling problem. Though our current system has much room for improvement, our system is valuable in showing that the performance in term of balanced F-measure can be improved largely by utilizing large amounts of relatively inexpensive un-annotated PubMed abstracts and optimizing the cost parameter in CRF model. From our practice and lessons, if one directly utilizes some open-source natural language processing (NLP) toolkits, such as OpenNLP, Standford CoreNLP, false positive (FP) rate may be very high. It is better to develop some additional rules to minimize the FP rate if one does not want to re-train the related models. Our CEM recognition system is available at: http://www.SciTeMiner.org/XuShuo/Demo/CEM.

  4. [Differences of concept and entity of xiao-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Golden Chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Lu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    There are significant differences of the XIAO-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and the Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. The reasons are: (1) With the development of history, differentiation of herb category and effect kept changing from the Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, which led to the differences in concept and entity of herbs in different periods. (2) Lin Yi of the Song Dynasty may have redefined some herb's names according to the current situation when he revised Zhang Zhongjing's works.

  5. Evaluation and cross-comparison of lexical entities of biological interest (LexEBI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Biomedical entities, their identifiers and names, are essential in the representation of biomedical facts and knowledge. In the same way, the complete set of biomedical and chemical terms, i.e. the biomedical "term space" (the "Lexeome", forms a key resource to achieve the full integration of the scientific literature with biomedical data resources: any identified named entity can immediately be normalized to the correct database entry. This goal does not only require that we are aware of all existing terms, but would also profit from knowing all their senses and their semantic interpretation (ambiguities, nestedness. RESULT: This study compiles a resource for lexical terms of biomedical interest in a standard format (called "LexEBI", determines the overall number of terms, their reuse in different resources and the nestedness of terms. LexEBI comprises references for protein and gene entries and their term variants and chemical entities amongst other terms. In addition, disease terms have been identified from Medline and PubmedCentral and added to LexEBI. Our analysis demonstrates that the baseforms of terms from the different semantic types show only little polysemous use. Nonetheless, the term variants of protein and gene names (PGNs frequently contain species mentions, which should have been avoided according to protein annotation guidelines. Furthermore, the protein and gene entities as well as the chemical entities, both do comprise enzymes leading to hierarchical polysemy, and a large portion of PGNs make reference to a chemical entity. Altogether, according to our analysis based on the Medline distribution, 401,869 unique PGNs in the documents contain a reference to 25,022 chemical entities, 3,125 disease terms or 1,576 species mentions. CONCLUSION: LexEBI delivers the complete biomedical and chemical Lexeome in a standardized representation (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/LexEBI/. The resource provides the disease terms as

  6. Using Local Grammar for Entity Extraction from Clinical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Ghoulam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information Extraction (IE is a natural language processing (NLP task whose aim is to analyze texts written in natural language to extract structured and useful information such as named entities and semantic relations linking these entities. Information extraction is an important task for many applications such as bio-medical literature mining, customer care, community websites, and personal information management. The increasing information available in patient clinical reports is difficult to access. As it is often in an unstructured text form, doctors need tools to enable them access to this information and the ability to search it. Hence, a system for extracting this information in a structured form can benefits healthcare professionals. The work presented in this paper uses a local grammar approach to extract medical named entities from French patient clinical reports. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved an F-Measure of 90. 06%.

  7. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falc?o, Andr? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  8. Identifying non-elliptical entity mentions in a coordinated NP with ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jeongmin; Jung, Younghee; Lee, Taemin; Jung, Soonyoung; Huh, Chan; Kim, Gilhan; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Oh, Heungbum

    2014-02-01

    Named entities in the biomedical domain are often written using a Noun Phrase (NP) along with a coordinating conjunction such as 'and' and 'or'. In addition, repeated words among named entity mentions are frequently omitted. It is often difficult to identify named entities. Although various Named Entity Recognition (NER) methods have tried to solve this problem, these methods can only deal with relatively simple elliptical patterns in coordinated NPs. We propose a new NER method for identifying non-elliptical entity mentions with simple or complex ellipses using linguistic rules and an entity mention dictionary. The GENIA and CRAFT corpora were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The GENIA corpus was used to evaluate the performance of the system according to the quality of the dictionary. The GENIA corpus comprises 3434 non-elliptical entity mentions in 1585 coordinated NPs with ellipses. The system achieves 92.11% precision, 95.20% recall, and 93.63% F-score in identification of non-elliptical entity mentions in coordinated NPs. The accuracy of the system in resolving simple and complex ellipses is 94.54% and 91.95%, respectively. The CRAFT corpus was used to evaluate the performance of the system under realistic conditions. The system achieved 78.47% precision, 67.10% recall, and 72.34% F-score in coordinated NPs. The performance evaluations of the system show that it efficiently solves the problem caused by ellipses, and improves NER performance. The algorithm is implemented in PHP and the code can be downloaded from https://code.google.com/p/medtextmining/. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Syntactic dependency parsers for biomedical-NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Syntactic parsers have made a leap in accuracy and speed in recent years. The high order structural information provided by dependency parsers is useful for a variety of NLP applications. We present a biomedical model for the EasyFirst parser, a fast and accurate parser for creating Stanford Dependencies. We evaluate the models trained in the biomedical domains of EasyFirst and Clear-Parser in a number of task oriented metrics. Both parsers provide stat of the art speed and accuracy in the Genia of over 89%. We show that Clear-Parser excels at tasks relating to negation identification while EasyFirst excels at tasks relating to Named Entities and is more robust to changes in domain.

  10. Automated recognition of malignancy mentions in biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberman Mark Y

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid proliferation of biomedical text makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to identify, synthesize, and utilize developed knowledge in their fields of interest. Automated information extraction procedures can assist in the acquisition and management of this knowledge. Previous efforts in biomedical text mining have focused primarily upon named entity recognition of well-defined molecular objects such as genes, but less work has been performed to identify disease-related objects and concepts. Furthermore, promise has been tempered by an inability to efficiently scale approaches in ways that minimize manual efforts and still perform with high accuracy. Here, we have applied a machine-learning approach previously successful for identifying molecular entities to a disease concept to determine if the underlying probabilistic model effectively generalizes to unrelated concepts with minimal manual intervention for model retraining. Results We developed a named entity recognizer (MTag, an entity tagger for recognizing clinical descriptions of malignancy presented in text. The application uses the machine-learning technique Conditional Random Fields with additional domain-specific features. MTag was tested with 1,010 training and 432 evaluation documents pertaining to cancer genomics. Overall, our experiments resulted in 0.85 precision, 0.83 recall, and 0.84 F-measure on the evaluation set. Compared with a baseline system using string matching of text with a neoplasm term list, MTag performed with a much higher recall rate (92.1% vs. 42.1% recall and demonstrated the ability to learn new patterns. Application of MTag to all MEDLINE abstracts yielded the identification of 580,002 unique and 9,153,340 overall mentions of malignancy. Significantly, addition of an extensive lexicon of malignancy mentions as a feature set for extraction had minimal impact in performance. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that the

  11. Automated recognition of malignancy mentions in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; McDonald, Ryan T; Lerman, Kevin; Mandel, Mark A; Carroll, Steven; Liberman, Mark Y; Pereira, Fernando C; Winters, Raymond S; White, Peter S

    2006-11-07

    The rapid proliferation of biomedical text makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to identify, synthesize, and utilize developed knowledge in their fields of interest. Automated information extraction procedures can assist in the acquisition and management of this knowledge. Previous efforts in biomedical text mining have focused primarily upon named entity recognition of well-defined molecular objects such as genes, but less work has been performed to identify disease-related objects and concepts. Furthermore, promise has been tempered by an inability to efficiently scale approaches in ways that minimize manual efforts and still perform with high accuracy. Here, we have applied a machine-learning approach previously successful for identifying molecular entities to a disease concept to determine if the underlying probabilistic model effectively generalizes to unrelated concepts with minimal manual intervention for model retraining. We developed a named entity recognizer (MTag), an entity tagger for recognizing clinical descriptions of malignancy presented in text. The application uses the machine-learning technique Conditional Random Fields with additional domain-specific features. MTag was tested with 1,010 training and 432 evaluation documents pertaining to cancer genomics. Overall, our experiments resulted in 0.85 precision, 0.83 recall, and 0.84 F-measure on the evaluation set. Compared with a baseline system using string matching of text with a neoplasm term list, MTag performed with a much higher recall rate (92.1% vs. 42.1% recall) and demonstrated the ability to learn new patterns. Application of MTag to all MEDLINE abstracts yielded the identification of 580,002 unique and 9,153,340 overall mentions of malignancy. Significantly, addition of an extensive lexicon of malignancy mentions as a feature set for extraction had minimal impact in performance. Together, these results suggest that the identification of disparate biomedical entity classes in

  12. BioCause: Annotating and analysing causality in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihăilă, Claudiu; Ohta, Tomoko; Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2013-01-16

    Biomedical corpora annotated with event-level information represent an important resource for domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems. However, bio-event annotation alone cannot cater for all the needs of biologists. Unlike work on relation and event extraction, most of which focusses on specific events and named entities, we aim to build a comprehensive resource, covering all statements of causal association present in discourse. Causality lies at the heart of biomedical knowledge, such as diagnosis, pathology or systems biology, and, thus, automatic causality recognition can greatly reduce the human workload by suggesting possible causal connections and aiding in the curation of pathway models. A biomedical text corpus annotated with such relations is, hence, crucial for developing and evaluating biomedical text mining. We have defined an annotation scheme for enriching biomedical domain corpora with causality relations. This schema has subsequently been used to annotate 851 causal relations to form BioCause, a collection of 19 open-access full-text biomedical journal articles belonging to the subdomain of infectious diseases. These documents have been pre-annotated with named entity and event information in the context of previous shared tasks. We report an inter-annotator agreement rate of over 60% for triggers and of over 80% for arguments using an exact match constraint. These increase significantly using a relaxed match setting. Moreover, we analyse and describe the causality relations in BioCause from various points of view. This information can then be leveraged for the training of automatic causality detection systems. Augmenting named entity and event annotations with information about causal discourse relations could benefit the development of more sophisticated IE systems. These will further influence the development of multiple tasks, such as enabling textual inference to detect entailments, discovering new facts and providing new

  13. Dynamic collective entity representations for entity ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, D.; Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Entity ranking, i.e., successfully positioning a relevant entity at the top of the ranking for a given query, is inherently difficult due to the potential mismatch between the entity's description in a knowledge base, and the way people refer to the entity when searching for it. To counter this

  14. A stacked sequential learning method for investigator name recognition from web-based medical articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George

    2010-01-01

    "Investigator Names" is a newly required field in MEDLINE citations. It consists of personal names listed as members of corporate organizations in an article. Extracting investigator names automatically is necessary because of the increasing volume of articles reporting collaborative biomedical research in which a large number of investigators participate. In this paper, we present an SVM-based stacked sequential learning method in a novel application - recognizing named entities such as the first and last names of investigators from online medical journal articles. Stacked sequential learning is a meta-learning algorithm which can boost any base learner. It exploits contextual information by adding the predicted labels of the surrounding tokens as features. We apply this method to tag words in text paragraphs containing investigator names, and demonstrate that stacked sequential learning improves the performance of a nonsequential base learner such as an SVM classifier.

  15. Formative evaluation of ontology learning methods for entity discovery by using existing ontologies as reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Mitchell, K J; Chapman, W W; Savova, G K; Sioutos, N; Rubin, D L; Crowley, R S

    2013-01-01

    Developing a two-step method for formative evaluation of statistical Ontology Learning (OL) algorithms that leverages existing biomedical ontologies as reference standards. In the first step optimum parameters are established. A 'gap list' of entities is generated by finding the set of entities present in a later version of the ontology that are not present in an earlier version of the ontology. A named entity recognition system is used to identify entities in a corpus of biomedical documents that are present in the 'gap list', generating a reference standard. The output of the algorithm (new entity candidates), produced by statistical methods, is subsequently compared against this reference standard. An OL method that performs perfectly will be able to learn all of the terms in this reference standard. Using evaluation metrics and precision-recall curves for different thresholds and parameters, we compute the optimum parameters for each method. In the second step, human judges with expertise in ontology development evaluate each candidate suggested by the algorithm configured with the optimum parameters previously established. These judgments are used to compute two performance metrics developed from our previous work: Entity Suggestion Rate (ESR) and Entity Acceptance Rate (EAR). Using this method, we evaluated two statistical OL methods for OL in two medical domains. For the pathology domain, we obtained 49% ESR, 28% EAR with the Lin method and 52% ESR, 39% EAR with the Church method. For the radiology domain, we obtain 87% ESA, 9% EAR using Lin method and 96% ESR, 16% EAR using Church method. This method is sufficiently general and flexible enough to permit comparison of any OL method for a specific corpus and ontology of interest.

  16. Convolutional Neural Networks for Biomedical Text Classification: Application in Indexing Biomedical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Anthony; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2015-09-01

    Building high accuracy text classifiers is an important task in biomedicine given the wealth of information hidden in unstructured narratives such as research articles and clinical documents. Due to large feature spaces, traditionally, discriminative approaches such as logistic regression and support vector machines with n-gram and semantic features (e.g., named entities) have been used for text classification where additional performance gains are typically made through feature selection and ensemble approaches. In this paper, we demonstrate that a more direct approach using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) outperforms several traditional approaches in biomedical text classification with the specific use-case of assigning medical subject headings (or MeSH terms) to biomedical articles. Trained annotators at the national library of medicine (NLM) assign on an average 13 codes to each biomedical article, thus semantically indexing scientific literature to support NLM's PubMed search system. Recent evidence suggests that effective automated efforts for MeSH term assignment start with binary classifiers for each term. In this paper, we use CNNs to build binary text classifiers and achieve an absolute improvement of over 3% in macro F-score over a set of selected hard-to-classify MeSH terms when compared with the best prior results on a public dataset. Additional experiments on 50 high frequency terms in the dataset also show improvements with CNNs. Our results indicate the strong potential of CNNs in biomedical text classification tasks.

  17. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  18. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-03-15

    Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  20. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  1. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may be... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political entities and public...

  2. [Biomedical informatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  3. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  4. Context and Domain Knowledge Enhanced Entity Spotting in Informal Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Daniel; Nagarajan, Meena; Pieper, Jan; Robson, Christine; Sheth, Amit

    This paper explores the application of restricted relationship graphs (RDF) and statistical NLP techniques to improve named entity annotation in challenging Informal English domains. We validate our approach using on-line forums discussing popular music. Named entity annotation is particularly difficult in this domain because it is characterized by a large number of ambiguous entities, such as the Madonna album "Music" or Lilly Allen's pop hit "Smile".

  5. PKDE4J: Entity and relation extraction for public knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young

    2015-10-01

    Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The SPECIES and ORGANISMS Resources for Fast and Accurate Identification of Taxonomic Names in Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The exponential growth of the biomedical literature is making the need for efficient, accurate text-mining tools increasingly clear. The identification of named biological entities in text is a central and difficult task. We have developed an efficient algorithm and implementation of a dictionary...... of 800 abstracts, which were manually annotated after the development of the tool. The corpus comprises abstracts from journals selected to represent many taxonomic groups, which gives insights into which types of organism names are hard to detect and which are easy. Finally, we have tagged organism...... names in the entire Medline database and developed a web resource, ORGANISMS, that makes the results accessible to the broad community of biologists. The SPECIES software is open source and can be downloaded from http://species.jensenlab.org along with dictionary files and the manually annotated gold...

  7. Programming Drupal 7 entities

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    The book follows a standard tutorial-based approach to create, retrieve, update, and delete Drupal 7 entities, their properties and fields.Programming Drupal 7 Entities is perfect for intermediate or advanced developers new to Drupal entity development who are looking to get a good grounding in how to code using the new paradigm. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PHP development already, and being vaguely familiar with Drupal, GIT, and Drush will also help.

  8. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of named entity recognition and linking for tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derczynski, L.; Maynard, D.; Rizzo, G.; van Erp, M.G.J.; Gorrell, G.; Troncy, R.; Petrak, J.; Bontcheva, K.

    2015-01-01

    Applying natural language processing for mining and intelligent information access to tweets (a form of microblog) is a challenging, emerging research area. Unlike carefully authored news text and other longer content, tweets pose a number of new challenges, due to their short, noisy,

  10. Search optimization of named entities from twitter streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeel, K. Mohammed; Hassan Mottur, Simama; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    With Enormous number of tweets, People often face difficulty to get exact information about those tweets. One of the approach followed for getting information about those tweets via Google. There is not any accuracy tool developed for search optimization and as well as getting information about those tweets. So, this system contains the search optimization and functionalities for getting information about those tweets. Another problem faced here are the tweets that contains grammatical errors, misspellings, non-standard abbreviations, and meaningless capitalization. So, these problems can be eliminated by the use of this tool. Lot of time can be saved and as well as by the use of efficient search optimization each information about those particular tweets can be obtained.

  11. 78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959...

  12. 78 FR 66373 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  13. 75 FR 74068 - National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  14. 78 FR 9066 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  15. 78 FR 52938 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special....D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  16. 78 FR 67375 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  17. 77 FR 50516 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging, And Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  18. 77 FR 2987 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy...

  19. 78 FR 76632 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  20. 78 FR 25752 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  1. 76 FR 23326 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  2. 78 FR 45254 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy...

  3. 76 FR 572 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National...

  4. 75 FR 61769 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  5. 77 FR 25487 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of...

  6. 78 FR 67373 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Grossman, DDS, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707...

  7. 77 FR 71605 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; MSM Program Review. Date: February 26, 2013...

  8. 78 FR 54259 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, 6707...

  9. 77 FR 74675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  10. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and, Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  11. 76 FR 69748 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imagin and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health,6707...

  12. 76 FR 53690 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of...

  13. 78 FR 31953 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  14. 77 FR 51544 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Institute of Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  15. 76 FR 58023 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  16. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959...

  17. 78 FR 35041 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960...

  18. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  19. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  20. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  1. Chemical name extraction based on automatic training data generation and rich feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Su; Spangler, W Scott; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The automation of extracting chemical names from text has significant value to biomedical and life science research. A major barrier in this task is the difficulty of getting a sizable and good quality data to train a reliable entity extraction model. Another difficulty is the selection of informative features of chemical names, since comprehensive domain knowledge on chemistry nomenclature is required. Leveraging random text generation techniques, we explore the idea of automatically creating training sets for the task of chemical name extraction. Assuming the availability of an incomplete list of chemical names, called a dictionary, we are able to generate well-controlled, random, yet realistic chemical-like training documents. We statistically analyze the construction of chemical names based on the incomplete dictionary, and propose a series of new features, without relying on any domain knowledge. Compared to state-of-the-art models learned from manually labeled data and domain knowledge, our solution shows better or comparable results in annotating real-world data with less human effort. Moreover, we report an interesting observation about the language for chemical names. That is, both the structural and semantic components of chemical names follow a Zipfian distribution, which resembles many natural languages.

  2. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  3. Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spackman K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall, with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge.

  4. Semantic characteristics of NLP-extracted concepts in clinical notes vs. biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen; Liu, Hongfang

    2011-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) has become crucial in unlocking information stored in free text, from both clinical notes and biomedical literature. Clinical notes convey clinical information related to individual patient health care, while biomedical literature communicates scientific findings. This work focuses on semantic characterization of texts at an enterprise scale, comparing and contrasting the two domains and their NLP approaches. We analyzed the empirical distributional characteristics of NLP-discovered named entities in Mayo Clinic clinical notes from 2001-2010, and in the 2011 MetaMapped Medline Baseline. We give qualitative and quantitative measures of domain similarity and point to the feasibility of transferring resources and techniques. An important by-product for this study is the development of a weighted ontology for each domain, which gives distributional semantic information that may be used to improve NLP applications.

  5. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  7. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bandrowski

    Full Text Available The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT. The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org providing details on the people, policies, and issues being

  8. A concept-driven biomedical knowledge extraction and visualization framework for conceptualization of text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahiruddin; Abulaish, Muhammad; Dey, Lipika

    2010-12-01

    A number of techniques such as information extraction, document classification, document clustering and information visualization have been developed to ease extraction and understanding of information embedded within text documents. However, knowledge that is embedded in natural language texts is difficult to extract using simple pattern matching techniques and most of these methods do not help users directly understand key concepts and their semantic relationships in document corpora, which are critical for capturing their conceptual structures. The problem arises due to the fact that most of the information is embedded within unstructured or semi-structured texts that computers can not interpret very easily. In this paper, we have presented a novel Biomedical Knowledge Extraction and Visualization framework, BioKEVis to identify key information components from biomedical text documents. The information components are centered on key concepts. BioKEVis applies linguistic analysis and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to identify key concepts. The information component extraction principle is based on natural language processing techniques and semantic-based analysis. The system is also integrated with a biomedical named entity recognizer, ABNER, to tag genes, proteins and other entity names in the text. We have also presented a method for collating information extracted from multiple sources to generate semantic network. The network provides distinct user perspectives and allows navigation over documents with similar information components and is also used to provide a comprehensive view of the collection. The system stores the extracted information components in a structured repository which is integrated with a query-processing module to handle biomedical queries over text documents. We have also proposed a document ranking mechanism to present retrieved documents in order of their relevance to the user query. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Rosse

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas.

  10. A bibliographic study on entity linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Habib Bechelane Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linking Entities (LE is an important research topic that has recently attracted great attention from researchers. In the LE tasks, textual mentions found in natural language are linked to their corresponding entry in a knowledge database. This task is challenging due to problems such as name variation, entity ambiguity, or because the entity mentioned may not exist in the knowledge database. Goals: To present the problems related to LE, its typical applications, as well as to synthesize their main approaches in the context of concept linkage. Methodology: Survey research with the current literature, for a detailed description of the state of the art of the approaches in LE, as well as for the systematization and categorization of the identified approaches. Results: Most of the studies in LE divide this process into two stages: recognition and linking of entities. However, new proposals have unified these steps into a single process. Conclusion: Although more complex, the new LE approaches allow us to capture the dependence between Entity Liaison and Entity Recognition decisions, minimizing errors and inconsistencies. Evaluations should occur in unified databases, considering the difficulty of comparing different database results due to the influence they have on testing outputs.

  11. Liberal Entity Extraction: Rapid Construction of Fine-Grained Entity Typing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifu; May, Jonathan; Pan, Xiaoman; Ji, Heng; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei; Zhao, Lin; Hendler, James A

    2017-03-01

    The ability of automatically recognizing and typing entities in natural language without prior knowledge (e.g., predefined entity types) is a major challenge in processing such data. Most existing entity typing systems are limited to certain domains, genres, and languages. In this article, we propose a novel unsupervised entity-typing framework by combining symbolic and distributional semantics. We start from learning three types of representations for each entity mention: general semantic representation, specific context representation, and knowledge representation based on knowledge bases. Then we develop a novel joint hierarchical clustering and linking algorithm to type all mentions using these representations. This framework does not rely on any annotated data, predefined typing schema, or handcrafted features; therefore, it can be quickly adapted to a new domain, genre, and/or language. Experiments on genres (news and discussion forum) show comparable performance with state-of-the-art supervised typing systems trained from a large amount of labeled data. Results on various languages (English, Chinese, Japanese, Hausa, and Yoruba) and domains (general and biomedical) demonstrate the portability of our framework.

  12. Classification and prioritization of biomedical literature for the comparative toxicogenomics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to perform biomedical documents classification and prioritization for the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). This approach is motivated by needs such as literature curation, in particular applied to the human health environment domain. The unique integration of chemical, genes/proteins and disease data in the biomedical literature may advance the identification of exposure and disease biomarkers, mechanisms of chemical actions, and the complex aetiologies of chronic diseases. Our approach aims to assist biomedical researchers when searching for relevant articles for CTD. The task is functionally defined as a binary classification task, where selected articles must also be ranked by order of relevance. We design a SVM classifier, which combines three main feature sets: an information retrieval system (EAGLi), a biomedical named-entity recognizer (MeSH term extraction), a gene normalization (GN) service (NormaGene) and an ad-hoc keyword recognizer for diseases and chemicals. The evaluation of the gene identification module was done on BioCreativeIII test data. Disease normalization is achieved with 95% precision and 93% of recall. The evaluation of the classification was done on the corpus provided by BioCreative organizers in 2012. The approach showed promising performance on the test data.

  13. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  14. Mastering entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul Rajat

    2015-01-01

    This book is for .NET developers who are developing data-driven applications using ADO.NET or other data access technologies. This book is going to give you everything you need to effectively develop and manage data-driven applications using Entity Framework.

  15. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Matos, Sérgio; Oliveira, José L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/.

  16. In the Name of the Name: RDF literals, ER attributes and the potential to rethink the structures and visualizations of catalogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Peponakis

    2016-06-01

    In this way, a new approach to bibliographic data emerges where the distinction between description and authorities is obsolete. Instead, the integration of the authorities with descriptive information becomes fundamental so that a network of correlations can be established between the entities and the names by which the entities are known. Naming is a vital issue for human cultures because names are not random sequences of characters or sounds which stand just as identifiers for the entities - they also have socio-cultural meanings and interpretations. Thus, instead of describing indivisible resources, we could describe entities that appear in a variety of names on various resources. In this study, a method is proposed to connect the names with the entities they represent and, in this way, to document the provenance of these names by connecting specific resources with specific names.

  17. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator’s Semantic Relevancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator’s knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user’s vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

  18. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  19. The strength of co-authorship in gene name disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Richárd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A biomedical entity mention in articles and other free texts is often ambiguous. For example, 13% of the gene names (aliases might refer to more than one gene. The task of Gene Symbol Disambiguation (GSD – a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD – is to assign a unique gene identifier for all identified gene name aliases in biology-related articles. Supervised and unsupervised machine learning WSD techniques have been applied in the biomedical field with promising results. We examine here the utilisation potential of the fact – one of the special features of biological articles – that the authors of the documents are known through graph-based semi-supervised methods for the GSD task. Results Our key hypothesis is that a biologist refers to each particular gene by a fixed gene alias and this holds for the co-authors as well. To make use of the co-authorship information we decided to build the inverse co-author graph on MedLine abstracts. The nodes of the inverse co-author graph are articles and there is an edge between two nodes if and only if the two articles have a mutual author. We introduce here two methods using distances (based on the graph of abstracts for the GSD task. We found that a disambiguation decision can be made in 85% of cases with an extremely high (99.5% precision rate just by using information obtained from the inverse co-author graph. We incorporated the co-authorship information into two GSD systems in order to attain full coverage and in experiments our procedure achieved precision of 94.3%, 98.85%, 96.05% and 99.63% on the human, mouse, fly and yeast GSD evaluation sets, respectively. Conclusion Based on the promising results obtained so far we suggest that the co-authorship information and the circumstances of the articles' release (like the title of the journal, the year of publication can be a crucial building block of any sophisticated similarity measure among biological articles

  20. Development of an information retrieval tool for biomedical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago; Rodrigues, Rúben; Costa, Hugo; Rocha, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has been increasing in the last years. Patent documents have also followed this trend, being important sources of biomedical knowledge, technical details and curated data, which are put together along the granting process. The field of Biomedical text mining (BioTM) has been creating solutions for the problems posed by the unstructured nature of natural language, which makes the search of information a challenging task. Several BioTM techniques can be applied to patents. From those, Information Retrieval (IR) includes processes where relevant data are obtained from collections of documents. In this work, the main goal was to build a patent pipeline addressing IR tasks over patent repositories to make these documents amenable to BioTM tasks. The pipeline was developed within @Note2, an open-source computational framework for BioTM, adding a number of modules to the core libraries, including patent metadata and full text retrieval, PDF to text conversion and optical character recognition. Also, user interfaces were developed for the main operations materialized in a new @Note2 plug-in. The integration of these tools in @Note2 opens opportunities to run BioTM tools over patent texts, including tasks from Information Extraction, such as Named Entity Recognition or Relation Extraction. We demonstrated the pipeline's main functions with a case study, using an available benchmark dataset from BioCreative challenges. Also, we show the use of the plug-in with a user query related to the production of vanillin. This work makes available all the relevant content from patents to the scientific community, decreasing drastically the time required for this task, and provides graphical interfaces to ease the use of these tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  2. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. 76 FR 40922 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD...

  4. 75 FR 57969 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  5. 75 FR 54641 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  6. 75 FR 6039 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  7. 75 FR 18217 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  8. 78 FR 42970 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  9. 77 FR 31624 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  10. 78 FR 24223 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959, Bethesda, MD...

  11. 75 FR 18216 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  12. 78 FR 63998 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  13. 78 FR 71627 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  14. 77 FR 37684 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  15. 75 FR 25273 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  16. 76 FR 28795 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  17. 76 FR 28055 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  18. 76 FR 62814 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  19. 77 FR 38845 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  20. 75 FR 35820 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  1. 76 FR 10910 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  2. 76 FR 5593 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  3. 78 FR 55268 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  4. 76 FR 77546 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  5. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  6. 77 FR 2737 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  7. 77 FR 49821 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959, Bethesda, MD...

  8. 78 FR 58547 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...

  9. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  10. [Lipedema: a misdiagnosed entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, S

    2012-07-01

    Lipedema is a clinical entity frequently misdiagnosed or confound with primary lymphedema. Lipedema is a disorder of adipose tissue that occurs almost exclusively in obese women. It is characterized by bilateral enlargement from hip to ankle due to abnormal depositions of subcutaneous fat associated with often mild edema, usually sparing the feet. Disease onset is usually at or soon after puberty. Lipedema results in considerable frustration and distress resulting from the cosmetic appearance. Patients may complain of pain, tenderness, easy bruising of the affected areas with moderate to severe sensitivity to digital pressure or pinching. Imaging studies using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, lymphoscintigraphy are not indicated, except if the diagnosis is atypic or doubtful. Long-term evolution may alter lymphatic system and lead to a lipo-lymphedema with specific complications such as cellulitis. Lipedema management is not codified and included weight loss (poorly improving leg appearance or discomfort), psychological counselling and compression therapy. Liposuction, especially using tumescent local anaesthesia, may reduce edema, spontaneous pain, sensitivity to pressure, bruising and improve appearance resulting in a important increase in quality of life. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  12. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  13. Periocular xanthogranuloma: A forgotten entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Papagoras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Charalampos Papagoras1, George Kitsos2, Paraskevi V Voulgari1, Anastasia K Zikou3, Maria I Argyropoulou3, Aikaterini Zioga4, Alexandros A Drosos11Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology; 3Department of Clinical Imaging and Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Periocular xanthogranulomatous diseases are a rare group of disorders which are characterized by a predilection to affect the orbit and ocular adnexa and special histopathological features, in particular infiltrates comprising non-Langerhans-derived foamy histiocytes and Touton giant cells. The differential diagnosis is difficult and occasionally definite diagnosis cannot be established even after clinical and histopathological findings are taken together. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with a 10-year history of voluminous eyelid swelling with concomitant late-onset atopic manifestations, namely bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis with nasal polyps. After thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, including a biopsy of the eyelid, we classified the patient’s disease to a rare entity that has been relatively recently described: periocular xanthogranuloma associated with adult-onset asthma. In a review of the literature, no prospective trials concerning the treatment of this disease were found. The literature mainly contained case reports and case series in which corticosteroids and chemotherapy with alkylating agents have been reported to be beneficial. We treated our patient with a combination of oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide pulses and we observed substantial regression of the eyelid masses together with a normalization of systemic immunologic abnormalities.Keywords: periocular xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma, non-Langerhans histiocytoses, cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone

  14. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  15. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  16. Integrating Naming and Addressing of Persistent data in Programming Language and Operating System Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, M.; van der Valk, M.

    1993-01-01

    There exist a number of desirable transparencies in distributed computing, viz., name transparency: having a uniform way of naming entities in the system, regardless of their type or physical make up; location transparency: having a uniform way of addressing entities, regardless of their physical

  17. 78 FR 1938 - Unblocking of One Individual and One Entity Blocked Pursuant to Executive Order 13315 of August...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Blocked Persons (``SDN List''). DATES: The removal of the individual and entity from the SDN List is... determined that the following individual and entity should be removed from the SDN List: Individual 1... Ampere 5, Monza 20052, Italy . The removal of the individual's and entity's names from the SDN List is...

  18. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  19. Tackling the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Mott, Isabela; Martins, Catarina; Couto, Francisco M; Cruz, Isabel F

    2018-01-15

    Biomedical ontologies pose several challenges to ontology matching due both to the complexity of the biomedical domain and to the characteristics of the ontologies themselves. The biomedical tracks in the Ontology Matching Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) have spurred the development of matching systems able to tackle these challenges, and benchmarked their general performance. In this study, we dissect the strategies employed by matching systems to tackle the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies and gauge the impact of the challenges themselves on matching performance, using the AgreementMakerLight (AML) system as the platform for this study. We demonstrate that the linear complexity of the hash-based searching strategy implemented by most state-of-the-art ontology matching systems is essential for matching large biomedical ontologies efficiently. We show that accounting for all lexical annotations (e.g., labels and synonyms) in biomedical ontologies leads to a substantial improvement in F-measure over using only the primary name, and that accounting for the reliability of different types of annotations generally also leads to a marked improvement. Finally, we show that cross-references are a reliable source of information and that, when using biomedical ontologies as background knowledge, it is generally more reliable to use them as mediators than to perform lexical expansion. We anticipate that translating traditional matching algorithms to the hash-based searching paradigm will be a critical direction for the future development of the field. Improving the evaluation carried out in the biomedical tracks of the OAEI will also be important, as without proper reference alignments there is only so much that can be ascertained about matching systems or strategies. Nevertheless, it is clear that, to tackle the various challenges posed by biomedical ontologies, ontology matching systems must be able to efficiently combine multiple strategies into a mature matching

  20. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  1. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj

    2015-10-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.

  2. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors.

  3. 77 FR 13347 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special Emphasis Panel; Point-of-Care...

  4. 77 FR 27784 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8775...

  5. 78 FR 46995 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging, and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451-3398...

  6. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451-3397...

  7. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  8. Network and Ensemble Enabled Entity Extraction in Informal Text (NEEEEIT) final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, Philip W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunlavy, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This SAND report summarizes the activities and outcomes of the Network and Ensemble Enabled Entity Extraction in Information Text (NEEEEIT) LDRD project, which addressed improving the accuracy of conditional random fields for named entity recognition through the use of ensemble methods.

  9. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Results Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. Conclusions The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications. PMID:22901054

  10. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  11. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  12. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  13. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  14. Semantically linking molecular entities in literature through entity relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landeghem, S.; Bjorne, J.; Abeel, T.E.P.M.F.; De Baets, B.; Salakoski, T.; Van de Peer, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Text mining tools have gained popularity to process the vast amount of available research articles in the biomedical literature. It is crucial that such tools extract information with a sufficient level of detail to be applicable in real life scenarios. Studies of mining non-causal

  15. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  16. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  17. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  18. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  19. Naming, blaming and shaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, M; Paterson, R

    2006-03-01

    Few doctors at the centre of complaints or disciplinary proceedings wish to be publicly named. Publication of a doctor's name can adversely affect his or her reputation, patients, and family members, even if the allegation is ultimately not upheld. Yet, there is a strong public interest in freedom of speech and transparency of complaints and disciplinary processes. In determining whether to grant name suppression, complaints agencies and disciplinary tribunals are required to balance competing public and private interests. In New Zealand, the Health and Disability Commissioner has responsibility for investigating complaints about the quality of medical care. The Commissioner's current practice is not to publicly name doctors under investigation, or even those who are found to have breached a patient's rights. This approach fits well the non-punitive, rehabilitative focus of New Zealand's medical regulatory system. In the rare cases where a matter reaches the threshold for disciplinary action, the balance tips in favour of disclosure.

  20. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  1. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  2. SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Perevozova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigation of social effectiveness of business entities. Social aspect of business is becoming a necessary component of success, increase of profitability and competitiveness as well as minimization of risks. Social effectiveness is referred to as correspondence between economic activity and main social needs and aims of society, interests of the staff and interests of a certain person. Investigation of social effectiveness of business entities is suggested to analyze with the help of social factors. Social factors are characterized by variability of expectations, relations and interests of society, staff and individuals. We suggest generalized classification of factors which have an impact on social effectiveness of business, we single out external and internal factors. To external factors belong: income of the population, differentiation of population according to income, migration, level of salaries, level of legality of income of population, family status of  population, employment rate, age structure of population etc. As for internal factors we single out the following: low level of basic professional training, use of unskilled workers, absence of conditions for creativity, imperfection of system of motivation of professional growth, absence of specialized centers for certification training etc. Quantity and quality analysis of the above mentioned factors will enable to determine the level of social effectiveness of business entities. For analyses of degree of influence of factors on effectiveness we worked out a questionnaire of expert assessment which is represented in the form of assessment scale. We conducted a questionnaire and analyzed expert results and determined degree of influence of factors on social effectiveness of business. Assessment of level of social effectiveness of business entities was carried out by expert method of certain factor and was represented by a formula. The scale of assessment of

  3. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  4. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  5. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  6. Entity recognition from clinical texts via recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengjian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Hua

    2017-07-05

    Entity recognition is one of the most primary steps for text analysis and has long attracted considerable attention from researchers. In the clinical domain, various types of entities, such as clinical entities and protected health information (PHI), widely exist in clinical texts. Recognizing these entities has become a hot topic in clinical natural language processing (NLP), and a large number of traditional machine learning methods, such as support vector machine and conditional random field, have been deployed to recognize entities from clinical texts in the past few years. In recent years, recurrent neural network (RNN), one of deep learning methods that has shown great potential on many problems including named entity recognition, also has been gradually used for entity recognition from clinical texts. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the performance of LSTM (long-short term memory), a representative variant of RNN, on clinical entity recognition and protected health information recognition. The LSTM model consists of three layers: input layer - generates representation of each word of a sentence; LSTM layer - outputs another word representation sequence that captures the context information of each word in this sentence; Inference layer - makes tagging decisions according to the output of LSTM layer, that is, outputting a label sequence. Experiments conducted on corpora of the 2010, 2012 and 2014 i2b2 NLP challenges show that LSTM achieves highest micro-average F1-scores of 85.81% on the 2010 i2b2 medical concept extraction, 92.29% on the 2012 i2b2 clinical event detection, and 94.37% on the 2014 i2b2 de-identification, which is considerably competitive with other state-of-the-art systems. LSTM that requires no hand-crafted feature has great potential on entity recognition from clinical texts. It outperforms traditional machine learning methods that suffer from fussy feature engineering. A possible future direction is how to integrate knowledge

  7. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodruzzama, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    ... and on-line analysis of the biomedical signals. Each Biopac system-based laboratory station consists of real-time data acquisition system, amplifiers for EMG, EKG, EEG, and equipment for the study of Plethysmography, evoked response, cardio...

  8. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  9. The naming of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geggus

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

  10. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.; Vasaros, L.

    1992-02-01

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211 At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  11. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  12. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  13. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  14. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  15. Entity Framework 41 Expert's Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liles, Devlin

    2012-01-01

    This book takes a step-by-step problem solving approach that leads you through a problem and explains each step in detail to accomplish the goal. This books gives you concrete code examples as well as detailed information on the decisions involved. This book is for intermediate to advanced .NET developers who have used LINQ to SQL or Entity Framework in some form but want to have more control over the implementation.

  16. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  17. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  18. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.308 Person; entity. (a) The term person means an individual or entity. (b) The...

  19. Relatedness-based Multi-Entity Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratna, Kalpa; Yazdavar, Amir Hossein; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit; Cheng, Gong

    2017-08-01

    Representing world knowledge in a machine processable format is important as entities and their descriptions have fueled tremendous growth in knowledge-rich information processing platforms, services, and systems. Prominent applications of knowledge graphs include search engines (e.g., Google Search and Microsoft Bing), email clients (e.g., Gmail), and intelligent personal assistants (e.g., Google Now, Amazon Echo, and Apple's Siri). In this paper, we present an approach that can summarize facts about a collection of entities by analyzing their relatedness in preference to summarizing each entity in isolation. Specifically, we generate informative entity summaries by selecting: (i) inter-entity facts that are similar and (ii) intra-entity facts that are important and diverse. We employ a constrained knapsack problem solving approach to efficiently compute entity summaries. We perform both qualitative and quantitative experiments and demonstrate that our approach yields promising results compared to two other stand-alone state-of-the-art entity summarization approaches.

  20. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competitive advantage because significant legal constraints restrict the applicant's ability to access such... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2110 Designated entities. (a) Designated entities are small businesses, businesses...

  1. 47 CFR 22.223 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Licensing Requirements and Procedures Competitive Bidding Procedures § 22.223 Designated entities. (a) Scope... sections. (b) A small business is an entity that either: (1) Together with its affiliates and controlling...

  2. Qualified Entity Certification Program for Medicare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QECP welcomes any entities that would like to participate in, learn more about, or assess their capability to function as a qualified entity (QE) under section 10332...

  3. The cognitive psychology and neuroscience of naming people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge

    2017-12-01

    The use of proper names enables us to designate entities, including people, at a very specific level of categorization: the unique entity or the individual. The paper presents a general overview of psychological/cognitive and neuroscientific studies that have compared the production of proper names, in particular people's names, with the production of common nouns during the last thirty years. The search for specific brain correlates of proper naming included single-case and group studies of patients with brain lesions, and studies utilizing functional neuroimaging or brain electrical stimulation with healthy participants. These studies have led neuroscientists to hypothesize that the recall of proper names involves a rather complex network including mainly left frontal and temporal regions. Behavioural evidence supports the view that proper names are more difficult to recall than common names, and scientists have proposed different explanations for this relative difficulty. Finally, several new directions for future research are proposed to improve our understanding of both cognitive processes and their brain correlates involved during proper name recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Treatment Relations with Semantic Patterns over Biomedical Knowledge Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Gokhan; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2015-12-01

    Identifying new potential treatment options (say, medications and procedures) for known medical conditions that cause human disease burden is a central task of biomedical research. Since all candidate drugs cannot be tested with animal and clinical trials, in vitro approaches are first attempted to identify promising candidates. Even before this step, due to recent advances, in silico or computational approaches are also being employed to identify viable treatment options. Generally, natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning are used to predict specific relations between any given pair of entities using the distant supervision approach. In this paper, we report preliminary results on predicting treatment relations between biomedical entities purely based on semantic patterns over biomedical knowledge graphs. As such, we refrain from explicitly using NLP, although the knowledge graphs themselves may be built from NLP extractions. Our intuition is fairly straightforward - entities that participate in a treatment relation may be connected using similar path patterns in biomedical knowledge graphs extracted from scientific literature. Using a dataset of treatment relation instances derived from the well known Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), we verify our intuition by employing graph path patterns from a well known knowledge graph as features in machine learned models. We achieve a high recall (92 %) but precision, however, decreases from 95% to an acceptable 71% as we go from uniform class distribution to a ten fold increase in negative instances. We also demonstrate models trained with patterns of length ≤ 3 result in statistically significant gains in F-score over those trained with patterns of length ≤ 2. Our results show the potential of exploiting knowledge graphs for relation extraction and we believe this is the first effort to employ graph patterns as features for identifying biomedical relations.

  5. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  6. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports

  7. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaaz Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics.

  8. Predescemetocele: A distinct clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case report incorporates a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT examination for demonstration of the existence of pre-Descemet's layer (PDL; Dua's layer overlying a descemetocele and demonstrates predescemetocele as a separate clinical entity. The prospective analysis was done in two cases that had descemetocele, and OCT demonstrated the presence of PDL over an unruptured descemetocele that offers resilience and can be treated with an elective deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty or a penetrating keratoplasty. A descemetocele, when covered with PDL, should be correctly designated as a predescemetocele. Loss of PDL leads to baring of Descemet's membrane that eventually ruptures.

  9. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise...... results. The method should be seen as an alternative to pure machine learning methods for sentiment analysis, which are argued to have high difficulties in capturing long distance dependencies, and can be dependent on significant amount of domain specific training data. The results show that the method...

  10. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Mark

    2008-03-01

    During a lesson with my A-level physics class, my school's head of English came into the lab and happened to notice the whiteboard. I had just started teaching a section on particle physics and was acquainting the students with the multitude of names found in the particle world. Among others, the board contained the words lepton, hadron, meson, baryon, photon, gluon, boson, muon, neutrino, fermion and quark. The head of English pointed out that none of the words on the board were intelligible to anyone else in the school. He added that the words themselves were utterly bizarre, although in fairness he did recognize the reference to James Joyce.

  11. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  12. Onto2Vec: joint vector-based representation of biological entities and their ontology-based annotations

    KAUST Repository

    Smaili, Fatima Zohra

    2018-01-31

    We propose the Onto2Vec method, an approach to learn feature vectors for biological entities based on their annotations to biomedical ontologies. Our method can be applied to a wide range of bioinformatics research problems such as similarity-based prediction of interactions between proteins, classification of interaction types using supervised learning, or clustering.

  13. Introduction to biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Splinter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    GENERAL BIOMEDICAL OPTICS THEORYIntroduction to the Use of Light for Diagnostic and Therapeutic ModalitiesWhat Is Biomedical Optics?Biomedical Optics TimelineElementary Optical DiscoveriesHistorical Events in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Use of LightLight SourcesCurrent State of the ArtSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory and Description of Light SourcesDefinitions in OpticsKirchhoff's Laws of RadiationElectromagnetic Wave TheoryLight SourcesApplications of Various LasersSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Principles: Classical OpticsGeometrical OpticsOther Optical PrinciplesQuantum PhysicsGaussian OpticsSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsReview of Optical Interaction PropertiesAbsorption and ScatteringSummaryAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction VariablesLaser VariablesTissue VariablesLight Transportation TheoryLight Propagation under Dominant AbsorptionSummaryNomenclatureAdditional ReadingProblemsLight-Tissue Interaction Th...

  14. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irayda Jakušovaitė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational–logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question “Does a brain death mean death of a human being?” two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  15. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  16. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  17. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  18. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  20. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  1. Biomedical Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, N.; Combi, C.; Tucker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the special topic of Methods of Information in Medicine on data mining in biomedicine, with selected papers from two workshops on Intelligent Data Analysis in bioMedicine (IDAMAP) held in Verona (2006) and Amsterdam (2007). Methods: Defining the field of biomedical data

  2. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  3. Biomedical research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The biomedical research Panel believes that the Calutron facility at Oak Ridge is a national and international resource of immense scientific value and of fundamental importance to continued biomedical research. This resource is essential to the development of new isotope uses in biology and medicine. It should therefore be nurtured by adequate support and operated in a way that optimizes its services to the scientific and technological community. The Panel sees a continuing need for a reliable supply of a wide variety of enriched stable isotopes. The past and present utilization of stable isotopes in biomedical research is documented in Appendix 7. Future requirements for stable isotopes are impossible to document, however, because of the unpredictability of research itself. Nonetheless we expect the demand for isotopes to increase in parallel with the continuing expansion of biomedical research as a whole. There are a number of promising research projects at the present time, and these are expected to lead to an increase in production requirements. The Panel also believes that a high degree of priority should be given to replacing the supplies of the 65 isotopes (out of the 224 previously available enriched isotopes) no longer available from ORNL

  4. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R.; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres—news, Yelp reviews and tweets—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method. PMID:26705503

  5. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; A Iglič; Mazare, A; Schmuki, P; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Mozetič, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO 2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO 2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO 2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  6. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  7. Mucopurulent cervicitis: a clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, F E

    1988-06-01

    Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not show these associations, and the results indicated no difference in genital infections in women with clear cervical secretions whether or not more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes per field (at a magnification of x 1000) were present. The findings support the suggestion that mucopurulent cervicitis is a definite clinical entity that requires investigation and treatment.

  8. Lessons learnt from the Named Entity rEcognition and Linking (NEEL) challenge series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Pereira, Bianca; Varga, Andrea; Van Erp, Marieke; Basave, Amparo Elizabeth Cano

    2017-01-01

    The large number of tweets generated daily is providing decision makers with means to obtain insights into recent events around the globe in near real-time. The main barrier for extracting such insights is the impossibility of manual inspection of a diverse and dynamic amount of information. This

  9. Named entity recognition of follow-up and time information in 20 000 radiology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Tsujii, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a system to extract follow-up information from radiology reports. The method may be used as a component in a system which automatically generates follow-up information in a timely fashion. Methods A novel method of combining an LSP (labeled sequential pattern) classifier with a CRF (conditional random field) recognizer was devised. The LSP classifier filters out irrelevant sentences, while the CRF recognizer extracts follow-up and time phrases from candidate sentences presented by the LSP classifier. Measurements The standard performance metrics of precision (P), recall (R), and F measure (F) in the exact and inexact matching settings were used for evaluation. Results Four experiments conducted using 20 000 radiology reports showed that the CRF recognizer achieved high performance without time-consuming feature engineering and that the LSP classifier further improved the performance of the CRF recognizer. The performance of the current system is P=0.90, R=0.86, F=0.88 in the exact matching setting and P=0.98, R=0.93, F=0.95 in the inexact matching setting. Conclusion The experiments demonstrate that the system performs far better than a baseline rule-based system and is worth considering for deployment trials in an alert generation system. The LSP classifier successfully compensated for the inherent weakness of CRF, that is, its inability to use global information. PMID:22771530

  10. Unsupervised improvement of named entity extraction in short informal context using disambiguation clues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Short context messages (like tweets and SMS’s) are a potentially rich source of continuously and instantly updated information. Shortness and informality of such messages are challenges for Natural Language Processing tasks. Most efforts done in this direction rely on machine learning techniques

  11. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  12. Viruses: are they living entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged.

  13. Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Science Technologists in Lagos Universities: Meeting Modern Standards in Biomedical Research. ... biomedical techniques. SOTA biomedical science needs adequate financial investment for the scientific resources as well as stable civic infrastructure, thus these public institutions need more of such provisions.

  14. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  15. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  16. 75 FR 39547 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8775, grossmanrs...

  17. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8775, [email protected

  18. 75 FR 15715 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8775, grossmanrs...

  19. 75 FR 76019 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  20. 78 FR 77474 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451-3398, [email protected

  1. 78 FR 107 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451...

  2. 77 FR 19675 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  3. 76 FR 370 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451...

  4. 75 FR 81630 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 960, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496...

  5. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  6. 78 FR 17937 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  7. 75 FR 14175 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  8. 78 FR 39740 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  9. 76 FR 15988 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  10. 75 FR 43993 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  11. 77 FR 58146 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 959, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451...

  12. 76 FR 40923 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... Bioengineering. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering...

  13. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them.By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity.We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of material entity that application oriented ontologies may use as templates. Our

  14. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  15. Entity resolution in the web of data

    CERN Document Server

    Christophides, Vassilis; Stefanidis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several knowledge bases have been built to enable large-scale knowledge sharing, but also an entity-centric Web search, mixing both structured data and text querying. These knowledge bases offer machine-readable descriptions of real-world entities, e.g., persons, places, published on the Web as Linked Data. However, due to the different information extraction tools and curation policies employed by knowledge bases, multiple, complementary and sometimes conflicting descriptions of the same real-world entities may be provided. Entity resolution aims to identify different descrip

  16. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  17. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  18. Finding abbreviations in biomedical literature: three BioC-compatible modules and four BioC-formatted corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Comeau, Donald C; Yeganova, Lana; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a recently created XML format to share text data and annotations, and an accompanying input/output library to promote interoperability of data and tools for natural language processing of biomedical text. This article reports the use of BioC to address a common challenge in processing biomedical text information-that of frequent entity name abbreviation. We selected three different abbreviation definition identification modules, and used the publicly available BioC code to convert these independent modules into BioC-compatible components that interact seamlessly with BioC-formatted data, and other BioC-compatible modules. In addition, we consider four manually annotated corpora of abbreviations in biomedical text: the Ab3P corpus of 1250 PubMed abstracts, the BIOADI corpus of 1201 PubMed abstracts, the old MEDSTRACT corpus of 199 PubMed(®) citations and the Schwartz and Hearst corpus of 1000 PubMed abstracts. Annotations in these corpora have been re-evaluated by four annotators and their consistency and quality levels have been improved. We converted them to BioC-format and described the representation of the annotations. These corpora are used to measure the three abbreviation-finding algorithms and the results are given. The BioC-compatible modules, when compared with their original form, have no difference in their efficiency, running time or any other comparable aspects. They can be conveniently used as a common pre-processing step for larger multi-layered text-mining endeavors. Database URL: Code and data are available for download at the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Biomedical Applications of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, He; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structure and exceptional phyiscal and chemical properties that lead to many potential applications. Among various applications, biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last three years. In this review, we present an overview of current advances in applications of graphene in biomedicine with focus on drug delivery, cancer therapy and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:22448195

  20. Multilingual biomedical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical information from a domain-specific, multilingual corpus.

  1. Discovering biomedical knowledge from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Jasmin; Engelken, Henriette; Reyle, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical knowledge is to a very large extent represented only in textual form. To make this knowledge accessible to humans and/or further automatic processing, text mining applications have been developed. At the end of this chapter we present an overview of the most important open access applications and their functionality. The main part of the paper is devoted to the major problems with which all such applications have to deal. The first problem is terminology processing, i.e., recognizing biomedical terms and identifying their meanings, at least to a certain degree. The second problem is to bring together information units that are distributed over more than one sentence. The task of coreference resolution consists of identifying the entities to which the text refers in different sentences and in different ways. The third problem we discuss is that of information extraction, in particular, extraction of relational information. The representation of the domain knowledge is an indispensable component of any text mining application. We discuss different types and depths of ontological modeling and how this knowledge helps to accomplish the tasks described above. An overview of ontological resources is given at the end of the chapter.

  2. [The nosological entity bulimia nerviosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J; Cervera Enguix, S

    1991-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at the present moment, two well defined clinical entities among the group of the eating disorders. The psychopathological differentiation of both syndromes has a great importance for diagnosis and therapy. The authors make a phenomenological description, based on case histories of patients with diagnostics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and try to establish an approach to the essential symptomatology of those disorders. The presence of affective symptomatology--depressive, but not exclusively--in the eating behaviour disorders in general and particularly in bulimia nervosa, is nowadays interpreted as an unspecific emotional lability as a response to stressing situations. That is to say, it is a secondary depressive symptomatology, more than a primary mood disorder preceding or underlying bulimia. There is strong evidence in favour of a dysregulation of serotonin metabolism in patients with bulimia nervosa, in the sense of a reduced activity, which manifest itself clinically by binges with food with a high content in carbohydrates. High levels of 5-HT seem to induce increasing feelings of safety, fullness and lead to an interruption of eating. Fluoxetine and this active metabolite are selective inhibitors of the reuptake of 5-HT and their antibulimic effect could be mediated by this mechanism.

  3. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  4. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... separate legal entity) operated by any one of the foregoing as a business undertaking in a particular...

  5. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  6. 31 CFR 595.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 595.303 Section 595.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.303 Entity...

  7. Ranking Entities in Networks via Lefschetz Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    then be ranked according to how essential their positions are in the network by considering the effect of their respective absences. Defining a ranking of a network which takes the individual position of each entity into account has the purpose of assigning different roles to the entities, e.g. agents...

  8. Code-first development with Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Barskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers with some prior experience with the Microsoft .NET framework who want to learn how to use Entity Framework. This book will get you up and running quickly, providing many examples that illustrate all the key concepts of Entity Framework.

  9. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  10. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  11. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  12. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...... affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......-word brand names....

  13. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  14. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  15. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  16. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  17. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  18. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  19. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  20. Radiochemicals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    This volume describes the role of radiochemicals in biomedical research, as tracers in the development of new drugs, their interaction and function with receptor proteins, with the kinetics of binding of hormone - receptor interactions, and their use in cancer research and clinical oncology. The book also aims to identify future trends in this research, the main objective of which is to provide information leading to improvements in the quality of life, and to give readers a basic understanding of the development of new drugs, how they function in relation to receptor proteins and lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. (author)

  1. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  2. Armenian Names of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.

    2007-08-01

    Striking similarities between the Armenian names of visible to the naked eye planets and their ancient Greek names used before 6 - 5 centuries BC are presented. Mercury, for instance, was called Stilbon in Greece which means “the Gleaming” and coincides with Armenian Paylatsou. One of the names of Venus was Phosphoros and in Armenia it is called Lusaber - both of these terms meaning the “Bringer of Light”. Ancient Greeks named the fourth planet Pyroeis meaning “fiery”. The Armenian name of this planet Hrat consists of the word “hur” meaning fire and a suffix “at”. Jupiter's and Saturn's ancient names are considered as well. Moreover, the term planet has its Armenian version being in the use more than 2500 years.

  3. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 300.5 Submission of an entity statement. (a) Determining the type of reporting entity. The entity statement requirements vary by type of reporting entity. For the purposes of these guidelines, there are... determine whether it qualifies to begin reporting as a small emitter. (3) For entities not intending to...

  4. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  5. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  6. Fictional names and fictional discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation I present a critical study of fiction, focusing on the semantics of fictional names and fictional discourse. I am concerned with the issue of whether fictional names need to refer, and also with the related issue of whether fictional characters need to exist, in order to best account for our linguistic practices involving fictional names. Fictional names like ‘Sherlock Holmes’, ‘Anna Karenina’, ‘Emma Woodhouse’ and ‘Don Quixote of La Mancha’ ordinarily occur in diff...

  7. NetiNeti: discovery of scientific names from text using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akella Lakshmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scientific name for an organism can be associated with almost all biological data. Name identification is an important step in many text mining tasks aiming to extract useful information from biological, biomedical and biodiversity text sources. A scientific name acts as an important metadata element to link biological information. Results We present NetiNeti (Name Extraction from Textual Information-Name Extraction for Taxonomic Indexing, a machine learning based approach for recognition of scientific names including the discovery of new species names from text that will also handle misspellings, OCR errors and other variations in names. The system generates candidate names using rules for scientific names and applies probabilistic machine learning methods to classify names based on structural features of candidate names and features derived from their contexts. NetiNeti can also disambiguate scientific names from other names using the contextual information. We evaluated NetiNeti on legacy biodiversity texts and biomedical literature (MEDLINE. NetiNeti performs better (precision = 98.9% and recall = 70.5% compared to a popular dictionary based approach (precision = 97.5% and recall = 54.3% on a 600-page biodiversity book that was manually marked by an annotator. On a small set of PubMed Central’s full text articles annotated with scientific names, the precision and recall values are 98.5% and 96.2% respectively. NetiNeti found more than 190,000 unique binomial and trinomial names in more than 1,880,000 PubMed records when used on the full MEDLINE database. NetiNeti also successfully identifies almost all of the new species names mentioned within web pages. Conclusions We present NetiNeti, a machine learning based approach for identification and discovery of scientific names. The system implementing the approach can be accessed at http://namefinding.ubio.org.

  8. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma. Makkar M, Gill MK, Singh DP. Department of Pathology, Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, India. Abstract. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells.

  9. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stroma, along with numerous histiocytes having foamy cytoplasm, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and areas of hemorrhage [Figures 1‑3]. No evidence of malignancy was present. Serological marker for carcinoembryonic antigen was. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual. Pathological Entity Mimicking Endometrial.

  10. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  11. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average gross... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified...

  12. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  13. Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Biomedical Sciences publishes in all aspects of biomedical research sciences. Both basic and clinical research papers are welcomed. Vol 23 (2007). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Phytochemical And ...

  14. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although each element in the periodic table is unique due to its atomic number, it is obviously convenient to assign an appropriate name, and a symbol. One can then systematically name and represent compounds, from simple salts to coordination complexes. It is a generally accepted convention that the discoverer of an ...

  15. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  16. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  17. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  18. Biomedical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Cruz, Marcos A E; Tovani, Camila B; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications. The chemical and physical properties of the surface of these materials allow their use in diagnosis, biosensing and bioimaging devices, drug delivery systems, and bone substitute implants. The toxicology of these particles is also discussed in the light of a new field referred to as nanotoxicology that studies the surface effects emerging from nanostructured materials.

  19. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  20. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  1. Human-machine interaction to disambiguate entities in unstructured text and structured datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kevin; Davenport, Jack

    2017-05-01

    Creating entity network graphs is a manual, time consuming process for an intelligence analyst. Beyond the traditional big data problems of information overload, individuals are often referred to by multiple names and shifting titles as they advance in their organizations over time which quickly makes simple string or phonetic alignment methods for entities insufficient. Conversely, automated methods for relationship extraction and entity disambiguation typically produce questionable results with no way for users to vet results, correct mistakes or influence the algorithm's future results. We present an entity disambiguation tool, DRADIS, which aims to bridge the gap between human-centric and machinecentric methods. DRADIS automatically extracts entities from multi-source datasets and models them as a complex set of attributes and relationships. Entities are disambiguated across the corpus using a hierarchical model executed in Spark allowing it to scale to operational sized data. Resolution results are presented to the analyst complete with sourcing information for each mention and relationship allowing analysts to quickly vet the correctness of results as well as correct mistakes. Corrected results are used by the system to refine the underlying model allowing analysts to optimize the general model to better deal with their operational data. Providing analysts with the ability to validate and correct the model to produce a system they can trust enables them to better focus their time on producing higher quality analysis products.

  2. Use of morphological analysis in protein name recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Kudo, Taku; Konagaya, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2004-12-01

    Protein name recognition aims to detect each and every protein names appearing in a PubMed abstract. The task is not simple, as the graphic word boundary (space separator) assumed in conventional preprocessing does not necessarily coincide with the protein name boundary. Such boundary disagreement caused by tokenization ambiguity has usually been ignored in conventional preprocessing of general English. In this paper, we argue that boundary disagreement poses serious limitations in biomedical English text processing, not to mention protein name recognition. Our key idea for dealing with the boundary disagreement is to apply techniques used in Japanese morphological analysis where there are no word boundaries. Having evaluated the proposed method with GENIA corpus 3.02, we obtain F-measure of 69.01 on a strict criterion and 79.32 on a relaxed criterion. The result is comparable to other published work in protein name recognition, without resorting to manually prepared ad hoc feature engineering. Further, compared to the conventional preprocessing, the use of morphological analysis as preprocessing improves the performance of protein name recognition and reduces the execution time.

  3. Chadwick named college communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Heather Riley Chadwick of Blacksburg, Va., has been named communications manager for the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech. Previously, she served as the marketing and communications manager for Virginia Tech's Office of Student Programs.

  4. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  5. What's in a Name Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2015-03-01

    When solid state physics emerged in the 1940s, its name was controversial. By the 1970s, some physicists came to prefer "condensed matter" as a way to identify the discipline of physics examining complex matter. Physicists and historians often gloss this transition as a simple rebranding of a problematically named field, but attention to the motives behind these names reveals telling nuances. "Solid state physics" and "condensed matter physics"—along with "materials science," which also emerged during the Cold War—were named in accordance with ideological commitments about the identity of physics. Historians, therefore, can profitably understand solid state and condensed matter physics as distinct disciplines. Condensed matter, rather than being continuous with solid state physics, should be considered alongside materials science as an outlet for specific frustrations with the way solid state was organized.

  6. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  7. Biomedical engineering - A means to add new dimension to medicine and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is an evolving science that seeks to insert technically oriented and trained personnel to assist medical professionals in solving technological problems in the pursuit of innovations in the delivery of health care. Consequently, engineering solutions are brought to bear on problems that previously were outside the training of physicians and beyond the understanding or appreciation of the conventionally educated electrical or mechanical engineers. This physician/scientist/engineer team has a capability to extend medicine and research far beyond the capability of a single entity operating alone. How biomedical engineering has added a new dimension to medical science at the Kennedy Space Center is described.

  8. Secure management of biomedical data with cryptographic hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations.

  9. 15 CFR 744.16 - Procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for requesting removal or modification of an Entity List entity. 744.16 Section 744.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT...

  10. Extracting semantically enriched events from biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Makoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into event-based text mining from the biomedical literature has been growing in popularity to facilitate the development of advanced biomedical text mining systems. Such technology permits advanced search, which goes beyond document or sentence-based retrieval. However, existing event-based systems typically ignore additional information within the textual context of events that can determine, amongst other things, whether an event represents a fact, hypothesis, experimental result or analysis of results, whether it describes new or previously reported knowledge, and whether it is speculated or negated. We refer to such contextual information as meta-knowledge. The automatic recognition of such information can permit the training of systems allowing finer-grained searching of events according to the meta-knowledge that is associated with them. Results Based on a corpus of 1,000 MEDLINE abstracts, fully manually annotated with both events and associated meta-knowledge, we have constructed a machine learning-based system that automatically assigns meta-knowledge information to events. This system has been integrated into EventMine, a state-of-the-art event extraction system, in order to create a more advanced system (EventMine-MK that not only extracts events from text automatically, but also assigns five different types of meta-knowledge to these events. The meta-knowledge assignment module of EventMine-MK performs with macro-averaged F-scores in the range of 57-87% on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task corpus. EventMine-MK has been evaluated on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task subtask of detecting negated and speculated events. Our results show that EventMine-MK can outperform other state-of-the-art systems that participated in this task. Conclusions We have constructed the first practical system that extracts both events and associated, detailed meta-knowledge information from biomedical literature. The automatically assigned

  11. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  12. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  13. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  14. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  15. Summer Biomedical Engineering Institute 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloatch, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The five problems studied for biomedical applications of NASA technology are reported. The studies reported are: design modification of electrophoretic equipment, operating room environment control, hematological viscometry, handling system for iridium, and indirect blood pressure measuring device.

  16. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  17. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  18. Chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L.E.S.; Chen, M.; XINF, L.Y.; Guo, X.F.; Zhao, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is a rather abundant material, which has been widely used in food industrial and bioengineering aspects, including in encapsulating active food ingredients, in enzyme immobilization, and as a carrier for drug delivery, due to its significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradable, biocompatible, bioactive and polycationic. This review discussed preparation and applications of chitosan nanoparticles in the biomedical engineering field, namely as a drug delivery carrier for biopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  20. Considering biomedical/CAM treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, JX; Widjaja, F; Choi, JE; Hendren, RL

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used to treat children with psychiatric disorders. In this review, MedLine was searched for various biomedical/CAM treatments in combination with the key words "children," "adolescents," "psychiatric disorders," and "complementary alternative medicine." The biomedical/CAM treatments most thoroughly researched were omega-3 fatty acids, melatonin, and memantine. Those with the fewest published studies were N-acetylcysteine, vitamin B 12 , a...

  1. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pérez, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This final year project presents the design principles and prototype implementation of BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System), a flexible software system which provides an infrastructure to manage all information required by biomedical research projects.The BIMS project was initiated with the motivation to solve several limitations in medical data acquisition of some research projects, in which Universitat Pompeu Fabra takes part. These limitations,based on the lack of control mechan...

  2. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  3. Modified chitosans for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalınca, Zülal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the suitability of chitosan and some of its derivatives for some chosen biomedical applications. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chitosan-tripolyphosphate and ascorbyl chitosan were synthesized and characterized for specific biomedical applications in line with their chemical functionalities. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chi-graft-PNVI, was synthesized by two methods; via an N-protection route and without N-pr...

  4. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate Reporting Entity A... Part 420—Separate Reporting Entity Subject to the following conditions, one or more aggregating entity(ies) (e.g., parent, subsidiary, or organizational component) in a reporting entity, either separately...

  5. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  6. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  7. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  8. The Name Authority Cooperative/Name Authority File Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report reviews the background and rationale for a cooperative authority file building system and describes the services, products, and operation of the new Name Authority Cooperative (NACO). The document defines the relationship between NACO, other Library of Congress (LC) cooperative projects, and the Linked Systems Project (LSP). The…

  9. A Bootstrapping Based Approach for Open Geo-entity Relation Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extracting spatial relations and semantic relations between two geo-entities from Web texts, asks robust and effective solutions. This paper puts forward a novel approach: firstly, the characteristics of terms (part-of-speech, position and distance are analyzed by means of bootstrapping. Secondly, the weight of each term is calculated and the keyword is picked out as the clue of geo-entity relations. Thirdly, the geo-entity pairs and their keywords are organized into structured information. Finally, an experiment is conducted with Baidubaike and Stanford CoreNLP. The study shows that the presented method can automatically explore part of the lexical features and find additional relational terms which neither the domain expert knowledge nor large scale corpora need. Moreover, compared with three classical frequency statistics methods, namely Frequency, TF-IDF and PPMI, the precision and recall are improved about 5% and 23% respectively.

  10. Financial Management of Economic Entity from the Perspective of Alternative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the study the financial management presented is divided into three directions, namely financial analysis, financial planning and financial strategy, focusing on increasing the quality of financial management conducted at the economic entity by identifying an easier possible use for a system of alternative decisions in order to increase the profitability. The study also aims to identify new meanings of financial accounting information system in performing the managerial act through alternative decisions, trying to highlight the need to create a management tool generator of variants possible to be adopted with an impact on their application in the economic entity as a whole. Based on qualitative research on the financial management act, it is revealed the importance of the financial management act manifested in the economic entity and also its quality improvement through simulations targeting the management through budget system.

  11. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this proposed rule, a UBE includes... unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more... System institutions to organize entities under State law to engage in business activity. However...

  12. 31 CFR 598.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 598.303 Section 598.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS..., organization, network, group, or subgroup, or any form of business collaboration. ...

  13. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... business is outside the United States or its equity securities are primarily traded on one or more foreign...

  14. Xanthogranulomatous endometritis: an unusual pathological entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and ...

  15. 77 FR 28250 - Entity List Additions; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 744 [Docket No. 111027661-2429-02] RIN 0694-AF43 Entity List Additions; Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration, Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce, Phone: (202) 482-5991, Fax: (202) 482...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not... winning bid on any of the licenses in this subpart. (3) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs, may use a bidding credit of 15 percent...

  17. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter. ...

  18. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.303...

  19. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... three years. This definition applies only with respect to licenses in Block C (710-716 MHz and 740-746... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium...

  20. 42 CFR 6.3 - Eligible entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (relating to grants for health services for the homeless); and (4) Section 340A of the Act (relating to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible entities. 6.3 Section 6.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT...

  1. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non-word...

  2. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  3. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  4. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  5. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Names of the Heavier Elements. Jitendra K Bera. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Jitendra K Bera1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  7. New light on names and naming of dark taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ryberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing proportion of fungal species and lineages are known only from sequence data and cannot be linked to any physical specimen or resolved taxonomic name. Such fungi are often referred to as “dark taxa” or “dark matter fungi”. As they lack a taxonomic identity in the form of a name, they are regularly ignored in many important contexts, for example in legalisation and species counts. It is therefore very urgent to find a system to also deal with these fungi. Here, issues relating to the taxonomy and nomenclature of dark taxa are discussed and a number of questions that the mycological community needs to consider before deciding on what system/s to implement are highlighted.

  8. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Abdul Wahab; Azam, Farooque; Qamar, Usman

    2015-01-01

    The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  9. Coreference annotation and resolution in the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus of biomedical journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Choi, Miji Joo-Young; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Panteleyeva, Natalya; Verspoor, Karin; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2017-08-17

    Coreference resolution is the task of finding strings in text that have the same referent as other strings. Failures of coreference resolution are a common cause of false negatives in information extraction from the scientific literature. In order to better understand the nature of the phenomenon of coreference in biomedical publications and to increase performance on the task, we annotated the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus with coreference relations. The corpus was manually annotated with coreference relations, including identity and appositives for all coreferring base noun phrases. The OntoNotes annotation guidelines, with minor adaptations, were used. Interannotator agreement ranges from 0.480 (entity-based CEAF) to 0.858 (Class-B3), depending on the metric that is used to assess it. The resulting corpus adds nearly 30,000 annotations to the previous release of the CRAFT corpus. Differences from related projects include a much broader definition of markables, connection to extensive annotation of several domain-relevant semantic classes, and connection to complete syntactic annotation. Tool performance was benchmarked on the data. A publicly available out-of-the-box, general-domain coreference resolution system achieved an F-measure of 0.14 (B3), while a simple domain-adapted rule-based system achieved an F-measure of 0.42. An ensemble of the two reached F of 0.46. Following the IDENTITY chains in the data would add 106,263 additional named entities in the full 97-paper corpus, for an increase of 76% percent in the semantic classes of the eight ontologies that have been annotated in earlier versions of the CRAFT corpus. The project produced a large data set for further investigation of coreference and coreference resolution in the scientific literature. The work raised issues in the phenomenon of reference in this domain and genre, and the paper proposes that many mentions that would be considered generic in the general domain are not

  10. Using Nanoinformatics Methods for Automatically Identifying Relevant Nanotoxicology Entities from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a “proof of concept” that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  11. An analysis on the entity annotations in biological corpora [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2o0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Neves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Collection of documents annotated with semantic entities and relationships are crucial resources to support development and evaluation of text mining solutions for the biomedical domain. Here I present an overview of 36 corpora and show an analysis on the semantic annotations they contain. Annotations for entity types were classified into six semantic groups and an overview on the semantic entities which can be found in each corpus is shown. Results show that while some semantic entities, such as genes, proteins and chemicals are consistently annotated in many collections, corpora available for diseases, variations and mutations are still few, in spite of their importance in the biological domain.

  12. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  13. Bibliographic Entity Automatic Recognition and Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)766022

    This master thesis reports an applied machine learning research internship done at digital library of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The way an author’s name may vary in its representation across scientific publications creates ambiguity when it comes to uniquely identifying an author; In the database of any scientific digital library, the same full name variation can be used by more than one author. This may occur even between authors from the same research affiliation. In this work, we built a machine learning based author name disambiguation solution. The approach consists in learning a distance function from a ground-truth data, blocking publications of broadly similar author names, and clustering the publications using a semi-supervised strategy within each of the blocks. The main contributions of this work are twofold; first, improving the distance model by taking into account the (estimated) ethnicity of the author’s full name. Indeed, names from different ethnicities, for e...

  14. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...... of the right way'. Care for the other is argued for as a social responsibility, but rather becomes a sign of mistrust and assimilation. The love shown from the organization becomes assimilation - it wants to own you; absorb you - all in the name of love. The paradox according to Legge (1999) is therefore...... that the more we value an employee as a resource, the more it leads to its consumption rather than its development. Following Levinas, this paper argues that this assimilating need to know and control the other, to illuminate or manipulate is not ethical at all; it has nothing to do with our original experience...

  15. Building an Entity-Centric Stream Filtering Test Collection for TREC 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    consecutive hours from October 2011 through April 2012. It contains over 400M documents, which we augmented with named entity classification...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...than IR. We also constructed an entirely new stream corpus spanning 4,973 consecutive hours from October 2011 through April 2012. It contains over 400M

  16. Innovations in Biomedical Engineering 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Tkacz, Ewaryst; Paszenda, Zbigniew; Piętka, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the “Innovations in Biomedical Engineering IBE’2016” Conference held on October 16–18, 2016 in Poland, discussing recent research on innovations in biomedical engineering. The past decade has seen the dynamic development of more and more sophisticated technologies, including biotechnologies, and more general technologies applied in the area of life sciences. As such the book covers the broadest possible spectrum of subjects related to biomedical engineering innovations. Divided into four parts, it presents state-of-the-art achievements in: • engineering of biomaterials, • modelling and simulations in biomechanics, • informatics in medicine • signal analysis The book helps bridge the gap between technological and methodological engineering achievements on the one hand and clinical requirements in the three major areas diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation on the other.

  17. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  18. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles

  19. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hamidi, Dr, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity.

  20. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  1. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  2. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  3. Checking the identity of entities by machine algorithms: the next step to the Hungarian National Namespace

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Bánki; Tibor Mészáros; Márton Németh; András Simon

    2016-01-01

    The redundancy of entities coming from different sources caused problems during the building of the personal name authorities for the Petőfi Museum of Literature. It was a top priority to cleanse and unite classificatory records which have different data content but pertain to the same person without losing any data. As a first step in 2013, we found identities in approximately 80,000 name records so we merged the data content of these records. In the second phase a much more complicated algo...

  4. Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences.

  5. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  6. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no erroneous...

  7. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a...

  8. Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Biomedical nanomaterials from design to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Nanomaterials brings together the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare in a single source. Each chapter covers important and new information in the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  10. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists

  11. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  14. Shining Future of Biomedical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong

    2017-10-04

    Lihong V. Wang summarizes his tenure as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomedical Optics and introduces his successor, Brian Pogue, who will assume the role in January 2018. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  16. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  17. Journal of Biomedical Investigation: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following instructions relating to submissions must be adhered to. Failure to conform can lead to delay in publication. Preferred method of submission. Manuscripts may be submitted by post (Editor-in-chief Journal of Biomedical Investigation, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine College ...

  18. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  19. Statistics in three biomedical journals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilčík, Tomáš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2003), s. 39-43 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/03/1381 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : statistics * usage * biomedical journals Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  20. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  1. African Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of biomedical Research was founded in 1998 as a joint project between a private communications outfit (Laytal Communications) and ... is aimed at being registered in future as a non-governmental organization involved in the promotion of scientific proceedings and publications in developing countries.

  2. Fossil quality and naming dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2008-12-23

    The intense interest in dinosaurs through the past 30 years might have led to an increase in poor practice in naming new species. A review of the data shows that the reverse is the case. For 130 years, from the 1820s to the 1950s, most new species of dinosaurs were based on scrappy and incomplete material. After 1960, the majority of new species have been based on complete skulls or skeletons, and sometimes on materials from several individuals. This switch in the quality of type specimens corresponds to the recent explosive renaissance of interest in dinosaurs, during which the number of new species named per year has risen, from three or four in the 1950s, to thirty or more today. The pattern of specimen quality varies by continent, with the highest proportion of new species based on good material in North America, then Asia, then South America, then Africa and finally Europe. This ranking reflects a complex pattern of perhaps overstudy in Europe, immensely rich reserves of new dinosaur materials in North America and Asia, and a relative paucity in South America and Africa.

  3. Erratum: Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    A correction was made to: Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications. There was an error with an author's given name. The author's name was corrected to: Katye M. Fichter from: Kathryn M. Fichter.

  4. A fuzzy co-clustering algorithm for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongli; Wu, Shuai; Liu, Zhizhong; Chao, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Fuzzy co-clustering extends co-clustering by assigning membership functions to both the objects and the features, and is helpful to improve clustering accurarcy of biomedical data. In this paper, we introduce a new fuzzy co-clustering algorithm based on information bottleneck named ibFCC. The ibFCC formulates an objective function which includes a distance function that employs information bottleneck theory to measure the distance between feature data point and the feature cluster centroid. Many experiments were conducted on five biomedical datasets, and the ibFCC was compared with such prominent fuzzy (co-)clustering algorithms as FCM, FCCM, RFCC and FCCI. Experimental results showed that ibFCC could yield high quality clusters and was better than all these methods in terms of accuracy.

  5. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  6. A novel biomedical image indexing and retrieval system via deep preference learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Orgun, Mehmet A; Yu, Zhezhou

    2018-05-01

    The traditional biomedical image retrieval methods as well as content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods originally designed for non-biomedical images either only consider using pixel and low-level features to describe an image or use deep features to describe images but still leave a lot of room for improving both accuracy and efficiency. In this work, we propose a new approach, which exploits deep learning technology to extract the high-level and compact features from biomedical images. The deep feature extraction process leverages multiple hidden layers to capture substantial feature structures of high-resolution images and represent them at different levels of abstraction, leading to an improved performance for indexing and retrieval of biomedical images. We exploit the current popular and multi-layered deep neural networks, namely, stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAE) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) to represent the discriminative features of biomedical images by transferring the feature representations and parameters of pre-trained deep neural networks from another domain. Moreover, in order to index all the images for finding the similarly referenced images, we also introduce preference learning technology to train and learn a kind of a preference model for the query image, which can output the similarity ranking list of images from a biomedical image database. To the best of our knowledge, this paper introduces preference learning technology for the first time into biomedical image retrieval. We evaluate the performance of two powerful algorithms based on our proposed system and compare them with those of popular biomedical image indexing approaches and existing regular image retrieval methods with detailed experiments over several well-known public biomedical image databases. Based on different criteria for the evaluation of retrieval performance, experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the state

  7. Biomedical imaging ontologies: A survey and proposal for future work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ontology is one strategy for promoting interoperability of heterogeneous data through consistent tagging. An ontology is a controlled structured vocabulary consisting of general terms (such as "cell" or "image" or "tissue" or "microscope" that form the basis for such tagging. These terms are designed to represent the types of entities in the domain of reality that the ontology has been devised to capture; the terms are provided with logical defi nitions thereby also supporting reasoning over the tagged data. Aim: This paper provides a survey of the biomedical imaging ontologies that have been developed thus far. It outlines the challenges, particularly faced by ontologies in the fields of histopathological imaging and image analysis, and suggests a strategy for addressing these challenges in the example domain of quantitative histopathology imaging. Results and Conclusions: The ultimate goal is to support the multiscale understanding of disease that comes from using interoperable ontologies to integrate imaging data with clinical and genomics data.

  8. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs...... for the protocol. All along this process, we discover vulnerabilities and unstated assumptions of the protocol. As the method is intuition based, the quality of results depends on the expertise of the security analyst, however, the structured intuition has two major advantages: Firstly we get a precise...

  9. Minimize the Percentage of Noise in Biomedical Images Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET.

  10. An improved rank based disease prediction using web navigation patterns on bio-medical databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying machine learning techniques to on-line biomedical databases is a challenging task, as this data is collected from large number of sources and it is multi-dimensional. Also retrieval of relevant document from large repository such as gene document takes more processing time and an increased false positive rate. Generally, the extraction of biomedical document is based on the stream of prior observations of gene parameters taken at different time periods. Traditional web usage models such as Markov, Bayesian and Clustering models are sensitive to analyze the user navigation patterns and session identification in online biomedical database. Moreover, most of the document ranking models on biomedical database are sensitive to sparsity and outliers. In this paper, a novel user recommendation system was implemented to predict the top ranked biomedical documents using the disease type, gene entities and user navigation patterns. In this recommendation system, dynamic session identification, dynamic user identification and document ranking techniques were used to extract the highly relevant disease documents on the online PubMed repository. To verify the performance of the proposed model, the true positive rate and runtime of the model was compared with that of traditional static models such as Bayesian and Fuzzy rank. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed ranking model is better than the traditional models.

  11. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  12. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  13. Acute steroid myopathy: a highly overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Michal; Schattner, Ami; Kozak, Natasha; Mate, Andras; Berrebi, Alain; Shvidel, Lev

    2018-02-15

    Myopathy in patients being treated with corticosteroids is known primarily among chronically-treated patients or in critically ill and mechanically-ventilated patients receiving corticosteroids, often in high doses. To highlight the entity of acute, early-onset corticosteroid-treatment-associated myopathy and its characteristics. Reporting our experience with four patients and reviewing all published reports of myopathy developing ≤14 days of initiating corticosteroid-treatment. Acute corticosteroid myopathy (ASM) exists, though the syndrome appears to be rare. It is characterized by unpredictability and heterogeneity, sometimes developing within 1-3 days, after a single dose, which may not be high and administered by varied routes. Proximal limb muscle weakness is the most common form, but distal limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles may be involved. Steroid cessation often leads to improvement/resolution, but irreversibility may occur. A high index of suspicion for the possibility of ASM is necessary, to ensure drug discontinuation and recovery. This is particularly true since the entity is not widely recognized and its symptoms are often erroneously interpreted as due to the patient's underlying disease.

  14. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name...

  15. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  16. Fikční jména, fikční entity a role předstírání: chvála abstinence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 53 (2016), s. 93-101 ISSN 0862-8440 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : fictional names * fictional entities * fictional discourse * abstract entities * pretense Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0259936

  17. Challenges with the financial reporting of biological assets by public entities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Scott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fair value accounting of biological assets in the public sector was introduced with the adoption of the public-sector-specific accounting standard: Generally Recognised Accounting Practice (GRAP 101. The public sector currently reports on various bases of accounting. Public entities and municipalities report in terms of accrual accounting, and government departments report on the modified cash basis. The lack of a uniform basis of accounting impedes the comparability of financial information. The implementation of GRAP 101 in the public sector is important in facilitating comparability of financial information regarding biological assets. This paper is based on a content analysis of the annual reports of 10 relevant public entities in South Africa and specifically details the challenges that public entities encounter with the application of GRAP 101. These challenges, and how they were addressed by a public entity that adopted and applied GRAP 101, namely the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative South Africa – Eastern Cape (AsgiSA-EC, are documented in this research.

  18. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where ...

  19. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  20. Biomedical waste management: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra R.R Raj

    2009-01-01

    The importance of waste disposal management is a very essential and integral part of any health care system. Health care providers have been ignorant or they did not essentially know the basic aspect of the importance and effective management of hospital waste.This overview of biomedical waste disposal/management gives a thorough insight into the aspects of the guidelines to be followed and adopted according to the international WHO approved methodology for a cleaner, disease-free, and health...

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krustev, P.; Ruskov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe different biomedical application using magnetic nanoparticles. Over the past decade, a number of biomedical applications have begun to emerge for magnetic nanoparticles of differing sizes, shapes, and compositions. Areas under investigation include targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection, gene therapy, high throughput genetic screening, biochemical sensing, and rapid toxicity cleansing. Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic behavior, magnetizing strongly under an applied field. In the second case (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) there is no permanent magnetism once the field is removed. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles are highly attractive as in vivo probes or in vitro tools to extract information on biochemical systems. The optical properties of magnetic metal nanoparticles are spectacular and, therefore, have promoted a great deal of excitement during the last few decades. Many applications as MRI imaging and hyperthermia rely on the use of iron oxide particles. Moreover magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies are also applied to hyperthermia and have enabled tumor specific contrast enhancement in MRI. Other promising biomedical applications are connected with tumor cells treated with magnetic nanoparticles with X-ray ionizing radiation, which employs magnetic nanoparticles as a complementary radiate source inside the tumor. (authors)

  3. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  4. Superhydrophobic Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air state at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors’ future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic surfaces for biomedical applications. PMID:27449946

  5. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K.; Mochalin, Vadym N.

    2017-06-01

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics—two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  6. The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology, a medical entity for educational purposes to serve sick patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, G; Simon, E G; Perrotin, D; Chandenier, J

    2014-06-01

    The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is a movable entity of the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Tours University Hospital, France. In contrast to the usual prerogatives of biomedical laboratories, the Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is requested to intervene directly at bedside in various clinical departments, or even outside the hospital facility. Although its actions are of course primarily devoted to specialized diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the Mobile Team also plays an important educational role in the medical training of undergraduate or graduate students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Multifunctional Magnetic-fluorescent Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovich Yury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanotechnology is a fast-growing area, involving the fabrication and use of nano-sized materials and devices. Various nanocomposite materials play a number of important roles in modern science and technology. Magnetic and fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications. It is expected that the combination of magnetic and fluorescent properties in one nanocomposite would enable the engineering of unique multifunctional nanoscale devices, which could be manipulated using external magnetic fields. The aim of this review is to present an overview of bimodal “two-in-one” magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite materials which combine both magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity, in particular those with potential applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine. There is a great necessity for the development of these multifunctional nanocomposites, but there are some difficulties and challenges to overcome in their fabrication such as quenching of the fluorescent entity by the magnetic core. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites include a variety of materials including silica-based, dye-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots-magnetic nanoparticle composites. The classification and main synthesis strategies, along with approaches for the fabrication of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites, are considered. The current and potential biomedical uses, including biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic bioseparation, nanomedicine and bio- and chemo-sensoring, of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites are also discussed.

  8. On the Meaning of Name in Plato’s Cratylus Dialogue and the Epic Tales of Dede Korkut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vefa Taşdelen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being given a name and giving a name are the most basic features of human being. He gives a name to himself as well as other entities in the universe he lives; recognizes them with names and provides introduction; establishes a relationship with them over the names. Everything manifesting itself to human consciousness in the universe and having a relationship with people have a name. From this perspective, giving a name is a problem with language and the origin of language. Asking the origin of names is to ask the origin of language; asking the relationship between names with regard to objects is to ask the relationship between language and reality and increasingly truth. The first work on names hence the philosophy of language was of Plato. Cratylus dialogue among his age of maturity dialogues where he developed his idealistic philosophy was the first work on names and hence the philosophy of language.  In this dialogue, two points of view face each other. One of them is conventionalist approach of Hermogenes and the other is naturalist approach of Cratylus.   In this frame, the answer will be sought to the following questions: In Tales of Dede Korkut, (1 What is the function of names? (2 How many correct names does a thing/object have? (3 What kind of relationship can be achieved between objects and names? (4 Who gives the names?

  9. Biomedical foundation supports technology aimed at destroying cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    A new technology, using electric pulses to destroy cancer tissue and named by NASA Tech Briefs as one of seven key technological breakthroughs of 2007, is receiving additional support aimed at moving the procedure to the marketplace. One of its lead developers, Rafael V. Davalos, a faculty member of the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (SBES), received a $240,000 grant from the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation and $25,000 from the Wake Forest Com...

  10. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  11. Photoacoustics, thermoacoustics, and acousto-optics for biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M-X; Elson, D S; Li, R; Dunsby, C; Eckersley, R J

    2010-01-01

    Recently there have been significant advances in developing hybrid techniques combining electromagnetic waves with ultrasound for biomedical imaging, namely photoacoustic, thermoacoustic, and acousto-optic (or ultrasound modulated optical) tomography. All three techniques take advantage of tissue contrast offered by electromagnetic (EM) waves, while achieving good spatial resolution in deeper tissue facilitated by ultrasound. In this review the principles of the three techniques are introduced. A description of existing experimental and image reconstruction techniques is provided. Some recent key developments are highlighted and current issues in each of the areas are discussed.

  12. Recognition and naming of famous buildings: Italian normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Concetta; Marianetti, Massimo; Fratino, Mariangela; Montemurro, Mirella; Vanacore, Nicola; Amabile, Giuseppe Amadio

    2010-08-01

    Semantically unique items are concrete entities characterized by a unique cluster of semantic information. In this field, neuropsychology has always given more attention to faces than to other kind of stimuli. An important category that has been largely neglected so far is famous buildings. A total of 200 healthy Italian adults with age, sex and education homogenously distributed across subgroups were administered a famous buildings naming and recognition test, which assessed both visual and verbal modalities. The test was divided in seven sections; norms were calculated taking into account demographic variables such as age, sex and education. Multiple regression analyses showed that education influenced significantly the performance on all subtests; age had a significant effect for five subtests; sex for three subtests. Adjusted scores were used to determine inferential cutoff scores and to compute equivalent scores.

  13. Leveraging Pattern Semantics for Extracting Entities in Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fangbo; Zhao, Bo; Fuxman, Ariel; Li, Yang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity Extraction is a process of identifying meaningful entities from text documents. In enterprises, extracting entities improves enterprise efficiency by facilitating numerous applications, including search, recommendation, etc. However, the problem is particularly challenging on enterprise domains due to several reasons. First, the lack of redundancy of enterprise entities makes previous web-based systems like NELL and OpenIE not effective, since using only high-precision/low-recall patterns like those systems would miss the majority of sparse enterprise entities, while using more low-precision patterns in sparse setting also introduces noise drastically. Second, semantic drift is common in enterprises (“Blue” refers to “Windows Blue”), such that public signals from the web cannot be directly applied on entities. Moreover, many internal entities never appear on the web. Sparse internal signals are the only source for discovering them. To address these challenges, we propose an end-to-end framework for extracting entities in enterprises, taking the input of enterprise corpus and limited seeds to generate a high-quality entity collection as output. We introduce the novel concept of Semantic Pattern Graph to leverage public signals to understand the underlying semantics of lexical patterns, reinforce pattern evaluation using mined semantics, and yield more accurate and complete entities. Experiments on Microsoft enterprise data show the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26705540

  14. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  15. Malignant struma ovarii: a rare oncologic entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Frederico Paes; Mendonca, Sandro Bichara; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    Struma ovarii (SO) malignant is a rare ovarian teratoid tumor, consisting predominantly of thyroid tissue. It has low incidence and a few cases described by the literature. Usually appears in the 4th or 5th decade of life. Generally they are diagnosed after surgery, being the diagnostic reserved for the lesions on the ectopic thyroid tissue based on cellular atypia, mitotic activity, capsular invasion and metastases. Due to its rarity,it does not still have a consensus about the best therapeutical management and protocol of accompaniment for patients with this neoplastic entity. This article reports a case of a patient with malignant S O, reviewing the relevant aspects of the literature. (author)

  16. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: An Exceedingly Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard José Lopes Azevedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enterocolitis is an exceptionally rare condition with few described cases in the literature, representing the least frequent manifestation of the wide spectrum of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. We describe a case of a young male patient presenting with a panmural form of the disease, manifested by abdominal pain, distention, and watery diarrhea with 4 days of evolution, bowel wall thickening, and ascites. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual presentation form of this entity. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its nonspecific symptoms, associated with the absence of standardized histological criteria, hence requiring a high level of suspicion. There is also no consensus regarding treatment: it should be individualized according to the patient's age and severity of symptoms.

  17. Lipedema: a clinical entity distinct from lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkin, G H; Miller, T A

    1994-11-01

    In a review of 250 cases of lymphedema of the lower extremity, 9 patients were noted to share unique similarities in their history and physical findings. Although these patients had mild swelling in their pretibial areas and were all referred with a diagnosis of lymphedema of the legs, their findings differed significantly from the usual patient with either congenital or acquired lymphedema. Notably, the lower extremity swelling was always bilateral and symmetrical in nature and never involved the feet. Skin changes characteristic of lymphedema were not found, and consistent fat pads were present anterior to the lateral malleoli in each patient. These findings are representative of a clinical entity known as lipedema, which is distinct from lymphedema and for which treatment may be different.

  18. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  19. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  20. Modelling of Argon Cold Atmospheric Plasmas for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Plasmas for biomedical applications are one of the newest fields of plasma utilization. Especially high is the interest toward plasma usage in medicine. Promising results are achieved in blood coagulation, wound healing, treatment of some forms of cancer, diabetic complications, etc. However, the investigations of the biomedical applications from biological and medical viewpoint are much more advanced than the studies on the dynamics of the plasma. In this work we aim to address some specific challenges in the field of plasma modelling, arising from biomedical applications - what are the plasma reactive species’ and electrical fields’ spatial distributions as well as their production mechanisms; what are the fluxes and energies of the various components of the plasma delivers to the treated surfaces; what is the gas flow pattern? The focus is on two devices, namely the capacitive coupled plasma jet and the microwave surface wave sustained discharge. The devices are representatives of the so called cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs). These are discharges characterized by low gas temperature - less than 40°C at the point of application - and non-equilibrium chemistry.

  1. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  2. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  3. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Csongor CSŐSZ; Partenie DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-01-01

    At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation appli...

  4. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  5. WCF multi-layer services development with Entity framework

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Mike

    2014-01-01

    If you are a C#, VB.NET, or C++ developer and want to get started with WCF and Entity Framework, then this book is for you. Competence in Entity Framework will be needed to follow the examples in the book, but experience in creating WCF services using Entity Framework is not necessary. Developers and architects evaluating SOA implementation technologies for their company will find this book useful.

  6. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R O Payne

    Full Text Available The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed

  7. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  8. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing 3 H-AMS to measure 3 H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied 14 C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of 3 H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform 3 H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for 14 C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in 14 C-tagged form. A 3 H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds

  9. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  10. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  11. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  12. Biomedical waste management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra R.R Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of waste disposal management is a very essential and integral part of any health care system. Health care providers have been ignorant or they did not essentially know the basic aspect of the importance and effective management of hospital waste.This overview of biomedical waste disposal/management gives a thorough insight into the aspects of the guidelines to be followed and adopted according to the international WHO approved methodology for a cleaner, disease-free, and healthier medical services to the populace, i.e., to the hospital employees, patients, and society.

  13. Review of Biomedical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaccio Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: 'Biomedical Image Processing', by Thomas M. Deserno, which is published by Springer-Verlag. Salient information that will be useful to decide whether the book is relevant to topics of interest to the reader, and whether it might be suitable as a course textbook, are presented in the review. This includes information about the book details, a summary, the suitability of the text in course and research work, the framework of the book, its specific content, and conclusions.

  14. Luminescent nanodiamonds for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Jana M; van Vreden, Caryn; Reilly, David J; Brown, Louise J; Rabeau, James R; King, Nicholas J C

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, nanodiamonds have emerged from primarily an industrial and mechanical applications base, to potentially underpinning sophisticated new technologies in biomedical and quantum science. Nanodiamonds are relatively inexpensive, biocompatible, easy to surface functionalise and optically stable. This combination of physical properties are ideally suited to biological applications, including intracellular labelling and tracking, extracellular drug delivery and adsorptive detection of bioactive molecules. Here we describe some of the methods and challenges for processing nanodiamond materials, detection schemes and some of the leading applications currently under investigation.

  15. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  16. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Entity Registration

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains the information available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for those entities registered to do business with the Federal government...

  17. INFORMATION AND STRATEGIC DECISIONS IN ECONOMIC ENTITIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN IOAN SABĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and decision are two key elements economic entities management. Information represents the support of decision making by those managing the economic entity, helping them take the right decision for them to achieve set objectives. Strategic decisions provide long-term success of the economic entity outlining its internal and external stand. Those responsible for making strategic decisions have the ability to influence the economic entity’s success through these decisions they take, the role of the strategy being to ensure perfect correspondence between what the economic entity can do and what it could do, given the opportunities and threats in the environment they conduct business.

  18. How Well can We Learn Interpretable Entity Types from Text?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a largely unsupervised approach to learning interpretable, domain-specific entity types from unlabeled text. It assumes that any common noun in a domain can function as potential entity type, and uses those nouns as hidden variables in a HMM. To constrain training, it extracts co......-occurrence dictionaries of entities and common nouns from the data. We evaluate the learned types by measuring their prediction accuracy for verb arguments in several domains. The results suggest that it is possible to learn domain-specific entity types from unlabeled data. We show significant improvements over...... an informed baseline, reducing the error rate by 56%....

  19. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the operations...

  20. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  1. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  2. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  3. Resolving person names in web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.; King, I.; Baeza-Yates, R.

    2009-01-01

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the

  4. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  5. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  6. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service to Chief of Staff Logistics (now controlling the names function) neces- sitated a general policy in respect of naming buildings and streets in military areas (SADF4/4.77) the first such offi- cial promulgated policy. Name-giving in the SADF received a new impetus and dimension during the unprecedented expansion of ...

  7. Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Incorporating input from dozens of biomedical researchers who described what they perceived as key open problems of imaging that are amenable to attack by mathematical scientists and physicists...

  8. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  9. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  10. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...... dissociate and reassemble during initiation of protein degradation in a ternary complex with the substrate, as in the dissociation-reassembly cycles found for ribosomes and the chaperonin GroEL/GroES. Here we followed disassembly and assembly of 26-S proteasomes in cell extracts as the exchange of PA700...... subunits between mouse and human 26-S proteasomes. Compared to the rate of proteolysis in the same extract, the disassembly-reassembly cycle was much too slow to present an obligatory step in a degradation cycle. It has been suggested that subunit S5a (Mcb1, Rpn10), which binds poly-ubiquitin substrates...

  11. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  12. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  13. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...... in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created....

  14. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  15. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  16. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2...

  17. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY... seeking input on a proposed Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards addressing the Reporting Entity. The Standard is available at http://www.fasab.gov/board-activities/documents-for-comment/exposure...

  18. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... under State law for certain business activities. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the...) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does...

  19. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in a...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  1. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...)(C) Example (i) and (ii) of this section. If LLCB does not pay the tax on its sale of coal under... Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations relating to disregarded entities and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes...

  2. Optimising closely held entities to enhance commercial participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1984, the South African Close Corporations Act introduced a simple, inexpensive and flexible closelyheld entity for the business consisting of a single ... In more recent law reform initiatives in Australia and especially the United Kingdom, various options were analysed to optimise closely-held entities with a view to ...

  3. Combining Document-and Paragraph-Based Entity Ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, H.; Serdyukov, Pavel; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    We study entity ranking on the INEX entity track and pro- pose a simple graph-based ranking approach that enables to combine scores on document and paragraph level. The com- bined approach improves the retrieval results not only on the INEX testset, but similarly on TREC’s expert finding task.

  4. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  5. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  6. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research is the official journal of the International Association of Medical and Biomedical Researchers (IAMBR) and the Society for Free Radical Research Africa (SFRR-Africa). It is an internationally peer reviewed, open access and multidisciplinary journal aimed at publishing original ...

  7. Biomedical Journals and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbaert, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the publication of biomedical journals on the Internet. Highlights include pros and cons of electronic publishing; the Global Health Network at the University of Pittsburgh; the availability of biomedical journals on the World Wide Web; current applications, including access to journal contents tables and electronic delivery of full-text…

  8. A new educational program on biomedical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alste, Jan A.

    2000-01-01

    At the University of Twente together with the Free University of Amsterdam a new educational program on Biomedical Engineering will be developed. The academic program with a five-year duration will start in September 2001. After a general, broad education in Biomedical Engineering in the first three

  9. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999

  10. African Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIMS AND SCOPE: The journal is conceived as an academic and professional journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. Articles from the Physical Sciences and humanities related to the Medical Sciences will also be considered. The African Journal of Biomedical Research ...

  11. On the History of the Name Ruslan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Yu. Namitokova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors postulate that there exists a common stock of Russian personal names resulting from a partial blending of national anthroponymicons. The main part of the paper focuses on the history of the personal name Ruslan which has etymological ties with the widespread Turkic name Arslan having the pre-onomastic meaning ‘lion’. The authors study the variation of the name in Russian folklore and in the 15th–17th centuries documents and historical sources. They also pay particular attention to the role of Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila in the formation of the associative background of the studied name and to various onomastic derivatives, the latter include patronyms, surnames and the female name Ruslana. The author conclude that the name Ruslan became especially popular in Soviet and post-Soviet periods when it acquired a specific “semantic aura”, namely, in Caucasus where Ruslan became a kind of mark of Russian identity and, thus, contributed to the unification of the anthroponymic space. This conclusion was verified in the course of a survey done among 40 respondents representing different peoples of Caucasus. For most respondents the name has positive connotations and is associated with the Turkic name Arslan and the name of Pushkin’s character. However, some respondents consider it as a “non-Muslim”, Russian name and point out that it is often perceived as such outside Russia. The history of the name Ruslan and the ways of its transonymisation can be an interesting object for further research, especially due to the emergence of new communication technologies and onomastic discourses.

  12. EVALUATION METHODS USED FOR TANGIBLE ASSETS BY ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At many entities the net asset value is influenced by the evaluation methods applied for tangible assets, because the value of intangible assets and financial assets is small in most cases. The objective of this paper is to analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities and medium and large entities for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. Furthermore, we analyze the differences between the procedures / methods of evaluation applied by micro and small entities in Romania and Hungary, respectively the differences between medium and large entities regarding de evaluation methods for tangible assets in Romania and Hungary. For this empirical study the questionnaire is used – as research technique, and to demonstrate the significant differences between the evaluation methods we used the Kolmogorov – Smirnov Z test.

  13. Parents accidentally substitute similar sounding sibling names more often than dissimilar names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Zenzi M; Wangerman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling's reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling's name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar.

  14. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  15. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  16. Statement of value added (dva: wealth distribution to staff and entities capital of sectors autoind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wink

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to analyze the distribution of benefit produced by companies belonging to sectors of Autoindústria and capital goods to the production of agents and working capital in the period between 2008 and 2012, through the Statement of Value Added (DVA. Methodologically we carried out a survey of descriptive purpose, documentary and bibliographic procedure and qualitative approach to the problem. The chosen population was formed by the group of entities named by Exame Magazine - Biggest and Best, 2012 edition, classified in the sectors of Autoindústria and Capital Goods. Being given sample for data accessibility and non-probabilistic, consisting of a Autoindústria the sector, by Embraer, Marcopolo and Mahle companies and in the Capital Goods sector, by companies Romi SA, Kepler-Weber SA and Bardella SA The results revealed Embraer was the entity with higher revenue figures of the group surveyed. Regarding the ability of benefit generation, the entity that became more revenues in value added was Romi on average 51% of the realized revenue. The Companies generally distributed more value added to personal than to capital.

  17. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  18. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  19. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  20. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.