WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomedical materials

  1. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  2. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  3. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications. PMID:27449946

  4. Biomedical composites materials, manufacturing and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are engineered materials, made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Due to their special mechanical and physical properties they have the potential to replace conventional materials in various fields such as the biomedical industry.

  5. Graphene based materials for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a single layer 2-dimensional structure nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties (e.g. high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, strong mechanical strength, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization, has received increasing attention in physical, chemical and biomedical fields. This article selectively reviews current advances of graphene based materials for biomedical applications. In particular, graphene based biosensors for small biomolecules (glucose, dopamine etc., proteins and DNA detection have been summarized; graphene based bioimaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy applications have been described in detail. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  6. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Hammond

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and nucleic acids, is examined. Specific advantages of the use of LbL assembly versus traditional polymeric blend encapsulation are discussed. Examples are provided to present potential new directions. Translational opportunities are discussed to examine the impact and potential for true biomedical translation using rapid assembly methods, and applications are discussed with high need and medical return.

  7. Surface tailoring of inorganic materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimondini, Lia; Vernè, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides comprehensive information on technologies for development and characterization of successful functionalized materials for biomedical applications relevant to surface modification.

  8. Fabricating Superhydrophobic Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonah; Grinstaff, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials, with surfaces possessing permanent or metastable non-wetted states, are of interest for a number of biomedical and industrial applications. Here we describe how electrospinning or electrospraying a polymer mixture containing a biodegradable, biocompatible aliphatic polyester (e.g., polycaprolactone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)), as the major component, doped with a hydrophobic copolymer composed of the polyester and a stearate-modified poly(glycerol carbonate) affords a superhydrophobic biomaterial. The fabrication techniques of electrospinning or electrospraying provide the enhanced surface roughness and porosity on and within the fibers or the particles, respectively. The use of a low surface energy copolymer dopant that blends with the polyester and can be stably electrospun or electrosprayed affords these superhydrophobic materials. Important parameters such as fiber size, copolymer dopant composition and/or concentration, and their effects on wettability are discussed. This combination of polymer chemistry and process engineering affords a versatile approach to develop application-specific materials using scalable techniques, which are likely generalizable to a wider class of polymers for a variety of applications. PMID:26383018

  9. Silk fibroin nanostructured materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Alexander N.

    Nanostructured biopolymers have proven to be promising to develop novel biomedical applications where forming structures at the nanoscale normally occurs by self-assembly. However, synthesizing these structures can also occur by inducing materials to transition into other forms by adding chemical cross-linkers, changing pH, or changing ionic composition. Understanding the generation of nanostructures in fluid environments, such as liquid organic solvents or supercritical fluids, has not been thoroughly examined, particularly those that are based on protein-based block-copolymers. Here, we examine the transformation of reconstituted silk fibroin, which has emerged as a promising biopolymer due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of functionalization, into submicron spheres and gel networks which offer applications in tissue engineering and advanced sensors. Two types of gel networks, hydrogels and aerogels, have small pores and large surface areas that are defined by their structure. We design and analyze silk nanoparticle formation using a microfluidic device while offering an application for drug delivery. Additionally, we provide a model and characterize hydrogel formation from micelles to nanoparticles, while investigating cellular response to the hydrogel in an in vitro cell culture model. Lastly, we provide a second model of nanofiber formation during near-critical and supercritical drying and characterize the silk fibroin properties at different drying pressures which, when acting as a stabilizing matrix, shows to improve the activity of entrapped enzymes dried at different pressures. This work has created new nanostructured silk fibroin forms to benefit biomedical applications that could be applied to other fibrous proteins.

  10. Switchable and responsive surfaces and materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials can ultimately determine whether a material is accepted or rejected from the human body, and a responsive surface can further make the material ""smart"" and ""intelligent"". Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications outlines synthetic and biological materials that are responsive under different stimuli, their surface design and modification techniques, and applicability in regenerative medicine/tissue engineering,  drug delivery, medical devices, and biomedical diagnostics. Part one provides a detailed overview of swit

  11. The Research of Biomedical Intelligent Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; CHEN Yuan-wei; TANG Chang-wei; QIU Kai; LUO Juan; XU Cheng-yin; WAN Chang-xiu

    2004-01-01

    The properties of biomedical intelligent polymer materials can be changed obviously when there is a little physical or chemical change caused by external condition. They are in the forms of solids, solutions and the polymers on the surface of carrier, and include water solution of hydrophilic polymers, cross-linking hydrophilic polymers(i.e. hydrogels) and the polymers on the surface of carrier. The environmental stimulating factors are temperature, pH value, composition of solution, ionic intention, light intention, electric field, stress field and magnetic field etc.. The properties of intelligent polymer are those of phase, photics, mechanics, electric field, surface energy,reaction ratio, penetrating ratio and recognition etc..Stimulation-response of intelligent water-soluble polymerWater-soluble intelligent polymer can be separated out from solution under special external condition. It can be used as the switch of temperature or pH indicator. When water-soluble intelligent polymer is mixed with soluble-enzyme matter or cell suspension, the polymer can bring phase separation and react with soluble-enzyme matter or cell membrane through accepting some external stimulation. Other water-soluble intelligent polymer is that can make the main chemical group of some natural biomolecular recognition sequence section to arrange on skeleton of polymer at random. It is the same ratio as natural biomolecules.Stimulation-response of intelligent polymer of carrier surface Intelligent polymer can be fixed on the surface of solid polymer carrier through chemical grafting or physical adsorption. When the external conditions are changed, the thickness, humidity and electric field of the surface layer will be changed. Intelligent polymer can be preparated the permanence switch by precipitating into the hole of porous surface, and it can control on-off state of the hole. When protein or cell interacts with intelligent polymer surface to be placed in to open or close, they can be

  12. [Plasma technology for biomedical material applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    In this paper is introduced the plasma technology for the applications of several species biomaterial such as ophthalmological material, drug delivery system, tissue culture material, blood anticoagulant material as well as plasma surface clearing and plasma sterilization, and so on.

  13. Digital fabrication of multi-material biomedical objects

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, HH; Choi, SH

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system for modelling and digital fabrication of discrete and functionally graded multi-material objects for biomedical applications. The MMVP system consists of a DMMVP module, an FGMVP module and a virtual reality (VR) simulation module. The DMMVP module is used to model discrete multi-material (DMM) objects, while the FGMVP module is for functionally graded multi-material (FGM) objects. The VR simulation module integrates thes...

  14. Applicability of existing magnesium alloys as biomedical implant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erinc, M.; Sillekens, W.H.; Mannens, R.G.T.M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Being biocompatible and biodegradable, magnesium alloys are considered as the new generation biomedical implant materials, such as for stents, bone fixtures, plates and screws. A major drawback is the poor chemical stability of metallic magnesium; it corrodes at a pace that is too high for most pros

  15. Recent Advances in Shape Memory Soft Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin Qi Yu; Low, Zhi Wei Kenny; Heng, Sylvester Jun Wen; Chan, Siew Yin; Owh, Cally; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-04-27

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field. PMID:27018814

  16. Recent Advances in Shape Memory Soft Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin Qi Yu; Low, Zhi Wei Kenny; Heng, Sylvester Jun Wen; Chan, Siew Yin; Owh, Cally; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-04-27

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field.

  17. Progress in material design for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Rodell, Christopher B; Burdick, Jason A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-11-24

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials.

  18. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication.

  19. Biomedical applications of the graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baomei; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, a rapidly rising star, has gained extensive research interests lately due to its excellent properties--such as the exceptional optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical features--which are superior to other materials, so it is called "two-dimensional magical materials". This article presents diverse types and various properties of graphene-based materials, and the current methods for the surface modifications of the graphene-based materials are briefly described. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity of graphene-based materials are comprehensively discussed. What's more, a summary of its biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy and multimodality therapy is also offered. Finally, an outlook of the graphene-based materials and the challenges in this field are briefly discussed.

  20. Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields.

  1. PREFACE Surface Modifications and Functionalization of Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Puértolas, Jose A.; Albella, Jose M.

    2010-11-01

    Conference photograph This special issue contains selected papers which were presented as invited and contributed communications at the workshop entitled 'Surface modification and functionalization of materials for biomedical applications' (BIO-COAT 2010) which was held on 24 June 2010 in Zaragoza (Spain). The surface of a material plays a major role in its interaction with the biological medium. Processes related to the mechanical stability of articular devices in contact, osseointegration, thrombogenicity, corrosion and leaching, or the inflammatory response of rejection of a material, are clearly conditioned by the surface properties. Therefore, the modification or functionalization of surfaces can have an important impact on these issues. New techniques for functionalization by thin film deposition or surface treatments help to improve superficial properties, while understanding the interaction of the surface-biological medium is critical for their application in new devices. Jointly organized by the Spanish Materials Research Society, BIO-COAT 2010 provided an open forum to discuss the progress and latest developments in thin film processing and the engineering of biomaterials. Invited lectures were particularly aimed at providing overviews on scientific topics and were given by recognized world-class scientists. Two of them have contributed with a proceedings article to this selected collection (articles 012001 and 012008). The contributed communications were focused on particular cutting-edge aspects of thin film science and functionalization technologies for biomaterials, showing the major scientific push of Spanish research groups in the field. The 2010 BIO-COAT conference was organized along four main topics: (1) functionalization and texture on surfaces, (2) tribology and corrosion, (3) the surface modification of biomaterials, and (4) surface-biological environment interactions. The papers published in this volume were accepted for publication after

  2. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  3. Silicone and Fluorosilicone Based Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Aniruddha S.

    The biocompatibility and the biodurability of silicones is a result of various material properties such as hydrophobicity, low surface tension, high elasticity and chemical and thermal stability. A variety of biomedical implants employ an inflatable silicone rubber balloon filled with a saline solution. Commercial examples of such a system are silicone breast implants, tissue expanders and gastric bands for obesity control. Despite the advantages, saline filled silicones systems still have a certain set of challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the functionality of these devices and validate their use as biomaterials. The central goal of this research is to identify these concerns, design solutions and to provide a better understanding of the behavior of implantable silicones. The first problem this research focuses on is the quantification and identification of the low molecular weight silicones that are not crosslinked into the elastomeric matrix and therefore can be leached out by solvent extraction. We have developed an environmentally friendly pre-extraction technique using supercritical CO 2 and also determined the exact nature of the extractables using Gas Chromatography. We have also attempted to address the issue of an observed loss of pressure in the saline filled device during application by studying the relaxation behavior of silicone elastomer using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and constructing long-term relaxation master curves. We have also developed a technique to develop highly hydrophobic fluorinated barrier layers for the silicone in order to prevent diffusion of water vapor across the walls of the implant. This involves a hybrid process consisting of surface modification by plasma technology followed by two different coating formulations. The first formulation employed UV curable fluorinated acrylate monomers for the coating process and the second was based on Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to generate a fluorinated

  4. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  5. The Use of Nanoscaled Fibers or Tubes to Improve Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Biomedical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers and nanotubes have recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to their large ratio of surface area to volume and unique microstructure. It has been well proved that the mechanical property of matrix could be largely enhanced by the addition of nanoscaled fibers or tubes. At present, more and more researches have shown that the biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials could be improved by the addition of nanofibers or nanotubes. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials, including polymeric nanofibers/nanotubes, metallic nanofibers/nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers/nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of improving biocompatibility and bioactivity of biomedical materials by nanofibers or nanotubes has been speculated to be that the specific protein absorption on the nanoscaled fibers or tubes plays important roles.

  6. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Multi-Functional Materials for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chaenyung; Shin, Su Ryon; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Functional carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have become important due to their unique combinations of chemical and physical properties (i.e., thermal and electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and optical properties), extensive research efforts are being made to utilize these materials for various industrial applications, such as high-strength materials and electronics. These advantageous properties of CBNs are also actively investigated in several areas of biomedical engineering. This Perspective highlights different types of carbon-based nanomaterials currently used in biomedical applications. PMID:23560817

  7. Bioinspired Nanoscale Materials for Biomedical and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-01

    The demand of green, affordable and environmentally sustainable materials has encouraged scientists in different fields to draw inspiration from nature in developing materials with unique properties such as miniaturization, hierarchical organization, and adaptability. Together with the exceptional properties of nanomaterials, over the past century, the field of bioinspired nanomaterials has taken huge leaps. While on one hand, the sophistication of hierarchical structures endow biological systems with multifunctionality, the synthetic control on the creation of nanomaterials enables the design of materials with specific functionalities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the field of bioinspired nanomaterials, which we have broadly categorized into biotemplates and biomimics. We will discuss the application of bioinspired nanomaterials as biotemplates in catalysis, nanomedicine, immunoassays and in energy, drawing attention to novel materials such as protein cages. Further, the applications of bioinspired materials in tissue engineering and biomineralization will also be discussed.

  8. Tetracycline Loaded Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Composite Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Rusu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation, characterisation, and testing of tetracycline loaded collagen-carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyapatite ternary composite materials. The synthesis of this drug delivery system consists in two steps: the first step is the mineralization of collagen-carboxymethylcellulose gel while the second step corresponds to the loading of the ternary composite material with tetracycline. The obtained DDS is characterised by physicochemical, morphological, and release behaviour by using FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Based on the release study, it can be assumed that tetracycline is released in a prolonged way, assuring at least 6 days of antiseptic properties.

  9. Periodical Microstructures Based on Novel Piezoelectric Material for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Prosycevas, Igoris; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2015-12-15

    A novel cantilever type piezoelectric sensing element was developed. Cost-effective and simple fabrication design allows the use of this element for various applications in the areas of biomedicine, pharmacy, environmental analysis and biosensing. This paper proposes a novel piezoelectric composite material whose basic element is PZT and a sensing platform where this material was integrated. Results showed that a designed novel cantilever-type element is able to generate a voltage of up to 80 µV at 50 Hz frequency. To use this element for sensing purposes, a four micron periodical microstructure was imprinted. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated on the grating to increase the sensitivity of the designed element, i.e., Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) effect appears in the element. To tackle some issues (a lack of sensitivity, signal delays) the element must have certain electronic and optical properties. One possible solution, proposed in this paper, is a combination of piezoelectricity and SPR in a single element.

  10. A 3D Osteoblast In Vitro Model for the Evaluation of Biomedical Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Restle; Daniela Costa-Silva; Emanuelle Stellet Lourenço; Rober Freitas Bachinski; Ana Carolina Batista; Adriana Brandão Ribeiro Linhares; Gutemberg Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical materials for bone therapy are usually assessed for their biocompatibility and safety employing animal models or in vitro monolayer cell culture assays. However, alternative in vitro models may offer controlled conditions closer to physiological responses and reduce animal testing. In this work, we developed a 3D spheroidal cell culture with potential to evaluate simultaneously material-cell and cell-cell interactions. Different cell densities of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts or h...

  11. Periodical Microstructures Based on Novel Piezoelectric Material for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Janusas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel cantilever type piezoelectric sensing element was developed. Cost-effective and simple fabrication design allows the use of this element for various applications in the areas of biomedicine, pharmacy, environmental analysis and biosensing. This paper proposes a novel piezoelectric composite material whose basic element is PZT and a sensing platform where this material was integrated. Results showed that a designed novel cantilever-type element is able to generate a voltage of up to 80 µV at 50 Hz frequency. To use this element for sensing purposes, a four micron periodical microstructure was imprinted. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated on the grating to increase the sensitivity of the designed element, i.e., Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR effect appears in the element. To tackle some issues (a lack of sensitivity, signal delays the element must have certain electronic and optical properties. One possible solution, proposed in this paper, is a combination of piezoelectricity and SPR in a single element.

  12. Nanocomposite Apatite-biopolymer Materials and Coatings for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Sukhodub

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microoverview paper describes synthesis and characterization of novel third generation composite biomaterials and coatings which correspond to the second structural level of human bone tissue (HBT organization obtained at Sumy state university “Bionanocomposite” laboratory. To obtain such composites an animal collagen is usually used, which is not potentially safe for medical applications. That is why investigations were started using some other biopolymers to obtain composites close to the second level in the structural hierarchy of HBT. Proposed natural polymers (Na alginate, chitosan are the most perspective because they have bacteriostatic properties for a vast number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, high biocompatibility towards the connective tissue, low toxicity, an ability to improve regenerative processes during wounds healing, degradation ability with the creation of chemotaxic activity towards fibroblasts and osteoblasts. The formation of nanosized (25-75 nm calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHA particles in the polymer scaffold approaches the derived material to the biogenic bone tissue, which can provide its more effective implantation. The influence of the imposition of static magnetic field on brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O crystallization was also investigated. It was shown that changing the magnetic field configuration could greatly affect crystallinity and texture of the derived particles. To increase the biocompatibility of existing medical implants (Ti–6Al 4V, Ti Ni, Mg the technology for obtaining bioactive coatings with corresponding mechanical, structural and morphology characteristics is developed in our laboratory. In this direction coatings based on cdHA in combination with biopolymer matrices (Na alginate, chitosan, are obtained in “soft” conditions using a thermal substrate technology. This technology was proposed by Japan scientists [1] and was sufficiently improved by us [2] in order to obtain coatings in

  13. An approach to scaling size effect on strength of quasi-brittle biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei-Sheng; Su, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Two-parameter Weibull statistics is commonly used for characterizing and modeling strength distribution of biomedical materials and its size dependence. The calibrated scale parameter and shape factor are usually sensitive to specimen size. Since Weibull statistics is subject to the weakest link postulate, this work proposed to directly resort to the weakest-link formulation for the cumulative failure probability to characterize size effect on strength distribution of quasi-brittle biomedical materials. As a preliminary examination, the approach was assessed by two sets of published strength data. It shows that the resultant expression for the cumulative probability follows either Weibull distribution or other type of distributions. The calibrated model parameters are independent of specimen size, so they can be used to transfer strength distribution from one set of specimens to another set of specimens with geometrical similarity under same loading mode. These initial results motivate a more comprehensive validation of the proposed approach to proceed via a larger set of case studies covering different quasi-brittle biomedical materials over a wider range of size variation. PMID:27266476

  14. Stretchable conducting materials with multi-scale hierarchical structures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Shim, Bong Sup

    2014-08-01

    Electrogenetic tissues in human body such as central and peripheral nerve systems, muscular and cardiomuscular systems are soft and stretchable materials. However, most of the artificial materials, interfacing with those conductive tissues, such as neural electrodes and cardiac pacemakers, have stiff mechanical properties. The rather contradictory properties between natural and artificial materials usually cause critical incompatibility problems in implanting bodymachine interfaces for wide ranges of biomedical devices. Thus, we developed a stretchable and electrically conductive material with complex hierarchical structures; multi-scale microstructures and nanostructural electrical pathways. For biomedical purposes, an implantable polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane was coated by molecularly controlled layer-bylayer (LBL) assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The soft PCL membrane with asymmetric micro- and nano-pores provides elastic properties, while conductive SWNT or PEDOT coating preserves stable electrical conductivity even in a fully stretched state. This electrical conductivity enhanced ionic cell transmission and cell-to-cell interactions as well as electrical cellular stimulation on the membrane. Our novel stretchable conducting materials will overcome long-lasting challenges for bioelectronic applications by significantly reducing mechanical property gaps between tissues and artificial materials and by providing 3D interconnected electro-active pathways which can be available even at a fully stretched state.

  15. Bacterial cellulose-kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M.; Alam, Parvez

    2013-12-01

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure-property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin-cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and bioevaluation of drug-collagen hybrid materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Geanaliu-Nicolae, Ruxandra-Elena; Pîrvan, Adrian-Alexandru; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Iordache, Florin

    2016-08-30

    This work presents a study based on the preparation and characterization of drug-collagen hybrid materials. Materials used for obtaining drug-collagen hybrids were collagen type I (Coll) as matrix and fludarabine (F) and epirubicin (E) as hydrophilic active substances. After incorporation of drugs into Coll in different ratios, the obtained hybrid materials (Coll/F and Coll/E) could be used according to our results as potential drug delivery systems in medicine for the topical (local) treatment of cancerous tissues (e.g. the treatment of breast, stomach, lung, colorectal or advanced ovarian cancer). The materials were characterized considering their composition (by XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG) and their morphology (by SEM). The delivery of drug was assessed by UV-vis. The in vitro citotoxicity demonstrates an antitumoral activity of the obtained hybrid materials and their potential use for biomedical applications as drug delivery systems in tumoral treatments. PMID:26688040

  17. RNA as a stable polymer to build controllable and defined nanostructures for material and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lee, Taek; Dziubla, Thomas; Pi, Fengmei; Guo, Sijin; Xu, Jing; Li, Chan; Haque, Farzin; Liang, Xing-Jie; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The value of polymers is manifested in their vital use as building blocks in material and life sciences. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polynucleic acid, but its polymeric nature in materials and technological applications is often overlooked due to an impression that RNA is seemingly unstable. Recent findings that certain modifications can make RNA resistant to RNase degradation while retaining its authentic folding property and biological function, and the discovery of ultra-thermostable RNA motifs have adequately addressed the concerns of RNA unstability. RNA can serve as a unique polymeric material to build varieties of nanostructures including nanoparticles, polygons, arrays, bundles, membrane, and microsponges that have potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. Since 2005, more than a thousand publications on RNA nanostructures have been published in diverse fields, indicating a remarkable increase of interest in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. In this review, we aim to: delineate the physical and chemical properties of polymers that can be applied to RNA; introduce the unique properties of RNA as a polymer; review the current methods for the construction of RNA nanostructures; describe its applications in material, biomedical and computer sciences; and, discuss the challenges and future prospects in this field. PMID:26770259

  18. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-11-11

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature's glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  19. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs, a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  20. Engineering a material for biomedical applications with electric field assisted processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z.; Nangrejo, M.; Edirisinghe, M.; Stride, E.; Colombo, P.; Zhang, H. B.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, using multiple co-flows we demonstrate in-situ encapsulation of nano-particles, liquids and/or gases in different structural morphologies, which can also be deposited in a designated pattern by a direct write method and surface modification can be controlled to release encapsulated material. The range of possibilities offered by exposing a material solution to an applied electric field can result in a plethora of structures which can accommodate a whole host of biomedical applications from microfluidic devices (microchannels, loaded with various materials), printed 3D structures and patterns, lab-on-a-chip devices to encapsulated materials (capsules, tubes, fibres, dense multi-layered fibrous networks) for drug delivery and tissue engineering. The structures obtained in this way can vary in size from micrometer to the nanometer range and the processing is viable for all states of matter. The work shown demonstrates some novel structures and methodologies for processing a biomaterial.

  1. OBTAINING HYSTERESIS LOOPS AT LOW FREQUENCY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS TO BE USED IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Arshad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The promising development of magnetic sensors in biomedical field demands an appropriate level of understanding of the magnetic properties of the materials used in their fabrication. To date only few of the types of magnetic materials are encountered where their magnetic properties, characterization techniques and magnetization behavior are yet to be explored more suitably in the light of their applications. This research work studies the characterization of materials by using a cost effective and simple circuit consisting of inductive transducer and an OP-AMP as a voltage integrator. In this approach the circuit was simulated using PSPICE and experiments have been conducted to achieve the desired results. The simulation and experimental results are obtained for three test materials namely iron, steel and plastic. The novelty lies in applying the simple circuit for material testing and characterization via obtaining simulation results and validating these results through experiment. The magnetic properties in low external magnetic field are studied with materials under test. The magnetization effect of a magneto-inductive sensor is detected in low frequency range for different magnetic core materials. The results have shown magnetization behaviour of magnetic materials due to the variation of permeability and magnetism. The resulted hysteresis loops appeared to have different shapes for different materials. The magnetic hysteresis loop found for iron core demonstrated a bigger coercive force and larger reversals of magnetism than these of steel core, thus obtaining its magnetic saturation at a larger magnetic field strength. The shape of the hysteresis loop itself is found to be varying upon the nature of the material in use. The resulted magnetization behaviors of the materials proved their possible applicability for use in sensing devices. The key concern of this work is found upon selecting the appropriate magnetic materials at the desired

  2. Vanderbilt Free-Electron Laser Center for Biomedical and Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Norman H.; Brau, Charles A.; Edwards, Glenn S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio; McKinley, Jim T.

    1991-12-01

    The newly commissioned Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser Center for Biomedical and Materials Research is a multidisciplinary users facility intended as an international resource. It provides extremely intense, continuously tunable, pulsed radiation in the mid-infrared (2-10 j.tm). Projects already underway include the linear and nonlinear interaction of laser radiation with optical materials, semiconductors, and mammalian tissue, the spectroscopy of species adsorbed on surfaces, measurement of vibrational energy transfer in DNA and RNA, the dynamics of proteins in cell membranes, the biomodulation of wound healing by lasers, image-guided stereotactic neurosurgery, and the use of monochromatic X-rays in medical imaging and therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce the machine to the user community and to describe some of the new experimental opportunities that it makes possible. Details of several research projects are presented.

  3. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Escherichia coli adhesion, biofilm development and antibiotic susceptibility on biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L C; Silva, L N; Simões, M; Melo, L F; Mergulhão, F J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to test materials typically used in the construction of medical devices regarding their influence in the initial adhesion, biofilm development and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli biofilms. Adhesion and biofilm development was monitored in 12-well microtiter plates containing coupons of different biomedical materials--silicone (SIL), stainless steel (SS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)--and glass (GLA) as control. The susceptibility of biofilms to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin was assessed, and the antibiotic effect in cell morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface hydrophobicity of the bacterial strain and materials was also evaluated from contact angle measurements. Surface hydrophobicity was related with initial E. coli adhesion and subsequent biofilm development. Hydrophobic materials, such as SIL, SS, and PVC, showed higher bacterial colonization than the hydrophilic GLA. Silicone was the surface with the greatest number of adhered cells and the biofilms formed on this material were also less susceptible to both antibiotics. It was found that different antibiotics induced different levels of elongation on E. coli sessile cells. Results revealed that, by affecting the initial adhesion, the surface properties of a given material can modulate biofilm buildup and interfere with the outcome of antimicrobial therapy. These findings raise the possibility of fine-tuning surface properties as a strategy to reach higher therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Affects of Microgravity on the Polymerization and Material Properties of Biomedical Grade Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    the material of choice in the production of acetabular cups for hip and tibial cradles for knee orthopeadic implant components for over 30 years. Although UHMWPE is used for more than 1.5 million implants a year in the United States alone and more than 3 million implant surgeries a year worldwide, problems with debris particle formation, pitting and fracture continue to induce premature failure of implant components. chains produced during polymerization are capable of packing into crystalline structures called lamellae, which are embedded within randomly oriented amorphous regions. Crosslinks, or tie molecules bridge the crystalline structures, which contribute to the materials' toughness and strength as a biomedical material. Research has been conducted providing evidence that a crosslinked gradient at the articulating surface of the polymer component provides resistance to surface degradation and subsequent debris formation. Recently, the introduction of highly crosslinked UHMWPE had proven to reduce some of the problems associated with the applications of this polymer as a biomedical material and was seen as the answer to solving the continuing problems associated with UHMWPE implant components. Yet current research into the fatigue characteristics of highly crosslinked UHMWPE has shown that subsurface crack propagation and subsequent delamination continues to produce problematic debris generation. Studies have shown that various sterilization and accelerated aging (to emulate natural oxidation rates) protocols adversely effects the material properties. Additional research has shown that alignment of the lamellae, caused by processing technique, fabrication or surface articulation may be the precursor to debris particle formation. Processing techniques performed under high pressure has proven to effect the width of the crystalline lamellae and therefore, the material's response to wear and fracture. UHMWP due to a microgravity environment, which could be

  6. Biopolymers as materials for developing products in pharmaceutical applications and biomedical uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Guillermo Rojas Cortés

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been widely studied for use in pharmaceutical applications. They have been used for modifying drug release, orientating a drug towards its therapeutic target, penetrating physiological barriers (tissues and cells and protecting unstable therapeutic agents against physiological conditions which are present in a less invasive administration routes. The importance of biopolymers in designing new biomedical devices must thus be stressed, es-pecially when a pharmaceutical substance must be incorporated into a polymer matrix. A new generation of alterna-tives for human health has thus been generated by designing pharmaceutical therapeutic systems in line with the concept of “integrated custom-made product design”. This document reviews the trends concerning using biopoly-mers for designing products having pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The paper also introduces the elements which should be mastered by engineers for obtaining material which can be used in the health field and tries to provide a reference point regarding the state of the art in this specific field of knowledge.

  7. The Effect of Surface Properties of Biomedical Materials on Their Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of surface properties of six types of biomedical materials on their blood compatibility was investigated in this study. The surface roughness of biomaterials was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The contact angle was observed by contact angle measurement (CAM). Then the surface free energy ( SFE ) and interfacial free energy ( IFE ) were calculated by the contact angle value based on the Owens-Wendt (OW) theoretical model and Young's equation. Meanwhile, hemolytic assay was employed to evaluate the haemolysis. The experimental results showed that the greater roughness was, the greater contact angle would be; the less proportion of polar component in surface free energy (SFE) was, the lower haemolysis would be.

  8. Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

  9. A 3D Osteoblast In Vitro Model for the Evaluation of Biomedical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Restle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical materials for bone therapy are usually assessed for their biocompatibility and safety employing animal models or in vitro monolayer cell culture assays. However, alternative in vitro models may offer controlled conditions closer to physiological responses and reduce animal testing. In this work, we developed a 3D spheroidal cell culture with potential to evaluate simultaneously material-cell and cell-cell interactions. Different cell densities of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts or human primary osteoblasts (HOb were used to determine the ideal procedure of spheroidal cultures and their adequacy to material testing. Cells were seeded on 96-well plates coated with agar and incubated in agitation from 1 to 7 days. Aggregate morphology was qualitatively evaluated considering the shape, size, repeatability, handling, and stability of spheroids. Higher cell densities induced more stable spheroids, and handling was considered appropriate starting from 2 × 104 cells. Confocal microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy indicate that most cells within the aggregate core are viable. Exposure to positive controls has shown a dose dependent cell death as measured by XTT assay. Aggregates were stable and presented good viability when employed on standardized testing of metallic and polymer-based biomaterials. Therefore, osteoblast spheroids may provide a promising tool for material screening and biocompatibility testing.

  10. Engineering analysis of diamond-like carbon coated polymeric materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, A; Nojiri, C; Kido, T; Noguchi, T; Ohgoe, Y; Matsuda, T; Hirakuri, K; Funakubo, A; Sakai, K; Fukui, Y

    2000-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have received much attention recently owing to their properties, which are similar to diamond: hardness, thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance against chemicals, abrasion resistance, good biocompatibility, and uniform flat surface. Furthermore, DLC films can be deposited easily on many substrates for wide area coat at room temperature. DLC films were developed for applications as biomedical materials in blood contacting-devices (e.g., rotary blood pump) and showed good biocompatibility for these applications. In this study, we investigated the surface roughness by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Hi-vision camera, SEM for surface imaging. The DLC films were produced by radio frequency glow discharge plasma decomposed of hydrocarbon gas at room temperature and low pressure (53 Pa) on several kinds of polycarbonate substrates. For the evaluation of the relation between deposition rate and platelet adhesion that we investigated in a previous study, DLC films were deposited at the same methane pressure for several deposition times, and film thickness was investigated. In addition, the deposition rate of DLC films on polymeric substrates is similar to the deposition rate of those deposited on Si substrates. There were no significant differences in substrates' surface roughness that were coated by DLC films in different deposition rates (16-40 nm). The surface energy and the contact angle of the DLC films were investigated. The chemical bond of DLC films also was evaluated. The evaluation of surface properties by many methods and measurements and the relationship between the platelet adhesion and film thickness is discussed. Finally, the presented DLC films appear to be promising candidates for biomedical applications and merit investigation. PMID:10971249

  11. Titanium-35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Dennia Perez; de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; Carvalho, Isabel Chaves Silva; Forte, Lilibeth Ferraz de Brito Penna; de Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia; Prado, Renata Falchete do; Santos, Dalcy Roberto Dos; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte

    2015-11-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium-niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti-35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti-35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti-35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti-35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants.

  12. Titanium-35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Dennia Perez; de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; Carvalho, Isabel Chaves Silva; Forte, Lilibeth Ferraz de Brito Penna; de Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia; Prado, Renata Falchete do; Santos, Dalcy Roberto Dos; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte

    2015-11-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium-niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti-35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti-35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti-35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti-35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. PMID:26249625

  13. LC Packing Materials for Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis%用于药学和生物医学分析的液相色谱填料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The author has prepared novel liquid chromatography (LC) packing materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Those include LC packing materials for direct serum injection assays of drugs and their metabolites, LC packing materials for resolution of enantiomeric drugs, and uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for drugs and their metabolites. This review article deals with the preparation of these materials and the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of them in recognition of The Society of Chromatographic Sciences Award.

  14. Recent advances in food-packing, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of zein and zein-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elisângela; Curti, Priscila S; Meniqueti, Adriano B; Martins, Alessandro F; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani Curti

    2014-12-04

    Zein is a biodegradable and biocompatible material extracted from renewable resources; it comprises almost 80% of the whole protein content in corn. This review highlights and describes some zein and zein-based materials, focusing on biomedical applications. It was demonstrated in this review that the biodegradation and biocompatibility of zein are key parameters for its uses in the food-packing, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the presence of hydrophilic-hydrophobic groups in zein chains is a very important aspect for obtaining material with different hydrophobicities by mixing with other moieties (polymeric or not), but also for obtaining derivatives with different properties. The physical and chemical characteristics and special structure (at the molecular, nano and micro scales) make zein molecules inherently superior to many other polymers from natural sources and synthetic ones. The film-forming property of zein and zein-based materials is important for several applications. The good electrospinnability of zein is important for producing zein and zein-based nanofibers for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The use of zein's hydrolysate peptides for reducing blood pressure is another important issue related to the application of derivatives of zein in the biomedical field. It is pointed out that the biodegradability and biocompatibility of zein and other inherent properties associated with zein's structure allow a myriad of applications of such materials with great potential in the near future.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility.

  16. A novel multifunctional biomedical material based on polyacrylonitrile: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan-ling; Bremner, David H; Li, He-yu; Shi, Qi-quan; Wu, Jun-zi; Xiao, Rui-qiu; Zhu, Li-min

    2016-05-01

    Wet spun microfibers have great potential in the design of multifunctional controlled release materials. Curcumin (Cur) and vitamin E acetate (Vit. E Ac) were used as a model drug system to evaluate the potential application of the drug-loaded microfiber system for enhanced delivery. The drugs and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were blended together and spun to produce the target drug-loaded microfiber using an improved wet-spinning method and then the microfibers were successfully woven into fabrics. Morphological, mechanical properties, thermal behavior, drug release performance characteristics, and cytocompatibility were determined. The drug-loaded microfiber had a lobed "kidney" shape with a height of 50-100 μm and width of 100-200 μm. The addition of Cur and Vit. E Ac had a great influence on the surface and cross section structure of the microfiber, leading to a rough surface having microvoids. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the drugs were successfully encapsulated and dispersed evenly in the microfilament fiber. After drug loading, the mechanical performance of the microfilament changed, with the breaking strength improved slightly, but the tensile elongation increased significantly. Thermogravimetric results showed that the drug load had no apparent adverse effect on the thermal properties of the microfibers. However, drug release from the fiber, as determined through in-vitro experiments, is relatively low and this property is maintained over time. Furthermore, in-vitro cytocompatibility testing showed that no cytotoxicity on the L929 cells was found up to 5% and 10% respectively of the theoretical drug loading content (TDLC) of curcumin and vitamin E acetate. This study provides reference data to aid the development of multifunctional textiles and to explore their use in the biomedical material field. PMID:26952475

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility. PMID:23994942

  18. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  19. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys

  20. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Andrade, Dennia; Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos, Luana; Chaves Silva Carvalho, Isabel; Ferraz de Brito Penna Forte, Lilibeth; Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia de [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Falchete do Prado, Renata, E-mail: renatafalchete@hotmail.com [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos; Alves Cairo, Carlos Alberto [Division of Materials, Air and Space Institute, CTA, Praça Mal. do Ar Eduardo Gomes, 14, São José dos Campos 12904-000, SP (Brazil); Rodarte Carvalho, Yasmin [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys.

  1. Materials processing towards development of rapid prototyping technology for manufacturing biomedical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Senol

    2000-10-01

    Materials processing towards development of fused deposition of materials (FDM) method for manufacturing biomedical implants has been studied experimentally. Main processing steps consisted of thermoplastic binder development in the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)-microcrystalline wax system, feedstock extrusion, characterization and optimization of binder degradation, and sintering of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the melting index (MI) of the copolymer affects the temperature location of the solidification exotherm, whereas the effect on the temperature location of the melting endotherm was negligible. Nonisothermal measurement of viscosity of different blends as a function of VA content of the EVA component revealed that the microcrystalline wax is compatible with 25--14% VA-containing EVA grades. Further DSC analysis revealed that co-crystallization leads to compatible EVA-microcrystalline wax blends. A typical binder formulation that was developed in the present work has a viscosity of about 700 cP at 140°C, a compressive yield strength of 6 MPa and an elastic modulus of about 600 MPa, and contained 15--20% EVA and 80--85% microcrystalline wax. Various filaments with a nominal diameter of 1.8 mm were extruded by using such a binder, and calcium pyro-phosphate powder that had a distribution modulus of about 0.37. Measurement of physical dimensions of the filament revealed that fluid state can be achieved in the filaments. Simultaneous thermal analysis of degradation characteristics of the typical binder formulations revealed that degradation sequence is oxidation of the hydrocarbons, evaporation of the hydrocarbons, degradation of the vinyl acetate, and degradation of the ethylene chain. A rate controlled binder removal system was developed and used in order to optimize the binder removal schedule. Sintering of gel-cast calcium hydroxyapatite was studied by means of thermal analysis, XRD, mechanical

  2. Photonic Sensors Based on Flexible Materials with FBGs for Use on Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alexandre Ferreira da; Rocha, Rui Pedro; Carmo, João Paulo; Correia, José Higino

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is intended for presenting biomedical applications of FBGs embedded into flexible carriers for enhancing the sensitivity and to provide interference-free instrumentation. This work was fully supported by the Algoritmi’s Strategic Project UI 319-2011-2012, under the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology grant Pest C/EEI/UI0319/2011.

  3. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  4. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  5. Titanium coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes — A promising novel material for biomedical application as an implantable orthopaedic electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: agata.przekora@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Benko, Aleksandra; Nocun, Marek; Wyrwa, Jan; Blazewicz, Marta [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, A. Mickiewicz 30 Ave., 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to fabricate titanium (Ti) material coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) that would have potential medical application in orthopaedics as an implantable electronic device. The novel biomedical material (Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O) would possess specific set of properties, such as: electrical conductivity, non-toxicity, and ability to inhibit connective tissue cell growth and proliferation protecting the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface against covering by cells. The novel material was obtained via an electrophoretic deposition of CNTs-H{sub 2}O on the Ti surface. Then, physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. Electrical property evaluation revealed that a Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material is highly conductive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that there are mainly COOH groups on the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface that are found to inhibit cell growth. Biological properties were assessed using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19). Conducted cytotoxicity tests and live/dead fluorescent staining demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O does not exert toxic effect on hFOB cells. Moreover, fluorescence laser scanning microscope observation demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface retards to a great extent cell proliferation. The study resulted in successful fabrication of highly conductive, non-toxic Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material that possesses ability to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and thus has a great potential as an orthopaedic implantable electronic device. - Highlights: • Functionalized carbon nanotubes were electrophoretically deposited on Ti surface. • Physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O is highly conductive and there are mainly COOH groups on its surface. • Novel material is non-toxic and retards to a great extent osteoblast proliferation. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O has a promising potential as implantable orthopaedic

  6. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Materials Design for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Vichery

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their high biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are very promising materials for soft and hard tissue repair and engineering. Because bioactivity and specific surface area intrinsically linked, the last decade has seen a focus on the development of highly porous and/or nano-sized materials. This review emphasizes the synthesis of bioactive glass nanoparticles and materials design strategies. The first part comprehensively covers mainly soft chemistry processes, which aim to obtain dispersible and monodispersed nanoparticles. The second part discusses the use of bioactive glass nanoparticles for medical applications, highlighting the design of materials. Mesoporous nanoparticles for drug delivery, injectable systems and scaffolds consisting of bioactive glass nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer, implant coatings and particle dispersions will be presented.

  7. Functional Materials Based on Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mashat, Afnan

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have gained much interest in many science and engineering fields. The modification of CNTs by introducing different functional groups to their surface is important for CNTs to be tailored to fit the need of specific applications. This dissertation presents several CNT-based systems that can provide biomedical and environmental advantages. In this research, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used to coat CNTs through hydrogen bonding. The release of doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) from this system was controlled by temperature. This system represents a promising method for incorporating stimuli triggered polymer-gated CNTs in controlled release applications. To create an acid responsive system CNTs were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-snglycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Amino(Polyethylene glycol)2000]-(PE-PEG) and Poly(acrylic acid) modified dioleoy lphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE-PAA). An acidlabile linker was used to cross-link PAA, forming ALP@CNTs, thus making the system acid sensitive. The release of DOX from ALP@CNTs was found to be higher in an acidic environment. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) light was used to enhance the release of DOX from ALP@CNTs. A CNT-based membrane with controlled diffusion was prepared in the next study. CNTs were used as a component of a cellulose/gel membrane due to their optical property, which allows them to convert NIR light into heat. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was used due to its thermo-sensitivity. The properties of both the CNTs and PNIPAm’s were used to control the diffusion of the cargo from the system, under the influence of NIR. CNTs were also used to fabricate an antibacterial agent, for which they were coated with polydopamine (PDA) and decorated with silver particles (Ag). Galactose (Gal) terminated with thiol groups conjugated with the above system was used to strengthen the bacterial targeting ability. The antibacterial activity of

  8. Report of the 1st RCM on ''Nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications''. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions and radiation techniques are uniquely suited for such a task, due to their favorable characteristics, and in most cases, not possible by other methods of synthesis. Accordingly, many of the developing and developed Member States have an interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. The proposal for this CRP was formulated based on the requests and information received from the member states and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant’s meeting on “Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes”, held on 10-14 December 2007, in Vienna. Based on these conclusions, this CRP aims to support MS to develop methodologies for the use of radiation in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of nanomaterials - nanogels, nanoparticles, nanovehicles, nanoporous membranes, and surfaces with enhanced biocompatibility for potential biomedical applications, such as cell-sheet engineering and artificial tissue construction; diagnostics and imaging; and drug delivery. Additionally, this CRP facilitates networking between radiation technologists and biomedical scientists for the development of such applications. The CRP generated a huge interest, but due to funding constrains, many good proposals had to be rejected. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 30 March - 03 April 2009. It was attended by 14 representatives and two observers. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities

  9. Chemically Synthesized Nano-Structured Materials for Biomedical and Photonic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured materials have attracted a broad interest for applications in scientific and engineering fields due to their extraordinary properties stemming from the nanoscale dimensions. This dissertation presents the development of nanomaterials used for different applications, namely biomedicine and dye lasing. Various inorganic nanoparticles have been developed as contrast agents for non-invasive medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT)...

  10. Biomedical signals, imaging, and informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Signals, Imaging, and Informatics, the third volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biosignal processing, medical imaging, infrared imaging, and medical informatics.More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including biomedical s

  11. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  12. Cellulose nanocrystals in nanocomposite approach: Green and high-performance materials for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E.; Torre, L.

    2016-05-01

    The need to both avoid wastes and find new renewable resources has led to a new and promising research based on the possibility to revalorize the biomass producing sustainable chemicals and/or materials which may play a major role in replacing systems traditionally obtained from non-renewable sources. Most of the low-value biomass is termed lignocellulosic, referring to its main constituent biopolymers: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. In this context, nanocellulose, and in particular cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have gain considerable attention as nanoreinforcement for polymer matrices, mainly biodegradable. Derived from the most abundant polymeric resource in nature and with inherent biodegradability, nanocellulose is an interesting nanofiller for the development of nanocomposites for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications. Due to the high amount of hydroxyl groups on their surface, cellulose nanocrystals are easy to functionalize. Well dispersed CNC are able, in fact, to enhance several properties of polymers, i.e.: thermal, mechanical, barrier, surface wettability, controlled of active compound and/or drug release. The main objective here is to give a general overview of CNC applications, summarizing our recent developments of bio-based nanocomposite formulations reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources and/or wastes for food packaging, medical and agricultural sectors.

  13. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped with selenium oxyanions: A new material for potential biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmas, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.kolmas@wum.edu.pl [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Selenium-substituted hydroxyapatites containing selenate SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} or selenite SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions were synthesized using a wet precipitation method. The selenium content was determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. The raw, unsintered powders were also characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, middle-range FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis. The synthesized apatites were found to be pure and nanocrystalline with a crystal size similar to that in bone mineral. The incorporation of selenium oxyanions into the crystal lattice was confirmed. The toxicity of hydroxyapatites containing selenite or selenate ions was evaluated with a protozoan assay and bacterial luminescence test. - Highlights: • We synthesized and analyzed hydroxyapatites doped with selenium oxyanions. • We used various analytical methods, i.e. XRD, TEM, AAS and FT-IR. • We confirmed incorporation of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} into the crystal lattice. • The toxicity of the materials was studied.

  14. The evaluation of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated and uncoated porous tantalum for biomedical material applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous tantalum has been used as an orthopedic implant for bone defects as it has a good corrosion resistance and fatigue behaviour properties. However, there are some reports on the rejection of porous Ta after the implantation. Those clinical cases refer to the less bioactivity of metallic-based materials. This study aims to evaluate hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated porous Tantalum in order to improve the biocompatibility of porous tantalum implant and osseointegration. Porous tantalum was used as metallic-base substrate and hydroxyapatite coating has been done using plasma-spraying technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques were utilizes to investigate the coating characteristics while Confocal Raman Microscopy to investigate the interface and image. The effect of coating to the corrosion behaviour was assessed by employing potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid at 37±1 °C. Based on SEM and FESEM results, the morphologies as well the weight element consists in the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated porous tantalum were revealed. The results indicated that the decrease in corrosion current density for HA coated porous Ta compared to the uncoated porous Ta. This study concluded that by coating porous tantalum with HA supports to decrease the corrosion rate of pure porous.

  15. ESR (Electronic Spin Resonance Spectroscopy) study of irradiated paper for biomedical material wrapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionising radiation treatments are used for sterilization, microbiological decontamination, disinfection, insect disinfestation and food preservation. This ionising radiation generates free radicals (FR) in matter, which can be detected by Electronic Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (ESR). For this work it had analysed different kind of irradiated package papers of syringes, surgical gloves and dressings by ESR. These were irradiated with doses between 20 and 35 kGy of gamma radiation (Cobalt 60). The processed samples were measured in a Bruker ECS 106 spectrometer. The obtained results were: 1-) The irritated samples showed a central peak and two satellites induced by the applied radiation; 2-) The non-irradiated samples did not show the characteristic satellite peaks of the irritated ones; 3-) A linear relationship between the signal heights per unit mass and the applied doses was found; and 4-) The signals were highly stable, with half-time values between 240 and 370 days for 20 and 30 kGy, permitting more than one year of monitoring proceedings. In conclusion, the ESR allows the detection, quantification and time monitoring processes of this kind of irradiated materials. (author)

  16. Examination of the variation of the optical diffusion properties in nanophosphor materials for use in biomedical imaging and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.

    2015-06-01

    Granular phosphors are commonly used in several applications in biomedical imaging and instrumentation. The structural and optical properties of phosphor materials affect the optical signal transferred out and play a critical role in the quality of the final signal or image. In recent years, following developments in materials science and technology, several new methods have been successfully implemented for the preparation of nanosized phosphors. It is of interest to investigate whether nanophosphors could replace existing micro phosphors for next generation high-performance displays and imaging devices. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the variation of the optical parameters (e.g. light extinction coefficient mext, probability of light absorption p, light anisotropy factor g) in the sub-micron and nano scale under the variability of light wavelength (400-700 nm) and refractive index (e.g., two limiting values were used 1.4 and 2.0). For the case of low refractive index (1.4), by increasing the grain diameter: (a) the light extinction increases, (b) the light absorption probability decreases and (c) the anisotropy factor increases in the whole range or gran sizes (2-1000 nm). However, for the high value of the refractive index (2.0), the light extinction coefficient was found to increase up to a maximum for grain diameter: (a) 200 nm (at 400 nm light wavelength) and (b) 600 nm (at 700 nm light wavelength). Finally, at 400 nm grain diameter, the probability of light absorption was found to decrease down to a minimum while the anisotropy factor was found to increase up to maximum for all light wavelengths considered.

  17. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  18. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  19. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  20. From Waste to Healing Biopolymers: Biomedical Applications of Bio-Collagenic Materials Extracted from Industrial Leather Residues in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical properties of a porous bio-collagenic polymer extracted from leather industrial waste residues have been investigated in wound healing and tissue regeneration in induced wounds in rats. Application of the pure undiluted bio-collagen to induced wounds in rats dramatically improved its healing after 7 days in terms of collagen production and wound filling as well as in the migration and differentiation of keratinocytes. The formulation tested was found to be three times more effective than the commercial reference product Catrix® (Heal Progress (HP: 8 ± 1.55 vs. 2.33 ± 0.52, p < 0.001; Formation of Collagen (FC: 7.5 ± 1.05 vs. 2.17 ± 0.75, p < 0.001; Regeneration of Epidermis (RE: 13.33 ± 5.11 vs. 5 ± 5.48, p < 0.05.

  1. Dielectric and electric properties of new chitosan-hydroxyapatite materials for biomedical application: Dielectric spectroscopy and corona treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Ivo; Kalinkevich, Oksana; Pogorielov, Maksym; Kalinkevich, Aleksei; Stanislavov, Aleksandr; Sklyar, Anatoly; Danilchenko, Sergei; Yovcheva, Temenuzhka

    2016-10-20

    Chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite materials were synthesized and the possibility to make their surface charged by corona discharge treatment has been evaluated. Dielectric and electric properties of the materials were studied by dielectric spectroscopy, including application of equivalent circuits method and computer simulations. Dielectric spectroscopy shows behavior of the materials quite different from that of both chitosan and HA alone. The obtained dielectric permittivity data are of particular interest in predicting the materials' behavior in electrostimulation after implantation. The ε values observed at physiological temperature in the frequency ranges applied are similar to ε data available for bone tissues. PMID:27474624

  2. Dielectric and electric properties of new chitosan-hydroxyapatite materials for biomedical application: Dielectric spectroscopy and corona treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Ivo; Kalinkevich, Oksana; Pogorielov, Maksym; Kalinkevich, Aleksei; Stanislavov, Aleksandr; Sklyar, Anatoly; Danilchenko, Sergei; Yovcheva, Temenuzhka

    2016-10-20

    Chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite materials were synthesized and the possibility to make their surface charged by corona discharge treatment has been evaluated. Dielectric and electric properties of the materials were studied by dielectric spectroscopy, including application of equivalent circuits method and computer simulations. Dielectric spectroscopy shows behavior of the materials quite different from that of both chitosan and HA alone. The obtained dielectric permittivity data are of particular interest in predicting the materials' behavior in electrostimulation after implantation. The ε values observed at physiological temperature in the frequency ranges applied are similar to ε data available for bone tissues.

  3. Comparative Studies of Electrospinning and Solution Blow Spinning Processes for the Production of Nanofibrous Poly(L-Lactic Acid Materials for Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojasiński Michal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative statistical analysis of the infiuence of processing parameters, for electrospinning (ES and solution blow spinning (SBS processes, on nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA material morphology and average fiber diameter was conducted in order to identify the key processing parameter for tailoring the product properties. Further, a comparative preliminary biocompatibility evaluation was performed. Based on Design of Experiment (DOE principles, analysis of standard effects of voltage, air pressure, solution feed rate and concentration, on nanofibers average diameter was performed with the Pareto’s charts and the best fitted surface charts. Nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The preliminary biocompatibility comparative tests were performed based on SEM microphotographs of CP5 cells cultured on materials derived from ES and SBS. Polymer solution concentration was identified as the key parameter infiuencing morphology and dimensions of nanofibrous mat produced from both techniques. In both cases, when polymer concentration increases the average fiber diameter increase. The preliminary biocompatibility test suggests that nanofibers produced by ES as well as SBS are suitable as the biomedical engineering scaffold material.

  4. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  5. Novel Hyperbranched Polyurethane Brushes for Biomedical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ton; Loontjens; Bart; Plum

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The objective was to make hyperbranched (HB) polyurethane brushes with reactive end groups, to coat biomedical devices and to enable the introduction of various functionalities that are needed to fulfill biomedical tasks.Biomedical materials should fulfill at least three requirements: (1) good mechanical properties, (2) good biocompatibility and (3) provided with functionalities to perform the required tasks. Since polyurethanes are able to fulfill the first 2 requirements we focused in this w...

  6. Biomimetics through nanoelectronics: development of three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronics for building smart materials, cyborg tissues and injectable biomedical electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale materials enable unique opportunities at the interface between physical and life sciences. The interface between nanoelectronic devices and biological systems makes possible communication between these two diverse systems at the length scale relevant to biological functions. The development of a bottom-up paradigm allows the nanoelectronic units to be synthesized and patterned on unconventional substrates. In this thesis, I will focus on the development of three-dimensional (3D) nan...

  7. Report of the 2nd RCM on nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions for which, due to their characteristics, radiation techniques are uniquely suited. Accordingly, many of the IAEA Member States (MS) have interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. In seeking new knowledge to advance the field and tackle this specific problem, to collaborate to enhance the quality of the scientific research and improve their efficiency and effectiveness, MS had requested the support of the IAEA for such collaboration. Based on these requests, and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant's meeting on Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes, held on 10-14 December 2007, the present CRP was formulated and started in 2009. The first RCM was held in 30 March – 3 April 2009, in Vienna, where the work plan for both individual participants and collaborations were discussed and accepted, as reported in the Meeting Report published as IAEA Working Material (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/iachem/working_materials.html). The second RCM was held on 15-19 November 2010, Paris, France, and was attended by 17 participants (chief scientific investigators or team members) and one cost-free observer from Brazil. The participants presented their research achievements since the first RCM, centred on the main expected outputs of this CRP: a. Methodologies to prepare and characterize nanogels; nanoparticles and nanoporous membranes, as well as to synthesize and modify nanoparticle surfaces by attaching organic ligands by radiation; b. Methodologies to radiation synthesize

  8. Study of the chain microstructure effects on the resulting thermal properties of poly(L-lactide)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizundia, E., E-mail: erlantz.liizundia@ehu.es [Macromolecular Chemistry Research Group (LABQUIMAC), Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) (Spain); Meaurio, E., E-mail: emiliano.meaurio@ehu.es [Department of Mining-Metallurgy and Materials Science and BERC POLYMAT, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) (Spain); Laza, J.M., E-mail: josemanuel.laza@ehu.es [Macromolecular Chemistry Research Group (LABQUIMAC), Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) (Spain); Vilas, J.L., E-mail: joseluis.vilas@bcmaterials.net [Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures (BCMaterials), Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Ed. 500, Derio 48160 (Spain); León Isidro, L.M., E-mail: luismanuel.leon@ehu.es [Macromolecular Chemistry Research Group (LABQUIMAC), Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) (Spain); Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures (BCMaterials), Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia, Ed. 500, Derio 48160 (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    The development of thermally-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible/biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) blends offers us an efficient strategy in order to obtain materials with improved functional properties to be used in the emerging field of biomedicine. In this sense, thermal properties of PLLA and PNIPAAm have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were conducted to shed more light on the obtained results. For a better understanding of PLLA/PNIPAAm system, both low and high molecular weight PLLA and PNIPAAm have been synthesized by ring opening polymerization and aqueous redox polymerization respectively. Obtained results are interpreted from the viewpoint of chain microstructure of each homopolymer and the ratio between two constituent materials. DSC, SEM and WAXD results show a phase separation over the entire composition range irrespectively of the molecular weight of both homopolymers. Additionally, it was found a nucleating agent behavior of low molecular weight PNIPAAm, while high molecular weight PNIPAAm hinders the crystallization of PLLA. FTIR results suggest that the strong autoassociation present in PNIPAAm plays a key role impairing the miscibility of the whole system. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that thermodegradation process of PLLA could be continuously delayed with the addition of PNIPAAm due to the increased thermal stability of N-isopropylacrylamide in regard to L-lactide sequences. - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biomedical materials are synthesized. • Results are interpreted in terms of the building block nature of each constituent. • Phase separation behavior over the entire composition range is achieved. • Strong autoassociation present in PNIPAAm impairs the miscibility of the whole blend

  9. Study of the chain microstructure effects on the resulting thermal properties of poly(L-lactide)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biomedical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of thermally-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible/biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) blends offers us an efficient strategy in order to obtain materials with improved functional properties to be used in the emerging field of biomedicine. In this sense, thermal properties of PLLA and PNIPAAm have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were conducted to shed more light on the obtained results. For a better understanding of PLLA/PNIPAAm system, both low and high molecular weight PLLA and PNIPAAm have been synthesized by ring opening polymerization and aqueous redox polymerization respectively. Obtained results are interpreted from the viewpoint of chain microstructure of each homopolymer and the ratio between two constituent materials. DSC, SEM and WAXD results show a phase separation over the entire composition range irrespectively of the molecular weight of both homopolymers. Additionally, it was found a nucleating agent behavior of low molecular weight PNIPAAm, while high molecular weight PNIPAAm hinders the crystallization of PLLA. FTIR results suggest that the strong autoassociation present in PNIPAAm plays a key role impairing the miscibility of the whole system. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that thermodegradation process of PLLA could be continuously delayed with the addition of PNIPAAm due to the increased thermal stability of N-isopropylacrylamide in regard to L-lactide sequences. - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biomedical materials are synthesized. • Results are interpreted in terms of the building block nature of each constituent. • Phase separation behavior over the entire composition range is achieved. • Strong autoassociation present in PNIPAAm impairs the miscibility of the whole blend

  10. Biomedical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEvolution of MEMSApplications of MEMSBioMEMS ApplicationsMEMS ResourcesText Goals and OrganizationMiniaturization and ScalingBioMEMS MaterialsTraditional MEMS and Microelectronic MaterialsPolymeric Materials for MEMSBiomaterialsMicrofabrication Methods and Processes for BioMEMSIntroductionMicrolithographyDopingMicromachiningWafer Bonding, Assembly, and PackagingSurface TreatmentConversion Factors for Energy and Intensity UnitsLaboratory ExercisesMicrofluidicsIntroduction and Fluid PropertiesConcepts in MicrofluidicsFluid-Transport Phenomena and PumpingFlow ControlLaboratory Exercis

  11. The addition of Si to the Ti–35Nb alloy and its effect on the corrosion resistance, when applied to biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Fernandes, B.S.; Souza, S.A.; Batista, W.W.; Cunha, F.G.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Landers, R. [Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Macedo, M.C.S.S., E-mail: michellecardinales@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • An investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti–Nb–Si was proposed. • The study was based on polarization curves, OCP, electrochemical impedance, XPS. • The addition of Si to 0.35% increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys. • Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for biomedical applications. -- Abstract: Alloy elements such as niobium and silicon have been added to titanium as an alternative for new materials to be used in orthopedic implants once they present biocompatibility and favor reductions in the elastic modulus. However, these new materials’ behavior, in face of corrosion is still demanding careful investigations because they will be subjected to an aggressive environ, such as the human body. The corrosion resistance of the Ti–35Nb–(0; 0.15; 0.35; 0.55)Si (% in mass) when in physiological medium was assessed by means of polarization curves, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The compositions of the passive films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Outcomes show that the alloys presented good rapid repassivation capacity after film breaking under high potentials. The high values of resistance to polarization – Rp – pinpoint that the formed oxide films are resistive. They work as a protecting barrier against aggressive ions. Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for orthopedic implant applications.

  12. The addition of Si to the Ti–35Nb alloy and its effect on the corrosion resistance, when applied to biomedical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti–Nb–Si was proposed. • The study was based on polarization curves, OCP, electrochemical impedance, XPS. • The addition of Si to 0.35% increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys. • Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for biomedical applications. -- Abstract: Alloy elements such as niobium and silicon have been added to titanium as an alternative for new materials to be used in orthopedic implants once they present biocompatibility and favor reductions in the elastic modulus. However, these new materials’ behavior, in face of corrosion is still demanding careful investigations because they will be subjected to an aggressive environ, such as the human body. The corrosion resistance of the Ti–35Nb–(0; 0.15; 0.35; 0.55)Si (% in mass) when in physiological medium was assessed by means of polarization curves, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The compositions of the passive films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Outcomes show that the alloys presented good rapid repassivation capacity after film breaking under high potentials. The high values of resistance to polarization – Rp – pinpoint that the formed oxide films are resistive. They work as a protecting barrier against aggressive ions. Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for orthopedic implant applications

  13. Using in situ nanocellulose-coating technology based on dynamic bacterial cultures for upgrading conventional biomedical materials and reinforcing nanocellulose hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Qingsong; Jönsson, Leif J; Hong, Feng F

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a microbial nanofibrillar hydrogel with many potential applications. Its use is largely restricted by insufficient strength when in a highly swollen state and by inefficient production using static cultivation. In this study, an in situ nanocellulose-coating technology created a fabric-frame reinforced nanocomposite of BNC hydrogel with superior strength but retained BNC native attributes. By using the proposed technology, production time could be reduced from 10 to 3 days to obtain a desirable hydrogel sheet with approximately the same thickness. This novel technology is easier to scale up and is more suitable for industrial-scale manufacture. The mechanical properties (tensile strength, suture retention strength) and gel characteristics (water holding, absorption and wicking ability) of the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel were investigated and compared with those of ordinary BNC hydrogel sheets. The results reveal that the fabric-reinforced BNC hydrogel was equivalent with regard to gel characteristics, and exhibited a qualitative improvement with regard to its mechanical properties. For more advanced applications, coating technology via dynamic bacterial cultures could be used to upgrade conventional biomedical fabrics, i.e. medical cotton gauze or other mesh materials, with nanocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1077-1084, 2016. PMID:27088548

  14. Strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agar and Gellan Gum used in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, Alessandro; Cuccaro, Rugiada; Troia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Agar and Gellan Gum are biocompatible polymers extensively used in several fields of tissue engineering research (e.g. tissue replacement, tissue support, tissue mimicking), due to their mechanical behaviour effectively representative of actual biological tissues. Since mechanical properties of artificial tissues are related to biocompatibility and functionality of medical implants and significantly influence adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells in tissue-engineering scaffolds, an accurate characterization of Young׳s modulus and relaxation time processes is needed. In this study, the strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agarose and one among the numerous kind of Gellan Gum commercially available, known as Phytagel(®), have been investigated. Nine hydrogel samples have been realized with different mechanical properties: the first one Agar-based as a reference material, the further eight samples Gellan Gum based in which the effect of dispersed solid particles like kieselguhr and SiC, as enhancing mechanical properties factors, have been investigated as a function of concentration. Stress-strain has been investigated in compression and relaxation time has been evaluated by means of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts time decay function. Mechanical properties have been measured as a function of temperature between 20 °C and 35 °C and at different strain rates, from ~10(-3)s(-1) and ~10(-2)s(-1) (or deformation rate from ~0.01 mms(-1) to ~0.1 mms(-1)). From experimental data, the combined temperature and strain-rate dependence of hydrogels Young׳s modulus is determined on the basis of a constitutive model. In addition to a dependence of Young׳s modulus on temperature, a remarkable influence of strain-rate has been observed, especially in the sample containing solid particles; in same ranges of temperature and strain-rate, also relaxation time variations have been monitored in order to identify a possible dependence of damping

  15. Biomedical applications of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bormann, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the emerging field of biomedical applications for magnesium-based materials, envisioning degradable implants that dissolve in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition. After outlining the background of this interest, some major aspects concerning degra

  16. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  17. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  18. Checklists in biomedical publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardal-Refoyo JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: the authors, reviewers, editors and readers must have specific tools that help them in the process of drafting, review, or reading the articles. Objective: to offer a summary of the major checklists for different types of biomedical research articles. Material and method: review literature and resources of the EQUATOR Network and adaptations in Spanish published by Medicina Clínica and Evidencias en Pediatría journals. Results: are the checklists elaborated by various working groups. (CONSORT and TREND, experimental studies for observational studies (STROBE, accuracy (STARD diagnostic studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA and for studies to improve the quality (SQUIRE. Conclusions: the use of checklists help to improve the quality of articles and help to authors, reviewers, to the editor and readers in the development and understanding of the content.

  19. Shape-Memory Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakacki, Christopher M.; Gall, Ken

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of mechanically functional "smart" materials that have generated substantial interest for biomedical applications. SMPs offer the ability to promote minimally invasive surgery, provide structural support, exert stabilizing forces, elute therapeutic agents, and biodegrade. This review focuses on several areas of biomedicine including vascular, orthopedic, and neuronal applications with respect to the progress and potential for SMPs to improve the standard of treatment in these areas. Fundamental studies on proposed biomedical SMP systems are discussed with regards to biodegradability, tailorability, sterilization, and biocompatibility. Lastly, a proposed research and development pathway for SMP-based biomedical devices is proposed based on trends in the recent literature.

  20. PROGRESS IN CORROSION BEHAVIOR INVESTIGATION OF BIOMEDICAL METALLIC MATERIALS INFLUENCED BY PROTEINS%蛋白质作用下医用金属材料的腐蚀行为研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 王猛; 张春艳; 王玥霁; 曾荣昌; 黄伟九

    2011-01-01

    基于蛋白质与医用金属间的吸附与螯合作用,综合评述了蛋白质作用下医用金属材料(钛及钛合金、不锈钢、钴基合金、镁合金等)腐蚀行为的研究进展,着重讨论了白蛋白、纤维蛋白原及血清影响下医用金属材料的腐蚀行为及机理,并指出了目前研究中存在的科学问题与未来研究的发展方向.%Based on the adsorption and chelation effects between proteins and biomedical metals, this review focuses its attention mainly on the impact of proteins on the corrosion behavior of biomedical metal materials, such as titanium& titanium alloys, stainless steels, cobalt-based alloys, magnesium alloys, and so on.The paper mainly discusses the corrosion behavior and mechanism of biomedical metals affected by albumin, fibrinogen, and serum.Some scientific issues in the present studies and the future research directions are pointed out.

  1. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  2. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering is a comprehensive survey text for biomedical engineering courses. It is the most widely adopted text across the BME course spectrum, valued by instructors and students alike for its authority, clarity and encyclopedic coverage in a single volume. Biomedical engineers need to understand the wide range of topics that are covered in this text, including basic mathematical modeling; anatomy and physiology; electrical engineering, signal processing and instrumentation; biomechanics; biomaterials science and tissue engineering; and medical and engineering e

  3. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  4. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  5. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  6. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  7. Thermoresponsive Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoni K. Georgiou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers are a class of “smart” materials that have the ability to respond to a change in temperature; a property that makes them useful materials in a wide range of applications and consequently attracts much scientific interest. This review focuses mainly on the studies published over the last 10 years on the synthesis and use of thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene delivery. A summary of the main applications is given following the different studies on thermoresponsive polymers which are categorized based on their 3-dimensional structure; hydrogels, interpenetrating networks, micelles, crosslinked micelles, polymersomes, films and particles.

  8. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); De Vecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Giroletti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Guida, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Musitelli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nardo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Necchi, M.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Pagano, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ratti, S.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vicini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Vitulo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Viviani, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica and Sezione INFN, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 {mu}m and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Tl{sub 2}O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4} 92.5%, SF{sub 6} 2.5%, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  9. RPCs in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, G.; De Vecchi, C.; Giroletti, E.; Guida, R.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Sani, G.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.

    2006-08-01

    We are studying possible applications of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the biomedical domain such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The use of RPCs in PET can provide several improvements on the usual scintillation-based detectors. The most striking features are the extremely good spatial and time resolutions. They can be as low as 50 μm and 25 ps respectively, to be compared to the much higher intrinsic limits in bulk detectors. Much efforts have been made to investigate suitable materials to make RPCs sensitive to 511 keV photons. For this reason, we are studying different types of coating employing high Z materials with proper electrical resistivity. Later investigations explored the possibility of coating glass electrodes by mean of serigraphy techniques, employing oxide based mixtures with a high density of high Z materials; the efficiency is strongly dependent on its thickness and it reaches a maximum for a characteristic value that is a function of the compound (usually a few hundred microns). The most promising mixtures seem to be PbO, Bi 2O 3 and Tl 2O. Preliminary gamma efficiency measurements for a Multigap RPC prototype (MRPC) are presented as well as simulations using GEANT4-based framework. The MRPC has 5 gas gaps; their spacings are kept by 0.3 mm diameter nylon fishing line, electrodes are made of thin glasses (1 mm for the outer electrodes, 0.15-0.4 mm for the inner ones). The detector is enclosed in a metallic gas-tight box, filled with a C 2H 2F 4 92.5%, SF 6 2.5%, C 4H 10 5% mixture. Different gas mixtures are being studied increasing the SF6 percentage and results of efficiency as a function of the new mixtures will be presented.

  10. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  11. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century,medicine has come out of the "black bag" and emerged as one of the most dynamic and advanced fields of development in science and technology. Today, biomedical engineering plays a critical role in patient diagnosis, care, and rehabilitation. As such, the field encompasses a wide range of disciplines, from biology and physiology to informatics and signal processing. Reflecting the enormous growth and change in biomedical engineering during the infancy of the 21st century, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook enters its third edition as a set of three carefully focused and

  12. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  13. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  14. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti; Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.

  15. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  16. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  17. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  18. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bandrowski

    Full Text Available The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT. The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org providing details on the people, policies, and issues being

  19. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  20. Biomedical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2015-01-01

    The book will help assist a reader in the development of techniques for analysis of biomedical signals and computer aided diagnoses with a pedagogical examination of basic and advanced topics accompanied by over 350 figures and illustrations. Wide range of filtering techniques presented to address various applications. 800 mathematical expressions and equations. Practical questions, problems and laboratory exercises. Includes fractals and chaos theory with biomedical applications.

  1. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  2. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  3. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séaghdha Diarmuid Ó

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers.

  4. 激光成形制备生物医用钛合金材料研究进展%Laser Fabrication of Biomedical Titanium Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海欧; 林鑫; 陈静; 黄卫东

    2011-01-01

    Laser fabrication is a new fabricating technique that combing rapid prototype and laser processing techniques. It can meet the requirement for the performance of the dense or porous complicated biomedical titanium alloys components, and realize the personalized design and fabrication of titanium and titanium alloy implants, through the suitable adjustment of the laser processing parameters. These advantage make it have a great potention in fabricating titanium alloys implants for medical applications. There are two main laser fabrication methods for the preparation of the biomedical titanium alloys; laser solid forming (LSF) and selective laser sintering/melting(SLS/SLM). In this paper, the current research status and applications of thes two laser fabrication method in fabricating titanium alloys implants are review, and the future research and development trends are also indicated.%激光成形制造技术是在快速原型技术的基础上结合激光加工技术发展起来的一项高新制造技术.它能够通过不同的加工方式调整结构及功能零件的性能,满足复杂致密或者多孔钛合金生物医用材料的成形需求,实现医用钛合金零件的个性化设计和制备,因此在医用钛合金人工肢体和植入体领域方面具有巨大的应用潜力.目前在制备生物医用钛合金材料领域研究较多的激光成形制造技术主要有激光立体成形和选择性激光烧结/熔化.本文综述了这两种激光成形制造在生物医用钛及钛合金制备方面的应用情况和研究现状,并指出了该领域未来的发展趋势.

  5. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  6. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  7. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  8. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  9. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  10. Biomedical applications of photochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, BP

    2010-01-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities a...

  11. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  12. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  13. Bevalac biomedical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the physical layout of the Bevalac Facility and the research programs carried out at the facility. Beam time on the Bevalac is divided between two disciplines: one-third for biomedical research and two-thirds for nuclear science studies. The remainder of the paper discusses the beam delivery system including dosimetry, beam sharing and beam scanning

  14. Biomedical applications in EELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Miguel; Hernández, Vicente; Mayo, Rafael; Blanquer, Ignacio; Perez-Griffo, Javier; Isea, Raul; Nuñez, Luis; Mora, Henry Ricardo; Fernández, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The current demand for Grid Infrastructures to bring collabarating groups between Latina America and Europe has created the EELA proyect. This e-infrastructure is used by Biomedical groups in Latina America and Europe for the studies of ocnological analisis, neglected diseases, sequence alignments and computation plygonetics. PMID:16823158

  15. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  16. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Vedanarayanan

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasised since in our country, at present, there are no regulations covering the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices. Finally the question of the general and subtle long term systemic toxicity of biomedical polymers have been brought to attention with the suggestion that this question needs to be resolved permanently by appropriate studies.

  17. Multilingual Biomedical Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical inform...

  18. Multilingual biomedical dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markó, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We present a unique technique to create a multilingual biomedical dictionary, based on a methodology called Morpho-Semantic indexing. Our approach closes a gap caused by the absence of free available multilingual medical dictionaries and the lack of accuracy of non-medical electronic translation tools. We first explain the underlying technology followed by a description of the dictionary interface, which makes use of a multilingual subword thesaurus and of statistical information from a domain-specific, multilingual corpus.

  19. Toxicology of Biomedical Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Vedanarayanan; A. C. Fernandez

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the various types of polymers, used in the fabrication of medical devices, their diversity of applications and toxic hazards which may arise out of their application. The potential toxicity of monomers and the various additives used in the manufacture of biomedical polymers have been discussed along with hazards which may arise out of processing of devices such as sterilization. The importance of quality control and stringent toxicity evaluation methods have been emphasi...

  20. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  1. Application of third-generation biomedical materials in dentistry%第三代生物医用材料在口腔领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 周进茹; 李紫嫣; 陈文川

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical materials are special functional materials used to replace and repair diseased, damaged, or aging tissues. The histories of medicine, especially dentistry, are closely related to the development of medical materials. With the development of materials science, life science, and clinical medicine, research about biomedical materials has made great progress. New generation(third-generation) biomedical materials, such as bone tissue engineering scaffold, biofilm for periodontal regeneration, drug controlled-release carrier, etc., are widely used in the field of oral medicine because of their good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this review, the development of biomedical materials and the research progress of the third-generation biomedical materials in dentistry are discussed. This review aims to help readers understand third-generation biomedical materials and to provide a reference for the application and selection of them in dentistry.%生物医用材料是指以医疗为目的,用于修复或替换人体组织器官或增进其功能的材料。医学尤其是口腔医学的发展史是与医用材料的发展密切相关的,随着材料科学、生命科学和临床医学的不断发展,生物医用材料的研究也取得了很大的进步。新一代(第三代)生物医用材料因其良好的生物活性及生物降解性,在口腔医学领域得到了广泛应用,如骨组织工程支架材料、促进牙周组织再生的生物膜、运载药物的缓释载体等。本文就生物医用材料的发展历程以及第三代生物医用材料在口腔领域的应用研究进展作一综述,旨在使读者能够简单了解第三代生物医用材料的基本知识,并在

  2. Functionalized conjugated polyelectrolytes design and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes presents a comprehensive review of these polyelectrolytes and their biomedical applications. Basic aspects like molecular design and optoelectronic properties are covered in the first chapter. Emphasis is placed on the various applications including sensing (chemical and biological), disease diagnosis, cell imaging, drug/gene delivery and disease treatment. This book explores a multi-disciplinary topic of interest to researchers working in the fields of chemistry, materials, biology and medicine. It also offers an integrated perspective on both basic

  3. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chul; Kim, Young-Kwan; Shin, Dolly; Ryoo, Soo-Ryoon; Hong, Byung Hee; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-10-15

    Graphene has unique mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have used to develop novel electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Recently, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has facilitated its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry. In this Account, we review recent efforts to apply graphene and graphene oxides (GO) to biomedical research and a few different approaches to prepare graphene materials designed for biomedical applications. Because of its excellent aqueous processability, amphiphilicity, surface functionalizability, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and fluorescence quenching ability, GO chemically exfoliated from oxidized graphite is considered a promising material for biological applications. In addition, the hydrophobicity and flexibility of large-area graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) allow this material to play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. The lack of acceptable classification standards of graphene derivatives based on chemical and physical properties has hindered the biological application of graphene derivatives. The development of an efficient graphene-based biosensor requires stable biofunctionalization of graphene derivatives under physiological conditions with minimal loss of their unique properties. For the development graphene-based therapeutics, researchers will need to build on the standardization of graphene derivatives and study the biofunctionalization of graphene to clearly understand how cells respond to exposure to graphene derivatives. Although several

  4. Amphiphilic Fullerenes for Biomedical and Optoelectronical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Fullerenes have an enormous potential in applications to physics and biology. Specifically [60]fullerene with its unique electronic, optical and structural properties has attracted considerable attention for its application in biomedical materials and optoelectronic devices. In this context the selective functionalization of C60, which allows to combine the parent properties with new attributes like water-solubility or amphiphilicity is still a challenging topic for the synthetic chemist. In ...

  5. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Bandrowski; Ryan Brinkman; Mathias Brochhausen; Brush, Matthew H.; Bill Bug; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Kevin Clancy; Mélanie Courtot; Dirk Derom; Michel Dumontier; Liju Fan; Jennifer Fostel; Gilberto Fragoso; Frank Gibson; Alejandra Gonzalez-Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using i...

  6. Generating Explanations for Biomedical Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Esra; Oztok, Umut

    2013-01-01

    We introduce novel mathematical models and algorithms to generate (shortest or k different) explanations for biomedical queries, using answer set programming. We implement these algorithms and integrate them in BIOQUERY-ASP. We illustrate the usefulness of these methods with some complex biomedical queries related to drug discovery, over the biomedical knowledge resources PHARMGKB, DRUGBANK, BIOGRID, CTD, SIDER, DISEASE ONTOLOGY and ORPHADATA. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Program...

  7. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Oscar; Bisbal, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System). BIMS is a software architecture designed to provide a flexible computational framework to manage the information needs of a wide range of biomedical research projects. The main goal is to facilitate the clinicians' job in data entry, and researcher's tasks in data management, in high data quality biomedical research projects. The BIMS architecture has been designed following the two-level modeling paradigm, a promising...

  8. Principles of Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2010-01-01

    Describing the role of engineering in medicine today, this comprehensive volume covers a wide range of the most important topics in this burgeoning field. Supported with over 145 illustrations, the book discusses bioelectrical systems, mechanical analysis of biological tissues and organs, biomaterial selection, compartmental modeling, and biomedical instrumentation. Moreover, you find a thorough treatment of the concept of using living cells in various therapeutics and diagnostics.Structured as a complete text for students with some engineering background, the book also makes a valuable refere

  9. Statistics in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of biostatistics is nowadays a fundamental scientific component of biomedical, public health and health services research. Traditional and emerging areas of application include clinical trials research, observational studies, physiology, imaging, and genomics. The present article reviews the current situation of biostatistics, considering the statistical methods traditionally used in biomedical research, as well as the ongoing development of new methods in response to the new problems arising in medicine. Clearly, the successful application of statistics in biomedical research requires appropriate training of biostatisticians. This training should aim to give due consideration to emerging new areas of statistics, while at the same time retaining full coverage of the fundamentals of statistical theory and methodology. In addition, it is important that students of biostatistics receive formal training in relevant biomedical disciplines, such as epidemiology, clinical trials, molecular biology, genetics, and neuroscience.La Bioestadística es hoy en día una componente científica fundamental de la investigación en Biomedicina, salud pública y servicios de salud. Las áreas tradicionales y emergentes de aplicación incluyen ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, fisología, imágenes, y genómica. Este artículo repasa la situación actual de la Bioestadística, considerando los métodos estadísticos usados tradicionalmente en investigación biomédica, así como los recientes desarrollos de nuevos métodos, para dar respuesta a los nuevos problemas que surgen en Medicina. Obviamente, la aplicación fructífera de la estadística en investigación biomédica exige una formación adecuada de los bioestadísticos, formación que debería tener en cuenta las áreas emergentes en estadística, cubriendo al mismo tiempo los fundamentos de la teoría estadística y su metodología. Es importante, además, que los estudiantes de

  10. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4, is a collection of papers that deals with gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and the analysis of minute samples, as well as the role of the government in regulating the production, usage, safety, and efficacy of medical devices. One paper reviews the use of mass spectrometry and computer technology in relation to gas-phase analytical methods based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instruments and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer analytical systems. Many health practitioners, government and private health agencies, the legal prof

  11. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  12. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, is a collection of papers that discusses circulatory system models, linguistics in computer usage, and clinical applications on patient monitoring. One paper describes the use of comparative models of overall circulatory mechanics that include models of the cardiac pump, of the vascular systems, and of the overall systems behavior. Another paper describes a model in processing medical language data that employs an explicit semantic structure, becoming the basis for the computer-based, artificial intelligence of the system. One paper cites studies b

  13. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  14. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  15. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  16. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  17. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  18. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  19. Potential of Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical and Dental Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zafar; Shariq Najeeb; Zohaib Khurshid; Masoud Vazirzadeh; Sana Zohaib; Bilal Najeeb; Farshid Sefat

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell...

  20. Safe transportation of biomedical waste in a health care institution

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Duggal, S.; R Gur; S R Rongpharpi; Sagar, S.; Rani, M.; D Dhayal; C M Khanijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The chances of health care waste (Biomedical waste) coming in contact with the health care workers, patients, visitors, sanitary workers, waste handlers, public, rag pickers and animals during transportation are high. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of seven months (April 2013-October 2013) in a 500-bedded hospital where the average quantum of biomedical waste is 0.8 kg/bed/day. The issues related to transportation of health care waste from 39 genera...

  1. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications.

  2. Research Progress on Preparation and Surface Activation of Porous Biomedical Metal Materials%医用多孔金属的制备及其生物活化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 憨勇

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical porous metal materials, especially the porous titanium and titanium alloys, can provide the mechanical properties similar to human bone and promote growth of bone tissue into pores of the materials to enhance the fixation between their implants and bone at early periods of implantation, exhibiting a great potential for the application of human hard tissue repair and replacement. This paper focuses on the preparation methods and research progress of porous titanium and titanium alloys and their surface bio-activation technologies which are suitable for the complex pore structure. Nowadays, the main methods suitable for preparing porous titanium and titanium alloys include powder metallurgy (PM) , titanimn fibers sintering, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), selective electron beam mehing (SEBM) and selective laser mehing ( SLM). Surface bio-activation technologies suitable for porous titanium and titanium alloys, including sol-gel processing, bionic solution, electrochemical deposition, and micro-arc oxidation, are also reviewed. As biomedical materials, both mechanical compatibility and surface bioactivity of porous titanium and titanium alloys must be achieved to meet clinical criteria.%医用多孔金属材料,特别是多孔钛及钛合金能够提供与人体骨组织相匹配的力学性能,并促进骨组织长人以提高其与骨的固定度,在人体硬组织修复与替换方面具有广泛的应用前景。重点围绕多孔钛及钛合金的制备方法及适用于其复杂孔隙结构的表面生物活化方法,综述了各种方法在多孔钛及钛合金上的应用现状。目前适用于多孔钛及钛合金制备的技术主要有粉末冶金法、钛纤维烧结法、自蔓延高温合成法、选区电子束熔化技术和选区激光熔化技术,适用于多孔钛及钛合金表面生物活化的技术主要有溶胶凝胶法、仿生矿化法、电化学沉积法和微

  3. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  4. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  5. Biomedical applications of nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J M; Gwak, J W; Kamarajan, P; Fenno, J C; Rickard, A H; Kapila, Y L

    2016-06-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin produced by a group of Gram-positive bacteria that belongs to Lactococcus and Streptococcus species. Nisin is classified as a Type A (I) lantibiotic that is synthesized from mRNA and the translated peptide contains several unusual amino acids due to post-translational modifications. Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative. Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties. Nisin is FDA approved and generally regarded as a safe peptide with recognized potential for clinical use. Over the past two decades the application of nisin has been extended to biomedical fields. Studies have reported that nisin can prevent the growth of drug-resistant bacterial strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococci and Clostridium difficile. Nisin has now been shown to have antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative disease-associated pathogens. Nisin has been reported to have anti-biofilm properties and can work synergistically in combination with conventional therapeutic drugs. In addition, like host-defence peptides, nisin may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role. Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumours and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications. PMID:26678028

  6. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  7. Selected Topics in MicroNano-robotics for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications features a system approach and incorporates modern methodologies in autonomous mobile robots for programmable and controllable micro/nano-robots aiming at biomedical applications. The book provides chapters of instructional materials and cutting-edge research results in micro/nanorobotics for biomedical applications. The book presents new sensing technology on nanofibers, new power supply techniques including miniature fuel cells and energy harvesting devices, and manipulation techniques including AFM-based nano-robotic manipulation, robot-aided optical tweezers, and robot-assisted catheter surgery systems. It also contains case studies on using micro/nano-robots in biomedical environments and in biomedicine, as well as a design example to conceptually develop a Vitamin-pill sized robot to enter human’s gastrointestinal tract. Each chapter covers a different topic of the highly interdisciplinary area. Bring together the selected topics into ...

  8. Bio-Inspired Extreme Wetting Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed.

  9. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Holographic lithography for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.

    2012-06-01

    Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels

  11. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.;

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  12. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  13. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  14. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  15. Modified chitosans for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalınca, Zülal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the suitability of chitosan and some of its derivatives for some chosen biomedical applications. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chitosan-tripolyphosphate and ascorbyl chitosan were synthesized and characterized for specific biomedical applications in line with their chemical functionalities. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chi-graft-PNVI, was synthesized by two methods; via an N-protection route and without N-pr...

  16. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  17. BIMS: Biomedical Information Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pérez, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This final year project presents the design principles and prototype implementation of BIMS (Biomedical Information Management System), a flexible software system which provides an infrastructure to manage all information required by biomedical research projects.The BIMS project was initiated with the motivation to solve several limitations in medical data acquisition of some research projects, in which Universitat Pompeu Fabra takes part. These limitations,based on the lack of control mechan...

  18. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  19. Porous silicon nanoparticles for nanomedicine: preparation and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélder A; Mäkilä, Ermei; Airaksinen, Anu J; Bimbo, Luis M; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2014-04-01

    The research on porous silicon (PSi) materials for biomedical applications has expanded greatly since the early studies of Leigh Canham more than 25 years ago. Currently, PSi nanoparticles are receiving growing attention from the scientific biomedical community. These nanostructured materials have emerged as promising multifunctional and versatile platforms for nanomedicine in drug delivery, diagnostics and therapy. The outstanding properties of PSi, including excellent in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability, have led to many applications of PSi for delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight current advances and recent efforts on PSi nanoparticles regarding the production properties, efficient drug delivery, multidrug delivery, permeation across biological barriers, biosafety and in vivo tracking for biomedical applications. The constant boost on successful preclinical in vivo data reported so far makes this the 'golden age' for PSi, which is expected to finally be translated into the clinic in the near future.

  20. Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

  1. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  2. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  3. Spintronic platforms for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P P; Cardoso, F A; Martins, V C; Martins, S A M; Loureiro, J; Amaral, J; Chaves, R C; Cardoso, S; Fonseca, L P; Sebastião, A M; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M; Fermon, C

    2012-02-01

    Since the fundamental discovery of the giant magnetoresistance many spintronic devices have been developed and implemented in our daily life (e.g. information storage and automotive industry). Lately, advances in the sensors technology (higher sensitivity, smaller size) have potentiated other applications, namely in the biological area, leading to the emergence of novel biomedical platforms. In particular the investigation of spintronics and its application to the development of magnetoresistive (MR) biomolecular and biomedical platforms are giving rise to a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices, suitable for bench top bioassays as well as point-of-care and point-of-use devices. Herein, integrated spintronic biochip platforms for diagnostic and cytometric applications, hybrid systems incorporating magnetoresistive sensors applied to neuroelectronic studies and biomedical imaging, namely magneto-encephalography and magneto-cardiography, are reviewed. Also lab-on-a-chip MR-based platforms to perform biological studies at the single molecule level are discussed. Overall the potential and main characteristics of such MR-based biomedical devices, comparing to the existing technologies while giving particular examples of targeted applications, are addressed. PMID:22146898

  4. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell-cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future.

  5. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  6. Biomedical Imaging Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Salzer, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    This book presents and describes imaging technologies that can be used to study chemical processes and structural interactions in dynamic systems, principally in biomedical systems. The imaging technologies, largely biomedical imaging technologies such as MRT, Fluorescence mapping, raman mapping, nanoESCA, and CARS microscopy, have been selected according to their application range and to the chemical information content of their data. These technologies allow for the analysis and evaluation of delicate biological samples, which must not be disturbed during the profess. Ultimately, this may me

  7. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes. PMID:26675174

  8. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes.

  9. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Fátima Esteves, Maria; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, António Pedro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality.

  10. Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook Processing and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Written in a versatile, contemporary style that will benefit both novice and expert alike, Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook, Two-Volume Set covers the state of the art in the development and implementation of advanced thin films and coatings in the biological field. Consisting of two volumes--Processing and Characterization and Applications--this handbook details the latest understanding of advances in the design and performance of biological and biomedical coatings, covering a vast array of material types, including bio-ceramics, polymers, glass, chitosan, and nanomaterials. Contri

  11. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality. (topical review)

  12. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    to better understand the terminology used in the literature, which is related to the fabrication and surface functionalization of this class of materials, some of the most common approaches for synthesis and modification of CVD diamond films is introduced. Although many challenges still remain......Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... resistance, chemical inertness, superior electrochemical behavior, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. These properties have positioned the nanocrystalline diamond films as an attractive class of materials for a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications in the biomedical field. Consequently...

  13. Current investigations into magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Jianrong; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2016-05-01

    It is generally recognized that nanoparticles possess unique physicochemical properties that are largely different from those of conventional materials, specifically the electromagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). These properties have attracted many researchers to launch investigations into their potential biomedical applications, which have been reviewed in this article. First, common types of MNPs were briefly introduced. Then, the biomedical applications of MNPs were reviewed in seven parts: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cancer therapy, the delivery of drugs and genes, bone and dental repair, tissue engineering, biosensors, and in other aspects, which indicated that MNPs possess great potentials for many kinds of biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Although lots of achievements have been obtained, there is still a lot of work to do. New synthesis techniques and methods are still needed to develop the MNPs with satisfactory biocompatibility. More effective methods need to be exploited to prepare MNPs-based composites with fine microstructures and high biomedical performances. Other promising research points include the development of more appropriate techniques of experiments both in vitro and in vivo to detect and analyze the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MNPs and understand the possible influencing mechanism of the two properties. More comprehensive investigations into the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of composites containing MNPs with "core-shell" structure and deeper understanding and further study into the properties of MNPs to reveal their new biomedical applications, are also described in the conclusion and perspectives part.

  14. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shahand

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists fr

  15. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  16. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  17. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This volume gives an introduction to a fascinating research area to applied mathematicians. It is devoted to providing the exposition of promising analytical and numerical techniques for solving challenging biomedical imaging problems, which trigger the investigation of interesting issues in various branches of mathematics.

  18. Mathematical modeling in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools.  It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.

  19. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index

  20. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chao-Min; Chia-Wen Wu, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    Traditional boundaries between materials science and engineering and life sciences are rapidly disintegrating as interdisciplinary research teams develop new materials-science-based tools for exploring fundamental issues in both medicine and biology. With recent technological advances in multiple research fields such as materials science, cell and molecular biology and micro-/nano-technology, much attention is shifting toward evaluating the functional advantages of nanomaterials and nanofabrication, at the cellular and molecular levels, for specific, biomedically relevant applications. The pursuit of this direction enhances the understanding of the mechanisms of, and therapeutic potentials for, some of the most lethal diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, organ fibrosis and cancers. This interdisciplinary approach has generated great interest among researchers working in a wide variety of communities including industry, universities and research laboratories. The purpose of this focus issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is to bridge nanotechnology and biology with medicine, focusing more on the applications of nanomaterials and nanofabrication in biomedically relevant issues. This focus issue, we believe, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of (i) the preparation of nanomaterials and the underlying mechanisms of nanofabrication, and (ii) the linkage of nanomaterials and nanofabrication with biomedical applications. The multidisciplinary focus issue that we have attempted to organize is of interest to various research fields including biomaterials and tissue engineering, bioengineering, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, i.e. chemistry, physics and engineering. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication topics addressed in this focus issue include sensing and diagnosis (e.g. immunosensing and diagnostic devices for diseases), cellular and molecular biology (e.g. probing cellular behaviors and stem cell differentiation) and drug delivery

  1. Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.

  2. Biomedical Big Data Training Collaborative (BBDTC): An effort to bridge the talent gap in biomedical science and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E.; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules. Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist. Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes, are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: (i) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and (ii) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is planned

  3. Organic Bioelectronic Tools for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Löffler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics forms the basis of conductive polymer tools with great potential for application in biomedical science and medicine. It is a rapidly growing field of both academic and industrial interest since conductive polymers bridge the gap between electronics and biology by being electronically and ionically conductive. This feature can be employed in numerous ways by choosing the right polyelectrolyte system and tuning its properties towards the intended application. This review highlights how active organic bioelectronic surfaces can be used to control cell attachment and release as well as to trigger cell signaling by means of electrical, chemical or mechanical actuation. Furthermore, we report on the unique properties of conductive polymers that make them outstanding materials for labeled or label-free biosensors. Techniques for electronically controlled ion transport in organic bioelectronic devices are introduced, and examples are provided to illustrate their use in self-regulated medical devices. Organic bioelectronics have great potential to become a primary platform in future bioelectronics. We therefore introduce current applications that will aid in the development of advanced in vitro systems for biomedical science and of automated systems for applications in neuroscience, cell biology and infection biology. Considering this broad spectrum of applications, organic bioelectronics could lead to timely detection of disease, and facilitate the use of remote and personalized medicine. As such, organic bioelectronics might contribute to efficient healthcare and reduced hospitalization times for patients.

  4. Chitin and chitosan based polyurethanes: A review of recent advances and prospective biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ali; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Rehman, Saima; Zia, Fatima

    2016-05-01

    Chitin and chitosan are amino polysaccharides having massive structural propensities to produce bioactive materials with innovative properties, functions and diverse applications particularly in biomedical field. The specific physico-chemical, mechanical, biological and degradation properties offer efficient way to blend these biopolymers with synthetic ones. Polyurethane (PU) gained substantial attention owing to its structure-properties relationship. The immense activities of chitin/chitosan are successfully utilized to enhance the bioactive properties of polyurethanes. This review shed a light on chitin and chitosan based PU materials with their potential applications especially focusing the bio-medical field. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed highlighting the recent advancement in the biomedical field.

  5. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  6. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  7. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  8. Biomedical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of nano and biotechnology is enabling scientific and technical knowledge for improving human well being. Carbon nanotubes have become most fascinating material to be studied and unveil new avenues in the field of nanobiotechnology. The nanometer size and high aspect ratio of the CNTs are the two distinct features, which have contributed to diverse biomedical applications. They have captured the attention as nanoscale materials due to their nanometric structure and remarkable list of superlative and extravagant properties that encouraged their exploitation for promising applications. Significant progress has been made in order to overcome some of the major hurdles towards biomedical application of nanomaterials, especially on issues regarding the aqueous solubility/dispersion and safety of CNTs. Functionalized CNTs have been used in drug targeting, imaging, and in the efficient delivery of gene and nucleic acids. CNTs have also demonstrated great potential in diverse biomedical uses like drug targeting, imaging, cancer treatment, tissue regeneration, diagnostics, biosensing, genetic engineering and so forth. The present review highlights the possible potential of CNTs in diagnostics, imaging and targeted delivery of bioactives and also outlines the future opportunities for biomedical applications.

  9. Molecular engineering of polymer actuators for biomedical and industrial use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Mark; Eichorst, Rebecca; Gurr, Amy; Schweitzer, Georgette; Geronov, Yordan; Rao, Pavalli; McGrath, Dominic

    2012-04-01

    Five key materials engineering components and how each component impacted the working performance of a polymer actuator material are investigated. In our research we investigated the change of actuation performance that occurred with each change we made to the material. We investigated polymer crosslink density, polymer chain length, polymer gelation, type and density of reactive units, as well as the addition of binders to the polymer matrix. All five play a significant role and need to be addressed at the molecular level to optimize a polymer gel for use as a practical actuator material for biomedical and industrial use.

  10. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research. PMID:24640781

  11. Terahertz biomedical science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Studies Using Terahertz WavesJoo-Hiuk SonSection I Terahertz TechnologyTerahertz Sources and DetectorsHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonTabletop High-Power Terahertz Pulse Generation TechniquesYun-Shik LeeTerahertz Imaging and Tomography TechniquesHyunyong Choi and Joo-Hiuk SonCompact Solid-State Electronic Terahertz Devices and CircuitsJae-Sung Rieh, Daekeun Yoon, and Jongwon Yun<

  12. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  13. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  14. Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2000-03-01

    To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize 'Hybrid' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against {sup 60}Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N{sub 2} gas to suppress the formation of free radicals. (author)

  15. Potential of Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical and Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell receptors. Extensive research has been conducted to explore the potential of electrospun nanofibers for repair and regeneration of various dental and oral tissues including dental pulp, dentin, periodontal tissues, oral mucosa and skeletal tissues. However, there are a few limitations of electrospinning hindering the progress of these materials to practical or clinical applications. In terms of biomaterials aspects, the better understanding of controlled fabrication, properties and functioning of electrospun materials is required to overcome the limitations. More in vivo studies are definitely required to evaluate the biocompatibility of electrospun scaffolds. Furthermore, mechanical properties of such scaffolds should be enhanced so that they resist mechanical stresses during tissue regeneration applications. The objective of this article is to review the current progress of electrospun nanofibers for biomedical and dental applications. In addition, various aspects of electrospun materials in relation to potential dental applications have been discussed.

  16. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  17. Preparation and biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kazuo; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2014-10-01

    Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. Chitin occurs in nature as ordered macrofibrils. It is the major structural component in the exoskeleton of crab and shrimp shells and the cell wall of fungi and yeast. As chitin is not readily dissolved in common solvents, it is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are widely used in tissue engineering, wound healing, and as functional foods. Recently, easy methods for the preparation of chitin and chitosan nanofibers have been developed, and studies on biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers are ongoing. Chitin and chitosan nanofibers are considered to have great potential for various biomedical applications, because they have several useful properties such as high specific surface area and high porosity. This review summarizes methods for the preparation of chitin and chitosan nanofibers. Further, biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan nanofibers in (i) tissue engineering, (ii) wound dressing, (iii) cosmetic and skin health, (iv) stem cell technology, (v) anti-cancer treatments and drug delivery, (vi) anti-inflammatory treatments, and (vii) obesity treatment are summarized. Many studies indicate that chitin and chitosan nanofibers are suitable materials for various biomedical applications.

  18. The ethics of biomedical big data

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. ‘Biomedical Big Data’ refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approaches and methods are discussed that can be used to address these problems to achieve the appropriate balance between the social goods of biomedical Big Data research and the safety and privacy of individuals. Seventeen original contributions analyse the ethical, social and related policy implications of the analysis and curation of biomedical Big Data, written by leading experts in the areas of biomedical research, medical and technology ethics, privacy, governance and data protection. The book advances our understan...

  19. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  20. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. PMID:27179985

  1. Using Biomedically Relevant Multimedia Content in an Introductory Physics Course for Life Science and Pre-Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Christensen, Warren; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We will describe a one-quarter pilot algebra-based introductory physics course for pre-health and life science majors. The course features videos with biomedical experts and cogent biomedically inspired physics content. The materials were used in a flipped classroom as well as an all-online environment where students interacted with multimedia…

  2. Tribocorrosion of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coatings for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Adam, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Tribocorrosion has arisen as one of the most important material degradation processes in biomedical applications; thus, the improvement of the materials used in hip or knee prosthesis is very relevant. The aim of this project is to test the outstanding properties of the diamond like carbon material as a coating; a comparison between CoCrMo with several types of DLC as ta-C, a-C:H and metal doped with Ti and Si. Also different deposition methods will be compared like Physical Vapour Deposit...

  3. Recent advances in carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Han, Kun; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Lin, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a mini review is presented concerning the most recent research progress of carbon nanodots, which have emerged as one of the most attractive photoluminescent materials. Different synthetic methodologies to achieve advanced functions and better photoluminescence performances are summarized, which are mainly divided into two classes: top-down and bottom-up. The inspiring properties, including photoluminescence emission, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, peroxidase-like activity and toxicity, are discussed. Moreover, the biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging and drug delivery are reviewed.

  4. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Michael A.; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an...

  5. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G. Owen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Wertheimer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support that important public good. Consequently, we all have a duty to ...

  6. Searching Biomedical Text: Towards Maximum Relevant Results

    OpenAIRE

    Galde, Ola; Sevaldsen, John Harald

    2006-01-01

    The amount of biomedical information available to users today is large and increasing. The ability to precisely retrieve desired information is vital in order to utilize available knowledge. In this work we investigated how to improve the relevance of biomedical search results. Using the Lucene Java API we applied a series of information retrieval techniques to search in biomedical data. The techniques ranged from basic stemming and stop-word removal to more advanced methods like user relevan...

  7. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  8. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  9. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 1999, the second full year of existence of the NSBRI's research program, and is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI). The report consists of progress reports on projects related to the effects of microgravity and space on physiology. The research is broken up in nine areas: (1) Bone loss, (2) Cardiovascular alterations, (3) human performance, (3) immunology, infection and hematology, (4) muscle alterations and atrophy,(5) Neurovestibular adaptation, radiation effects, (6) technology development, and (7) synergy projects.

  11. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  12. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  13. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  14. Polymer and polymer-hybrid nanoparticles from synthesis to biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles have received increased scientific interest in terms of basic research as well as commercial applications, promising a variety of uses for nanostructures in fields including bionanotechnology and medicine. Condensing the relevant research into a comprehensive reference, Polymer and Polymer-Hybrid Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Biomedical Applications covers an array of topics from synthetic procedures and macromolecular design to possible biomedical applications of nanoparticles and materials based on original and unique polymers. The book presents a well-r

  15. Segregation of biomedical waste in an South Indian tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sengodan, Vetrivel Chezian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital wastes pose significant public health hazard if not properly managed. Hence, it is necessary to develop and adopt optimal waste management systems in the hospitals. Material and method: Biomedical waste generated in Coimbatore Medical College Hospital was color coded (blue, yellow, and red) and the data was analyzed retrospectively on a daily basis for 3 years (January 2010-December 2012). Results: Effective segregation protocols significantly reduced biomedical waste g...

  16. Knowledge Assessment of Hospital Staff Regarding Biomedical Waste Management in A Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bathma Vishal; Likhar Swarn K; Mishra Mahesh K; Athavale Arvind V; Agarwal Sanjay; Shukla Uma S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Biomedical waste (BMW) is waste generated during diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals. Approximately 10-25% of the Bio-Medical waste is hazardous and can be injurious to humans or animals and deleterious to environment. It is estimated that annually about 0.33 million tones of hospital waste are generated in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge regarding hospital waste management amongst hospital staff. Material and Methods: The study comprises of ...

  17. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  18. Biological and mechanical compatibility of biomedical titanium alloy materials%生物医用钛合金材料的生物及力学相容性***☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于振涛; 韩建业; 麻西群; 余森; 张明华; 张于胜

    2013-01-01

      背景:保证生物材料优良的生物及力学相容性是研制开发外科植入物及矫形器械产品的关键,但目前对其研究缺乏系统性和统一性认识。目的:初步分析生物医用钛合金材料生物及力学相容性的概念、内涵,指导医疗器械产品的选型设计与应用。方法:应用计算机检索PubMed、Elsiver、Springerlink、CNKI及维普等数据库1995至2012年相关文献,围绕“生物及力学相容性”主题词,探讨合金成分、显微组织及相变控制和材料表面状态优化等因素对钛合金材料生物及力学相容性的影响规律。结果与结论:生物及力学相容性是一个综合评价概念。进行医用钛合金材料选型设计时,首先要求合金中的组成元素无不良反应,并保证其与组织、血液及免疫和全身反应的安全性,同时要求所添加元素对钛合金的机械性能等其他性能不良影响最小。钛合金中常见的合金化元素主要包括α相稳定元素、β相稳定元素和中性元素3类。要使生物医用钛合金植入材料获得优良的生物及力学相容性,对材料内部显微组织和相变进行控制,以及开展材料表面状态改性优化也至关重要。但不能单纯追求一种钛合金的低模量或高强度等某一单项力学指标与人体骨组织接近或匹配而简单判定其生物力学相容性的优劣。%  BACKGROUND: Biomechanical compatibility is the key factor for the research and development of surgical implants and orthopedic devices. But the present research lacks systematic and common knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily analyze the concept and intension of biomechanical compatibility of biomedical titanium al oys in order to direct the designing and applying of medical devices. METHODS: A computer-based search was performed for articles related to biomechanical compatibility in PubMed, Elsiver, SpringerLink, CNKI and VIP databases (1995

  19. Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of syntheses and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Three families of oxide MNPs, magnetite, manganite and spinel ferrite materials, were prepared in various ways: coprecipitation, sol–gel and high energy mechanical milling. Basic properties of MNPs were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Physical Properties Measurement Systems (PPMS). As for biomedical application, the aim was to design a novel multifunctional, nanosized magnetofluorescent water-dispersible Fe3O4-curcumin conjugate, and its ability to label, target and treat tumor cells was described. The conjugate possesses a magnetic nano Fe3O4 core, chitosan (CS) or Oleic acid (OL) as an outer shell and entrapped curcumin (Cur), serving the dual function of naturally autofluorescent dye as well as antitumor model drug. Fe3O4-Cur conjugate exhibited a high loading cellular uptake with the help of a macrophage, which was clearly visualized dually by Fluorescence Microscope and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM), as well as by magnetization measurement (PPMS). A preliminary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study also showed a clear contrast enhancement by using the conjugate. As for the environmental aspect, the use of magnetite MNPs for the removal of heavy toxic metals, such as Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb), from contaminated water was studied

  20. Biomedical and environmental applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dai Lam; Le, Van Hong; Linh Pham, Hoai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Luong, Thien Tai; Thu Ha, Phuong; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of syntheses and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) at the Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Three families of oxide MNPs, magnetite, manganite and spinel ferrite materials, were prepared in various ways: coprecipitation, sol-gel and high energy mechanical milling. Basic properties of MNPs were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Physical Properties Measurement Systems (PPMS). As for biomedical application, the aim was to design a novel multifunctional, nanosized magnetofluorescent water-dispersible Fe3O4-curcumin conjugate, and its ability to label, target and treat tumor cells was described. The conjugate possesses a magnetic nano Fe3O4 core, chitosan (CS) or Oleic acid (OL) as an outer shell and entrapped curcumin (Cur), serving the dual function of naturally autofluorescent dye as well as antitumor model drug. Fe3O4-Cur conjugate exhibited a high loading cellular uptake with the help of a macrophage, which was clearly visualized dually by Fluorescence Microscope and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM), as well as by magnetization measurement (PPMS). A preliminary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study also showed a clear contrast enhancement by using the conjugate. As for the environmental aspect, the use of magnetite MNPs for the removal of heavy toxic metals, such as Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb), from contaminated water was studied.

  1. Stimuli responsive magnetic nanogels for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, I.; Petran, A.; Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Daia, C.; Marinica, O.; Vekas, L. [Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Magnetic Fluids Laboratory, Timisoara (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanogels based on magnetite nanoparticles sterically stabilized by double layer oleic acid in water carrier and chemically cross linked poly (N-isopropylacril amide) (pNIPA) and poly (acrylic acid) (pAAc). In this structure the magnetite nanoparticles are attached to the flexible network chain by adhesive forces, resulting in a direct coupling between magnetic and elastic properties. Stable water suspensions of dual responsive magnetic nanogels based on temperature-responsive N-isopropyl acryl amide, pH responsive acrylic acid were obtained. The FTIR spectra of p(NIPA-AAc) ferrogel samples, showed the absorption region of the specific chemical groups associated with pNIPA, pAAc and the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The morphology and the structure of the as prepared materials were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the size distribution was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic microgels have high magnetization and superparamagnetic behaviour being suitable materials for biomedical application.

  2. Biomedical engineering research at DOE national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Biomedical Engineering is the application of principles of physics, chemistry, nd engineering to problems of human health. The National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy have been leaders in this scientific field since 1947. This inventory of their biomedical engineering projects was compiled in January 1999.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  4. Cross language information retrieval for biomedical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemie, M.; Trieschnigg, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2007-01-01

    This workshop report discusses the collaborative work of UT, EMC and TNO on the TREC Genomics Track 2007. The biomedical information retrieval task is approached using cross language methods, in which biomedical concept detection is combined with effective IR based on unigram language models. Furthe

  5. A new educational program on biomedical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alste, van J.A.

    2000-01-01

    At the University of Twente together with the Free University of Amsterdam a new educational program on Biomedical Engineering will be developed. The academic program with a five-year duration will start in September 2001. After a general, broad education in Biomedical Engineering in the first three

  6. Biomedical Journals and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbaert, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the publication of biomedical journals on the Internet. Highlights include pros and cons of electronic publishing; the Global Health Network at the University of Pittsburgh; the availability of biomedical journals on the World Wide Web; current applications, including access to journal contents tables and electronic delivery of full-text…

  7. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement. PMID:27354246

  8. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement.

  9. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  10. Biomedical Perspective of Electrochemical Nanobiosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priti Singh; Shailendra Kumar Pandey; Jyoti Singh; Sameer Srivastava; Sadhana Sachan; Sunil Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensor holds great promise in the biomedical area due to its enhanced specificity, sensi-tivity, label-free nature and cost effectiveness for rapid point-of-care detection of diseases at bedside. In this review, we are focusing on the working principle of electrochemical biosensor and how it can be employed in detecting biomarkers of fatal diseases like cancer, AIDS, hepatitis and cardiovascular diseases. Recent advances in the development of implantable biosensors and exploration of nanomaterials in fabrication of electrodes with increasing the sensitivity of biosensor for quick and easy detection of biomolecules have been elucidated in detail. Electrochemical-based detection of heavy metal ions which cause harmful effect on human health has been discussed. Key challenges associated with the electrochemical sensor and its future perspectives are also addressed.

  11. Biomedical Applications of Simulated Environments .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental physiology assumes great significance in our national context of the diverse climatic conditions prevailing in different regions. Troops have to operate in diverse environmental conditions guarding the frontiers. Hence, the research in this area has been focused on the usage of field studies in the natural environments or simulated environments in the laboratory. Besides, the application of the simulation chambers in the research on the physiological effects of diverse environments, these studies may have applications in the control and management of certain clinical disorders. Some simulation chambers and specilised set-ups have been designed and developed at the Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences to carry out simulation studies. This paper describes these developments and the potentials of these biomedical applications of simulated environments.

  12. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  13. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  14. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  15. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846352

  16. Biomedical probe using a fiber-optic coupled scintillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinth, K L; Ewins, J H

    1976-01-01

    A high-sensitivity biomedical radiation probe which employs a fiber-optic coupled NaI(Tl) scintillator as a detector is described. It was developed for in vivo counting of low-energy 239Pu photons from material located in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes.-This probe is 20 times as sensitive as a solid-state probe (avalanche diode) previously developed for this application. Tests with 99mTc show a sensitivity more than 90 times greater than biomedical probes using DcTe of GaAs; however, the improved sensitivity is largely due to an increased sensitive volume. Probes were evaluated in animals and phantoms for detection of 239Pu and for location of lung tumors labeled with 111In. PMID:1264039

  17. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. PMID:27207052

  18. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications.

  19. Synthesis and biomedical applications of aerogels: Possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Hajar; Durães, Luisa; García-González, Carlos A; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Portugal, António; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are an exceptional group of nanoporous materials with outstanding physicochemical properties. Due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, aerogels are recognized as promising candidates for diverse applications including, thermal insulation, catalysis, environmental cleaning up, chemical sensors, acoustic transducers, energy storage devices, metal casting molds and water repellant coatings. Here, we have provided a comprehensive overview on the synthesis, processing and drying methods of the mostly investigated types of aerogels used in the biological and biomedical contexts, including silica aerogels, silica-polymer composites, polymeric and biopolymer aerogels. In addition, the very recent challenges on these aerogels with regard to their applicability in biomedical field as well as for personalized medicine applications are considered and explained in detail.

  20. Synthesis and biomedical applications of aerogels: Possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Hajar; Durães, Luisa; García-González, Carlos A; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Portugal, António; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are an exceptional group of nanoporous materials with outstanding physicochemical properties. Due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, aerogels are recognized as promising candidates for diverse applications including, thermal insulation, catalysis, environmental cleaning up, chemical sensors, acoustic transducers, energy storage devices, metal casting molds and water repellant coatings. Here, we have provided a comprehensive overview on the synthesis, processing and drying methods of the mostly investigated types of aerogels used in the biological and biomedical contexts, including silica aerogels, silica-polymer composites, polymeric and biopolymer aerogels. In addition, the very recent challenges on these aerogels with regard to their applicability in biomedical field as well as for personalized medicine applications are considered and explained in detail. PMID:27321857

  1. Stimulus-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with unique properties are regarded as the most promising materials for biomedical applications including drug delivery and in vitro/in vivo imaging.Among them,stimulus-responsive polymeric nanoparticles,usually termed as "intelligent" nanoparticles,could undergo structure,shape,and property changes after being exposed to external signals including pH,temperature,magnetic field,and light,which could be used to modulate the macroscopical behavior of the nanoparticles.This paper reviews the recent progress in stimulus-responsive nanoparticles used for drug delivery and in vitro/in vivo imaging,with an emphasis on double/multiple stimulus-responsive systems and their biomedical applications.

  2. Precision biopolymers from protein precursors for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2013-03-12

    The synthesis of biohybrid materials with tailored functional properties represents a topic of emerging interest. Combining proteins as natural, macromolecular building blocks, and synthetic polymers opens access to giant brush-like biopolymers of high structural definition. The properties of these precision polypeptide copolymers can be tailored through various chemical modifications along their polypeptide backbone, which expands the repertoire of known protein-based materials to address biomedical applications. In this article, the synthetic strategies for the design of precision biopolymers from proteins through amino acid specific conjugation reagents are highlighted and the different functionalization strategies, their characterization, and applications are discussed.

  3. Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress%Biomedical Effects and Nanomaterials: Nanosafety of Engineered Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 朱墨桃; 李敬源

    2012-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, there are growing concerns about biological effects and biosafety of engineered nanomaterials. On the other hand, nanoparticles are widely used in medical fields based on their novel interactions with biological entities. However, there are still a lot of challenges to establish systematic knowledge about nanotoxicology and develop biologically safer biomedical materials due to the variety of factors determining their biomedical effects and nanotoxicity. Understanding the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with the bio- logical entities becomes crucial to the further development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the past decade, colleagues in our laboratory intensively studied the toxic properties of various kinds of nanomaterials and their chemical mechanisms. In this paper we review the recent advance in the research on the biological effects of engi- neered nanomaterials and nanosafety issue, by focusing on the studies about representative nanomaterials in our la- boratory.

  4. Biological and biomedical aspects of magnetic fluid technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roath, S.

    1993-04-01

    Magnetic fluid technology has undergone study and development in its biological and biomedical aspects, principally in image enhancement and in the use of a variety of Separation techniques in the purification of biological materials or in the identification of very small amounts of organisms, cells, or genomic material. Many of these processes are already applied to small scale laboratory processing or manufacturing. A variety of magnetic materials are used; no standard technique has yet been consolidated but efficiency of separation especially is rapidly increasing. Clinical applications may be related both to diagnosis in areas of low level infection or contamination and also in ex-vivo processing of materials such as human bone marrow or peripheral blood where specific cell populations can be extracted. This may be a valuable tool in human bone marrow processing and in the coming field of gene transfer technology, as well as in the purification of genomic material.

  5. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  6. Biomedical Applications of Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Petrini

    2011-01-01

    behaviors, due to the peculiar crystallographic structure of the alloys, assure the recovery of the original shape even after large deformations and the maintenance of a constant applied force in correspondence of significant displacements. These properties, joined with good corrosion and bending resistance, biological and magnetic resonance compatibility, explain the large diffusion, in the last 20 years, of SMA in the production of biomedical devices, in particular for mini-invasive techniques. In this paper a detailed review of the main applications of NiTi alloys in dental, orthopedics, vascular, neurological, and surgical fields is presented. In particular for each device the main characteristics and the advantages of using SMA are discussed. Moreover, the paper underlines the opportunities and the room for new ideas able to enlarge the range of SMA applications. However, it is fundamental to remember that the complexity of the material and application requires a strict collaboration between clinicians, engineers, physicists and chemists for defining accurately the problem, finding the best solution in terms of device design and accordingly optimizing the NiTi alloy properties.

  7. Management of Biomedical Waste: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, K N; Suryavanshi, Harshal N; Sam, George; Chaithanya, K H; Punde, Prashant; Singh, S Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental operatories pose a threat due to the high chances of infection transmission both to the clinician and the patients. Hence, management of dental waste becomes utmost importance not only for the health benefit of the dentist himself, but also people who can come into contact with these wastes directly or indirectly. The present study was conducted to find out the management of biomedical waste in private dental practice among 3 districts of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The study population included 186 private practitioners in 3 districts of Karnataka (Coorg, Mysore, Hassan), South India. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding dental waste management. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the results. Results: Out of 186 study subjects, 71 (38%) were females and 115 (62%) were males. The maximum number of participants belonged to the age group of 28-33 years (29%). Undergraduate qualification was more (70%). 90 (48%) participants had an experience of 0-5 years. Chi-square analysis showed a highly significant association between participant who attended continuing dental education (CDE) program and their practice of dental waste management. Conclusion: Education with regards to waste management will help in enhancing practices regarding the same. In order to fill this vacuum CDE programs have to be conducted in pursuance to maintain health of the community. PMID:26435621

  8. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique ’intelligent’ characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  9. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  10. Veterans administration biomedical engineer training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D E

    1981-01-01

    The Veterans administration's Department of Medical and Surgery includes in its Graduate Engineer Training Program a special program for Biomedical Engineers. The program is intended for recent graduates in biomedical engineering and provides for the VA a means of recruiting and training biomedical engineers for employment in its medical centers nationwide. This paper discusses the structure and objectives of the program, the opportunities that exist for the trainee within the program and the results of the program since its inception in 1973, and provides an outlook on the future of the program.

  11. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  12. Comparing the performance of biomedical clustering methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiwie, Christian; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identifying groups of similar objects is a popular first step in biomedical data analysis, but it is error-prone and impossible to perform manually. Many computational methods have been developed to tackle this problem. Here we assessed 13 well-known methods using 24 data sets ranging from gene......-ranging comparison we were able to develop a short guideline for biomedical clustering tasks. ClustEval allows biomedical researchers to pick the appropriate tool for their data type and allows method developers to compare their tool to the state of the art....

  13. Recent developments in intelligent biomedical polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO ChunSheng; TIAN HuaYu; ZHUANG XiuLi; CHEN XueSi; JING XiaBin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent polymers or stimuli-responsive polymers may exhibit distinct transitions in physical-chemical properties, including conformation, polarity, phase structure and chemical composition in response to changes in environmental stimuli. Due to their unique 'intelligent' characteristics, stimuli-sensitive polymers have found a wide variety of applications in biomedical and nanotechnological fields. This review focuses on the recent developments in biomedical application of intelligent polymer systems, such as intelligent hydrogel systems, intelligent drug delivery systems and intelligent molecular recognition systems. Also, the possible future directions for the application of these intelligent polymer systems in the biomedical field are presented.

  14. Relative Citation Ratio of Top Twenty Macedonian Biomedical Scientists in PubMed: A New Metric that Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze relative citation ratio (RCR) of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists with a new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level. Material and Methods: Top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists were identified by GoPubMed on the base of the number of deposited abstracts in PubMed, corrected with the data from previously published paper, and completed with the Macedonian biomedical scientists working in countries ...

  15. Relative Citation Ratio of Top Twenty Macedonian Biomedical Scientists in PubMed: A New Metric that Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko SPIROSKI

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze relative citation ratio (RCR) of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists with a new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level.Material and Methods: Top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists were identified by GoPubMed on the base of the number of deposited abstracts in PubMed, corrected with the data from previously published paper, and completed with the Macedonian biomedical scientists working in countries outsi...

  16. Decoration of silk fibroin by click chemistry for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongshi; Heusler, Eva; Jones, Gabriel; Li, Linhao; Werner, Vera; Germershaus, Oliver; Ritzer, Jennifer; Luehmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz

    2014-06-01

    Silkfibroin (SF) has an excellent biocompatibility and its remarkable structure translates into exciting mechanical properties rendering this biomaterial particularly fascinating for biomedical application. To further boost the material's biological/preclinical impact, SF is decorated with biologics, typically by carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling (EDC/NHS). For biomedical application, this chemistry challenges the product risk profile due to the formation of covalent aggregates, particularly when decoration is with biologics occurring naturally in humans as these aggregates may prime for autoimmunity. Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click chemistry) provides the necessary specificity to avoid such intermolecular, covalent aggregates. We present a blueprint outlining the necessary chemistry rendering SF compatible with CuAAC and with a particular focus on structural consequences. For that, the number of SF carboxyl groups (carboxyl-SF; required for EDC/NHS chemistry) or azido groups (azido-SF; required for click chemistry) was tailored by means of diazonium coupling of the SF tyrosine residues. Structural impact on SF and decorated SF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The click chemistry yielded a better controlled product as compared to the EDC/NHS chemistry with no formation of inter- and intramolecular crosslinks as demonstrated for SF decorated with fluorescent model compounds or a biologic, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), respectively. In conclusion, SF can readily be translated into a scaffold compatible with click chemistry yielding decorated products with a better risk profile for biomedical application. PMID:24576682

  17. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  18. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  19. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  20. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  1. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  2. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  3. Computer vision for biomedical image applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)

  4. Towards Nanoscale Biomedical Devices in Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parracino, A.; Gajula, G.P.; di Gennaro, A.K.;

    2011-01-01

    Medical interest in nanotechnology originates from a belief that nanoscale therapeutic devices can be constructed and directed towards its target inside the human body. Such nanodevices can be engineered by coupling superparamagnetic nanoparticle to biomedically active proteins. We hereby report...

  5. Natural Polymers and their Application in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of its non-toxic,biocompatible in nature. Natural polysaccharides have been investigated for drug delivery applications as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer has found its application as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Now a day, the polymer is being modified to obtain novel biomaterial for controlled drug delivery applications. This review provides an overview of the different modified polymer derivatives and their applications with special attention being put on controlled drug delivery and biomedical engineering.

  6. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    OpenAIRE

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    International audience Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is diffic...

  7. Biomedical photonics handbook therapeutics and advanced biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents recent fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers,

  8. The growth of biomedical terahertz research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in biomedical terahertz research is growing rapidly and there are now several terahertz groups in Asia, Europe and the US investigating potential applications such as pharmaceutical quality control, protein characterization and cancer detection. This review article outlines the technological bottlenecks that have been overcome which have made biomedical terahertz research possible. Key research findings will be presented, and the limitations that remain and the research initiatives that strive to address them will also be discussed. (paper)

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  10. Science gateways for biomedical big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, van, PJW; Olabarriaga, S.D.; Shahand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical researchers are facing data deluge challenges such as dealing with large volume of complex heterogeneous data and complex and computationally demanding data processing methods. Such scale and complexity of biomedical research requires multi-disciplinary collaboration between scientists from different organizations. Data-driven or e-Science methods are defined as a combination of Information Technology (IT) and science that enables scientists to tackle the data deluge challenges. Th...

  11. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  12. Biomedical image understanding methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Joo-Hwee; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to understanding and interpreting digital images in medical and functional applications Biomedical Image Understanding focuses on image understanding and semantic interpretation, with clear introductions to related concepts, in-depth theoretical analysis, and detailed descriptions of important biomedical applications. It covers image processing, image filtering, enhancement, de-noising, restoration, and reconstruction; image segmentation and feature extraction; registration; clustering, pattern classification, and data fusion. With contributions from ex

  13. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  14. A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed.

  15. Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.

    1988-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics.

  16. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  17. Semiconductor microlasers with intracavity microfluidics for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.

    1997-03-01

    Microfabricated electro-optical-mechanical systems are expected to play an important role in future biomedical, biochemical and environmental technologies. Semiconductor photonic materials and devices are attractive components of such systems because of their ability to generate, transmit, modulate, and detect light. In this paper the authors report investigations of light-emitting semiconductor/glass microcavities filled with simple fluids. They examine surface tension for transporting liquids into the intracavity space and study the influence of the liquid on the spectral emission of the microcavity.

  18. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Singhal, P; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2009-04-10

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can remember a primary shape and can return to this primary shape from a deformed secondary shape when given an appropriate stimulus. This property allows them to be delivered in a compact form via minimally invasive surgeries in humans, and deployed to achieve complex final shapes. Here we review the various biomedical applications of SMPs and the challenges they face with respect to actuation and biocompatibility. While shape memory behavior has been demonstrated with heat, light and chemical environment, here we focus our discussion on thermally stimulated SMPs.

  19. Biocomposites electrospun with poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin powder for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical synthetic polymers have been used in soft and hard tissue regeneration because of their good processability and biodegradability. However, biomaterials such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have various shortcomings, including intrinsic hydrophobicity and lack of bioactive functional groups. The material must be reinforced with natural biomaterials to achieve good cellular and mechanical performance as biomedical material. We fabricated a biocomposite using PCL and silk fibroin (SF) powder, which has good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and cellular behavior of the PCL/SF fibers were analyzed. In addition, we obtained a highly oriented conduit of electrospun biocomposite fibers by modifying the rolling collector of the electrospinning system. As the alignment of micro/nanofibers increased, the orthotropic mechanical properties were improved. The biocompatibility of the biocomposite was evaluated in a culture of bone-marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells. The cellular result demonstrated the potential usefulness of electrospun biocomposites for various biomedical conduit systems. PMID:20537249

  20. Polymeric AIE-based nanoprobes for biomedical applications: recent advances and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Xiqi; Tao, Lei; Chen, Yiwang; Wei, Yen

    2015-07-01

    The development of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials for biomedical applications has recently attracted a large amount of attention due to the remarkable advantages of these materials compared with small organic dyes and fluorescent inorganic nanomaterials. Among these polymeric luminescent nanomaterials, polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties should be of great research interest due to their unique AIE properties, the designability of polymers and their multifunctional potential. In this review, the recent advances in the design and biomedical applications of polymeric luminescent nanomaterials based on AIE dyes is summarized. Various design strategies for incorporation of these AIE dyes into polymeric systems are included. The potential biomedical applications such as biological imaging, and use in biological sensors and theranostic systems of these polymeric AIE-based nanomaterials have also been highlighted. We trust this review will attract significant interest from scientists from different research fields in chemistry, materials, biology and interdisciplinary areas.

  1. 医用金属表面的钽涂层制备及其临床应用趋势%The fabrication of tantalum coating on biomedical metal materials and its clinical application trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓明; 谭丽丽; 杨柯

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum has attracted much attention due to its excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the relative high cost of material has dramatically restricted its clinical application as biomaterial. Therefore, various coating fabrication methods have been used to reduce the cost. In this paper, the biological advantages of tantalum, current situation of the fabrication of tantalum coating on stainless steel, titanium alloy, as well as cobalt-chromium alloy, and the prospects of tantalum clinical applications were summarized.%金属钽具有极佳的耐腐蚀性和优异的生物相容性,目前受到越来越多的医学和材料科学工作者的关注,但其高昂的原料成本限制了其在生物医用领域的广泛应用,因此人们采用多种方法制备钽涂层以降低成本。该文综述钽的生物学优势,医用金属(不锈钢、钛合金、钴铬合金)表面的钽涂层制备及其临床应用趋势。

  2. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  3. OPPORTUNITIES OF BIOMEDICAL USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials  –  materials,  whouse  structure  elements  has  proportions  doesn’t  exceed  100  nm.  In superdispersed state matter acquire new properties. In the last decade, carbon nanotubes become the most popular nanomaterials, that cause attention of representatives of various scientific field. The сarbon nanotubes offer new opportunities for biological and medical applications: imaging at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, biosensors and electrodes based on carbon nanotubes, target delivery of various substances, radiation and photothermal therapy. The most promising of carbon nanotubes in the context of biomedical applications is their ability to penetrate the various tissues of the body and carry large doses of agents, providing diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Functionalized nanotubes are biodegradable. Other current direction of using carbon nanotubes in medicine and biology is to visualize objects on the molecular, cellular and tissue level. Associated with carbon nanotubes contrasting substances improve the visualization of cells and tissues, which can detected new patterns of development of the pathological process. Due to the vagueness of the question of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes possibility of their practical application is hampered. Before the introduction of carbon nanotubes into practical health care is necessary to provide all the possible consequences of using nanotubes. High rates of properties and development of new nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes in the near future will lead to new advances related to the application and development of new parameters that will determine their properties and effects. In these review attention is paid to the structure, physico-chemical properties of nanotubes, their functionalization, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and all aspects of using of carbon nanotubes.

  4. Wireless RF communication in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on wireless transcutaneous RF communication in biomedical applications. It discusses current technology, restrictions and applications and also illustrates possible future developments. It focuses on the application in biotelemetry where the system consists of a transmitter and a receiver with a transmission link in between. The transmitted information can either be a biopotential or a nonelectric value like arterial pressure, respiration, body temperature or pH value. In this paper the use of radio-frequency (RF) communication and identification for those applications is described. Basically, radio-frequency identification or RFID is a technology that is analogous to the working principle of magnetic barcode systems. Unlike magnetic barcodes, passive RFID can be used in extreme climatic conditions—also the tags do not need to be within close proximity of the reader. Our proposed solution is to exploit an exciting new development in making circuits on polymers without the need for battery power. This solution exploits the principle of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device on a polymer substrate. The SAW device is a set of interdigitated conducting fingers on the polymer substrate. If an appropriate RF signal is sent to the device, the fingers act as microantennas that pick up the signal, and this energy is then converted into acoustic waves that travel across the surface of the polymer substrate. Being a flexible polymer, the acoustic waves cause stresses that can either contract or stretch the material. In our case we mainly focus on an RF controllable microvalve that could ultimately be used for fertility control

  5. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. PMID:22647736

  6. Factors of Biomedical Polymer Material Sterilization Using Ethylene Oxide%医用高分子材料环氧乙烷灭菌效果影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 周冬; 张弦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors of the ethylene oxide′s sterilization effect in order to improve its effect. Methods Rataed factors in the sterilization process were analysed one by one. Results There were so many factors impacting the sterilization effect. The mechanism of each factor was very various,i. e. ,temperature,humidity,concentration,reaction time,loading methods,each factor had dif-ferent mechanism. Conclusion In the use of ethylene oxide for the sterilization of medical polymer materials,we should fully consider the impact of various factors in order to achieve good sterilization effect.%目的:分析环氧乙烷灭菌效果的影响因素,提高灭菌效果。方法对灭菌过程中涉及的相关因素逐一分析。结果影响医用高分子材料环氧乙烷灭菌效果的因素较多,主要有温度、湿度、浓度、作用时间、装载方式等,各个因素的影响机理差异很大。结论在运用环氧乙烷对医用高分子材料进行灭菌时,应充分考虑各个因素的影响,以达到良好的灭菌效果。

  7. Biomedical engineering education--status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magjarevic, Ratko; Zequera Diaz, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering programs are present at a large number of universities all over the world with an increasing trend. New generations of biomedical engineers have to face the challenges of health care systems round the world which need a large number of professionals not only to support the present technology in the health care system but to develop new devices and services. Health care stakeholders would like to have innovative solutions directed towards solving problems of the world growing incidence of chronic disease and ageing population. These new solutions have to meet the requirements for continuous monitoring, support or care outside clinical settlements. Presence of these needs can be tracked through data from the Labor Organization in the U.S. showing that biomedical engineering jobs have the largest growth at the engineering labor market with expected 72% growth rate in the period from 2008-2018. In European Union the number of patents (i.e. innovation) is the highest in the category of biomedical technology. Biomedical engineering curricula have to adopt to the new needs and for expectations of the future. In this paper we want to give an overview of engineering professions in related to engineering in medicine and biology and the current status of BME education in some regions, as a base for further discussions.

  8. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  9. Integrating systems biology models and biomedical ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bono Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology is an approach to biology that emphasizes the structure and dynamic behavior of biological systems and the interactions that occur within them. To succeed, systems biology crucially depends on the accessibility and integration of data across domains and levels of granularity. Biomedical ontologies were developed to facilitate such an integration of data and are often used to annotate biosimulation models in systems biology. Results We provide a framework to integrate representations of in silico systems biology with those of in vivo biology as described by biomedical ontologies and demonstrate this framework using the Systems Biology Markup Language. We developed the SBML Harvester software that automatically converts annotated SBML models into OWL and we apply our software to those biosimulation models that are contained in the BioModels Database. We utilize the resulting knowledge base for complex biological queries that can bridge levels of granularity, verify models based on the biological phenomenon they represent and provide a means to establish a basic qualitative layer on which to express the semantics of biosimulation models. Conclusions We establish an information flow between biomedical ontologies and biosimulation models and we demonstrate that the integration of annotated biosimulation models and biomedical ontologies enables the verification of models as well as expressive queries. Establishing a bi-directional information flow between systems biology and biomedical ontologies has the potential to enable large-scale analyses of biological systems that span levels of granularity from molecules to organisms.

  10. Industry careers for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzner, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    This year's conference theme is "linkages for innovation in biomedicine." Biomedical engineers, especially those transitioning their career from academic study into medical device industry, will play a critical role in converting the fruits of scientific research into the reality of modern medical devices. This special session is organized to help biomedical engineers to achieve their career goals more effectively. Participants will have opportunities to hear from and interact with leading industrial experts on many issues. These may include but not limited to 1) career paths for biomedical engineers (industrial, academic, or federal; technical vs. managerial track; small start-up or large established companies); 2) unique design challenges and regulatory requirements in medical device development; 3) aspects of a successful biomedical engineering job candidate (such as resume, interview, follow-up). Suggestions for other topics are welcome and should be directed to xkong@ieee.org The distinguished panelists include: Xuan Kong, Ph.D., VP of Research, NEUROMetrix Inc, Waltham, MA Robert F. Munzner, Ph.D., Medical Device Consultant, Doctor Device, Herndon, VA Glen McLaughlin, Ph.D., VP of Engineering and CTO, Zonare Medical System Inc., Mountain View, CA Grace Bartoo, Ph.D., RAC, General Manager, Decus Biomedical LLC San Carlos, CA.

  11. Designation and development of biomedical Ti alloys with finer biomechanical compatibility in long-term surgical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen-Tao; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Tian, Yu-Xing; Cheng, Jun; Ma, Xi-Qun; Liu, Han-Yuan; Wang, Chang

    2014-09-01

    Developing the new titanium alloys with excellent biomechanical compatibility has been an important research direction of surgical implants materials. Present paper summarizes the international researches and developments of biomedical titanium alloys. Aiming at increasing the biomechanical compatibility, it also introduces the exploration and improvement of alloy designing, mechanical processing, microstructure and phase transformation, and finally outlines the directions for scientific research on the biomedical titanium alloys in the future.

  12. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  13. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  14. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  15. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  16. Filtration track membranes and their biomedical applications; Trekowe membrany filtracyjne oraz ich zastosowania biomedyczne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczkowski, M.; Wawszczak, D.; Starosta, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The characteristics of track filtration membranes has been performed. The investigation of radiation resistance has been carried out for different types of polymer foil used as a membrane material. Biomedical applications of track filtration membranes have been presented and discussed. 10 refs, 10 figs.

  17. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit II: Propagation of Error, Vectors and Linear Programming. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of mathematics within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  18. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

  19. Antibacterial properties of biomedical surfaces containing micrometric silver islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Tanoira, R; Perez-Jorge, C; Endrino, J L; Gomez-Barrena, E; Horwat, D; Pierson, J F; Esteban, J, E-mail: rptanoira@fjd.es

    2010-11-01

    A set of Cu-Mn-O and Ag-Cu-Mn-O films were sputter-deposited onto polished Ti-6Al-4V coupons and the microbiological adherence of Staphylococcus sp. was studied in these biomedical surfaces modified using advanced ternary and quaternary oxides that incorporated micrometric silver islands. The as-deposited ternary and quaternary compounds were amorphous. Upon air annealing the Ag-Cu-Mn-O films, silver-oxygen bonds in the compound destabilize, resulting in the segregation of metallic silver in the form of micrometric layered silver islands with high specific area dispersed at the surface of the remaining oxide. Silver is well known to have a natural biocidal character and its presence in the surface forming large micrometric escalonated islands is, in principle, predicted to enhance the antimicrobial properties of biomedical surfaces. Microbial adhesion tests were performed in triplicates using collection strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Preliminary results indicate that both strains showed decreased adherence to modified materials, S. epidermidis showed higher adherence these materials than S. aureus, however, there was no statistically significant differences between Cu-Mn-O and Ag-Cu-Mn-O containing silver islands.

  20. Thermoplastic polyurethane:polythiophene nanomembranes for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Madrigal, Maria M; Giannotti, Marina I; del Valle, Luis J; Franco, Lourdes; Armelin, Elaine; Puiggalí, Jordi; Sanz, Fausto; Alemán, Carlos

    2014-06-25

    Nanomembranes have been prepared by spin-coating mixtures of a polythiophene (P3TMA) derivative and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using 20:80, 40:60, and 60:40 TPU:P3TMA weight ratios. After structural, topographical, electrochemical, and thermal characterization, properties typically related with biomedical applications have been investigated: swelling, resistance to both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation, biocompatibility, and adsorption of type I collagen, which is an extra cellular matrix protein that binds fibronectin favoring cell adhesion processes. The swelling ability and the hydrolytic and enzymatic degradability of TPU:P3TMA membranes increases with the concentration of P3TMA. Moreover, the degradation of the blends is considerably promoted by the presence of enzymes in the hydrolytic medium, TPU:P3TMA blends behaving as biodegradable materials. On the other hand, TPU:P3TMA nanomembranes behave as bioactive platforms stimulating cell adhesion and, especially, cell viability. Type I collagen adsorption largely depends on the substrate employed to support the nanomembrane, whereas it is practically independent of the chemical nature of the polymeric material used to fabricate the nanomembrane. However, detailed microscopy study of the morphology and topography of adsorbed collagen evidence the formation of different organizations, which range from fibrils to pseudoregular honeycomb networks depending on the composition of the nanomembrane that is in contact with the protein. Scaffolds made of electroactive TPU:P3TMA nanomembranes are potential candidates for tissue engineering biomedical applications. PMID:24857815

  1. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc., advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid, a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedical information (data and images in a distributed environment. BIG is an interactive environment that deals with complex user's requests, regarding the acquisition of biomedical data, the "processing" and "delivering" of biomedical images, using the power and security of Computational Grids.

  2. Biomedical applications of peptide nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Ekiz, Melis Şardan

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 171-194). Thesis (Ph. D.): Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. by Melis Şardan Ekiz. Ph. D.

  3. Advanced Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This book focuses on standard probability distributions commonly encountered in biomedical engineering. The exponential, Poisson and Gaussian distributions are introduced, as well as important approximations to the Bernoulli PMF and Gaussian CDF. Many important properties of jointly Gaussian random variables are presented. The primary subjects of the final chapter are methods for determining the probability distribution of a function of a random variable. We first evaluate the prob

  4. Effective written communication in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, K S; Hahn, A W

    1996-01-01

    The written word is the biomedical scientist's most important and most enduring communication tool. Nevertheless, the development of writing skills receives little attention in most scientific disciplines and the ability to conduct research is often viewed as more important than the ability to communicate the results of that research. Consequently, many scientists lack the writing skills necessary to effectively convey essential aspects of their research. In this paper, we will discuss the importance of good writing skills, give examples of common mistakes that are made in biomedical science writing and offer suggestions on how to improve written communication. PMID:8672681

  5. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Liu, Yueping; Liu, Yu; Fu, Weiling; Luo, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Terahertz (THz=10(12)Hz) radiation has attracted wide attention for its unprecedented sensing ability and its noninvasive and nonionizing properties. Tremendous strides in THz instrumentation have prompted impressive breakthroughs in THz biomedical research. Here, we review the current state of THz spectroscopy and imaging in various biomedical applications ranging from biomolecules, including DNA/RNA, amino acids/peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, to cells and tissues. We also address the potential biological effects of THz radiation during its biological applications and propose future prospects for this cutting-edge technology.

  6. Optimization and Data Analysis in Biomedical Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M; Xanthopoulos, Petros

    2012-01-01

    This volume covers some of the topics that are related to the rapidly growing field of biomedical informatics. In June 11-12, 2010 a workshop entitled 'Optimization and Data Analysis in Biomedical Informatics' was organized at The Fields Institute. Following this event invited contributions were gathered based on the talks presented at the workshop, and additional invited chapters were chosen from world's leading experts. In this publication, the authors share their expertise in the form of state-of-the-art research and review chapters, bringing together researchers from different disciplines

  7. Ontology-Oriented Programming for Biomedical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ontologies are now widely used in the biomedical domain. However, it is difficult to manipulate ontologies in a computer program and, consequently, it is not easy to integrate ontologies with databases or websites. Two main approaches have been proposed for accessing ontologies in a computer program: traditional API (Application Programming Interface) and ontology-oriented programming, either static or dynamic. In this paper, we will review these approaches and discuss their appropriateness for biomedical ontologies. We will also present an experience feedback about the integration of an ontology in a computer software during the VIIIP research project. Finally, we will present OwlReady, the solution we developed.

  8. Developing biomedical devices design, innovation and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades incredible progress has been achieved in the instruments and devices used in the biomedical field. This progress stems from continuous scientific research that has taken advantage of many findings and advances in technology made available by universities and industry. Innovation is the key word, and in this context legal protection and intellectual property rights (IPR) are of crucial importance. This book provides students and practitioners with the fundamentals for designing biomedical devices and explains basic design principles. Furthermore, as an aid to the dev

  9. Orthogonal analysis of functional gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Lu, Yi-Fu; DelRio, Frank W; Cho, Tae Joon; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R; Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew; Hackley, Vincent A

    2015-11-01

    We report a comprehensive strategy based on implementation of orthogonal measurement techniques to provide critical and verifiable material characteristics for functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) used in biomedical applications. Samples were analyzed before and after ≈50 months of cold storage (≈4 °C). Biomedical applications require long-term storage at cold temperatures, which could have an impact on AuNP therapeutics. Thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG)-conjugated AuNPs with different terminal groups (methyl-, carboxylic-, and amine-) were chosen as a model system due to their high relevancy in biomedical applications. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering were employed to provide both complementary and orthogonal information on (1) particle size and size distribution, (2) particle concentrations, (3) molecular conjugation properties (i.e., conformation and surface packing density), and (4) colloidal stability. Results show that SH-PEGs were conjugated on the surface of AuNPs to form a brush-like polymer corona. The surface packing density of SH-PEG was ≈0.42 nm(-2) for the methyl-PEG-SH AuNPs, ≈0.26 nm(-2) for the amine-SH-PEG AuNPs, and ≈0.18 nm(-2) for the carboxylic-PEG-SH AuNPs before cold storage, approximately 10 % of its theoretical maximum value. The conformation of surface-bound SH-PEGs was then estimated to be in an intermediate state between brush-like and random-coiled, based on the measured thicknesses in liquid and in dry states. By analyzing the change in particle size distribution and number concentration in suspension following cold storage, the long term colloidal stability of AuNPs was shown to be significantly improved via functionalization with SH-PEG, especially in the case of methyl-PEG-SH and carboxylic

  10. Improvement of the biomedical properties of titanium using SMAT and thermal oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter; Li, Yuncang

    2014-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical implant. However, they exhibit relatively poor tribological properties. In this study, a two-step treatment including surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) combined with thermal oxidation process has been developed to improve the tribological properties and biocompatibility of Ti. Ti after two-step treatment shows excellent wear-resistance and biocompatibility among all Ti samples, which can be ascribed to the highest surface energy, well crystallinity of rutile layer on its surface. Overall, the two-step treatment is a prospective method to produce excellent biomedical Ti materials.

  11. Crosslinking biopolymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Reddy, Roopa; Jiang, Qiuran

    2015-06-01

    Biomaterials made from proteins, polysaccharides, and synthetic biopolymers are preferred but lack the mechanical properties and stability in aqueous environments necessary for medical applications. Crosslinking improves the properties of the biomaterials, but most crosslinkers either cause undesirable changes to the functionality of the biopolymers or result in cytotoxicity. Glutaraldehyde, the most widely used crosslinking agent, is difficult to handle and contradictory views have been presented on the cytotoxicity of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked materials. Recently, poly(carboxylic acids) that can crosslink in both dry and wet conditions have been shown to provide the desired improvements in tensile properties, increase in stability under aqueous conditions, and also promote cell attachment and proliferation. Green chemicals and newer crosslinking approaches are necessary to obtain biopolymeric materials with properties desired for medical applications.

  12. Designing advanced functional periodic mesoporous organosilicas for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Esquivel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs, reported for the first time in 1999, constitute a new branch of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high-ordered structures, uniform pore size and homogenous distribution of organic bridges into a silica framework. Unlike conventional mesoporous silicas, these materials offer the possibility to adjust the surface (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and physical properties (morphology, porosity as well as their mechanical stability through the incorporation of different functional organic moieties in their pore walls. A broad variety of PMOs has been designed for their subsequent application in many fields. More recently, PMOs have attracted growing interest in emerging areas as biology and biomedicine. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent breakthroughs achieved for PMOs in biological and biomedical applications.

  13. Designing Cell-Compatible Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliktar, Dror

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogels are polymeric materials distinguished by high water content and diverse physical properties. They can be engineered to resemble the extracellular environment of the body’s tissues in ways that enable their use in medical implants, biosensors, and drug-delivery devices. Cell-compatible hydrogels are designed by using a strategy of coordinated control over physical properties and bioactivity to influence specific interactions with cellular systems, including spatial and temporal patterns of biochemical and biomechanical cues known to modulate cell behavior. Important new discoveries in stem cell research, cancer biology, and cellular morphogenesis have been realized with model hydrogel systems premised on these designs. Basic and clinical applications for hydrogels in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and biomedical research continue to drive design improvements using performance-based materials engineering paradigms.

  14. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2010-08-01

    Stereolithography is a solid freeform technique (SFF) that was introduced in the late 1980s. Although many other techniques have been developed since then, stereolithography remains one of the most powerful and versatile of all SFF techniques. It has the highest fabrication accuracy and an increasing number of materials that can be processed is becoming available. In this paper we discuss the characteristic features of the stereolithography technique and compare it to other SFF techniques. The biomedical applications of stereolithography are reviewed, as well as the biodegradable resin materials that have been developed for use with stereolithography. Finally, an overview of the application of stereolithography in preparing porous structures for tissue engineering is given.

  15. Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Niinomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nb, Ta and Zr are the favorable non-toxic alloying elements for titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Low rigidity titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements are getting much attention. The advantage of low rigidity titanium alloy for the healing of bone fracture and the remodeling of bone is successfully proved by fracture model made in tibia of rabbit. Ni-free super elastic and shape memory titanium alloys for biomedical applications are energetically developed. Titanium alloys for not only implants, but also dental products like crowns, dentures, etc. are also getting much attention in dentistry. Development of investment materials suitable for titanium alloys with high melting point is desired in dental precision castings. Bioactive surface modifications of titanium alloys for biomedical applications are very important for achieving further developed biocompatibility. Low cost titanium alloys for healthcare goods, like general wheel chairs, etc. has been recently proposed.

  16. [The application of Fourier transform infrared technology in biomedical sphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-qing; Xu, Zhi; Ling, Xiao-feng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2010-01-01

    The authors systemically reviewed the development of FTIR technology and its innovative advances during the past fifty years. FTIR technique was once abandoned after initial exploration in biomedical fields, which could not confirm its reliability and credibility. After technological innovation and refined numerical analysis methods, FTIR technique has been applied to a wide range of fields, from single cellular to the complex biomedical tissue components. Nowadays, mature and advanced FTIR technology, such as FTIR microspectrometer and FTIR imaging system, with the aid of pattern recognition and tissue microarray, greatly facilitated the large parallel scale investigation of molecular structure. The recent development of FTIR spectroscopic imaging has enhanced our capability to examine, on a microscopic scale, the spatial distribution of vibrational spectroscopic signatures of materials spanning the physical and biomedical disciplines. The integration of instrumentation development, theoretical analyses to provide guidelines for imaging practice, novel data processing algorithms, and the introduction of the technique to new fields. FTIR technique has helped analyze the complex components of bile stones, which persisted to be a vexing problem and causing high death rate in China. Besides, FTIR technology could provide reliable information in discriminating benign and malignancy. It has been used in detecting thyroid nodules, mammary gland, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular and prostate diseases, and parotid gland tissue in combination with ATR detecting device, and has broad clinical application prospects. Till now, FTIR technology has achieved the fast and accurate diagnosis for freshly dissected tissues such as discriminating thyroid carcinoma from nodular goiter intraoperatively. However, further investigations need to be done in this sphere to achieve greater accomplishments.

  17. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-11-01

    Protein and peptide delivery by the use of stimuli triggered polymers remains to be the area of interest among the scientist and innovators. In-situ forming gel for the parenteral route in the form of hydrogel and implants are being utilized for various biomedical applications. The formulation of gel depends upon factors such as temperature modulation, pH changes, the presence of ions and ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug is released in a sustained and controlled manner. Among various stimuli triggered factors, thermoresponsive is the most potential one for the delivery of protein and peptides. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review, stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and compositions prospects of smart thermoresponsive polymer specifically, PEG/Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. PEG-PNIPAAm based hydrogel exhibits good gelling mechanical strength and minimizes the initial burst effect of the drug. In addition, upon changing the composition and proportion of the copolymer molecular weight and ratio, the gelling time can be reduced to a great extent providing better sol-gel transition. The hydrogel formed by the same is able to release the drug over a long duration of time, meanwhile is also biocompatible and biodegradable. Manuscript will give the new researchers an idea about the potential and benefits of PNIPAAm based thermoresponsive hydrogels for the biomedical application. PMID:25092423

  19. Evaluation of Bio-Medical Waste Management Practices in a Government Medical College and Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shalini, Mahajan Harsh, Mathur B P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical waste (BMW collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community as improper management poses risks to the health care workers, waste handlers, patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i Assessment of current Bio-medical waste management practices including collection, segregation, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii Assessment of health and safety practices for the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical Waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in the Government Hospital was studied during March 2009 – May 2009.The information / data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi- structured interview. Results: M.L.B Medical College generates 0.52Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in wards for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory, it was basically due to un-awareness of health hazards which may occur because of improper waste management practices. Conclusion: Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute; training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standards of bio-medical waste management.

  20. Synthesis of new porphyrinoids for biomedical and materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fraser

    The facile synthesis of three non-hydrolysable thioglycosylated porphyrinoids is reported. Starting from meso perfluorophenylporphyrin (TPPF20), the non-hydrolysable thioglycosylated porphyrin (PGlc4), chlorin (CGlc4), isobacteriochlorin (IGlc4), and bacteriochlorin (BGlc4) can be made in 2-3 steps. The ability to append a wide range of targeting agents onto the perfluorophenyl moieties, the chemical stability, and the ability to fine-tune the photophysical properties of the chromophores make this a suitable platform for development of biochemical tags, diagnostics, or as photodynamic therapeutic agents. With reduction of one or two pyrrole double bonds, there is a red shift in the lowest energy absorption band and a significant increase in intensity. The fluorescence of these porphyrinoids is in the order PGlc4 = BGlc4 naphthalenediimide (NDI) units a checkerboard pattern is expected to be formed using this porphyrin as a donor and NDI as an acceptor where triple hydrogen bond is formed between the diimide and pyridyl units. Energy transfer can be studied through this hydrogen bonded supramolecular assembly. The synthesis of a triply bridged diporphyrin appended with six thioglucose units is reported. The electronic spectrum of this triply bridged porphyrin has enhanced intensity at low-energy wavelengths that reaches the near infrared region. The goal of this project is to create tumor targeting dyes that can be activated with red wavelengths of light that penetrate deeper into tissues. This new compound is amphiphilic in nature, chemically and photochemically stable, expected to have unusual photophysical and electrochemical properties, and can potentially be used as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy.

  1. Advanced biohybrid materials based on nanoclays for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Darder, Margarita; Wicklein, Bernd; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Castro-Smirnov, Fidel A.; Martín del Burgo, M. Angeles; del Real, Gustavo; Aranda, Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Bio-nanohybrids prepared by assembling natural polymers (polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, etc) to nanosized silicates (nanoclays) and related solids (layered double hydroxides, LDHs) give rise to the so-called bionanocomposites constituting a group of biomaterials with potential applications in medicine. In this way, biopolymers, including chitosan, pectin, alginate, xanthan gum, ι-carrageenan, gelatin, zein, and DNA, as well as phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, have been incorporated in layered host matrices by means of ion-exchange mechanisms producing intercalation composites. Also bio-nanohybrids have been prepared by the assembly of diverse bio-polymers with sepiolite, a natural microfibrous magnesium silicate, in this case through interactions affecting the external surface of this silicate. The properties and applications of these resulting biomaterials as active phases of ion-sensors and biosensors, for potential uses as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and gene transfection systems, are introduced and discussed in this work. It is also considered the use of synthetic bionanocomposites as new substrates to immobilize microorganisms, as for instance to bind Influenza virus particles, allowing their application as effective low-cost vaccine adjuvants and carriers.

  2. Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using RAFT polymerization to synthesize smart polymer nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of protein, peptide and nucleic acid drugs. In the coming program period we plan to synthesize these carriers using radiation to initiate the RAFT polymerizations. In this way we will avoid the need to add free radical initiators to initiate this polymerization, yielding a purer polymer-drug nanocarrier. (author)

  3. Properties and customization of sensor materials for biomedical applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliani, Claudio; Matzeu, Giusy; Curto, Vincenzo; Fraser, Kevin J.; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Low-power chemo- and biosensing devices capable of monitoring clinically important parameters in real time represent a great challenge in the analytical field as the issue of sensor calibration pertaining to keeping the response within an accurate calibration domain is particularly significant (1–4). Diagnostics, personal health, and related costs will also benefit from the introduction of sensors technology (5–7). In addition, with the introduction of Registration, Evaluation, Authorization,...

  4. Novel degradablepolymeric materials for biomedical and antibacterial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis degradable polymers for three different purposes, DNA transfection, drug delivery and antibacterial properties were designed, synthesized and characterized. In the first part of the DNA transfection application the novel degradable and biocompatible poly(PEG-co-(BMDO-co-DMAEMA)) and its quaternized derivative poly(PEG-co-(BMDO-co-DMAEMA•EtBr)) were successfully synthesized and characterized. This copolymer shows a ...

  5. International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Katashev, Alexei; Lancere, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics and is dedicated to the 150 anniversary of the Riga Technical University, Latvia. The content includes various hot topics in biomedical engineering and medical physics.

  6. Biomedical Engineering Education: A Conservative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Eugene E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the demand for graduates from biomedical engineering programs as being not yet fully able to absorb the supply. Suggests small schools interested in entering the field consider offering their programs at the undergraduate level via a minor or an option. Examples of such options and student projects are included. (CC)

  7. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  8. Communication Patterns in a Biomedical Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, G. Anthony; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the communication patterns among scientists in a biomedical research center should help in the assessment of the center's impact on research processes. Such a study at the National Heart and Blood Vessel Research and Demonstration Center (NRDC) at Baylor College of Medicine is reported. (LBH)

  9. CONAN : Text Mining in the Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about Text Mining. Extracting important information from literature. In the last years, the number of biomedical articles and journals is growing exponentially. Scientists might not find the information they want because of the large number of publications. Therefore a system was cons

  10. Biomedical Visual Computing: Case Studies and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Johnson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computational geometric modeling, imaging, and simulation let researchers build and test models of increasing complexity, generating unprecedented amounts of data. As recent research in biomedical applications illustrates, visualization will be critical in making this vast amount of data usable; it\\'s also fundamental to understanding models of complex phenomena. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Chaos theory for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, R C

    1989-01-01

    A brief introduction to chaos theory is provided. Definitions of chaos and attributes of chaos and fractals are discussed. Several general examples are examined, and fractals are introduced with a brief look at the Mandelbrot and Julia sets. Biomedical examples of chaotic behaviour and fractals are presented.

  12. Peptides and metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogan, M.J.; Olmedo, I.; Hosta, L.; Guerrero, A.R.; Cruz Ricondo, L.J.; Albericio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we describe the contribution of peptides to the biomedical applications of metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss strategies for the preparation of peptide-nanoparticle conjugates and the synthesis of the peptides and metallic nanoparticles. An overview of the techniques used for th

  13. Electromembrane extraction for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    . The present paper discusses recent development of EME. The paper focuses on the principles of EME, and discusses how to optimize operational parameters. In addition, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of EME are reviewed, with emphasis on basic drugs, acidic drugs, amino acids, and peptides. Finally...

  14. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment.

  15. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  16. Thermoforming of Film-Based Biomedical Microdevices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmuller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Rivron, Nicolas; Gottwald, Eric; Saile, Volker; Berg, van den Albert; Wessling, Matthias; Blitterswijk, van Clemens

    2011-01-01

    For roughly ten years now, a new class of polymer micromoulding processes comes more and more into the focus both of the microtechnology and the biomedical engineering community. These processes can be subsumed under the term "microthermoforming". In microthermoforming, thin polymer films are heated

  17. Micro and Nano Manipulations for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yih, Tachung C

    2007-01-01

    Taking bio-device research and development to "the next level," this book covers the latest advances in biomedical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The book presents new developments in the synthesis and use of metallic nanoparticles in bio-sensing and drug delivery, including quantum dots semiconductors nanocrystals.

  18. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  19. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  20. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  1. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  2. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  3. BIG: a Grid Portal for Biomedical Data and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Aloisio; Maria Cristina Barba; Euro Blasi; Massimo Cafaro; Sandro Fiore; Maria Mirto

    2004-01-01

    Modern management of biomedical systems involves the use of many distributed resources, such as high performance computational resources to analyze biomedical data, mass storage systems to store them, medical instruments (microscopes, tomographs, etc.), advanced visualization and rendering tools. Grids offer the computational power, security and availability needed by such novel applications. This paper presents BIG (Biomedical Imaging Grid), a Web-based Grid portal for management of biomedic...

  4. Network fingerprint: a knowledge-based characterization of biomedical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuliang Cui; Haochen He; Fuchu He; Shengqi Wang; Fei Li; Xiaochen Bo

    2015-01-01

    It can be difficult for biomedical researchers to understand complex molecular networks due to their unfamiliarity with the mathematical concepts employed. To represent molecular networks with clear meanings and familiar forms for biomedical researchers, we introduce a knowledge-based computational framework to decipher biomedical networks by making systematic comparisons to well-studied “basic networks”. A biomedical network is characterized as a spectrum-like vector called “network fingerpr...

  5. Misconduct Policies in High-Impact Biomedical Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M.; Doti, Pamela; Marušić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were revie...

  6. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  7. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) é um excelente organismo modelo para o estudo do desenvolvimento dos vertebrados. Este facto deve-se às grandes ninhadas que cada casal produz, que podem atingir 200 embriões a cada sete dias, e ao facto dos embriões serem pequenos, transparentes e com um rápido desenvolvimento externo.Material e Métodos: Usando ferramentas de pesquisa bibliográfica científica disponíveis online e utilizando e as palavras-chave “Zebrafish”, “biomedical research”, “human disease” e “drug screening”, avaliámos estudos originais e revisões indexadas na PubMed.Resultados: Neste artigo de revisão fazemos um resumo do trabalho realizado com este modelo no melhoramento doconhecimento de várias doenças humanas. Fizemos ainda um breve relato da investigação biomédica realizada em Portugal com o modelo de peixe-zebra.Discussão: Têm sido desenvolvidas poderosas ferramentas genéticas e de microscopia in vivo, que também tornaram o peixe-zebra num modelo valioso em investigação biomédica. A conjugação destes atributos com a optimização de sistemas automatizados de triagem de medicamentos, transformaram o peixe-zebra num top model da investigação em biomedicina, nomeadamente na triagem de compostos químicos com efeitos terapêuticos e em testes de toxicidade. Além disso, com a otimização da tecnologia dos xenografos, será possível usar o peixe-zebra na escolha de uma terapia personalizada.Conclusão: O peixe-zebra é um excelente organismo modelo na pesquisa biomédica, em screens de medicamentos e na terapia clinica.

  8. BIOMedical search engine framework: lightweight and customized implementation of domain-specific biomedical search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome, Alberto G.; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    The Smart Drug Search is publicly accessible at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/sds/. The BIOMedical Search Engine Framework is freely available for non-commercial use at https://github.com/agjacome/biomsef Background and Objectives: Text mining and semantic analysis approaches can be applied to the construction of biomedical domain-specific search engines and provide an attractive alternative to create personalized and enhanced search experiences. Therefore, this work introduces the new open-sour...

  9. Publication trends of a biomedical journal from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The details about the research productivity of the biomedical journals published from India is lacking. We analyzed the publishing trends and the research productivity of the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods: This was a bibliometric analysis of a biomedical journal. The data was obtained from the website of JAPI about the publications between 2000 and 2011. The articles were analyzed for the type (original article, case reports, correspondence, pictorial image, reviews, editorials, philately and miscellaneous, subspecialty (endocrinology, cardiology, etc, and place of the research work (Mumbai, Delhi, etc. Descriptive statistics giving data in numbers and percentages were used. Results: JAPI published 2977 articles over last 12 years (12 volumes and 134 issues. Case reports (29.5%, original articles (22.6%, and correspondence (20.5% constitute 3/4 of the published articles. JAPI showed a gradual declining trend of published articles per issue (29.5 in 2000 to 17 in 2011. The data about 1798 research articles was analyzed further. Most of the articles belong to the Endocrinology, neurology, and infectious diseases. Mumbai is the leader over past 12 years in contributing toward the articles followed by other three metros. Conclusion: JAPI showed a declining trend in the number of published articles over last decade. Metro cities contributed the maximum research articles and the subspecialty coverage skewed in favor of Endocrinology.

  10. Design of affordable and ruggedized biomedical devices using virtual instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Ryan Michael; Schopman, Sarah; Kalchthaler, Kyle; Mehta, Khanjan; Butler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Abstract This paper presents the designs of four low-cost and ruggedized biomedical devices, including a blood pressure monitor, thermometer, weighing scale and spirometer, designed for the East African context. The design constraints included a mass-production price point of $10, accuracy and precision comparable to commercial devices and ruggedness to function effectively in the harsh environment of East Africa. The blood pressure device, thermometer and weighing scale were field-tested in Kenya and each recorded data within 6% error of the measurements from commercial devices and withstood the adverse climate and rough handling. The spirometer functioned according to specifications, but a re-design is needed to improve operability and usability by patients. This article demonstrates the feasibility of designing and commercializing virtual instrumentation-based biomedical devices in resource-constrained environments through context-driven design. The next steps for the devices include designing them such that they can be more easily manufactured, use standardized materials, are easily calibrated in the field and have more user-friendly software programs that can be updated remotely. PMID:23688039

  11. A flexible organic resistance memory device for wearable biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yimao; Tan, Jing; YeFan, Liu; Lin, Min; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Parylene is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved material which can be safely used within the human body and it is also offers chemically inert and flexible merits. Here, we present a flexible parylene-based organic resistive random access memory (RRAM) device suitable for wearable biomedical application. The proposed device is fabricated through standard lithography and pattern processes at room temperature, exhibiting the feasibility of integration with CMOS circuits. This organic RRAM device offers a high storage window (>104), superior retention ability and immunity to disturbing. In addition, brilliant mechanical and electrical stabilities of this device are demonstrated when under harsh bending (bending cycle >500, bending radius <10 mm). Finally, the underlying mechanism for resistance switching of this kind of device is discussed, and metallic conducting filament formation and annihilation related to oxidization/redox of Al and Al anions migrating in the parylene layer can be attributed to resistance switching in this device. These advantages reveal the significant potential of parylene-based flexible RRAM devices for wearable biomedical applications.

  12. Bacterial Treatment and Metal Characterization of Biomedical Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Heera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical waste ash generated due to the incineration of biomedical waste contains large amounts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which is disposed of in regular landfills, and results in unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground and may pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxicity of ash before disposal into landfills or reutilization. Environmental characteristic analysis of BMW ash showed increased hardness (1320 mg/L and chloride (8500 mg/L content in leachate compared to World Health Organization (WHO and Environment Protection Agency (EPA guidelines for drinking water (hardness, 300 mg/L; chloride, 250 mg/L. The alkalinity and pH of the ash leachate were 400 mg/L and 8.35, respectively. In this paper, study was carried out to investigate the metal tolerance level of bacterial isolates isolated from soil. The isolate Bacillus sp. KGMDI can tolerate up to 75 mg/L of metal concentration (Mn, Mo, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn in enriched growth medium. This shows that the isolated culture is capable of growing in presence of high concentration of heavy metals and acts as potential biological tool to reduce the negative impact of BMW ash on the environment during landfilling.

  13. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  14. International symposium on Biomedical Data Infrastructure (BDI 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Sarinder; Advances in biomedical infrastructure 2013

    2013-01-01

    Current Biomedical Databases are independently administered in geographically distinct locations, lending them almost ideally to adoption of intelligent data management approaches. This book focuses on research issues, problems and opportunities in Biomedical Data Infrastructure identifying new issues and directions for future research in Biomedical Data and Information Retrieval, Semantics in Biomedicine, and Biomedical Data Modeling and Analysis. The book will be a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development in biomedical data management.

  15. Design of experiments in Biomedical Signal Processing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical Signal Processing is one of the most important major subjects in Biomedical Engineering. The contents of Biomedical Signal Processing include the theories of digital signal processing, the knowledge of different biomedical signals, physiology and the ability of computer programming. Based on our past five years teaching experiences, in order to let students master the signal processing algorithm well, we found that the design of experiments following algorithm was very important. In this paper we presented the ideas and aims in designing the experiments. The results showed that our methods facilitated the study of abstractive signal processing algorithms and made understanding of biomedical signals in a simple way.

  16. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools.

  17. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  18. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  19. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  20. Multifunctional Nanofibers towards Active Biomedical Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishri Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D nanostructures have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique physicochemical properties and wide application potential. These 1-D nanofibers are being increasingly applied to biomedical fields owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and the ease of tuning their structures, functionalities, and properties. Many biomedical nanofiber reviews have focused on tissue engineering and drug delivery applications but have very rarely discussed their use as wound dressings. However, nanofibers have enormous potential as wound dressings and other clinical applications that could have wide impacts on the treatment of wounds. Herein, the authors review the main fabrication methods of nanofibers as well as requirements, strategies, and recent applications of nanofibers, and provide perspectives of the challenges and opportunities that face multifunctional nanofibers for active therapeutic applications.

  1. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  2. Biomedical engineering frontier research and converging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ho-Wook; Shin, Jennifer; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with an integrative overview of the latest research and developments in the broad field of biomedical engineering. Each of the chapters offers a timely review written by leading biomedical engineers and aims at showing how the convergence of scientific and engineering fields with medicine has created a new basis for practically solving problems concerning human health, wellbeing and disease. While some of the latest frontiers of biomedicine, such as neuroscience and regenerative medicine, are becoming increasingly dependent on new ideas and tools from other disciplines, the paradigm shift caused by technological innovations in the fields of information science, nanotechnology, and robotics is opening new opportunities in healthcare, besides dramatically changing the ways we actually practice science. At the same time, a new generation of engineers, fluent in many different scientific “languages,” is creating entirely new fields of research that approach the “old” questions f...

  3. Biomedical applications of dipeptides and tripeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Torcato, Inês; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2012-01-01

    Peptides regulate many physiological processes, acting at some sites as endocrine or paracrine signals and at others as neurotransmitters or growth factors, for instance. These molecules represent a major evolution in medical and industrial fields, as it is becoming mandatory to design and exploit molecules that do not necessarily fit the description of classical drug classes. The list of peptides with potential biomedical applications is huge and is growing each year. These biomedical applications range from uses as drugs to flavor-active peptides as ingredients in natural health products, nutraceuticals and functional foods. Among the peptide family, dipeptides and tripeptides are very appealing for drug discovery and development because of their cost-effectiveness, possibility of oral administration, and simplicity to perform molecular structural and quantitative structure-activity studies. Our objective is to review different actual and future uses of dipeptides and tripeptides as well as the major advances and obstacles in this growing area. PMID:23193593

  4. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  5. TPX: Biomedical literature search made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Thomas; Saipradeep, Vangala G; Raghavan, Ganesh Sekar Venkat; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Rao, Aditya; Kotte, Sujatha; Sivadasan, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    TPX is a web-based PubMed search enhancement tool that enables faster article searching using analysis and exploration features. These features include identification of relevant biomedical concepts from search results with linkouts to source databases, concept based article categorization, concept assisted search and filtering, query refinement. A distinguishing feature here is the ability to add user-defined concept names and/or concept types for named entity recognition. The tool allows co...

  6. Diversifying Biomedical Training: A Synergistic Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Foertsch, Julie; Blum, Janice; Brutkiewicz, Randy; Queener, Sherry; Roman, Ann; Rhodes, Simon; Sturek, Michael; Wilkes, David; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2010-01-01

    For over three decades, the scientific community has expressed concern over the paucity of African American, Latino and Native American researchers in the biomedical training pipeline. Concern has been expressed regarding what is forecasted as a shortage of these underrepresented minority (URM) scientists given the demographic shifts occurring worldwide and particularly in the United States. Increased access to graduate education has made a positive contribution in addressing this disparity. ...

  7. Services for annotation of biomedical text

    OpenAIRE

    Hakenberg, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Text mining in the biomedical domain in recent years has focused on the development of tools for recognizing named entities and extracting relations. Such research resulted from the need for such tools as basic components for more advanced solutions. Named entity recognition, entity mention normalization, and relationship extraction now have reached a stage where they perform comparably to human annotators (considering inter--annotator agreement, measured in many studies to be aro...

  8. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira [University of Vermont and State Agricultural College

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  9. Magnetic Fluids: Biomedical Applications and Magnetic Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinländer, Thomas; Kötitz, Róman; Weitschies, Werner; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2000-01-01

    In addition to engineering applications, magnetic fluids containing magnetic nanoparticles are being increasingly applied to biomedical purposes. Besides the well established use of magnetic particles for biological separation or as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic particles are also being tested for the inductive heat treatment of tumors or as markers for the quantification of biologically active substances. The properties of magnetic nanoparticles usually exhibit a b...

  10. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lunney, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, deta...

  11. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  12. The Need for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Moore, Rustin M.; Saville, William J. A.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rush, Laura J; Mathes, Lawrence E.; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    The number of veterinarians in the United States is inadequate to meet societal needs in biomedical research and public health. Areas of greatest need include translational medical research, veterinary pathology, laboratory-animal medicine, emerging infectious diseases, public health, academic medicine, and production-animal medicine. Veterinarians have unique skill sets that enable them to serve as leaders or members of interdisciplinary research teams involved in basic science and biomedica...

  13. Trends in modeling Biomedical Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Remondini Daniel; Castellani Gastone; Romano Paolo; Milanesi Luciano; Liò Petro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we provide an introduction to the techniques for multi-scale complex biological systems, from the single bio-molecule to the cell, combining theoretical modeling, experiments, informatics tools and technologies suitable for biological and biomedical research, which are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, multidimensional and information-driven. The most important concepts on mathematical modeling methodologies and statistical inference, bioinformatics and standards...

  14. Biomedical Applications of NASA Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James N., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    During the period 15 September 1968 to 14 December 1968, the NASA supported Biomedical Application Team at the Research Triangle Institute has identified 6 new problems, performed significant activities on 15 of the active problems identified previously, performed 5 computer searches of the NASA aerospace literature, and maintained one current awareness search. As a partial result of these activities, one technology transfer was accomplished. As a part of continuing problem review, 13 problems were classified inactive. Activities during the quarter involved all phases of team activity with respect to biomedical problems. As has been observed in preceding years, it has been exceedingly difficult to arrange meetings with medical investigators during the fourth quarter of the calendar year. This is a result of a combination of factors. Teaching requirements, submission of grant applications and holidays are the most significant factors involved. As a result, the numbers of new problems identified and of transfers and potential transfers are relatively low during this quarter. Most of our activities have thus been directed toward obtaining information related to problems already identified. Consequently, during the next quarter we will follow up on these activities with the expectation that transfers will be accomplished on a number of them. In addition, the normal availability of researchers to the team is expected to be restored during this quarter, permitting an increase in new problem identification activities as well as follow-up with other researchers on old problems. Another activity scheduled for the next quarter is consultation with several interested biomedical equipment manufacturers to explore means of effective interaction between the Biomedical Application Team and these companies.

  15. Thermoresponsive hydrogels in biomedical applications - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Klouda, Leda; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmentally responsive hydrogels have the ability to turn from solution to gel when a specific stimulus is applied. Thermoresponsive hydrogels utilize temperature change as the trigger that determines their gelling behavior without any additional external factor. These hydrogels have been interesting for biomedical uses as they can swell in situ under physiological conditions and provide the advantage of convenient administration. The scope of this paper is to review the aqueous polymer s...

  16. Median topographic maps for biomedical data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Barbara; Rossi, Fabrice; 10.1007/978-3-642-01805-3_6

    2009-01-01

    Median clustering extends popular neural data analysis methods such as the self-organizing map or neural gas to general data structures given by a dissimilarity matrix only. This offers flexible and robust global data inspection methods which are particularly suited for a variety of data as occurs in biomedical domains. In this chapter, we give an overview about median clustering and its properties and extensions, with a particular focus on efficient implementations adapted to large scale data analysis.

  17. Integrated nanobiosensor technology for biomedical application

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chulhee

    2012-01-01

    Chulhee Choi1,21Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, 2Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, 3KI for the BioCentury 4Optical Bioimaging Center, KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nanoscale biosensors that have exquisite sensitivity and versatility. The biomedical application of nanobiosensors is wide; moreover, the future impact of nanobiosensor systems for point-of-care diagnostics will be unmatched. The ultim...

  18. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of lipid-based nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Claudia; Leonardi, Antonio; Cupri, Sarha; Puglisi, Giovanni; Pignatello, Rosario

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to lipid nanocarriers (LNs) as drug delivery systems, due to the advantages offered of a higher biocompatibility and lower toxicity compared with polymeric nanoparticles. Many administration routes are being investigated for LNs, including topical, oral and parenteral ones. LNs are also proposed for specific applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, diagnosis and medical devices production. However, the high number of published research articles does not match an equal amount of patents. A recent Review of ours, published in Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst, reported the patents proposing novel methods for the production of LNs. This review work discusses recent patents, filed in 2007-2013 and dealing with the industrial applications of lipid-based nanocarriers for the vectorization of therapeutically relevant molecules, as well as biotech products such as proteins, gene material and vaccines, in the pharmaceutical, diagnostic and biomedical areas. PMID:24588596

  19. Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C E; Xiong, J Y; Li, Y C; Hodgson, P D [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2010-05-01

    The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

  20. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  1. Biostatistics and epidemiology a primer for health and biomedical professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Biostatistics and Epidemiology has attracted loyal readers from across specialty areas in the biomedical community. Not only does this textbook teach foundations of epidemiological design and statistical methods, but it also includes topics applicable to new areas of research. Areas covered in the fourth edition include a new chapter on risk prediction, risk reclassification and evaluation of biomarkers, new material on propensity analyses, and a vastly expanded chapter on genetic epidemiology, which  is particularly relevant to those who wish to understand the epidemiological and statistical aspects of scientific articles in this rapidly advancing field. Biostatistics and Epidemiology was written to be accessible for readers without backgrounds in mathematics. It provides clear explanations of underlying principles, as well as practical guidelines of "how to do it" and "how to interpret it."a philosophical explanation of the logic of science, subsections that ...

  2. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  3. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  4. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  5. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-12-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12.

  6. Genetically engineered livestock for biomedical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    To commemorate Transgenic Animal Research Conference X, this review summarizes the recent progress in developing genetically engineered livestock species as biomedical models. The first of these conferences was held in 1997, which turned out to be a watershed year for the field, with two significant events occurring. One was the publication of the first transgenic livestock animal disease model, a pig with retinitis pigmentosa. Before that, the use of livestock species in biomedical research had been limited to wild-type animals or disease models that had been induced or were naturally occurring. The second event was the report of Dolly, a cloned sheep produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning subsequently became an essential part of the process for most of the models developed in the last 18 years and is stilled used prominently today. This review is intended to highlight the biomedical modeling achievements that followed those key events, many of which were first reported at one of the previous nine Transgenic Animal Research Conferences. Also discussed are the practical challenges of utilizing livestock disease models now that the technical hurdles of model development have been largely overcome. PMID:26820410

  7. Design of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiang; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogels are considered key tools for the design of biomaterials, such as wound dressings, drug reservoirs, and temporary scaffolds for cells. Despite their potential, conventional hydrogels have limited applicability under wet physiological conditions because they suffer from the uncontrollable temporal change in shape: swelling takes place immediately after the installation. Swollen hydrogels easily fail under mechanical stress. The morphological change may cause not only the slippage from the installation site but also local nerve compression. The design of hydrogels that can retain their original shape and mechanical properties in an aqueous environment is, therefore, of great importance. On the one hand, the controlled degradation of used hydrogels has to be realized in some biomedical applications. This Progress Report provides a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Practical approaches to control the swelling properties of hydrogels are discussed. The designs of hydrogels with controlled degradation properties as well as the theoretical models to predict the degradation behavior are also introduced. Moreover, current challenges and limitation toward biomedical applications are discussed, and future directions are offered.

  8. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated. PMID:11196221

  9. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated.

  10. Multifunctional Magnetic-fluorescent Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovich Yury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanotechnology is a fast-growing area, involving the fabrication and use of nano-sized materials and devices. Various nanocomposite materials play a number of important roles in modern science and technology. Magnetic and fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications. It is expected that the combination of magnetic and fluorescent properties in one nanocomposite would enable the engineering of unique multifunctional nanoscale devices, which could be manipulated using external magnetic fields. The aim of this review is to present an overview of bimodal “two-in-one” magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite materials which combine both magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity, in particular those with potential applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine. There is a great necessity for the development of these multifunctional nanocomposites, but there are some difficulties and challenges to overcome in their fabrication such as quenching of the fluorescent entity by the magnetic core. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites include a variety of materials including silica-based, dye-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots-magnetic nanoparticle composites. The classification and main synthesis strategies, along with approaches for the fabrication of fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites, are considered. The current and potential biomedical uses, including biological imaging, cell tracking, magnetic bioseparation, nanomedicine and bio- and chemo-sensoring, of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites are also discussed.

  11. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  12. Functional modification of chitosan for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruogu

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide. Normally commercial chitosan consists of randomly distributed beta-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated proportion) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated proportion) together. Chitosan has been proved to be a multifunctional biopolymer that presents several unique properties due to free amino groups in the repeating unit therefore chitosan has been widely applied in various areas. To be specific, provided by the excellent biocompatibility, chitosan is expected to be used in biological and medical applications including wound dressing, implants, drug carrier/delivery, etc. In this thesis, we worked on chitosan functionalization for biomedical application. The thesis are composed of three parts: In the first part, we focused on modifying the chitosan thin film, chemically introducing the nitric oxide functional groups on chitosan film. We covalently bonded small molecule diazeniumdiolates onto the chitosan films and examined the antimicrobial function and biocompatibility. Commercial chitosan was cast into films from acidic aqueous solutions. Glutaraldehyde reacted with the chitosan film to introduce aldehyde groups onto the chitosan film (GA-CS film). GA-CS reacted with a small molecule NO donor, NOC-18, to covalently immobilize NONO groups onto the polymer (NO-CS film). The-CHO and [NONO] group were verified by FT IR, UV and Griess reagent. The NO releasing rate in aqueous solution and and thermal stability were studied quantitatively to prove its effectiveness. A series of antimicrobial tests indicated that NO-CS films have multiple functions: 1. It could inhibit the bacteria growth in nutrient rich environment; 2. It could directly inactivate bacteria and biofilm; 3. It could reduce the bacteria adherence on the film surface as well as inhibit biofilm formation. In addition, the NO-CS film was proved to be biocompatible with cell and it was also compatible with other antibiotics like Amoxicillin. In the second part, we

  13. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field. PMID:23234267

  14. Biomedical Research Institute, Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana, Shreveport, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0789, evaluating the environmental impacts of construction and operation of a Biomedical Research Institute (BRI) at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Medical Center, Shreveport, Louisiana. The purpose of the BRI is to accelerate the development of biomedical research in cardiovascular disease, molecular biology, and neurobiology. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required

  15. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Jonathan C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  16. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  17. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for biomedical optical measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Erbao; Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Han, Yilin; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Optical phantoms are commonly used to validate and calibrate biomedical optical devices in order to ensure accurate measurement of optical properties in biological tissue. However, commonly used optical phantoms are based on homogenous materials that reflect neither optical properties nor multi-layer heterogeneities of biological tissue. Using these phantoms for optical calibration may result in significant bias in biological measurement. We propose to characterize and fabricate tissue simulating phantoms that simulate not only the multi-layer heterogeneities but also optical properties of biological tissue. The tissue characterization module detects tissue structural and functional properties in vivo. The phantom printing module generates 3D tissue structures at different scales by layer-by-layer deposition of phantom materials with different optical properties. The ultimate goal is to fabricate multi-layer tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for optimal calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  18. Chitosan functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) for prospects biomedical and industrial applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Ammara; Mahmood Zia, Khalid; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Rehman, Saima

    2016-06-01

    Chitin and chitosan are amino polysaccharides having multidimensional properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial properties and non-toxicity, muco-adhesivity, adsorption properties, etc., and thus they can be widely used in variety of areas. Although human history mainly relies on the biopolymers, however synthetic materials like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have good mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Functionalization of PVA with chitin and chitosan is considered very appropriate for the development of well-designed biomaterials such as biodegradable films, for membrane separation, for tissue engineering, for food packaging, for wound healing and dressing, hydro gels formation, gels formation, etc. Considering versatile properties of the chitin and chitosan, and wide industrial and biomedical applications of PVA, this review sheds a light on chitin and chitosan based PVA materials with their potential applications especially focusing the bio-medical field. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed highlighting the recent advancement. PMID:26893051

  19. Carbon nanotube based biomedical agents for heating, temperature sensoring and drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Klingeler, Ruediger; Buechner, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties carbon nanotubes reveal a promising potential as biomedical agents for heating, temperature sensoring and drug delivery on the cellular level. Filling carbon nanotubes with tailored materials realises nanoscaled containers in which the active content is encapsulated by a protecting carbon shell. We describe different synthesis routes and show the structural and magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes. In particular, the filling with magnetic materials offers the potential for hyperthermia applications while the insertion of NMR active substances allows the usage as markers and sensors. The potential of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications is highlighted by hyperthermia studies which prove their applicability for local in-situ heating. In addition we have shown that a non-invasive temperature control by virtue of a carbon-wrapped nanoscaled thermometer and filling with anti-cancer drugs is possible.

  20. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions.

  1. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions. PMID:22692275

  2. 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering which was held on September 23-26, 2015 in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. ICNBME-2015 continues the series of International Conferences in the field of nanotechnologies and biomedical engineering. It aims at bringing together scientists and engineers dealing with fundamental and applied research for reporting on the latest theoretical developments and applications involved in the fields. Topics include Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials Plasmonics and metamaterials Bio-micro/nano technologies Biomaterials Biosensors and sensors systems Biomedical instrumentation Biomedical signal processing Biomedical imaging and image processing Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering Clinical engineering, health technology management and assessment; Health informatics, e-health and telemedicine Biomedical engineering education Nuclear and radiation safety and security Innovations and technology transfer...

  3. Radiation technology in designing cross-linked hydrogels for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology has emerging as an environment friendly commercially viable technology with broad applications that can essentially contribute to achieve the goal of sustainable development. This technology is based on the use of ionizing radiation to modify the structure and properties of materials in different industrial applications particularly in heath care, polymer and environmental applications. In the field of material science, radiation technology produces the high performance polymeric materials with unique physical and chemical properties. The present work reports biomedical applications of radiation processed hydrogels. (author)

  4. New roles & responsibilities of hospital biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P H; Stone, B; Booth, P; Lui, W

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the changing healthcare environment has required hospitals and specifically Biomedical Engineering to critically evaluate, optimize and adapt their operations. The focus is now on new technologies, changes to the environment of care, support requirements and financial constraints. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), an NIH-designated comprehensive cancer center, has been transitioning to an increasing outpatient care environment. This transition is driving an increase in-patient acuity coupled with the need for added urgency of support and response time. New technologies, regulatory requirements and financial constraints have impacted operating budgets and in some cases, resulted in a reduction in staffing. Specific initiatives, such as the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals, requirements for an electronic medical record, meaningful use and ICD10 have caused institutions to reevaluate their operations and processes including requiring Biomedical Engineering to manage new technologies, integrations and changes in the electromagnetic environment, while optimizing operational workflow and resource utilization. This paper addresses the new and expanding responsibilities and approach of Biomedical Engineering organizations, specifically at MSKCC. It is suggested that our experience may be a template for other organizations facing similar problems. Increasing support is necessary for Medical Software - Medical Device Data Systems in the evolving wireless environment, including RTLS and RFID. It will be necessary to evaluate the potential impact on the growing electromagnetic environment, on connectivity resulting in the need for dynamic and interactive testing and the growing demand to establish new and needed operational synergies with Information Technology operations and other operational groups within the institution, such as nursing, facilities management, central supply, and the user departments.

  5. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  6. Process mapping of laser surface modification of AISI 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chikarakara, Evans; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Due to limited lifetime for biomedical implants, material engineers have strived to improve the surface properties of existing biomaterials. Widely used methods of surface modification include film deposition such as physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and diamond like carbon coating (DLC). Internal stresses make it difficult to bond such coatings to the substrates thus weakening the structure and limiting the life of implants. Laser glazing can achieve an amorp...

  7. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  8. Thermal properties of thermoplastic starch/synthetic polymer blends with potential biomedical applicability

    OpenAIRE

    Mano, J. F.; Koniarova, D.; Reis, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies shown that thermoplastic blends of corn starch with some biodegradable synthetic polymers (poly(-caprolactone), cellulose acetate, poly(lactic acid) and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer) have good potential to be used in a series of biomedical applications. In this work the thermal behavior of these structurally complex materials is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) s...

  9. Using Typed Dependencies to Study and Recognise Conceptualisation Zones in Biomedical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Groza

    2013-01-01

    In the biomedical domain, authors publish their experiments and findings using a quasi-standard coarse-grained discourse structure, which starts with an introduction that sets up the motivation, continues with a description of the materials and methods, and concludes with results and discussions. Over the course of the years, there has been a fair amount of research done in the area of scientific discourse analysis, with a focus on performing automatic recognition of scientific artefacts/conc...

  10. Revealing the potential of squid chitosan-based structures for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reys, L. L.; S.S. Silva; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Caridade, S. G.; Mano, J. F.; Silva, Tiago H.; Reis, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to different marine organisms, namely as potential sources of valuable materials with a vast range of properties and characteristics. In this work, β-chitin was isolated from the endoskeleton of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas and further deacetylated to produce chitosan. Then, the squid chitosan was processed into membranes and scaffolds using solvent casting and freeze-drying, respectively, to assess their potential biomedical application. The ...

  11. Analysis and modeling of noise in biomedical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Jalaleddini, Kian; Lopez, Diego Guarin; Kearney, Robert E; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2013-01-01

    Noise characteristics play an important role in evaluating tools developed to study biomedical systems. Despite usual assumptions, noise in biomedical systems is often nonwhite or non-Gaussian. In this paper, we present a method to analyze the noise component of a biomedical system. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the analysis of noise in voluntary ankle torque measured by a torque transducer and eye movements measured by electro-oculography (EOG).

  12. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Manuela Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and futu...

  13. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    OpenAIRE

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The c...

  14. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  15. Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Shang; Yanpeng Li; Hongfei Lin; Zhihao Yang

    2011-01-01

    Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2) W...

  16. Quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process on technical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Кучеренко, Валентина Леонідівна

    2014-01-01

    Construction of a system of biomedical equipment repair on the actual technical condition is considered, and results of research in this area are given in the paper. The purpose of the research is to analyze the ways of quality assurance of biomedical equipment repair process in transition to the operation on the actual technical condition. Using the methods and means for the repair process stages automation allows to estimate actual technical condition of biomedical equipment. The analysis o...

  17. Introduction to Statistics for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ropella, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    There are many books written about statistics, some brief, some detailed, some humorous, some colorful, and some quite dry. Each of these texts is designed for a specific audience. Too often, texts about statistics have been rather theoretical and intimidating for those not practicing statistical analysis on a routine basis. Thus, many engineers and scientists, who need to use statistics much more frequently than calculus or differential equations, lack sufficient knowledge of the use of statistics. The audience that is addressed in this text is the university-level biomedical engineering stud

  18. Intermediate Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This volume focuses on expectation, standard deviation, moments, and the characteristic function. In addition, conditional expectation, conditional moments and the conditional characteristic function are also discussed. Jointly distributed random variables are described, along with joint expectation, joint moments, and the joint characteristic function. Convolution is also developed. A considerable effort has been made to develop the theory in a logical manner--developing sp

  19. Basic Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This text is written as an introduction to probability theory. The goal was to prepare students, engineers and scientists at all levels of background and experience for the application of this theory to a wide variety of problems--as well as pursue these topics at a more advanced level. The approach is to present a unified treatment of the subject. There are only a few key concepts involved in the basic theory of probability theory. These key concepts are all presented in the first

  20. Designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchao; Wang, Shutao

    2014-06-01

    Fractal structures in nature offer a unique "fractal contact mode" that guarantees the efficient working of an organism with an optimized style. Fractal nanostructured biointerfaces have shown great potential for the ultrasensitive detection of disease-relevant biomarkers from small biomolecules on the nanoscale to cancer cells on the microscale. This review will present the advantages of fractal nanostructures, the basic concept of designing fractal nanostructured biointerfaces, and their biomedical applications for the ultrasensitive detection of various disease-relevant biomarkers, such microRNA, cancer antigen 125, and breast cancer cells, from unpurified cell lysates and the blood of patients.

  1. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  2. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, an international journal with emphasis on scientific findings in China, publishes articles dealing with biologic and toxic effects of environmental pollutants on man and other forms of life. The effects may be measured with pharmacological, biochemical, pathological, and immunological techniques. The journal also publishes reports dealing with the entry, transport, and fate of natural and anthropogenic chemicals in the biosphere, and their impact on human health and well-being.Papers describing biochemical, pharmacological, pathological, toxicological and immunological studies of pharmaceuticals (biotechnological products) are also welcome.

  3. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to...

  4. CMT for biomedical and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanne, P. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    This session includes two presentations describing applications for x-ray tomography using synchrotron radiation for biomedical uses and fluid flow modeling, and outlines advantages for using monoenergetic x-rays. Contrast mechanisms are briefly described and several graphs of absorbed doses and scattering of x-rays are included. Also presented are schematic diagrams of computerized tomographic instrumentation with camera head. A brief description of goals for a real time tomographic system and expected improvements to the system are described. Color photomicrographs of the Berea Sandstone and human bone are provided, as well as a 3-D microtomographic reconstruction of a human vertebra sample.

  5. Biomedical Imaging and Sensing using Flatbed Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600–700 cm2) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features o...

  6. Batteries used to power implantable biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  7. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  8. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2012-12-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease.

  9. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  10. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  11. MODELING MICROBUBBLE DYNAMICS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAHINE Georges L.; HSIAO Chao-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Controlling mierobubble dynamics to produce desirable biomedical outcomes when and where necessary and avoid deleterious effects requires advanced knowledge,which can be achieved only through a combination of experimental and numerical/analytical techniques.The present communication presents a multi-physics approach to study the dynamics combining viscousinviseid effects,liquid and structure dynamics,and multi bubble interaction.While complex numerical tools are developed and used,the study aims at identifying the key parameters influencing the dynamics,which need to be included in simpler models.

  12. Biomedical Applications of Advanced Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Thi, Cao Minh; Cao, Yanqin; Nogami, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we have presented the latest results and highlights on biomedical applications of a class of noble metal nanoparticles, such as gold, silver and platinum, and a class of magnetic nanoparticles, such as cobalt, nickel and iron. Their most important related compounds are also discussed for biomedical applications for treating various diseases, typically as cancers. At present, both physical and chemical methods have been proved very successful to synthesize, shape, control, and produce metal- and oxide-based homogeneous particle systems, e.g., nanoparticles and microparticles. Therefore, we have mainly focused on functional magnetic nanoparticles for nanomedicine because of their high bioadaptability to the organs inside human body. Here, bioconjugation techniques are very crucial to link nanoparticles with conventional drugs, nanodrugs, biomolecules or polymers for biomedical applications. Biofunctionalization of engineered nanoparticles for biomedicine is shown respective to in vitro and in vivo analysis protocols that typically include drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and recent outstanding progress in sweep imaging technique with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) MRI. The latter can be especially applied using magnetic nanoparticles, such as Co-, Fe-, Ni-based nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 oxide nanoparticles for analysis and treatment of malignancies. Therefore, this review focuses on recent results of scientists, and related research on diagnosis and treatment methods of common and dangerous diseases by biomedical engineered nanoparticles. Importantly, nanosysems (nanoparticles) or microsystems (microparticles) or hybrid micronano systems are shortly introduced into nanomedicine. Here, Fe oxide nanoparticles ultimately enable potential and applicable technologies for tumor-targeted imaging and therapy. Finally, we have shown the latest aspects of the most important Fe-based particle systems, such as Fe,

  13. All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatele, Mukta

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles presented by researchers and practitioners, including engineers, biologists, health professionals and informatics/computer scientists, interested in both theoretical advances and applications of information systems, artificial intelligence, signal processing, electronics and other engineering tools in areas related to biology and medicine in the All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012 (AISOBE 2012), organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Jabalpur Local Centre, Jabalpur, India during November 3-4, 2012. The content of the book is useful to doctors, engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  14. Chemometric Methods for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rohith K.; Bhargava, Rohit

    The vibrational spectrum is a quantitative measure of a sample's molecular composition. Hence, classical chemometric methods, especially regression-based, have focused on exact mapping between identity and sample composition. While this approach works well for molecular identifications and scientific investigations, problems of biomedical interest often involve complex mixtures of stochastically varying compositions and complex spatial distributions of molecules contributing to the recorded signals. Hence, the challenge often is not to predict the identity of materials but to determine chemical markers that help rapidly detect species (e.g. impurities, conformations, strains of bacteria) in large areas or indicate changes in function in complex tissue (e.g. cancer or tissue engineering). Hence, the rate of data analysis has to be rapid, has to be robust with respect to stochastic variance and the provided information is usually related to biomedical context and not to molecular compositions. The emergence of imaging techniques and clinical applications are spurring growth in this area. In this chapter, we discuss chemometric methods that are useful in this milieu. We first review methods for data pre-processing with a focus on the key challenges facing a spectroscopist. Next, we survey some of the well known, widely used pattern classification techniques under the framework of supervised and unsupervised classification. We discuss the applicability, advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques and help the reader not only gain useful insights into the techniques themselves but also acquire an understating of the underlying ideas and principles. We conclude by providing examples of the coupled use of chemometric and statistical tools to develop robust classification protocols for prostate and breast tissue pathology. We specifically focus on the critical factors and pitfalls at each step in converting spectral data sets into hi-fidelity images useful for

  15. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  16. High-Fidelity Simulation in Biomedical and Aerospace Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction / Background. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Aerospace Engineering. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Biomedical Engineering. Digital Astronaut. Project Columbia. Summary and Discussion.

  17. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IUPESM World Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, a tri-annual high-level policy meeting dedicated exclusively to furthering the role of biomedical engineering and medical physics in medicine. The book offers papers about emerging issues related to the development and sustainability of the role and impact of medical physicists and biomedical engineers in medicine and healthcare. It provides a unique and important forum to secure a coordinated, multileveled global response to the need, demand, and importance of creating and supporting strong academic and clinical teams of biomedical engineers and medical physicists for the benefit of human health.

  18. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  19. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  20. Role of the biomedical engineer in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurado, J G

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the short history of the development of radioactivity applied in the biomedical field, there have been many contributions made by engineers. With the advent of Nuclear Medicine as a well systematized specialty and its mushrooming in hospitals, the opportunities for biomedical engineers have increased. This article is written from the viewpoint of historic perspective in order to display the different aspects and situations where engineers, and particularly biomedical and clinical engineers, can participate in Nuclear Medicine. Finally, a more detailed survey is made of the activities of biomedical engineers in the nuclear medicine department.

  1. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  2. A study on knowledge and practice regarding biomedical waste management among staff nurses and nursing students of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Haider; Sneha Kumari; Vivek Kashyap; Shalini Sunderam; Shashi Bhushan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the centre of cure and also the important centres of infectious waste generation. Effective management of Biomedical Waste (BMW) is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice in managing the biomedical wastes among nursing staff and student nurses in RIMS, Ranchi. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at RIMS, Ranchi from Oct 2013 to March 2014 (6 months). It was a descriptive, hospi...

  3. Biomedical journals: keeping up and reading critically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Karen L; DiGiacomo, Ronald F; Van Hoosier, Gerald L

    2006-09-01

    By extrapolation from studies of physicians, knowledge and practice of laboratory animal medicine and science are expected to become progressively more outdated the longer practitioners are out of school. Keeping up with current literature and practice is a challenge that necessitates the use of many different sources of continuing education. Both veterinarians and physicians consistently list journals as the most beneficial source of new information. Accordingly, they must select from the veterinary and biomedical literature articles that report original studies and systematic reviews and recognize and respond to valid new knowledge to improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and maintain consistent clinical skills. Other objectives include selecting journals for general information and for information relevant or specific to one's field of research. Lastly, candidates for board certification need to read articles from journals that potentially provide the basis for questions on the examination. 'High-impact' journals should be identified, and articles should be reviewed critically. In a survey of recent candidates for laboratory animal medicine board examination, these journals included Contemporary Topics (now JAALAS), Comparative Medicine, ILAR Journal, and Laboratory Animals. Strategies for coping with the challenge of staying current with the literature include wise use of technology, journal clubs, and consultation with colleagues. A laboratory animal practitioner can become a better scientist and clinician by evaluating the research performed by others. Thorough, critical review of biomedical literature is paramount to these goals. PMID:16995641

  4. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, R.; Morales, D.; Avendano, G.; Chabert, S.

    2007-11-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the "state-of-the-art" of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  5. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allende, R [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Morales, D [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Avendano, G [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Chabert, S [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  6. Career Development among American Biomedical Postdocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Griffin, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Recent biomedical workforce policy efforts have centered on enhancing career preparation for trainees, and increasing diversity in the research workforce. Postdoctoral scientists, or postdocs, are among those most directly impacted by such initiatives, yet their career development remains understudied. This study reports results from a 2012 national survey of 1002 American biomedical postdocs. On average, postdocs reported increased knowledge about career options but lower clarity about their career goals relative to PhD entry. The majority of postdocs were offered structured career development at their postdoctoral institutions, but less than one-third received this from their graduate departments. Postdocs from all social backgrounds reported significant declines in interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities and increased interest in nonresearch careers; however, there were differences in the magnitude and period of training during which these changes occurred across gender and race/ethnicity. Group differences in interest in faculty careers were explained by career interest differences formed during graduate school but not by differences in research productivity, research self-efficacy, or advisor relationships. These findings point to the need for enhanced career development earlier in the training process, and interventions sensitive to distinctive patterns of interest development across social identity groups. PMID:26582238

  7. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F. [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  8. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors.

  9. Fraud and deceit in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitrago Juliana

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available History: Scientists are supposed to be moved by lofty ideals and be taught to work restlessly in pursue of the truth, but sadly fraud in biomedical research can be traced through the entire history of science. Definition: Nowadays, typology of fraud is clearly defined. Principal types of misconduct are reviewed. Consequences: It is impossible to know to what extent the damage will remain. Fraud threats public confidence in the integrity of science and may change professional attitudes and health public policies leading to serious social consequences. Evaluation of the problem: Prevalence of research fraud is unknown but in almost every country where investigation has been largely developed, at least a corroborated case of mis-conduct has been known. Policies on the scientific process may eventually contribute to fraudulent behaviour. Situation in Colombia: Colombia lacks of comprehensive policies to deal with fraud in research. How to tackle this problem: Finally, some recommendations are given to prevent, detect and deal with fraud in biomedical research.

  10. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer.

  11. Modeling and control in the biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, H T

    1975-01-01

    These notes are based on (i) a series of lectures that I gave at the 14th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress held at the University of Western Ontario August 12-24, 1973 and (li) some of my lectures in a modeling course that I have cotaught in the Division of Bio-Medical Sciences at Brown during the past several years. An earlier version of these notes appeared in the Center for Dynamical Systems Lectures Notes series (CDS LN 73-1, November 1973). I have in this revised and extended version of those earlier notes incorporated a number of changes based both on classroom experience and on my research efforts with several colleagues during the intervening period. The narrow viewpoint of the present notes (use of optimization and control theory in biomedical problems) reflects more the scope of the CMC lectures given in August, 1973 than the scope of my own interests. Indeed, my real interests have included the modeling process itself as well as the contributions made by investiga­ tors who e...

  12. Biomedical journals: keeping up and reading critically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Karen L; DiGiacomo, Ronald F; Van Hoosier, Gerald L

    2006-09-01

    By extrapolation from studies of physicians, knowledge and practice of laboratory animal medicine and science are expected to become progressively more outdated the longer practitioners are out of school. Keeping up with current literature and practice is a challenge that necessitates the use of many different sources of continuing education. Both veterinarians and physicians consistently list journals as the most beneficial source of new information. Accordingly, they must select from the veterinary and biomedical literature articles that report original studies and systematic reviews and recognize and respond to valid new knowledge to improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and maintain consistent clinical skills. Other objectives include selecting journals for general information and for information relevant or specific to one's field of research. Lastly, candidates for board certification need to read articles from journals that potentially provide the basis for questions on the examination. 'High-impact' journals should be identified, and articles should be reviewed critically. In a survey of recent candidates for laboratory animal medicine board examination, these journals included Contemporary Topics (now JAALAS), Comparative Medicine, ILAR Journal, and Laboratory Animals. Strategies for coping with the challenge of staying current with the literature include wise use of technology, journal clubs, and consultation with colleagues. A laboratory animal practitioner can become a better scientist and clinician by evaluating the research performed by others. Thorough, critical review of biomedical literature is paramount to these goals.

  13. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors. PMID:23023199

  14. Predicting the extension of biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    Full Text Available Developing and extending a biomedical ontology is a very demanding task that can never be considered complete given our ever-evolving understanding of the life sciences. Extension in particular can benefit from the automation of some of its steps, thus releasing experts to focus on harder tasks. Here we present a strategy to support the automation of change capturing within ontology extension where the need for new concepts or relations is identified. Our strategy is based on predicting areas of an ontology that will undergo extension in a future version by applying supervised learning over features of previous ontology versions. We used the Gene Ontology as our test bed and obtained encouraging results with average f-measure reaching 0.79 for a subset of biological process terms. Our strategy was also able to outperform state of the art change capturing methods. In addition we have identified several issues concerning prediction of ontology evolution, and have delineated a general framework for ontology extension prediction. Our strategy can be applied to any biomedical ontology with versioning, to help focus either manual or semi-automated extension methods on areas of the ontology that need extension.

  15. Biomedical Use of Aerospace Personal Cooling Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Callaway, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems are required during extravehicular activity (EVA) to remove the metabolic heat generated by the suited astronaut. The Extravehicular and Protective Systems (STE) Branch of NASA Ames Research Center has developed advanced concepts or liquid cooling garments for both industrial and biomedical applications for the past 25 years. Examples of this work include: (1) liquid cooled helmets for helicopter pilots and race car drivers; (2) vests for fire and mine rescue personnel; (3) bras to increase the definition of tumors during thermography; (4) lower body garments for young women with erythomelaigia; and (5) whole body garments used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The benefits of the biomedical application of artificial thermoregulation received national attention through two recent events: (1) the liquid-cooled garment technology was inducted into the United States Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame (1993); and (2) NASA has signed a joint Memorandum of Understanding with the Multiple Sclerosis Association (1994) to share this technology for use with MS patient treatment. The STE Branch is currently pursuing a program to refine thermoregulatory design in light of recent technology developments that might be applicable for use by several medical patient populations. Projects have been initiated to apply thermoregulatory technology for the treatment and/or rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, migraine headaches, and to help prevent the loss of hair during chemotherapy.

  16. Use of systematic review to inform the infection risk for biomedical engineers and technicians servicing biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many microorganisms responsible for hospital acquired infections are able to stay viable on surfaces with no visible sign of contamination, in dry conditions and on non-porous surfaces. The infection risk to biomedical staff when servicing biomedical devices is not documented. An indirect approach has been used to examine the different aspects that will affect the risk of infection including a systematic review of microbial contamination and transmission relating to biomedical devices. A systematic review found 58% of biomedical devices have microbial contamination with 13% having at least one pathogenic organism. These microbes can persist for some months. Occupational-infections of biomedical service staff are low compared to other healthcare workers. A biomedical device with contaminated surface or dust was identified as the source of patient outbreaks in 13 papers. The cleaning agent most tested for removal of micro-organisms from devices was alcohol swabs, but sterile water swabs were also effective. However, manufacturers mainly recommend (74%) cleaning devices with water and detergent. Biomedical engineers and technicians have a small risk of being exposed to dangerous micro-organisms on most biomedical devices, but without skin breakage, this exposure is unlikely to cause ill-health. It is recommended that biomedical staff follow good infection control practices, wipe devices with detergent, sterile water or alcohol swabs as recommended by the manufacturer before working on them, and keep alcohol hand rubs accessible at all benches. (author)

  17. EVALUATION OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MULTI-SPECIALITY TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Srivastav

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical Waste (BMW, collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community The scientific “Hospital waste Management “is of vital importance as its improper management poses risks to the health care workers ,waste handlers patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i To assess current practices of Bio-medical Waste management including generation, collection, transportation storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii To assess health andsafetypracticesfor the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in tertiary care-centre was studied during May 2010 June 2010. The information/data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi structured interview, proforma being the one used for WASTE AUDITING QUESTIONNAIRE. The information collected was verified by personal observations of waste management practices in each ward of hospital. Results : SRMS-IMS generates 1. 25Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in each ward for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory it was not due to unavailability of Personal protective measures but because of un-awareness of health hazards which may occur due to improper waste management practices. Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute, training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standard of bio-medical waste management.

  18. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-09-03

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  19. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  20. Surface characterization of anodized zirconium for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A. Gomez [Division corrosion - INTEMA, Universidad Nacional del Mar del Plata - CONICET, Juan B. Justo 4302, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Schreiner, W. [LSI - LANSEN, Departamento de Fisica, UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Duffo, G. [Departamento de Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica - CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cere, S., E-mail: smcere@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Division corrosion - INTEMA, Universidad Nacional del Mar del Plata - CONICET, Juan B. Justo 4302, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of zirconium make this material suitable for biomedical implants. Its good in vivo performance is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer that minimizes corrosion rate, diminishes the amount of metallic ions released to the biological media and facilitates the osseointegration process. Since the implant surface is the region in contact with living tissues, the characteristics of the surface film are of great interest. Surface modification is a route to enhance both biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of permanent implant materials. Anodizing is presented as an interesting process to modify metal surfaces with good reproducibility and independence of the geometry. In this work the surface of zirconium before and after anodizing in 1 mol/L phosphoric acid solution at a fixed potential between 3 and 30 V, was characterized by means of several surface techniques. It was found that during anodization the surface oxide grows with an inhomogeneous coverage on zirconium surface, modifying the topography. The incorporation of P from the electrolyte to the surface oxide during the anodizing process changes the surface chemistry. After 30 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution, Ca-P rich compounds were present on anodized zirconium.

  1. Relative Citation Ratio of Top Twenty Macedonian Biomedical Scientists in PubMed: A New Metric that Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze relative citation ratio (RCR) of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists with a new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists were identified by GoPubMed on the base of the number of deposited abstracts in PubMed, corrected with the data from previously published paper, and completed with the Macedonian biomedical scientists working in countries outside the Republic of Macedonia, but born or previously worked in the country. iCite was used as a tool to access a dashboard of bibliometrics for papers associated with a portfolio. RESULTS: The biggest number of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists has RCR lower than one. Only four Macedonian biomedical scientists have bigger RCR in comparison with those in PubMed. The most prominent RCR of 2.29 has Rosoklija G. RCR of the most influenced individual papers deposited in PubMed has shown the biggest value for the paper of Efremov D (35.19). This paper has the biggest number of authors (860). CONCLUSION: It is necessary to accept top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists as an example of new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level, rather than qualification of the best Macedonian biomedical scientists. PMID:27335586

  2. The AIBS In Yugoslavia: Programs in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary-Frances

    1978-01-01

    Programs in biomedical engineering have been developing worldwide since World War II. This article describes a multidisciplinary program which operates in Yugoslavia through a cooperative effort between that county and the AIBS. A major problem has been the slowness with which hospitals accept the concept of biomedical engineering. (MA)

  3. Visualization and simulation of complex flows in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Oliveira, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the most recent advances in the application of visualization and simulation methods to understand the flow behavior of complex fluids used in biomedical engineering and other related fields. It shows the physiological flow behavior in large arteries, microcirculation, respiratory systems and in biomedical microdevices.

  4. A Novel Approach to Physiology Education for Biomedical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, J.; Wu, J.; Kuwasawa, K.; Sun, Y.

    2007-01-01

    It is challenging for biomedical engineering programs to incorporate an indepth study of the systemic interdependence of cells, tissues, and organs into the rigorous mathematical curriculum that is the cornerstone of engineering education. To be sure, many biomedical engineering programs require their students to enroll in anatomy and physiology…

  5. Some biomedical applications of chitosan-based hybrid nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being naturally abundant resources and having many interesting physicochemical and biological properties, chitin/chitosan have been found to be useful in many fields, especially biomedical ones. This paper describes the strategy to design multifunctional, hybrid chitosan-based nanomaterials and test them in some typical biomedical applications

  6. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  7. [A biomedical signal processing toolkit programmed by Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiyuan

    2012-09-01

    According to the biomedical signal characteristics, a new biomedical signal processing toolkit is developed. The toolkit is programmed by Java. It is used in basic digital signal processing, random signal processing and etc. All the methods in toolkit has been tested, the program is robust. The feature of the toolkit is detailed explained, easy use and good practicability.

  8. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  9. Modeling in biomedical informatics - An exploratory analysis (Part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hasman; R. Haux

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling is a significant part of research, education and practice in biomedical and health informatics. Our objective was to explore, which types of models of processes are used in current biomedical/health informatics research, as reflected in publications of scientific journals in thi

  10. Trends in Scholarly Communication Among Biomedical Scientists in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Βλαχάκη, Ασημίνα; Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The aim and objectives are to examine the main changes in scholarly communication among Greek biomedical scientists (2007-2011). The methods include a bibliographic survey (two phases), and a questionnaire survey (three phases). Results indicate that awareness of open access publishing has increased since 2010, but that biomedical scientists in Greece are not very aware of the operations of open access journals.

  11. A brief review of biomedical sensors and robotics sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yanli Luo; , Qiaoying Zhou; Wenbin Luo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a brief review of biomedical sensors and robotics sensors. More specifically, we will review the cochlear sensors and retinal sensors in the category of biomedical sensors and ultrasonic Sensors and infrared motion detection sensors in the category of robotic sensors. Our goal is to familiarize readers with the common sensors used in the fields of both biom

  12. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  13. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  14. Ion beam modification of surfaces for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, Jana

    2014-07-15

    Human life expectancy increased significantly within the last century. Hence, medical care must ever be improved. Optimizing artificial replacements such as hip joints or stents etc. is of special interest. For this purpose, new materials are constantly developed or known ones modified. This work focused on the possibility to change the chemistry and topography of biomedically relevant materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by means of ion beam irradiation. Mass-separated ion beam deposition was used in order to synthesize DLC layers with a high sp{sup 3} content (> 70%), a sufficiently smooth surface (RMS<1 nm) and a manageable film thickness (50 nm). The chemistry of the DLC layers was changed by ion beam doping with different ion species (Ag,Ti) and concentrations. Additionally, the surface topography of silicon and titanium dioxide was altered by ion beam irradiation under non-perpendicular angle of incidence. The created periodic wave structures (so-called ripples) were characterized and their dependency on the ion energy was investigated. Moreover, ripples on silicon were covered with a thin DLC layer in order to create DLC ripples. The biocompatibility of all samples was investigated by adsorption experiments. For this purpose, human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) was used due to its ambiphilic character, which allows the protein to assume different conformations on materials with different hydrophilicities. Moreover, HPF is a crucial factor in the blood coagulation process. This work comes to the conclusion that the interaction of both, the surface chemistry and topography, has a strong influence on the adsorption behavior of HPF and thus the biocompatibility of a material. Both factors can be specifically tuned by means of ion beam irradiation.

  15. Ion beam modification of surfaces for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human life expectancy increased significantly within the last century. Hence, medical care must ever be improved. Optimizing artificial replacements such as hip joints or stents etc. is of special interest. For this purpose, new materials are constantly developed or known ones modified. This work focused on the possibility to change the chemistry and topography of biomedically relevant materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) by means of ion beam irradiation. Mass-separated ion beam deposition was used in order to synthesize DLC layers with a high sp3 content (> 70%), a sufficiently smooth surface (RMS<1 nm) and a manageable film thickness (50 nm). The chemistry of the DLC layers was changed by ion beam doping with different ion species (Ag,Ti) and concentrations. Additionally, the surface topography of silicon and titanium dioxide was altered by ion beam irradiation under non-perpendicular angle of incidence. The created periodic wave structures (so-called ripples) were characterized and their dependency on the ion energy was investigated. Moreover, ripples on silicon were covered with a thin DLC layer in order to create DLC ripples. The biocompatibility of all samples was investigated by adsorption experiments. For this purpose, human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) was used due to its ambiphilic character, which allows the protein to assume different conformations on materials with different hydrophilicities. Moreover, HPF is a crucial factor in the blood coagulation process. This work comes to the conclusion that the interaction of both, the surface chemistry and topography, has a strong influence on the adsorption behavior of HPF and thus the biocompatibility of a material. Both factors can be specifically tuned by means of ion beam irradiation.

  16. Proceedings of the international society for optical engineering biomedical image processing 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovik, A.G.; Howard, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of biomedical image processing. Topics covered include: Filtering and reconstruction of biomedical images; analysis, classification and recognition of biomedical images; and 3-D microscopy.

  17. 76 FR 53690 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes...

  18. 78 FR 76632 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special... Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, 6707 Democracy...

  19. 77 FR 50516 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Special...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging, And Bioengineering, National...

  20. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is... International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (``Guiding Principles''). The NIH is... ) that commits the institution to follow the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical...