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Sample records for biomaterial adjuvant effect

  1. Piezoelectric effects in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.

    1976-03-01

    Precision methods have been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the complex piezoelectric stress constants and the electric conduction and polarization currents. Samples of Collagen, keratin, and chitin are prepared and measured in such a way to optimize the determination of the position and orientation of the electric dipole moments. The temperature and the hydration state of the samples are varied during the measurement of the piezoelectric constants in an effort to understand the role of water in biological material. Above 40 0 C, the inherent piezolectricity is enhanced by the water of hydration, in contrast to the more easily understood reduction observed at lower temperatures. Gelatin, which has no inherent piezoelectricity, displays a piezoelectricity proportional to the currents of conduction and polarization. An analysis of the new effect shows that it is a measure of the variation of the resistivity with deformation (d rho/dS - rho) in the same way that the electric field induced piezoelectricity is a measure of the variation of the dielectric constant with deformation (dk/dS + k). Both are sensitive to electric dipole relaxation effects. (Author) [pt

  2. Biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mourik, P.; Van Dam, J.; Picken, S.J.; Ursem, B.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of living organisms produce biomaterials. Hence, in principle biomaterials are fully sustainable. This does not mean that their processing and application have no impact on the environment, e.g. the recycling of natural rubber remains a problem. Biomaterials are applied in a

  3. Biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Migonney , Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Discovered in the 20th century, biomaterials have contributed to many of the incredible scientific and technological advancements made in recent decades. This book introduces and details the tenets of biomaterials, their relevance in a various fields, practical applications of their products, and potential advancements of the years to come. A comprehensive resource, the text covers the reasons that certain properties of biomaterials contribute to specific applications, and students and researchers will appreciate this exhaustive textbook.

  4. Teriparatide Therapy as an Adjuvant for Tissue Engineering and Integration of Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinder S. Dhillon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Critically sized large bone defects commonly result from trauma, radical tumor resections or infections. Currently, massive allografting remain as the clinical standard to treat these critical defects. Unfortunately, allograft healing is limited by the lack of osteogenesis and bio-integration of the graft to the host bone. Based on its widely studied anabolic effects on the bone, we have proposed that teriparatide [recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH1–34] could be an effective adjuvant for massive allograft healing. In support of this theory, here we review studies that have demonstrated that intermittent PTH1–34 treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms including: effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, bone formation and remodeling. We also review the current literature on the effects of PTH1–34 therapy on bone healing, and discuss this drug’s long term potential as an adjuvant for endogenous tissue engineering.

  5. Early results on the use of biomaterials as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure following cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermic chemotherapy applies thermal energy to both abdominal wall as well as the intra-abdominal viscera. The combination of the hyperthemia, chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery (CRS is associated with a defined risk of abdominal wall and intestinal morbidity reported to be as high as 15%, respectively to date, no studies have evaluated the use of biomaterial mesh as adjuvant to abdominal wall closure in this group of patients. In the present report, we hypothesized that post HIPEC closure with a biomaterial can reduce abdominal wall morbidity after CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Materials and methods All patients treated with HIPEC in a tertiary care center over 12 months (2008-2009 period were included. Eight patients received cytoreductive surgery followed by HIPEC for 90 minutes using Mitomycin C (15 mg q 45 minutes × 2. Abdominal wall closure was performed using Surgisis (Cook Biotech. mesh in an underlay position with 3 cm fascial overlap-closure. Operative time, hospital length of stay (LOS as well as postoperative outcome with special attention to abdominal wall and bowel morbidity were assessed. Results Eight patients, mean age 59.7 ys (36-80 were treated according to the above protocol. The primary pathology was appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 3 colorectal cancer (n = 3, and ovarian cancer (n = 2. Four patients (50% presented initially with abdominal wall morbidity including incisional ventral hernia (n = 3 and excessive abdominal wall metastatic implants (n = 1. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI was 8.75. Twenty eight CRS were performed (3.5 CRS/patient. The mean operating time was 6 hours. Seven patients had no abdominal wall or bowel morbidity, the mean LOS for these patients was 8 days. During the follow up period (mean 6.3 months, one patient required exploratory laparotomy 2 weeks after surgery and subsequently developed an incisional hernia and enterocutaneous

  6. Analysis of the Osteogenic Effects of Biomaterials Using Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimization algorithm for determining the effects of different properties of implanted biomaterials on bone growth, based on the finite element method and bone self-optimization theory. The rate of osteogenesis and the bone density distribution of the implanted biomaterials were quantitatively analyzed. Using the proposed algorithm, a femur with implanted biodegradable biomaterials was simulated, and the osteogenic effects of different materials were measured. Simulation experiments mainly considered variations in the elastic modulus (20-3000 MPa) and degradation period (10, 20, and 30 days) for the implanted biodegradable biomaterials. Based on our algorithm, the osteogenic effects of the materials were optimal when the elastic modulus was 1000 MPa and the degradation period was 20 days. The simulation results for the metaphyseal bone of the left femur were compared with micro-CT images from rats with defective femurs, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method was effective for optimization of the bone structure and is expected to have applications in matching appropriate bones and biomaterials. These results provide important insights into the development of implanted biomaterials for both clinical medicine and materials science.

  7. Opioid adjuvant strategy: improving opioid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesics continue to be the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of moderate to severe pain. Many patients, particularly those suffering from chronic pain, require chronic high-dose analgesic therapy. Achieving clinical efficacy and tolerability of such treatment regimens is hampered by the appearance of opioid-induced side effects such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and withdrawal syndrome. Among the therapeutic options to improve the opioid effectiveness, this current review focuses on strategies combining opioids to other drugs that can modulate opioid-mediated effects. We will discuss about experimental evidences reported for several potential opioid adjuvants, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, 5-HT7 agonists, sigma-1 antagonists, I2-R ligands, cholecystokinin antagonists, neuropeptide FF-R antagonists and toll-like receptor 4 antagonists.

  8. Engineering of biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Venina; Savaris, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on biomaterials of different forms used for medical implants. The authors introduce the characteristics and properties of biomaterials and then dedicate special chapters to metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite biomaterials. Case studies on sterilization methods by biomaterials are also presented. Finally, the authors describe the degradation and effects of biomaterials in living tissue.

  9. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials: The effects of topology and material type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Hedayati, R; Li, Y; Lietaert, K; Tümer, N; Fatemi, A; Rans, C D; Pouran, B; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is, however, not clear to what extent the material type is important in determining the fatigue behavior of such biomaterials. We therefore aimed to determine the isolated and modulated effects of topological design and material type on the fatigue response of metallic meta-biomaterials fabricated with selective laser melting. Towards that end, we designed and additively manufactured Co-Cr meta-biomaterials with three types of repeating unit cells and three to four porosities per type of repeating unit cell. The AM meta-biomaterials were then mechanically tested to obtain their normalized S-N curves. The obtained S-N curves of Co-Cr meta-biomaterials were compared to those of meta-biomaterials with same topological designs but made from other materials, i.e. Ti-6Al-4V, tantalum, and pure titanium, available from our previous studies. We found the material type to be far more important than the topological design in determining the normalized fatigue strength of our AM metallic meta-biomaterials. This is the opposite of what we have found for the quasi-static mechanical properties of the same meta-biomaterials. The effects of material type, manufacturing imperfections, and topological design were different in the high and low cycle fatigue regions. That is likely because the cyclic response of meta-biomaterials depends not only on the static and fatigue strengths of the bulk material but also on other factors that may include strut roughness, distribution of the micro-pores created inside the struts during the AM process, and plasticity. Meta-biomaterials are a special class of metamaterials with unusual or unprecedented combinations of mechanical, physical (e.g. mass transport

  10. Effect of biomaterial properties on bone healing in a rabbit tooth extraction socket model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, J.P.; Lalani, Z.; Bossano, C.M.; Brey, E.M.; Demian, N.; Johnston, C.M.; Dean, D.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we sought to understand the effect of biomaterial properties upon healing bone tissue. We hypothesized that a hydrophilic polymer gel implanted into a bone tissue defect would impede the healing process owing to the biomaterial's prevention of protein adsorption and thus cell adhesion.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF BIOMATERIALS ON DENDRITIC CELL MATURATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Babensee, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    The immunological outcome of dendritic cell (DC) treatment with different biomaterials was assessed to demonstrate the range of DC phenotypes induced by biomaterials commonly used in combination products. Immature DCs (iDCs) were derived from human peripheral blood monocytes, and treated with different biomaterial films of alginate, agarose, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA), or 75:25 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and a comprehensive cadre of phenotypic functional outcomes were assessed. Differential levels of functional changes of DC phenotype were observed depending on the type of biomaterial films used to treat DCs. Treatment of DCs with PLGA or chitosan films supported DC maturation with higher levels of DC allostimulatory capacity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, HLA-DQ and CD44 expression as compared to iDCs, and endocytic ability at a level lower compared to iDCs. Alginate film induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from DCs at levels higher than iDCs,. Dendritic cells treated with HA film expressed lower levels of CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR as compared to iDCs. They also exhibited endocytic ability and CD44 expression at levels lower than iDCs, possibly due to an insolublized (cross-linked) form with high molecular weight HA. Interestingly, treatment of DCs with agarose film maintained a DC functional phenotype at levels similar to iDCs except for CD44 expression which was lower than expression levels for iDCs. Taken together, these results can provide selection criteria for biomaterials to be used in immunomodulating applications and can inform potential outcomes of biomaterials within combination products on associated immune responses as desired by the application. PMID:22705044

  12. Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvant/antigen combinations in rabbits and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Wester, P.W.; Baumans, V.; Claassen, E.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the side effects induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA) and alternative adjuvants combined with different antigens. Rabbits and mice were injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly (rabbits) and intraperitoneally (mice) with different adjuvants (FA, Specol, RIBI, TiterMax,

  13. Does lipophilicity per se induce adjuvant effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    compound induces immunomodulatory effects was investigated in a murine inhalation model with the highly lipophilic methyl palmitate (MP) as model substance. First, studies of acute effects following a 1-h exposure of up to 348 mg/m3 MP showed no effects on cell composition in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL...

  14. Effect of different adjuvant formulations on the immunogenicity and protective effect of a live Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine after intramuscular inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Xie, Haidong; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Xie, Fang; Shao, Guoqing

    2014-06-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) vaccine strain 168 is an intrapulmonically injected attenuated live vaccine that is available in the Chinese market. The aim of this study was to develop suitable adjuvants for this live vaccine to provide effective protection after intramuscular inoculation. Several adjuvant components were screened to assess their toxicity for the live vaccine, and various adjuvant formulations were then designed and prepared. Vaccines supplemented with these adjuvants were used to immunize mice intramuscularly to assess the capacity of the adjuvants to induce a specific immune response. The screened formulations were then evaluated in pigs. Seven of the eight adjuvant components did not affect the viability of the live vaccine, and seven different adjuvant formulations were then designed. In mice, the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant significantly enhanced serum IgG responses against M. hyopneumoniae, while lymphocyte proliferation was enhanced by the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant, the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant. These four adjuvants were evaluated in pigs. Enhancement of specific lymphocyte proliferation responses was observed in the groups vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant. Significant enhancement of serum IgG antibody production was observed before challenge in pigs vaccinated with the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant, while after challenge, all of the animals that received vaccines containing adjuvants had higher antibody concentrations against M. hyopneumoniae than unvaccinated animals. Animals inoculated with a vaccine containing the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (median score 3.57) or the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant (median score 5.28) had reduced lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals

  15. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  16. Immune responses and side effects of five different oil-based adjuvants in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, M.; Koedam, M.A.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Claassen, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, five different oil based adjuvants were compared to assess efficacy and side effects. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a weak immunogen (synthetic peptide) emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FA), Specol, RIBI, TiterMax or Montanide ISA50.

  17. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  18. Biomaterials for tissue engineering: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.

  19. Effect of TiN and TiC Coating on The Characteristics of a Biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. M.; Lee, J. K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Soonchunhyung University, Asan (Korea); Kim, E. H. [Department of Pathology Soonchunhyung University, Asan (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    To test the characteristics of TiC and TiN coating for artificial joint as a biomaterial, in-vitro and in-vivo tests were executed. As an in-vitro test, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and cytotoxicity were evaluated by Tafel extrapolation, ball and disc sliding sear test and ELISA. Noticible improvements of corrosion and wear resistance were revealed in coated Ti alloy. Any cytotoxic effects were not found in all the tested specimen. As an in-vivo test, the coated Ti were inserted into rabbit's femur for three months and the result were discussed. It could be concluded that Ti alloy coated with TiN or TiC has a potential to be a promising biomaterial for artificial joint due to its excellent mechanical, chemical and biological properties. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant treatment after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Orobia AJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonio J Mateo Orobia,1–3 Paula Casas Pascual,1,4 José Á Cristóbal Bescós,1 Diana Perez García,1,4 Carlos Peiro Embid,1,4 M Ángeles del Buey Sayas,1,4 Valentyna Korobko Kulikova,1 Noelia Lafuente Ojeda5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano-Blesa, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain Purpose: To evaluate the effect of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant in the standard treatment after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.Design: Interventional prospective comparative single-blind study.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón Zaragoza, Spain.Methods: A total of 26 eyes (13 patients were included, of which 12 eyes (group 1 received conventional treatment with lubricant drops of hyaluronic acid (0.15% and 14 eyes (group 2 received, additionally, an ophthalmic solution of 3% trehalose. Pre- and postoperative quality-of-life tests and vital stains, tear breakup time, and osmolarity measurements were made.Results: We obtained statistically significant differences between the groups in the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye test in all visits with respect to severity, and in the postoperative day 1 visit with respect to frequency, in all cases favoring the trehalose treatment. The values of osmolarity were not significantly different between groups. However, we did find significant differences in the Oxford scale in day 90 for the trehalose treatment (P<0.001, and in the National Eye Institute scale in day 30 (P=0.02.Conclusion: The results of this exploratory study indicate that the adjuvant treatment with 3% trehalose could be superior with respect to the standard treatment, with improvements in the objective and subjective parameters of tear quality. Keywords: dry eye syndrome, trehalose

  2. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bradley K. Fritz,1 W. Clint Hoffmann,1 and W. E. Bagley2 Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial...Application Flat Fan Nozzles REFERENCE: Fritz, Bradley K., Hoffmann, W. Clint, and Bagley, W. E., “Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on...factors. Twelve spray-solution treatments were evaluated, ten of which contained a formulated glyphosate product and nine of these con- tained an

  3. The Effect of Biomaterials Used for Tissue Regeneration Purposes on Polarization of Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone); N. Grotenhuis (Nienke); Y. Bayon (Yves); J.F. Lange (Johan); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractActivation of macrophages is critical in the acute phase of wound healing after implantation of surgical biomaterials. To understand the response of macrophages, they are often cultured in vitro on biomaterials. Since a wide range of biomaterials is currently used in the clinics, we

  4. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using Medipix3RX: With applications from biomaterial science

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, K; de Ruiter, N J A; Chernoglazov, A I; Panta, R K; Butler, A P H; Butler, P H; Bell, S T; Anderson, N G; Woodfield, T B F; Tredinnick, S J; Healy, J L; Bateman, C J; Aamir, R; Doesburg, R M N; Renaud, P F; Gieseg, S P; Smithies, D J; Mohr, J L; Mandalika, V B H; Opie, A M T; Cook, N J; Ronaldson, J P; Nik, S J; Atharifard, A; Clyne, M; Bones, P J; Bartneck, C; Grasset, R; Schleich, N; Billinghurst, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects using spectral data for biomaterial applications. A small-animal spectral scanner operating in the diagnostic energy range was used. We investigate the use of photon-processing features of the Medipix3RX ASIC in reducing beam hardening and associated artefacts. A fully operational charge summing mode was used during the imaging routine. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. Narrow high energy acquisition using the photon-processing detector revealed substantial reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts.

  5. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post ...

  6. Effects of pH and adjuvants on clethodim photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falb, L.N.; Bridges, D.C.; Smith, A.E. Jr. (Univ. of Georgia, Griffin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Physical degradation of clethodim (2-(1-(((3-chloro-2-propenyl)oxy)imino)propyl)-5-(2-(ethylthio)propyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione) occurred in aqueous solution by acid catalysis and photocatalysis in in vitro experiments as assayed by HPLC. Clethodim degradation increased as acidity increased, being further accelerated under UV light with a half-life of 2.4, 2.6, and 3.2 h at pH 5, 6, and 7, respectively. Fewer degradation products were formed under UV plus adjuvant treatments, but the rate of photodegradation was increased by 2- to 7-fold over the UV control. The degradation rate in sunlight plus adjuvant treatments was enhanced by 7- to 27-fold over the sunlight control. The photodegradation rates in the presence of adjuvants followed the sequence LI700 > Dash > Agrioil > XE1167 > CC15943 > control. In summary, clethodim degradation was catalyzed by acid, the rate being accelerated in light (probably a different mechanism), and was further enhanced by the addition of adjuvants to the light treatment.

  7. Effects of 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Plukker, John T. M.

    Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for Stage III colon cancer. After the initial introduction of 5-fluorouracil in standard treatment protocols, several changes have been made based on results of randomized studies on

  8. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  9. Effect of adjuvants on responses to skin immunization by microneedles coated with influenza subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Weldon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccine delivery to the skin by vaccine-coated microneedles; however there is little information on the effects of adjuvants using this approach for vaccination. Here we investigate the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants with skin-based delivery of influenza subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice received 1 µg of monovalent H1N1 subunit vaccine alone or with 1 µg of imiquimod or poly(I:C individually or in combination via coated microneedle patches inserted into the skin. Poly(I:C adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine induced similar antigen-specific immune responses compared to vaccine alone when delivered to the skin by microneedles. However, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine elicited higher levels of serum IgG2a antibodies and increased hemagglutination inhibition titers compared to vaccine alone, suggesting enhanced induction of functional antibodies. In addition, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine induced a robust IFN-γ cellular response. These responses correlated with improved protection compared to influenza subunit vaccine alone, as well as reduced viral replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. The finding that microneedle delivery of imiquimod with influenza subunit vaccine induces improved immune responses compared to vaccine alone supports the use of TLR7 ligands as adjuvants for skin-based influenza vaccines.

  10. Priming the Abscopal Effect Using Multifunctional Smart Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded with Immunoadjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Moreau

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the use of multifunctional smart radiotherapy biomaterials (SRBs loaded with immunoadjuvants for boosting the abscopal effect of local radiotherapy (RT. SRBs were designed similar to currently used inert RT biomaterials, incorporating a biodegradable polymer with reservoir for loading payloads of the immunoadjuvant anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody. Lung (LLC1 tumors were generated both on the right and left flank of each mouse, with the left tumor representing metastasis. The mice were randomized and divided into eight cohorts with four cohorts receiving image-guided RT (IGRT at 5 Gy and another similar four cohorts at 0 Gy. IGRT and Computed Tomography (CT imaging were performed using a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP. Tumor volume measurements for both flank tumors and animal survival was assessed over 25 weeks. Tumor volume measurements showed significantly enhanced inhibition in growth for the right flank tumors of mice in the cohort treated with SRBs loaded with CD40 mAbs and IGRT. Results also suggest that the use of polymeric SRBs with CD40 mAbs without RT could generate an immune response, consistent with previous studies showing such response when using anti-CD40. Overall, 60% of mice treated with SRBs showed complete tumor regression during the observation period, compared to 10% for cohorts administered with anti-CD40 mAbs, but no SRB. Complete tumor regression was not observed in any other cohorts. The findings justify more studies varying RT doses and quantifying the immune-cell populations involved when using SRBs. Such SRBs could be developed to replace currently used RT biomaterials, allowing not only for geometric accuracy during RT, but also for extending RT to the treatment of metastatic lesions.

  11. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  12. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-05

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal versus lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, W; Voogd, A C; Vreugdenhil, G; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; Siesling, S; Roumen, R M

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the lack of response of invasive lobular breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we questioned the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to histology. Women with primary nonmetastatic invasive ductal or (mixed type) lobular breast cancer, aged 50-70 years, diagnosed between 1995 and 2008, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and followed until January 1, 2010. The patients were divided in two groups: one group receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy only and the other receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy. In total, 19,609 patients had ductal cancer and 3685 had lobular cancer. The 10-year overall survival rate in ductal cancer when treated with hormonal therapy alone was 69%, compared with 74% with the combination therapy (P lobular cancer, 10-year survival rates were 68% after hormonal treatment alone and 66% after the combination therapy (P = 0.45). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in ductal cancer after combination therapy was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.76; P lobular cancer was 1.00 (95% CI 0.82-1.21; P = 0.97). Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to confer no additional beneficial effects in postmenopausal patients with pure or mixed type lobular breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy.

  14. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials : The effects of topology and material type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Hedayati, R.; Li, Y; Lietaert, K.; Tümer, N.; Fatemi, A.; Rans, C.D.; Pouran, B.; Weinans, H.H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is,

  15. New Models for Patient-specific Evaluation of the Effect of Biomaterials on Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grotenhuis (Nienke)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBiomaterials are often used in many fields of medicine to restore or replace tissue. These biomaterials always elicit a reaction of the immune system, called the foreign body reaction, which can lead to complications in patients and failure of the device. Macrophages are key players

  16. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  17. Tribocorrosion studies of metallic biomaterials: The effect of plasma nitriding and DLC surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-10-01

    The medical grade pure titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy have been utilized as biomaterials for load-bearing orthopedic prosthesis. The conventional surgery metals suffer from a combined effect of wear and corrosion once they are implanted, which may significantly accelerate the material degradation process. In this work, the tribocorrosion performance of the metallic biomaterials with different surface modifications was studied in the simulated body fluid for the purpose of investigating the effect of the surface treatments on the tribocorrosion performance and eventually finding the most suitable implantation materials. The metals were subjected to surface modifications by plasma nitriding in different treatment temperatures or physical vapor deposition (PVD) to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, respectively. The dry wear and tribocorrosion properties of the samples were evaluated by using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. Prior to the tribocorrosion tests, their electrochemical behavior was measured by the potentiodynamic polarization in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at room temperature. Both stainless steel and CoCrMo after low temperature nitriding kept their passive nature by forming an expanded austenite phase. The DLC coated samples presented the low anodic corrosion current due to the chemical inertness of the carbon layer. During the tribocorrosion tests at open circuit potential, the untreated and low temperature nitrided samples exhibited significant potential drop towards the cathodic direction, which was a result of the worn out of the passive film. Galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated (worn) area and the still passive (unworn) area, making the materials suffered from wear-accelerated corrosion. The DLC coating performed as a solid lubricant in both dry wear and tribocorrosion tests, and the resulting wear after the tests was almost negligible. Copyright

  18. Cardiovascular effects of herbicides and formulated adjuvants on isolated rat aorta and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yin-Ching; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Wang, Shun-Cheng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2007-06-01

    Various formulations of agricultural chemicals, including solutions, wettable powders, and emulsifiable concentrates, contain adjuvants of solvents and surfactants in addition to active ingredients. Among these formulations, herbicides are among the most commonly used pesticides globally. Some pesticides have been demonstrated to cause severe circulatory failure in poisoned humans. To clarify the potential risk of herbicides and their adjuvants influence on the cardiovascular system, four technical grade (TG) herbicides and their end products (EP), including paraquat, glyphosate, glufosinate, and atrazine, as well as their formulated adjuvants isopropylamine (IPA), polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate (AES), ethyl acetate (EA), xylene, petrolium-170 (P-170), and solvesso-100 (S-100), were assessed to determine their effects on isolated rat aorta and heart. The results revealed that the vasorelaxation effects of the herbicide EPs exceeded those of TGs, and atrazine produced more significant vasorelaxation in rat aortas than the other herbicides tested. The formulated adjuvants of IPA did not affect the aorta; however, AES, EA, xylene, P-170 and S-100 caused significant vasorelaxation. Herbicide EPs-induced vasorelaxation was generally endothelium-dependent. Furthermore, the TG and EP of paraquat, and the TG of glufosinate and glyphosate were found to have no effect on the isolated heart. However, the normal twitch tensions of the isolated heart were significantly inhibited by EPs of glyphosate and glufosinate, and by TG and EP of atrazine. Although, the adjuvants of IPA appeared unaffected, however, AES, EA, xylene, P-170 and S-100 caused complete inhibition and contraction on the isolated hearts. These results indicated that the adjuvants of herbicides might enhance hypotension and contributed to cardiovascular disorders during intoxication.

  19. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal versus lobular breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, W.; Voogd, A.C.; Vreugdenhil, G.; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M.; Siesling, Sabine; Roumen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background On the basis of the lack of response of invasive lobular breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we questioned the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to histology. Patients and methods Women with primary nonmetastatic invasive ductal or (mixed type) lobular breast

  20. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy after pulmonary metastasectomy on the prognosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu Shiomi

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection of lung metastases might strongly affect the prognosis of metastatic CRC patients. Even patients with single metastatic lesions and normal preoperative CEA level appeared to receive benefits from such chemotherapy. Narrowing of suitable candidates by predicting the effects of systemic chemotherapy and prospective randomized studies are needed.

  1. Chirality effects at each amino acid position on tripeptide self-assembly into hydrogel biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesan, S.; Easton, C. D.; Styan, K. E.; Waddington, L. J.; Kushkaki, F.; Goodall, L.; McLean, K. M.; Forsythe, J. S.; Hartley, P. G.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogels formed by ultrashort peptides are emerging as cost-effective materials for cell culture. However, l-peptides are labile to proteases, while their d-isomers are thought to not support cell growth as well. In contrast, the self-assembly behaviour and biological performance of heterochiral peptides (i.e., made of both d and l amino acids) are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of amino acid chirality on tripeptide self-assembly and hydrogelation at physiological pH, and cytocompatibility in fibroblast cell culture. A series of uncapped hydrophobic tripeptides with all combinations of d, l amino acids was prepared, tested for self-assembly under physiological conditions, and analysed by circular dichroism, FT-IR, cryo-TEM, AFM, and Thioflavin T fluorescence imaging. Amino acid chirality has a profound effect on the peptides' supramolecular behaviour. Only selected isomers form hydrogels, and of amyloid structure, as confirmed by rheology and XRD. Importantly, they are able to maintain the viability and proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro. This study identifies two heterochiral gels that perform well in cell culture and will assist in the design of innovative and cost-effective peptide gel biomaterials.Hydrogels formed by ultrashort peptides are emerging as cost-effective materials for cell culture. However, l-peptides are labile to proteases, while their d-isomers are thought to not support cell growth as well. In contrast, the self-assembly behaviour and biological performance of heterochiral peptides (i.e., made of both d and l amino acids) are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of amino acid chirality on tripeptide self-assembly and hydrogelation at physiological pH, and cytocompatibility in fibroblast cell culture. A series of uncapped hydrophobic tripeptides with all combinations of d, l amino acids was prepared, tested for self-assembly under physiological conditions, and analysed by circular dichroism, FT

  2. Components of the plasminogen activation system promote engraftment of porous polyethylene biomaterial via common and distinct effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christoph A; Hessenauer, Maximilian E T; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial.

  3. Isolated and modulated effects of topology and material type on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Ahmadi, S M; Lietaert, K; Pouran, B; Li, Y; Weinans, H; Rans, C D; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we tried to quantify the isolated and modulated effects of topological design and material type on the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials. Towards this aim, we assembled a large dataset comprising the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials with different topological designs (i.e. different unit cell types and relative densities) and material types. Porous structures were additively manufactured from Co-Cr using a selective laser melting (SLM) machine and tested under quasi-static compression. The normalized mechanical properties obtained from those structures were compared with mechanical properties available from our previous studies for porous structures made from Ti-6Al-4V and pure titanium as well as with analytical solutions. The normalized values of elastic modulus and yield stress were found to be relatively close to each other as well as in agreement with analytical solutions regardless of material type. However, the material type was found to systematically affect the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials in general and the post-elastic/post-yield range (plateau stress and energy absorption capacity) in particular. To put this in perspective, topological design could cause up to 10-fold difference in the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials while up to 2-fold difference was observed as a consequence of changing the material type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced biomaterials and biodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials are the fastest-growing emerging field of  biodevices. Design and development of biomaterials play a significant role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Recently, a variety of scaffolds/carriers have been evaluated for tissue regeneration, drug delivery, sensing and imaging.  Liposomes and microspheres have been developed for sustained delivery. Several anti-cancer drugs have been successfully formulated using biomaterial. The targeting of drugs to certain physiological sites has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment with improved drug bioavailability and reduction of dosing frequency. Biodevices-based targeting of drugs may improve the therapeutic success by limiting the adverse drug effects and resulting in more patient compliance and attaining a higher adherence level. Advanced biodevices hold merit as a drug carrier with high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, high stability, as well as the feasibility...

  5. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  6. [Orthopedic biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedel, L; Nizard, R; Meunier, A

    1995-03-01

    It is very challenging to insure long term security and effectiveness for joint arthroplasties, artificial ligaments, extensive bone replacement and some other orthopaedic biomaterials. How can we predict the long term security and efficacy of such an implant? Only an interdisciplinary approach can provide a satisfactory answer. The surgeon must define the needs, he must find the appropriate surgical techniques and conduct the clinical trial. The material scientist must elaborate safe and secure materials with regards to their biotolerance and mechanical resistance. This has to be performed in close connection with the biomechanics lab. Biomechanic Science must predict the expected stresses. It has to design special simulator to quantify in vitro material toughness, wear characteristics, lubrication, behaviour and surface deformation. Biological and mechanical standardized tests have to be carried on. Then it is possible to conduct a clinical trial, prospectively in comparison to another already developed material. Clinical studies could serve to measure efficacy and radiological modification. After failure, it is possible to analyse retrieved specimen, to measure the material degradation in real environment, to perform biological studies on retrieved tissues i.e. : macrophagic activities, tissue response, bone ingrowth, inflammatory or immunological reaction. For more than twenty years we worked on alumina against alumina total hips. The idea was to develop a low debris system to enhance long term longevity of the prosthesis. The Charnley design has proven its effectiveness for more than fifteen years, but polyethylene wear is responsible for late failures. This is specially crucial for young patients, male sex and high activity level patients. At the beginning, biological studies and mechanical tests were performed, it appeared that the biological tolerance of alumina ceramic was excellent, the fracture toughness was adequate, but there were some problems related

  7. Nanoparticulate Tubular Immunostimulating Complexes: Novel Formulation of Effective Adjuvants and Antigen Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation vaccines, based on isolated antigens, are safer than traditional ones, comprising the whole pathogen. However, major part of purified antigens has weak immunogenicity. Therefore, elaboration of new adjuvants, more effective and safe, is an urgent problem of vaccinology. Tubular immunostimulating complexes (TI-complexes are a new type of nanoparticulate antigen delivery systems with adjuvant activity. TI-complexes consist of cholesterol and compounds isolated from marine hydrobionts: cucumarioside A2-2 (CDA from Cucumaria japonica and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG from marine algae or seagrass. These components were selected due to immunomodulatory and other biological activities. Glycolipid MGDG from marine macrophytes comprises a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, which demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CDA is a well-characterized individual compound capable of forming stable complex with cholesterol. Such complexes do not possess hemolytic activity. Ultralow doses of cucumariosides stimulate cell as well as humoral immunity. Therefore, TI-complexes comprising biologically active components turned out to be more effective than the strongest adjuvants: immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs and complete Freund’s adjuvant. In the present review, we discuss results published in series of our articles on elaboration, qualitative and quantitative composition, ultrastructure, and immunostimulating activity of TI-complexes. The review allows immersion in the history of creating TI-complexes.

  8. Parenteral adjuvant effects of an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC natural heat-labile toxin variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Joelma Magalhães Braga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intranasal delivery had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2, after delivery via intradermal (i.d. and subcutaneous (s.c. routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1, produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63 were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4+ T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunised with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunised with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2 display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes.

  9. Estimating the adjuvant chemotherapy effect in elderly stage II and III colon cancer patients in an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Yeol; Cha, In-Ho; Ahn, Joong Bae; Kim, Nam Kyu; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shin, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has been known as a standard treatment for patients with resected colon cancer. However, in elderly colon cancer patients, the characteristics of patients are heterogeneous with regard to life expectancy and comorbidities. Thus, with regard to the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer, it is difficult to extrapolate data of clinical trials from the younger into the older general population. Data for 382 elderly colon cancer patients were analyzed: 217 in Stage II and 165 in Stage III. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated in elderly colon cancer patients after a match by the propensity score method. For matched patients with Stage II colon cancer, there was no significant efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in the risk of death during all follow-up periods (P-value, 0.06-0.37). Though there was a tendency that the adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the death rate during the follow-up periods, it was not statistically significant. In the case of Stage III, the adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly effective in matched patients for 5-year (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.90) and overall survival (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.94). Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with Stage II colon cancer is not effective, whereas elderly patients with Stage III with adjuvant chemotherapy appear to have a better survival rate in the general population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  11. Side Effects of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Patients With Testicular Seminoma Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamulin, M.; Grgic, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy of testicular seminoma stage I patients were followed up in the period between 13 to 84 months (median 28 months). The most frequent side effects in these patients during radiotherapy were gastrointestinal problems (nausea/vomiting), psychologic and cognitive problems and minor sexual problems. The reported side effects were treated by antimmimetics and anxiolytics. After radiotherapy, the side effects persisted in 6 % of patients but therapy was needed only in few. Healthy children were born to 76 % of patients in the age group 18 - 39 years after radiotherapy. The present study shows that adjuvant irradiation of paraaortal lymph nodes with total a dose of 24 Gy in 16 daily fractions in testicular seminoma patients causes acceptable side effects with acceptable quality of life and fertility, however in conditions of individual approach and family consulting. (author)

  12. Update on Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Giori, Nicholas J; Lavernia, Carlos J; Villa, Jesus M; Greenwald, A Seth

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials are essential to the use and development of successful treatments for orthopaedic patients. Orthopaedic surgeons need to understand the expected clinical performance and the effects of implants in patients. Recent attempts to improve implant durability have resulted in adverse effects related to biomaterials and their relationship to patients. Examples of these adverse effects in hip arthroplasty include wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal bearings, trunnions, and tapered modular neck junctions. Conversely, polymers and ceramics have shown substantial improvements in durability. Improved implant compositions and manufacturing processes have resulted in ceramic head and acetabular liners with improved material properties and the avoidance of voids, which have, in the past, caused catastrophic fractures. Cross-linking of polyethylene with radiation and doping with antioxidants has substantially increased implant durability and is increasingly being used in joint prostheses other than the hip. Additive manufacturing is potentially a transformative process; it can lead to custom and patient-specific implants and to improvements in material properties, which can be optimized to achieve desired bone responses. Orthopaedic surgeons must understand the material properties and the biologic effects of new or altered biomaterials and manufacturing processes before use. In addition, a clear benefit to the patient must be proven based on superior preclinical results and high-quality clinical investigations before orthopaedic surgeons use new or altered biomaterials.

  13. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  14. A cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant therapies for resected adenocarcinoma of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several prospective randomized trials have shown a significant survival advantage with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy following surgical resection of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Recent and ongoing trials are evaluating the role of modulated and/or protracted venous infusion [PVI] chemotherapy with pelvic irradiation [PRT]. The economic implications of additional therapies compared with their incremental benefits have not been rigorously analyzed. This study attempts to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone, and secondly, adjuvant therapy with PVI delivery systems versus rapid infusion. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to describe the natural history of rectal carcinoma [stage B2, C] following surgical resection in a hypothetical cohort of 60 year old patients. This model was used to perform two sets of comparisons: [1] surgery alone versus adjuvant bolus fluorouracil [5-FU] with PRT, and [2] bolus 5-FU with PRT versus PVI 5-FU with PRT. Relapse rates and overall survival were derived from an early GITSG trial for the first comparison and from the NCCTG 86-47-51 trial for the second comparison. Medicare reimbursement rates and reports from health maintenance organizations were used to obtain net medical costs of adjuvant treatments, routine follow-up, advanced recurrent disease, and terminal illness as a result of rectal carcinoma. Total years of life and medical costs were projected over an 8-year time horizon for the first comparison [GITSG data] and over a 5-year time horizon for the second comparison [NCCTG data]. Monetary and nonmonetary benefits were discounted at 5% per year. Adjustments for quality of life, costs of adverse effects from treatment, and indirect costs of disease or treatment were not included in this current analysis. RESULTS: The main survival and economic outcomes for each treatment arm in the two comparisons are reported in the table below. For the first comparison

  15. Side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy in men with testicular seminoma stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamulin, M.; Grgic, M.; Bisof, V.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we followed up the side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with testicular seminoma stage I over a period from 13 to 84 months (median 28 months). The most frequent side effects during radiotherapy were gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting), psychological, cognitive, and minor sexual problems. The reported side effects were treated by antiemetics and anxiolytics. After radiotherapy, the side effects persisted in 6 % of patients, but only a few of them required additional treatment. Healthy children were born to 76 % of patients in the 18 to 39 years age group. This study shows that adjuvant radiotherapy of the para-aortic lymph nodes with the total dosage of 24 Gy in 16 daily fractions administered to testicular seminoma patients causes acceptable side effects, does not adversely affect quality of life and fertility, if the approach to treatment is individual and family consulting is provided. This makes adjuvant radiotherapy of the para-aortic lymph nodes an acceptable treatment for testicular seminoma stage I patients. (authors)

  16. The effect of different implant biomaterials on the behavior of canine bone marrow stromal cells during their differentiation into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Şen, B H; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different implant biomaterials on cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) undergoing differentiation into osteoblasts (dBMSC). BMSC were isolated from canine humerus by marrow aspiration, cultured and differentiated on calcium phosphate scaffold (CPS), hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite in gel form and titanium mesh. We used the MTT method to determine the effects of osteogenic media on proliferation. The characteristics of dBMSC were assessed using alizarin red (AR), immunocytochemistry and osteoblastic markers including alkaline phosphatase/von Kossa (ALP/VK), osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON), and ELISA. The morphology of dBMSC on the biomaterials was investigated using inverted phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We detected expression of ALP/VK, AR, OC and ON by day 7 of culture; expression increased from day 14 until day 21. CPS supported the best adhesion, cell spreading, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. The effects of the biomaterials depended on their surface properties. Expression of osteoblastic markers showed that canine dBMSCs became functional osteoblasts. Tissue engineered stem cells can be useful clinically for autologous implants for treating bone wounds.

  17. MO-FG-BRA-04: Leveraging the Abscopal Effect Via New Design Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y; Cifter, G; Altundal, Y; Moreau, M; Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Sinha, N [Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies show that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of a primary tumor in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) could Result in an immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of ICI have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. Towards overcoming these toxicity limitations, we investigate a potential new approach whereby the ICI are administered via sustained in-situ release from radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials) coated with a polymer containing the ICI. Methods: New design RT biomaterials were prepared by coating commercially available spacers/fiducials with a biocompatible polymer (PLGA) film containing fluorescent nanoparticles of size needed to load the ICI. The release of the nanoparticles was investigated in-vitro. Meanwhile, an experimentally determined in- vivo nanoparticle diffusion coefficient was employed in analytic calculations based on Fick’s second law to estimate the time for achieving the concentrations of ICI in the tumor draining lymph node (TDLN) that are needed to engender the abscopal effect during SBRT. The ICI investigated here was anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) at approved FDA concentrations. Results: Our in -vitro study results showed that RT biomaterials could be designed to achieve burst release of nanoparticles within one day. Meanwhile, our calculations indicate that for a 2 to 4 cm tumor it would take 4–22 days, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of ICI nanoparticles to accumulate in the TDLN during SBRT. Conclusion: Current investigations combining RT and immunotherapy involve repeated intravenous administration of ICI leading to significant systemic toxicities. Our preliminary results highlight a potential new approach for sustained in-situ release of the ICI from new design RT biomaterials. These results

  18. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-08

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  20. The effect of carbon black reinforcement on the dynamic fatigue and creep of polyisobutylene-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, C; Lim, G T; Puskas, J E; Altstädt, V

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the structure-property relationship of a new generation of poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) block copolymers with a branched (dendritic) polyisobutylene core with poly(isobutylene-b-para-methylstyrene) end blocks (D_IBS), and their carbon black (CB) composites. These materials display thermoplastic elastomeric (TPE) properties, and are promising new biomaterials. It is shown that CB reinforced the block copolymer TPEs, effectively delayed the oxidative thermal degradation of the D_IBS materials, and greatly improved their dynamic fatigue performance. Specifically, the dynamic creep of a CB composite was comparable to that of chemically crosslinked and silica-reinforced medical grade silicone rubber, used as a benchmark biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy on quality of life among breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, G.; Bolund, C.; Fornander, T.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Sjoeden, P.-O.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects of adjuvant treatment on perceived health and quality of life were assessed through a questionnaire mailed to 448 premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free from recurrence 2-10 years after primary therapy. The patients had been randomised to postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy as adjuncts to primary surgery. The differences between the two treatments were generally small. However, the radiotherapy patients had significantly greater problems with decreased stamina, symptoms related to the operation scar and anxiety. The chemotherapy patients had significantly more problems with smell aversion. Activity level inside and outside the home, anxiousness and depressive symptoms were similar in both groups. The chemotherapy patients scored their overall quality of life higher than the radiotherapy patients. (author)

  2. Immobilization of uranium by biomaterial stabilized FeS nanoparticles: Effects of stabilizer and enrichment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dadong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Ren, Xuemei, E-mail: renxm_nana@163.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Wen, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Tao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, Xiaolin, E-mail: xlwang@caep.ac.cn [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, Xiangke, E-mail: xkwang@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • FeS can be stabilized by sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and gelatin. • Gelatin–FeS show best performance in U(VI) removal. • Adsorption–reduction immobilization of U(VI) is the major mechanism. - Abstract: Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles have been recognized as effective scavengers for multi-valent metal ions. However, the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solution greatly restricts their application in real work. Herein, different biomaterial-FeS nanoparticles were developed for the in-situ immobilization of uranium(VI) in radioactive waste management. TEM images suggested that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin can effectively suppress the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The resulting CMC–FeS and gelatin–FeS were stable in aqueous solutions and showed high adsorption capacity for U(VI). Specially, gelatin–FeS showed the best performance in U(VI) adsorption–reduction immobilization under experimental conditions. The maximum enrichment capacity of U(VI) on CMC–FeS and gelatin–FeS at pH 5.0 and 20 °C achieved to ∼430 and ∼556 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, gelatin–FeS and CMC–FeS nanoparticles presented excellent tolerance to environmental salinity. The immobilized U(VI) on the surfaces of CMC–FeS and gelatin–FeS remained stable more than one year. These findings highlight the possibility of using ggelatin–FeS for efficient immobilization of U(VI) from radioactive wastewater.

  3. Cholesteryl Pullulan Encapsulated TNF-α Nanoparticles Are an Effective Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Nagatomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We encapsulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a major proinflammatory cytokine, into cholesteryl pullulan (CHP to prepare TNF/CHP nanoparticles. In this report, we describe the immune-enhancing capability of the nanoparticles to act as a vaccine adjuvant. TNF/CHP nanoparticles showed excellent storage stability and enhanced host immune responses to external immunogens. The nanoparticles were effective via the nasal route of administration for inducing systemic IgG1 as well as mucosal IgA. We applied the nanoparticles in a model experimental influenza virus infection to investigate their adjuvant ability. TNF/CHP nanoparticles combined with a conventional split vaccine protected mice via nasal administration against a lethal challenge of A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 influenza virus. Mechanistic studies showed that the nanoparticles enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells (DCs and moderately induced the expression of inflammation-related genes in nasopharynx lymphoid tissue (NALT, leading to the activation of both B and T cells. Preliminary safety study revealed no severe toxicity to TNF/CHP nanoparticles. Slight-to-moderate influences in nasal mucosa were observed only in the repeated administration and they seemed to be reversible. Our data show that TNF/CHP nanoparticles effectively enhance both humoral and cellular immunity and could be a potential adjuvant for vaccines against infectious diseases, especially in the mucosa.

  4. Effects of petroleum oil and soybean oil in adjuvants for postemergence herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean oil is an abundant and renewable resource through annual crop production. The replacement of paraffin oil with soybean oil in agricultural adjuvants would create an additional market for surplus soybeans and help alleviate dependence on non-renewable petroleum oil. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to compare effects of a petroleum oil-emulsifier blend (POC) and a soybean oil-emulsifier blend (SBOC) as adjuvants for postemergence herbicides. In field experiments, little difference was observed between POC and SBOC in the ability to enhance control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) with 0.6 or 1.1 kg/ha bentazon (3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide). Control of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) with 0.1 kg/ha sethoxydim )2-(1-(ethoxyimino)butyl)-5-(2-(ethylthio)propyl)-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one) was enhanced more by POC than by SBOC. The effects of adjuvants and relative humidity (RH) on absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the methyl ester of /sup 14/C-haloxyfop )2-(4-((3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)propanoic acid) in corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Addition of 1.0% (v/v) POC to the treatment solution resulted in greater foliar absorption and translocation of /sup 14/C than addition of 1.0% (v/v) SBOC.

  5. Effect of Winemaking on the Composition of Red Wine as a Source of Polyphenols for Anti-Infective Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials releasing bactericides have currently become tools for thwarting medical device-associated infections. The ideal anti-infective biomaterial must counteract infection while safeguarding eukaryotic cell integrity. Red wine is a widely consumed beverage to which many biological properties are ascribed, including protective effects against oral infections and related bone (osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, periprosthetic joint infections and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, fifteen red wine samples derived from grapes native to the Oltrepò Pavese region (Italy, obtained from the winemaking processes of “Bonarda dell’Oltrepò Pavese” red wine, were analyzed alongside three samples obtained from marc pressing. Total polyphenol and monomeric anthocyanin contents were determined and metabolite profiling was conducted by means of a chromatographic analysis. Antibacterial activity of wine samples was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, responsible for dental caries, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes, two oral bacterial pathogens. Results highlighted the winemaking stages in which samples exhibit the highest content of polyphenols and the greatest antibacterial activity. Considering the global need for new weapons against bacterial infections and alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as well as the favorable bioactivities of polyphenols, results point to red wine as a source of antibacterial substances for developing new anti-infective biomaterials and coatings for biomedical devices.

  6. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  7. The effects of microporosity on osteoinduction of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, O; Coathup, M J; Nesbitt, A; Ho, C-Y; Hing, K A; Buckland, T; Campion, C; Blunn, G W

    2012-07-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductive ability of silicate substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) biomaterials was investigated in an ectopic ovine model. Implants with strut porosities of 22.5%, 32.0% and 46.0% were inserted into the parapsinalis muscle. At 8, 12 and 24 weeks histological sections were prepared. Sections were examined using backscattered scanning electron microscopy and un-decalcified histology. Bone area, implant area and bone-implant contact were quantified. At 8 weeks there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of bone area and implant area. However at 12 weeks, the amount of bone formation observed was significantly greater in SiCaP-46 (6.17 ± 1.51%) when compared with SiCaP-22.5 (1.33 ± 0.84%) p=0.035. Results also showed significantly increased amounts of bone-implant contact to the SiCaP-46 scaffold (3.30 ± 1.17%) compared with SiCaP-22.5 (0.67 ± 0.52%, p=0.043) at 8 weeks and 12 weeks; (SiCaP-46 (21.82 ± 5.59%) vs SiCaP-22.5 (3.06 ± 1.89%), p=0.012). At 24 weeks, bone formation and graft resorption had significantly increased in all groups so that the level of bone formation in the SiCaP-46 group had increased 75-fold to 30.05 ± 8.38%. Bone formation was observed in pores osteoinductive. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29. Tucker AP, Lai C, Nadeson R, Goodschild CS. Intra- thecal midazolam I: a cohort study investigating safety. Anesth Analg. 2004;98(6):1512-20. 30. Safari F, Dabbagh A, Sharifnia M. The effect of ad- juvant midazolam compared with fentanyl on the dura- tion of spinal anesthesia with 0.5% bupivacaine in opium abusers.

  9. The Effect of Gravity on the Combustion Synthesis of Porous Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M.; Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Ayers, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Production of highly porous composite materials by traditional materials processing is limited by difficult processing techniques. This work investigates the use of self propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS) to create porous tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), TiB-Ti, and NiTi in low and microgravity. Combustion synthesis provides the ability to use set processing parameters to engineer the required porous structure suitable for bone repair or replacement. The processing parameters include green density, particle size, gasifying agents, composition, and gravity. The advantage of the TiB-Ti system is the high level of porosity achieved together with a modulus that can be controlled by both composition (TiB-Ti) and porosity. At the same time, NiTi exhibits shape memory properties. SHS of biomaterials allows the engineering of required porosity coupled with resorbtion properties and specific mechanical properties into the composite materials to allow for a better biomaterial.

  10. Effect of ion nitridation process on hardness and the corrosion resistance of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirjoadi; Lely Susita; Bambang Siswanto; Sudjatmoko

    2012-01-01

    Ion nitriding process has been performed on metal biomaterials to improve their mechanical properties of materials, particularly to increase hardness and corrosion resistance. This metallic biomaterials used for artificial bone or a prosthetic graft and used as devices of orthopedic biomaterials are usually of 316L SS metal-type and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The purpose of this study is to research the development and utilization of ion nitridation method in order to get iron and titanium nitride thin films on the metallic biomaterials for artificial bone that has wear resistance and corrosion resistance is better. Microhardness of the samples was measured using a microhardness tester, optimum hardness of SS 316L samples are about 582 VHN, this was obtained at the nitriding temperature of 500 °C, the nitriding time of 3 hours and the nitrogen gas pressure of 1.6 mbar, while optimum hardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is 764 VHN, this was obtained at the nitriding temperature of 500 °C, the nitriding time of 4 hours and the nitrogen gas pressure of 1.6 mbar. The hardness value of SS 316L sample and Ti-6Al-4V alloy increase to 143% and 153%, if compared with standard samples. The optimum corrosion resistance at temperature of 350 °C for SS 316L and Ti-6Al-4V are 260,12 and 110,49 μA/cm 2 or corrosion rate are 29,866 and 15,189 mpy, respectively. (author)

  11. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. V. The significance of the coordinated iron component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J T; Ahrenholz, D H; Nelson, R D; Simmons, R L

    1979-07-01

    Adjuvant effects of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, hematin, and ferric nitrilotriacetate (FENTA) on the lethality of E. coli peritonitis in rats were compared. The functional importance of coordinated iron was affirmed by the findings that: (1) hematin simulated the hemoglobin effect when administered on an iron-equivalent basis and (2) hematoporphyrin was inactive at the same levels as hematin. The effects of hemoglobin and methemoglobin were virtually identical, suggesting that the oxidation state of the metallic center is immaterial, and analyses of peritoneal contents during lethal peritonitis promoted by either adjuvant revealed insignificant interconversions of these compounds. Saturation of systemic iron-binding capacity could not be detected during lethal E. coli--hemoglobin peritonitis and deliberate saturation of systemic transferrin by infusions of intravenous FENTA did not enhance the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin. The adjuvant effect of intraperitoneally administered FENTA was effectively nullified by simultaneous intraperitoneal deferoxamine injection, but the same maneuver had no effect on hemoglobin potency. Thus the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis is functionally dependent on the iron component but cannot be explained by a non-heme iron flux. These characteristics suggest that adverse interactions of coordinated iron species with host defense chemistry will be fruitful subjects for future study.

  12. Adjuvant antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of aloin in irradiated HeLaS3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niciforovic, A.; Adzic, M.; Vucic, V.; Radojcic, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring phytoanthracycline, aloin, was used to radiosensitize HeLaS3 human cervix carcinoma cells. The results indicated that the cytotoxic adjuvant effect of aloin was synergistic with IR at all drug concentrations and comparable to the cytotoxicity of 5-10Gy IR alone. Radiosensitization of HeLaS3 cells was achieved by 60μM aloin which reduced IC 50 dose of IR from 3.4- to 2Gy. The cell damage by both agents compromised cell capacity to conduct programmed cell death by apoptosis, and led to the synergic cytotoxic cell death by necrosis. (author)

  13. Adjuvant properties of thermal component of hyperthermia enhanced transdermal immunization: effect on dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Joshi

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia enhanced transdermal (HET immunization is a novel needle free immunization strategy employing application of antigen along with mild local hyperthermia (42°C to intact skin resulting in detectable antigen specific Ig in serum. In the present study, we investigated the adjuvant effect of thermal component of HET immunization in terms of maturation of dendritic cells and its implication on the quality of the immune outcome in terms of antibody production upon HET immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. We have shown that in vitro hyperthermia exposure at 42°C for 30 minutes up regulates the surface expression of maturation markers on bone marrow derived DCs. This observation correlated in vivo with an increased and accelerated expression of maturation markers on DCs in the draining lymph node upon HET immunization in mice. This effect was found to be independent of the antigen delivered and depends only on the thermal component of HET immunization. In vitro hyperthermia also led to enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cells in allo MLR and promotes the secretion of IL-10 by BMDCs, suggesting a potential for Th2 skewing of T cell response. HET immunization also induced a systemic T cell response to TT, as suggested by proliferation of splenocytes from immunized animal upon in vitro stimulation by TT. Exposure to heat during primary immunization led to generation of mainly IgG class of antibodies upon boosting, similar to the use of conventional alum adjuvant, thus highlighting the adjuvant potential of heat during HET immunization. Lastly, we have shown that mice immunized by tetanus toxoid using HET route exhibited protection against challenge with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin. Thus, in addition to being a painless, needle free delivery system it also has an immune modulatory potential.

  14. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S.; Goncalves Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z eff of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z eff using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  15. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.

  16. Longitudinal Assessments of Quality of Life in Endometrial Cancer Patients: Effect of Surgical Approach and Adjuvant Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Tien; Menard, Chantal; Samant, Rajiv; Choan, E.; Hopkins, Laura; Faught, Wylam; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is often considered for endometrial cancer. We studied the effect of RT and surgical treatment on patients' quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: All patients referred to the gynecologic oncology clinics with biopsy findings showing endometrial cancer were recruited. QOL assessments were performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL questionnaire-C30, version 3. Assessments were obtained at study entry and at regular 3-month intervals for a maximum of 2 years. Open-ended telephone interviews were done every 6 months. Linear mixed regression models were built using QOL domain scores as dependent variables, with the predictors of surgical treatment and adjuvant RT type. Results: A total of 40 patients were recruited; 80% of the surgeries were performed by laparotomy. Significant improvements were seen in most QOL domains with increased time from treatment. Adjuvant RT resulted in significantly more severe bowel symptoms and improvement in insomnia compared with conservative follow-up. No significant adverse effect from adjuvant RT was seen on the overall QOL. Bowel symptoms were significantly increased in patients treated with laparotomy compared with laparoscopy in the patients treated with whole pelvic RT. Qualitatively, about one-half of the patients noted improvements in their overall QOL during follow-up, with easy fatigability the most prevalent. Conclusion: No significant adverse effect was seen on patients' overall QOL with adjuvant pelvic RT after the recovery period. The acute adverse effects on patients' QOL significantly improved with an increasing interval from diagnosis.

  17. Effects of adjuvant radiotherapy on borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZENG, SHIYAN; ZHANG, XINDAN; YANG, DEJUAN; WANG, XIAOYI; REN, GUOSHENG

    2015-01-01

    The standard treatment for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors is wide local excision (margins ≥1 cm), in the context of either breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or total mastectomy (TM). Due to the high risk of local recurrence (LR) following surgical intervention alone, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been previously investigated; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant RT for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Pubmed and Web of Science were systematically searched to identify relevant studies assessing the effect of adjuvant RT on borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors from the inception of this technique through May, 2014. A total of 8 studies were identified among 332 citations. In this meta-analysis, patients who received adjuvant RT had a lower relative risk of LR [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–0.64]. The absolute risk difference was 10.1% (95% CI: 4.9–17.6), corresponding to a number needed to treat of 10. Our pooled meta-analysis clearly demonstrated a decreased risk of LR in patients with borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors who received RT following BCS (HR=0.31, 95% CI: −0.10–0.72). However, the combined HR for LR in the TM group did not demonstrate that adjuvant RT was superior to no RT (HR=0.68, 95% CI: −0.28–1.64). No significant differences were observed in overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) between the two groups. Our analysis suggested that adjuvant RT for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors decreased the LR rate in patients undergoing BCS. However, adjuvant RT was not found to exert an effect on OS or DFS. PMID:26137284

  18. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibitory effects of andrographolide on activated macrophages and adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Mishra, Kamla Prasad; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ganju, Lilly

    2018-04-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plant Andrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide was evaluated in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. The results indicated that andrographolide clearly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-activated PMϕ in a dose-related manner. Immunoblot analyses revealed that andrographolide suppressed activation of both inducible NO synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 by directly targeting nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB. Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced paw edema in rats was also significantly inhibited by andrographolide treatment. From the data, we concluded that andrographolide imparted anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing two key inflammatory enzymes and a signaling pathway that mediates expression of variety of inflammatory cytokines/agents in situ. It is plausible that eventually, after further toxicologic characterization, andrographolide might be useful as a drug for the clinical treatment of various inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or diseases associated with joint pain.

  20. Effect of Processing on Silk-Based Biomaterials: Reproducibility and Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Lindsay S.; Hu, Xiao; Gallego, Jabier; Georgakoudi, Irene; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Schmidt, Daniel; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Silk fibroin has been successfully used as a biomaterial for tissue regeneration. In order to prepare silk fibroin biomaterials for human implantation a series of processing steps are required to purify the protein. Degumming to remove inflammatory sericin is a crucial step related to biocompatibility and variability in the material. Detailed characterization of silk fibroin degumming is reported. The degumming conditions significantly affected cell viability on the silk fibroin material and the ability to form three-dimensional porous scaffolds from the silk fibroin, but did not affect macrophage activation or β-sheet content in the materials formed. Methods are also provided to determine the content of residual sericin in silk fibroin solutions and to assess changes in silk fibroin molecular weight. Amino acid composition analysis was used to detect sericin residuals in silk solutions with a detection limit between 1.0% and 10% wt/wt, while fluorescence spectroscopy was used to reproducibly distinguish between silk samples with different molecular weights. Both methods are simple and require minimal sample volume, providing useful quality control tools for silk fibroin preparation processes. PMID:21695778

  1. Biomaterial-Associated Infection: Locating the Finish Line in the Race for the Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Jutte, Paul C.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections occur on both permanent implants and temporary devices for restoration or support of human functions. Despite increasing use of biomaterials in an aging society, comparatively few biomaterials have been designed that effectively reduce the incidence of

  2. Formulation of a killed whole cell pneumococcus vaccine - effect of aluminum adjuvants on the antibody and IL-17 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenesch, Harm; Dunham, Anisa; Hansen, Bethany; Anderson, Kathleen; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Hem, Stanley L

    2011-07-29

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes widespread morbidity and mortality. Current vaccines contain free polysaccharides or protein-polysaccharide conjugates, and do not induce protection against serotypes that are not included in the vaccines. An affordable and broadly protective vaccine is very desirable. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal formulation of a killed whole cell pneumococcal vaccine with aluminum-containing adjuvants for intramuscular injection. Four aluminium-containing adjuvants were prepared with different levels of surface phosphate groups resulting in different adsorptive capacities and affinities for the vaccine antigens. Mice were immunized three times and the antigen-specific antibody titers and IL-17 responses in blood were analyzed. Although all adjuvants induced significantly higher antibody titers than antigen without adjuvant, the vaccine containing aluminum phosphate adjuvant (AP) produced the highest antibody response when low doses of antigen were used. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (AH) induced an equal or better antibody response at high doses compared with AP. Vaccines formulated with AH, but not with AP, induced an IL-17 response. The vaccine formulated with AH was stable and retained full immunogenicity when stored at 4°C for 4 months. Antibodies are important for protection against systemic streptococcal disease and IL-17 is critical in the prevention of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae in the mouse model. The formulation of the whole killed bacterial cells with AH resulted in a stable vaccine that induced both antibodies and an IL-17 response. These experiments underscore the importance of formulation studies with aluminium containing adjuvants for the development of stable and effective vaccines.

  3. Effect of Co-Production of Renewable Biomaterials on the Performance of Asphalt Binder in Macro and Micro Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin; Liu, Quan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Dawei; Oeser, Markus

    2018-02-06

    Conventional asphalt binder derived from the petroleum refining process is widely used in pavement engineering. However, asphalt binder is a non-renewable material. Therefore, the use of a co-production of renewable bio-oil as a modifier for petroleum asphalt has recently been getting more attention in the pavement field due to its renewability and its optimization for conventional petroleum-based asphalt binder. Significant research efforts have been done that mainly focus on the mechanical properties of bio-asphalt binder. However, there is still a lack of studies describing the effects of the co-production on performance of asphalt binders from a micro-scale perspective to better understand the fundamental modification mechanism. In this study, a reasonable molecular structure for the co-production of renewable bio-oils is created based on previous research findings and the observed functional groups from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy tests, which are fundamental and critical for establishing the molecular model of bio-asphalt binder with various biomaterials contents. Molecular simulation shows that the increase of biomaterial content causes the decrease of cohesion energy density, which can be related to the observed decrease of dynamic modulus. Additionally, a parameter of Flexibility Index is employed to characterize the ability of asphalt binder to resist deformation under oscillatory loading accurately.

  4. Adjuvant effects of therapeutic glycolipids administered to a cohort of NKT cell-diverse pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiaga, Bianca L; Whitener, Robert L; Staples, Charles R; Driver, John P

    2014-11-15

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique lymphocyte population that makes important contributions to host defense against numerous microbial pathogens. The powerful immunomodulatory effects of these cells can be exploited in mice by cognate antigens for multiple therapeutic purposes, including for protection from infectious diseases and as adjuvants to improve vaccines against microbial organisms. These applications have potential to treat and prevent infectious diseases in livestock species that express NKT cells, including pigs. In this study, immune tissues from commercial swine of mixed genetic background were compared for NKT cell frequency, cytokine secretion and subset ratios. Pigs were also injected with the model antigen hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) in conjunction with one of three glycosphingolipids, alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC), OCH and C-glycoside that selectively activate NKT cells, to assess the adjuvant potential of each. There was significant variation between individual pigs for all NKT cell parameters measured. The NKT cell agonists elicited HEL-specific immune responses of different quality, but only αGC increased the systemic concentration of NKT cells. Peripheral blood NKT cell frequency measured prior to treatment was a poor predictor of how individual animals responded to NKT cell therapy. However, our results show that although NKT cells vary considerably between pigs, there exists considerable potential to harness these cells to protect swine from infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice....... The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice...... that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production....

  6. Effect of deproteination on bone mineral morphology: implications for biomaterials and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D H; Scully, A J; Heaton, D A; Young, M P J; Aaron, J E

    2002-09-01

    Bone mineral morphology is altered by processing and this is rarely considered when preparing bone as a bioimplant material. To examine the degree of transformation, a commercial, coarsely particulate bone mineral biomaterial produced by prolonged deproteination, defatting, dehydration, and heating (donor material) was compared with similar particles of human bone (recipient material) prepared optimally by low-temperature milling. The two powders were freeze-substituted and embedded without thawing in Lowicryl K4M before sectioning for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (other aliquots were processed by traditional TEM methods). To maximize resolution, electron micrographs were image-enhanced by digitization and printed as negatives using a Polaroid Sprint Scan 45. In addition to their morphology, the particles were examined for antigenicity (specific by reference to fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-conjugated fibronectin, and nonspecific by reference to general FITC-conjugated immunoglobulins). Results showed that the optimally prepared human bone fragments stained discretely for fibronectin with negligible background autofluorescence. In contrast, the bioimplant fragments stained extensively with this and any other FITC-conjugated antibody and, unlike fresh bone, it also autofluoresced a uniform yellow. This difference was also expressed structurally and, although the bioimplant mineral consisted of rhomboidal plates up to 200 nm across and 10 nm thick, the optimally prepared bone mineral was composed of numerous clusters of 5-nm-wide sinuous calcified filaments of variable density and indeterminate length (which became straight needles 50 nm long and 5 nm thick following traditional chemical TEM fixation/staining). It was concluded that the inorganic phase of bone is both morphologically and immunologically transmutable and that, in biomaterials, the transformation is apparently so great that a broad indigenous antigenicity is unmasked, increasing the

  7. Effect of pH on physical properties of two endodontic biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Pooneh; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare the surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic changes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) in contact with acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions. Subjects and Methods: For evaluating 24-h and 28-day surface microhardness using Vickers test and initial setting time using Gillmore apparatus, glass molds were filled manually or ultrasonically, either with CEM or MTA and randomly immersed in solutions with acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH (5.4, 7.4, and 9.4, respectively). Topographic changes of the samples as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectra were examined using the scanning electron microscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, one- and two-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, and t-tests. Results: After 28 days, there was an increase in the microhardness for all samples (without statistical significance [P > 0.05]), except for the samples of CEM in acidic environment (P > 0.05). The setting time of MTA samples was statistically higher than CEM samples (P ≤ 0.001). The setting time of both biomaterials was significantly higher in acidic pH than other groups (P ≤ 0.005). Surface topography and elemental constituents of biomaterials were altered in different solutions. Conclusion: The surface microhardness, setting time, and elemental and topographic properties of MTA and CEM were affected by different solutions. CEM exhibited quicker setting time than MTA; however, acidic solution negatively influenced both of them. PMID:27217632

  8. Adjuvanted vaccines in pregnancy : no evidence for effect of the adjuvanted H1N1/09 vaccination on occurrence of preeclampsia or intra-uterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Alies; Koopmans, Nienke K.; Broekhuijsen, Kim; Groen, Henk; Karstenberg-Kramer, Janna M. A.; van Goor, Kim; Groenewout, Mariette; van Loon, Arjen; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    OBJECTIVE: During the H1N1/09 pandemic, pregnant women in the Netherlands were vaccinated with an adjuvanted vaccine. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system changes to enable placental development and growth and acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. As an adjuvant is a pro-inflammatory

  9. The "adjuvant effect" of the polymorphic B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex analyzed using purified molecules incorporated in liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Eriksson, H; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The polymorphic B-G region of the chicken major histocompatibility complex has previously been shown to mediate an "adjuvant effect" on the humoral response to other erythrocyte alloantigens. We demonstrate here that B-G molecules purified with monoclonal antibodies exert this adjuvant effect...

  10. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  11. Effects of biomaterial-derived fibroblast conditioned medium on the α-amylase expression of parotid gland acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Shuan; Young, Tai-Horng; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland cells are surrounded by a complex stromal environment, in which fibroblasts are the main cells in proximity to the gland cells. In this study, the interaction between parotid gland acinar cells (PGACs), fibroblasts, and biomaterials was investigated. We prepared different biomaterials, including chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) to culture fibroblasts and then collect their conditioned media to culture PGACs. We observed no difference in AQP3, AQP5, and E-cadherin expression among different fibroblast conditioned medium treatments. Interestingly, α-amylase expression was obviously enhanced in PGACs cultured in the presence of conditioned medium from fibroblasts cultured on PVDF. Higher neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) expression was observed in PVDF-derived fibroblast conditioned medium using a growth factor protein array assay. In addition, directly adding NT-4 into the culture medium significantly promoted α-amylase expression by PGACs. Finally, nestin and βIII-tubulin expression by fibroblasts cultured on PVDF was also enhanced. Together, these results suggest that PVDF could promote α-amylase expression by PGACs via the NT-4 produced by fibroblasts. To date, there is no effective therapy for patients with dry mouth with persistent salivary hypofunction. The study made use of different biomaterials to culture fibroblasts and then collect their conditioned media to culture PGACs. It was found that the effect of fibroblast conditioned medium from PVDF on the α-amylase expression of PGACs was obviously enhanced and higher neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) expression was found in PVDF-derived fibroblast conditioned medium. In addition, directly adding NT-4 into the culture medium significantly promoted the expression of α-amylase by PGACs and the expression of nestin and βIII-tubulin of fibroblasts after being cultured on PVDF was enhanced. Therefore, the

  12. Long term effects of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on quality of life in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Fontein, D. B. Y.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Marang-van de Mheen, P. J.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The standard treatment for hormone-receptor positive, postmenopausal early breast cancer patients is 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Previous studies demonstrate that prolonging adjuvant endocrine therapy may improve disease-free survival. However, endocrine therapy is known for

  13. Comparative effects of adjuvant cimetidine and omeprazole during pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Rauws, E. A.; Hoek, F. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, the hypotheses were tested that more powerful inhibition of gastric acid secretion by adjuvant omeprazole further improves the efficacy of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy compared to adjuvant cimetidine and that excluding the influence of

  14. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles. © 2013.

  15. Adjuvant antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of aloin in irradiated HeLaS3 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nićiforović, A.; Adžić, M.; Zarić, B.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2007-09-01

    Naturally occurring phytoanthracycline, aloin, was used to radiosensitize HeLaS3 human cervix carcinoma cells. The results indicated that the cytotoxic adjuvant effect of aloin was synergistic with gammaionizing radiation at all drug concentrations and comparable to the cytotoxicity of 5-10 Gy ionizing radiation alone. Radiosensitization of HeLaS3 cells was achieved by 60 μM aloin, which reduced the IC50 dose of ionizing radiation from 3.4 to 2 Gy. Ionizing radiation and aloin alone or in combination are shown to cause perturbation of the HeLaS3 cell-cycle and increase the percentage of cells in the DNA synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle. While either of the agents applied alone causes programmed cell death by apoptosis, the simultaneous cell damage by both agents through the altered redox balance compromised cell capacity to conduct this program and led to synergic cytotoxic cell death by necrosis.

  16. Curative effect of ganglioside sodium for adjuvant therapy on acute severe craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant therapy of ganglioside sodium on intracranial pressure (ICP, partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2, nerve injury molecules, nerve protection molecules and indexes of oxidative stress in patients with acute severe craniocerebral injury. Methods: Forty-seven patients with severe craniocerebral injury treated in the emergency department of our hospital during the period time from December 2012 to October 2015 were selected for retrospective analyses. They were divided into the ganglioside group and the normal treatment group according to the usage of ganglioside sodium in the process of the emergency treatment. At days 1, 3, 5 and 7 before and after treatment, the ICP and PbtO2 in patients of the two groups were measured. After 7 days of treatment, the nerve injury molecules, nerve protection molecules and the indexes of oxidative stress in serum of the patients of the two groups were determined. Results: At days 1, 3, 5 and 7 before and after treatment, the ICP in patients of the ganglioside group were all significantly lower than those of the normal treatment group, while the PbtO2 were all significantly higher than those of normal treatment group. After 7 days of treatment, the contents of serum methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine urine, S100β, glial fibrillary acidic portein, neuron specific enolase, myelin basic protein, neuroglobin and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 in patients of the ganglioside group were notably lower than those of the normal treatment group, while the contents of superoxidase dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nerve growth factor and brain derived neurotrophic factor were significantly higher than those of the normal treatment group. Conclusions: The adjuvant therapy of ganglioside sodium in patients with severe craniocerebral injury can effectively reduce ICP, improve PbtO2 and alleviate

  17. Survival Outcomes in Resected Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z.; Shivnani, Anand T.; Chen, Ke; Lee, Christopher M.; Tward, Jonathan D.; MacDonald, O. Kenneth; Crane, Christopher H.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Munoz, Louis L.; Small, William

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has not been clearly established. We analyzed survival outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and examined the effect of adjuvant RT. Methods and Materials: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1973 and 2003. The primary endpoint was the overall survival time. Cox regression analysis was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the following clinical variables: age, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, localized (Stage T1-T2) vs. regional (Stage T3 or greater and/or node positive) stage, gender, race, and the use of adjuvant RT after surgical resection. Results: The records for 2,332 patients were obtained. Patients with previous malignancy, distant disease, incomplete or conflicting records, atypical histologic features, and those treated with preoperative/intraoperative RT were excluded. Of the remaining 1,491 patients eligible for analysis, 473 (32%) had undergone adjuvant RT. After a median follow-up of 27 months (among surviving patients), the median overall survival time for the entire cohort was 20 months. Patients with localized and regional disease had a median survival time of 33 and 18 months, respectively (p < .001). The addition of adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in overall or cause-specific survival for patients with local or regional disease. Conclusion: Patients with localized disease had significantly better overall survival than those with regional disease. Adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in long-term overall survival in patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Key data, including margin status and the use of combined chemotherapy, was not available through the SEER database.

  18. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  19. Leveraging advances in biology to design biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max; Mooney, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials have dramatically increased in functionality and complexity, allowing unprecedented control over the cells that interact with them. From these engineering advances arises the prospect of improved biomaterial-based therapies, yet practical constraints favour simplicity. Tools from the biology community are enabling high-resolution and high-throughput bioassays that, if incorporated into a biomaterial design framework, could help achieve unprecedented functionality while minimizing the complexity of designs by identifying the most important material parameters and biological outputs. However, to avoid data explosions and to effectively match the information content of an assay with the goal of the experiment, material screens and bioassays must be arranged in specific ways. By borrowing methods to design experiments and workflows from the bioprocess engineering community, we outline a framework for the incorporation of next-generation bioassays into biomaterials design to effectively optimize function while minimizing complexity. This framework can inspire biomaterials designs that maximize functionality and translatability.

  20. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  1. Biomaterials for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a guide for practicing engineers, researchers, and students interested in MEMS devices that use biomaterials and biomedical applications. It is also suitable for engineers and researchers interested in MEMS and its applications but who do not have the necessary background in biomaterials.Biomaterials for MEMS highlights important features and issues of biomaterials that have been used in MEMS and biomedical areas. Hence this book is an essential guide for MEMS engineers or researchers who are trained in engineering institutes that do not provide the background or knowledge

  2. An introduction to biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2011-01-01

    Consensus Definitions, Fundamental Concepts, and a Standardized Approach to Applied Biomaterials Sciences, J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Wound Healing BiologyCutaneous Wound Pathobiology: Raison d'etre for Tissue Engineering, L.K. Macri and R.A.F. ClarkOsseous Wound Healing, A. Nawab, M. Wong, D. Kwak, L. Schutte, A. Sharma, and J.O. HollingerBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Cellular MechanicsCell and Tissue Mechanobiology, W. Guo, P. Alvarez, and Y. WangBiology, Biomechanics, Biomaterial Interactions: Materials-Host InteractionsCell-Material In

  3. Effect of a fungicide and spray adjuvant on queen-rearing success in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Percel, Eric G

    2013-10-01

    Commercial producers of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) have reported unexplained loss of immature queens during the larval or pupal stage. Many affected queen-rearing operations are situated among the almond orchards of California and report these losses in weeks after almond trees bloom. Almond flowers are a rich foraging resource for bees, but are often treated with fungicides, insecticides, and spray adjuvants during bloom. Anecdotal reports by queen producers associate problems in queen development with application of the fungicide Pristine (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) and spray adjuvants that are tank-mixed with it. To test the effect of these compounds on queen development, a new bioassay was developed in which queens are reared in closed swarm boxes for 4 d, until capping, with nurse bees fed exclusively on artificially contaminated pollen. Pollen was treated with four concentrations of formulated Pristine (0.4, 4, 40, and 400 ppm), a spray adjuvant (Break-Thru, 200 ppm), the combination of Pristine and spray adjuvant (400:200 ppm), the insect growth regulator insecticide diflubenzuron (100 ppm) as a positive control, or water as negative control. Chemical analysis revealed that low concentrations of pyraclostrobin (50 ppb), but no boscalid, were detectable in royal jelly secreted by nurse bees feeding on treated pollen. No significant difference in queen development or survival was observed between any of the experimental treatments and the negative control. Only diflubenzuron, the positive control, caused a substantial reduction in survival of immature queens.

  4. Effect of a novel saponin adjuvant derived from Quillaja saponaria on the immune response to recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, H S; Yoon, H S; Choi, D Y; Kwon, Y S; Sung, J H; Lee, T G; Park, E S; Cho, H S; Lee, B M; Cho, J M; Ryu, W S

    1997-04-30

    Adjuvant activity of saponins extracted from the South American tree Quillaja saponaria has been demonstrated with many antigens. Recently, four saponin fractions (designated as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18, and QS-21) with adjuvant activity were purified by reverse phase chromatography. In particular, efficacy of the less toxic QS-21 fraction has been demonstrated with several recombinant viral antigens including HIV gp120. Here, we report a novel saponin fraction (designated as QS-L1) derived from Quillaja saponaria. Unlike previously identified saponins, QS-L1 had a different chemical structure and showed adjuvant activity only when administered in the presence of alum-precipitated antigen. Interestingly, the QS-L1 greatly increased not only a humoral immune response but also cellular immune response to recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Furthermore, QS-L1 showed lower toxicity in vivo and in vitro than the previously identified saponin fraction, QS-21. Finally, we examined the chemical structure of the QS-L1 using mass spectroscopic analysis, carbohydrate composition analysis and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Thus, our results indicated that this novel QS-L1 saponin fraction had several desirable properties required for an effective adjuvant.

  5. Radioimmunotherapy is an effective adjuvant treatment after cytoreductive surgery of experimental colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppe, M.J.; Hendriks, T.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Bleichrodt, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    Because tumor targeting with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies is more efficient in small lesions, radioimmunotherapy is considered most suitable for minimal or microscopic residual disease. The aim of the present studies was to assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiommunotherapy using radiolabeled

  6. The effects of population-based mammography screening starting between age 40 and 50 in the presence of adjuvant systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Fracheboud, Jacques; Draisma, Gerrit; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-07-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality. The additional effect of mammography screening remains uncertain, in particular for women aged 40-49 years. We therefore assessed the effects of screening starting between age 40 and 50, as compared to the effects of adjuvant systemic therapy. The use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and the combination of endocrine- and chemotherapy, as well as the uptake of mammography screening in the Netherlands was modeled using micro-simulation. The effects of screening and treatment were modeled based on randomized controlled trials. The effects of adjuvant therapy, biennial screening between age 50 and 74 in the presence of adjuvant therapy, and extending the screening programme by starting at age 40 were assessed by comparing breast cancer mortality in women aged 0-100 years in scenarios with and without these interventions. In 2008, adjuvant treatment was estimated to have reduced the breast cancer mortality rate in the simulated population by 13.9%, compared to a situation without treatment. Biennial screening between age 50 and 74 further reduced the mortality rate by 15.7%. Extending screening to age 48 would lower the mortality rate by 1.0% compared to screening from age 50; 10 additional screening rounds between age 40 and 49 would reduce this rate by 5.1%. Adjuvant systemic therapy and screening reduced breast cancer mortality in similar amounts. Expanding the lower age limit of screening would further reduce breast cancer mortality. © 2014 UICC.

  7. The effects of adjuvant therapies for sepsis on hepatic and renal function: a retrospective analysis of 108 ICU patients

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Berit Gökçe; YAVUZ, Lütfi; EROĞLU, Füsun; GÜLMEN, Şenol; TARHAN, Ömer Rıdvan; ALACA, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    As liver and kidney failure have a direct effect on mortality, morbidity, and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay in sepsis patients, maintaining their functions or minimizing the degree of failure should be one of the most important goals of therapy. In this retrospective study we investigated the effects of recently introduced adjuvant therapies on hepatorenal functions in septic ICU patients. Materials and methods: We conducted comparative and retrospective data analysis of 108 pati...

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia hirta in an adjuvant-induced arthritic murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research into inflammatory diseases to date, no drugs with favourable safety profiles are available for treatment. Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a tree that is locally used as a traditional medicine in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases such as hypertension, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential anti-arthritic effects of E. hirta in mouse models of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). We treated BALB/c mice with (p.o.) E. hirta (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) daily (13 days) beginning at the onset of AIA. We examined the effect of E. hirta on key mediators of arthritic-inflammation, including pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-5) cytokines, T-cell activation markers (CD25/CD69), and co-stimulatory molecules (CD80/CD86). We also examined the inflammatory mediators (PGE2 and LTB4) response. E. hirta-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, down regulated cell activation markers and co-stimulatory molecules, and up regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines. E. hirta decreased the levels of inflammatory-mediators in AIA animals. Supplementation with an E. hirta extract may be a promising treatment for arthritic and inflammatory diseases.

  9. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analgesic and adjuvant anesthetic effect of submucosal tramadol after mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccheti, Marcelo Minharro; Negrato, Giovana Vigário; Peres, Maria Paula Siqueira de Melo; Deboni, Maria Cristina Zindel; Naclério-Homem, Maria da Graça

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess analgesic and adjuvant anesthetic effects of submucosal tramadol after third molar extraction. In this double-blind, split-mouth, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover investigation, 52 patients underwent mandibular third molar extraction under local anesthesia. Surgical side was randomly assigned to submucosal 2 mL 100 mg tramadol injection (group T) or normal saline solution (group P) immediately after surgery. Anesthetic blockade duration, time of intake and amount of analgesic rescue drug, and postoperative pain intensity were recorded immediately after anesthesia cessation and 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests. Anesthetic blockade duration between groups was similar. Group T took significantly less rescue drug after 72 hours (P = .008). Time elapsed before first intake of rescue drug was longer (P = .006), and pain intensity was significantly lower (P = .001) in group T. Submucosal tramadol injection after oral surgery improved postoperative analgesia, but did not extend anesthetic action duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjuvant effect of liposome in chicken result from induction of nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuh-Feng [Division of Nephrology, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Deng, Ming-Chung [Department of Hog Cholera, Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Li-Ping; Jiang, Pei-Rong; Liu, Der-Zen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jan, Tong-Rong [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I, E-mail: tonyliu@tmu.edu.tw, E-mail: hsiehfangi@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Intranasal delivery of liposome-encapsulated inactivated Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) is known to be an effective vaccine for inducing immunity in the respiratory tract from our previous reports. Four-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were intranasally immunized with NDV entrapped in phosphatidylcholine-liposomes (PC-Lip). The mucosal levels of anti-NDV s-immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum IgG, a high hemagglutination inhibition titer (1:640), and the high survival rate with the PC-Lip vaccine were comparable to those of our previous report. The immune mechanisms of the PC-Lip adjuvant were determined by in vitro cellular experiments using the NO production of chicken spleen macrophages. The most important finding of this study was proving that macrophages were stimulated by PC-Lip via the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activation pathways. This finding may be useful for developing potent mucosal vaccine delivery systems in the future.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Cui, Dongqian; Luo, Ting-Ting; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2018-02-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and prostaglandin receptor subtypes (EPs) were screened by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of GRK2 and EP4 in splenic T cells was further detected by immunofluorescence. CP-25 was found to relieve the secondary paw swelling, attenuate histopathologic changes, and downregulate GRK2, EP2 and EP4 expression in AA rats. Additionally, CP-25 not only downregulated the co-expression of GRK2 and EP4 but also downregulated GRK2, EP4 expression in splenic T cells of AA rats. From these results, we can infer that CP-25 play an anti-inflammatory and immune function by affecting the function of the splenic T cells.

  13. Alum-type adjuvant effect of non-haemolytic saponins purified from Ilex and Passiflora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F; Rossi, S; Fernández, C; Gosmann, G; Schenkel, E; Ferreira, F

    2011-12-01

    Five saponins purified from the leaves of three Ilex species (saponins 1 and 2 from I. dumosa; saponin 3 from I. argentina; saponin 4 from I. paraguariensis) and from Passiflora alata (saponin 5) were evaluated for their in vitro haemolytic activity and in vivo immunostimulatory ability in a mouse model using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. The assayed saponins showed very weak or no haemolytic activity over the tested concentration range. Mice were immunized twice with TT formulated with pure saponins 1-5, or with a mixture of saponins from Quillaja saponaria, aluminum hydroxide gel or saline, which were used as controls. The elicited humoral response was evaluated by means of the time course of specific serum antibody levels up to day 131 post-priming (total IgG and isotypes); the cellular response was tested through a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay. The assayed saponins, in particular saponins 3 and 5, showed an adjuvant effect similar to that of alum for all tested parameters. The immunostimulating potential of these compounds deserves further investigation, especially taking into account that some Ilex spp. and Passiflora alata are native crops of widespread use and economical importance in Latin America. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The adjuvant effect of peritoneal fluid in experimental peritonitis. Mechanism and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, D L; Barke, R A; Ahrenholz, D H; Humphrey, E W; Simmons, R L

    1984-01-01

    At laparotomy, many surgeons routinely instill crystalloid solutions into the peritoneal cavity, presumably to dilute out necrotic debris, bacteria, and adjuvant substances which foster bacterial growth. We examined the effect on mortality, bacterial growth, clearance, and phagocytosis of various volumes of saline instilled into the peritoneal cavity of rats during Escherichia coli peritonitis. Minimal intraperitoneal bacterial growth was seen after the introduction of a nonlethal inoculum of viable E. coli in 1 ml of saline, while administration of an identical inoculum in 30 ml of saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) led to increased 48-hour mortality (p less than 0.01), and associated rapid bacterial proliferation (p less than 0.01). Clearance of nonviable radiolabelled E. coli from the peritoneal cavity was delayed, bacterial association with host peritoneal leukocytes was decreased, and blood uptake of radiolabelled bacteria was diminished in animals receiving 30 ml of saline i.p., compared to controls which received the identical inoculum in 1 ml of saline i.p. The clinical relevance of these studies is manifold: (1) they provide a possible explanation why patients with ascites due to cirrhosis or the nephrotic syndrome, or those patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis are more susceptible to primary and secondary bacterial peritonitis, possibly on the basis of impaired peritoneal clearance or diminished phagocytosis and, (2) although irrigation of the peritoneal cavity with crystalloid solution would seem prudent during laparotomy, these solutions must be removed prior to closure to prevent interference with normal peritoneal host defense mechanisms.

  15. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  16. Adjuvant effects of classical music on simvastatin induced reduction of anxiety but not object recognition memory in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Anice Milbratz de; Lima, Daniela Delwing de; Dal Magro, Débora Delwing; Seubert, Johanna Kleis; Cruz, Júlia Niehues da; Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira da

    2013-01-01

    Simvastatin is one of many hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors that are prescribed to lower cholesterol. Some emerging evidence indicates that classical music can serve as an effective adjuvant in rats treated with simvastatin. Moreover, simvastatin and classical music have been shown to influence some cognitive functions. To further understand the mechanisms of action, we exposed rats to classical music for 1 month, and then treated them orally with simvastatin. The behavio...

  17. Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Wang; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Yulin; Li, Lisha

    2017-06-01

    Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate. We discuss the unsolved problems and future directions of biomaterial stiffness in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection...... fish (NonVac), 2) fish injected with a commercial vaccine (AquaVac(®) Relera™) (ComVac), 3) fish injected with an experimental vaccine (ExpVac), 4) fish injected with an experimental vaccine + adjuvant (ExpVacAdj) and 5) fish injected with adjuvant alone (Adj). Injection of the experimental vaccine...... of the adjuvant as the challenge produced 100% mortality in the NonVac group, 60% mortality in both of ComVac and Adj groups and only 13 and 2.5% mortalities in the ExpVac and the ExpVacAdj groups, respectively....

  19. Long term effects of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on quality of life in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, M; Fontein, D B Y; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nortier, J W R; Rutgers, E J T; Marang-van de Mheen, P J; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-06-01

    The standard treatment for hormone-receptor positive, postmenopausal early breast cancer patients is 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Previous studies demonstrate that prolonging adjuvant endocrine therapy may improve disease-free survival. However, endocrine therapy is known for its adverse events, which may negatively affect Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of this study is to assess the impact of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on long-term QoL outcomes. 471 patients selected from the IDEAL trial were invited to complete a questionnaire 1-1.5 years after starting with extended therapy. The questionnaire consisted of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. Mean QoL outcomes were compared with EORTC reference values for stage I and II breast cancer patients and the general population. Furthermore, QoL outcomes were compared between different treatment regimens. A difference of eight points was considered clinically relevant. IDEAL patients receiving extended adjuvant endocrine therapy have significantly and clinically relevant better global QoL compared with reference values for stage I and II breast cancer patients (79.6 versus 64.6; p treatment regimens prior to extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, differences were only found on specific QoL domains (e.g. arm symptoms). Breast cancer patients on extended adjuvant endocrine therapy have significantly and clinically relevant better global QoL compared with other stage I-II breast cancer patients and the general population, 6-8.5 years after diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ti-Mo alloys employed as biomaterials: effects of composition and aging heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Flavia F; Ferrandini, Peterson L; Lopes, Eder S N; Cremasco, Alessandra; Caram, Rubens

    2014-04-01

    The correlation between the composition, aging heat treatments, microstructural features and mechanical properties of β Ti alloys is of primary significance because it is the foundation for developing and improving new Ti alloys for orthopedic biomaterials. However, in the case of Ti-Mo alloys, this correlation is not fully described in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of composition and aging heat treatments on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti-Mo alloys. These alloys were solution heat-treated and water-quenched, after which their response to aging heat treatments was investigated. Their microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were evaluated, and the results allow us to conclude that stabilization of the β phase is achieved with nearly 10% Mo when a very high cooling rate is applied. Young's modulus was found to be more sensitive to phase variations than hardness. In all of the compositions, the highest hardness values were achieved by aging at 723K, which was attributed to the precipitation of α and ω phases. All of the compositions aged at 573K, 623K and 723K showed overaging within 80h. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of mucilage of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) on adjuvant induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G; Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Nambisan, Bala; Helen, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of mucilage from fenugreek in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the right hind paw produce inflammation of the joint. The activities of inflammatory enzymes like cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase, and levels of nitrite and C-reactive protein were observed. Also oxidative stress was measured by analyzing the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the levels of glutathione and vitamin C and lipid peroxidation. The blood parameters like ESR, total WBC, RBC and hemoglobin content was checked. Fenugreek mucilage exhibited maximum percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 75 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. The activities of cyclooxygenase-2 and myeloperoxidase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with fenugreek mucilage. The increment in ESR and total WBC, reduction in RBC count and hemoglobin and aberrant changes to the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels observed in the arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in fenugreek mucilage treated rats. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with fenugreek mucilage. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of fenugreek mucilage on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa extract on purinergic enzyme activities in lymphocytes of rats submitted to experimental adjuvant arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Rezer, João F P; Ruchel, Jader B; Thorstenberg, Maria Luiza; Jaques, Jeandre A dos S; Schlemmer, Josiane B; Doleski, Pedro H; Rossato, Mateus F; da Silva, Mariane A; Casalli, Emerson André; da Cruz, Ritiel Corrêa; Ferreira, Juliano; Athayde, Margareth L; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Leal, Daniela B R

    2015-06-20

    Considering that adjuvant arthritis is an experimental model of arthritis widely used for preclinical testing of numerous anti-arthritic agents, which were taken by a large number of patients worldwide, it is of great interest to investigate the therapeutic action of compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, such as Uncaria tomentosa extract. Moreover, there are no studies demonstrating the effect of U. tomentosa on the metabolism of adenine nucleotides published so far. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of U. tomentosa extract on E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in lymphocytes of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) arthritis induced rats. To evaluate the effect of U. tomentosa extract on the activity of E-NTPDase and ADA in lymphocytes, the rats were submitted to an experimental adjuvant arthritis model. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Data were analyzed by a one- or two-way ANOVA. Post hoc analyses were carried out by the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) Multiple Comparison Test. E-NTPDase activity was increased in arthritic untreated. Arthritic rats which received U. tomentosa extract, presented similar results to the control group. However, results obtained for adenosine hydrolysis by E-ADA were not altered in arthritic rats. U. tomentosa extract did not alter E-NTPDase and E-ADA activity in healthy animals. The present investigation supports the hypothesis that the increased E-NTPDase activity verified in arthritic rats might be an attempt to maintain basal levels of ATP and ADP in the extracellular medium, since the arthritis induction causes tissue damage and, consequently, large amounts of ATP are released into this milieu. Also, it highlights the possibility to use U. tomentosa extract as an adjuvant to treat arthritis.

  3. Examples of adjuvant treatment enhancing the antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Cecic, Ivana; Sun, Jinghai; Chaplin, David J.

    1999-07-01

    Strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of solid cancers include applications of different types of adjuvant treatments in addition to this modality that may result in superior therapeutic outcome. Examples of such an approach investigated using mouse tumor models are presented in this report. It is shown that the cures of PDT treated subcutaneous tumors can be substantially improved by adjuvant therapy with: metoclopramide (enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis), combretastatin A-4 (selective destruction of tumor neovasculature), Roussin's Black Salt (light activated tumor localized release of nitric oxide), or dendritic cell-based adoptive immunotherapy (immune rejection of treated tumor).

  4. Late cutaneous effects of a local potent steroid during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with a local potent corticosteroid during adjuvant external radiotherapy (ERT) of breast cancer is associated with late skin toxicity. Material and methods: Sixty patients (32 treated with potent corticoid cream versus 28 controls...... with corticosteroid was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.0-10.1).Patients reported minor cosmetic dermatological sequelae. Seven patients developed telangiectasia, which caused cosmetic inconvenience. Conclusion: In this study, prophylactic corticosteroid treatment to ameliorate radiation dermatitis during adjuvant ERT of breast...

  5. The effect of curcumin and its nanoformulation on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng ZL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhaoling Zheng,1,* YanHua Sun,2,* Ziliang Liu,1 Mingqin Zhang,1 Chunqing Li,1 Hui Cai3 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dongying People’s Hospital, Dongying, 2Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microparticles Drug Delivery Technology, Jinan, 3Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, induced by the prolonged inappropriate inflammatory responses, is one of the most prevalent of all chronic inflammatory joint diseases. Curcumin (CM, a yellow hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the herb turmeric, has various pharmacological activities against many chronic diseases and acts by inhibiting cell proliferation and metastasis and downregulating various factors, including nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1β and TNF-α. Given the pathogenesis of RA, we hypothesized that the drug also has antiarthritic effects. The aims of the present study included the following: 1 examining the therapeutic effect of CM administered via intravenous (iv injection on RA and 2 formulating the drug into oil–water nanoemulsions (Ns to overcome the low oral bioavailability of CM and achieve oral delivery of the drug.Methods: The effect of CM administered through iv injection on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was studied in terms of paw swelling, weight indices of the thymus and spleen, and pathological changes in nuclear factor kappa B expression and inflammatory cytokines. Methotrexate was used as a positive control. The CM-Ns were prepared using a high-pressure homogenizing method and characterized with respect to the particle size and morphology. The stability of the CM-Ns in simulated gastrointestinal (GI fluids and in vitro release were also investigated. A pharmacokinetic study of the CM-Ns and suspensions in which the plasma levels were determined using an high

  6. Researching in biomaterials optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María. M.; Ionescu, Ana; Yebra, Ana; Cardona, Juan C.; Herrera, Luis J.; Rivas, María. José; Pecho, Óscar E.; Ghinea, Razvan

    2017-08-01

    The optical properties of a tissue or a biomaterial can be described in terms of the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the scattering function p(θ,ψ) and the real refractive index of the biomaterial. The Inverse Adding-Doubling, IAD, Method and relationship between the Kubelka- Munk parameters and the transport coefficients are used to describe optical properties at different wavelengths for a large variety of tissues and tissue like biomaterials, such as native cornea, tissue engineered cornea, tissue engineered oral mucosa, natural dentin and dental resin nanocomposites, among others

  7. Effect of zymosan and poly (I:C) adjuvants on responses to microneedle immunization coated with whole inactivated influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju-Hyung; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Ji-Ho; Jeong, Seong Dong; Jung, Dae-Yoon; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-11-10

    Microneedles are the micrometer size devices used for the delivery of vaccines and biotherapeutics. In order to increase the vaccine efficacy and reduce the antigen dose, there is a significant need to find some adjuvants for the microneedle vaccination. In this study, zymosan, which is the cell wall preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or poly (I:C) was coated on a microneedle with inactivated influenza virus, and then immunized into BALB/c mouse to determine the immunogenicity, protection and synergetic effect between two adjuvants. As a result, the group administered with zymosan and vaccine antigen showed significantly stronger IgG response, HI titer and IgG subtypes without any adverse effects, compared to the group immunized with the vaccine antigen alone. Also, there were enhanced cellular immune responses in the group received adjuvant with vaccine antigen. In addition, they showed superior protection and lung viral reduction against lethal viral challenge. Taken together, this study confirms that zymosan can be used as an immunostimulant for microneedle vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Apium graveolens Extract on the Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Tanasawet, Supita; Choosri, Nutjanat; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn

    2016-06-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is an indigenous plant of the North and South Americas, Southern Europe, and Asia and has been widely used as a food or a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation and arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a methanolic extract of A. graveolens (AGE) against liver oxidative stress in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. The AGE (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally for 24 consecutive days after induction by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant. Liver and spleen weights were recorded. The superoxide anion level, total peroxide (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. AGE treatment significantly decreased the levels of the superoxide anion, TP, and OSI whereas the GPx and SOD activities significantly increased in the liver of the arthritic rats. These results indicated that AGE showed an ameliorative effect against liver oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by reducing the generation of liver free radicals and increasing the liver antioxidant enzyme activity.

  9. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J; Lucas, Kurt; Lang-Yona, Naama; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lai, Senchao; Liu, Fobang; Kunert, Anna T; Ziegler, Kira; Shen, Fangxia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Weber, Bettina; Bellinghausen, Iris; Saloga, Joachim; Weller, Michael G; Duschl, Albert; Schuppan, Detlef; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-18

    Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  10. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production.

  11. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  12. Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, O; Skogseid, B

    2010-09-01

    Adrenocortical cancer is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies. Growth through the capsule or accidental release of cancer cells during surgery frequently results in metastatic disease. We investigated the antitumoral effect of 2 adrenocorticolytic compounds, O, P'-DDD and MeSO2-DDE, in the adrenocortical cell line H295R both in vitro and as a xenograft model in vivo. H295R cells were injected s. c. in nude mice. O, P'-DDD, MeSO2-DDE, or oil (control) was administered i. p., either simultaneously with cell injection at day 0 (mimicking adjuvant treatment), or at day 48 (established tumors). Accumulation of PET tracers [ (11)C]methionine (MET), [ (11)C] metomidate (MTO), 2-deoxy-2-[ (18)F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG), and [ (18)F]-l-tyrosine (FLT) in the aggregates were assessed +/- drug treatment in vitro. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited when O, P'-DDD was given at the same time as injection of tumor cells. No significant growth inhibition was observed after treatment with O, P'-DDD at day 48. A significant reduction in FLT uptake and an increased FDG uptake, compared to control, were observed following treatment with 15 microM O, P'-DDD (p<0.01) in vitro. MeSO2-DDE (15 microM) treatment gave rise to a reduced MET and an increased FLT uptake (p<0.01). Both compounds reduced the uptake of MTO compared to control (p<0.01). Treatment with O, P'-DDD simultaneously to inoculation of H295R cells in mice, imitating release of cells during surgery, gave a markedly better effect than treatment of established H295R tumors. We suggest that FLT may be a potential PET biomarker when assessing adrenocortical cancer treatment with O,P'-DDD. Further studies in humans are needed to investigate this.

  13. Designer biomaterials for mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials engineered with specific bioactive ligands, tunable mechanical properties and complex architecture have emerged as powerful tools to probe cell sensing and response to physical properties of their material surroundings, and ultimately provide designer approaches to control cell function.

  14. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  15. Biomaterials in Artificial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Helen E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)

  16. Biomaterials a basic introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qizhi

    2014-01-01

    Part IBiomaterials ScienceBiomaterials Science and EngineeringLearning ObjectivesMaterials Science and EngineeringMultilevels of Structure and Categorization of MaterialsFour Categories of MaterialsDefinitions of Biomaterials, Biomedical Materials, and Biological MaterialsBiocompatibilityChapter HighlightsActivitiesSimple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesBibliographyToxicity and CorrosionLearning ObjectivesElements in the BodyBiological Roles and Toxicities of Trace ElementsSelection of Metallic Elements in Medical-Grade AlloysCorrosion of MetalsEnvironment inside the BodyMinimization of Toxicity of Metal ImplantsChapter HighlightsLaboratory Practice 1Simple Questions in ClassProblems and ExercisesAdvanced Topic: Biological Roles of Alloying ElementsBibliographyMechanical Properties of BiomaterialsLearning ObjectivesRole of Implant BiomaterialsMechanical Properties of General ImportanceHardnessElasticity: Resilience and StrechabilityMechanical Properties Terms Used in the Medical CommunityFailureEssent...

  17. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Berry (Donald); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); S.K. Plevritis (Sylvia); D.G. Fryback (Dennis); L. Clarke (Lauren); M. Zelen (Marvin); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); A.Y. Yakovlev (Andrei); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E. Feuer (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: We used modeling techniques to assess the relative and absolute contributions of screening mammography and adjuvant treatment to the reduction in breast-cancer mortality in the United States from 1975 to 2000. METHODS: A consortium of investigators developed seven independent

  18. Effect of Feeding Status on Adjuvant Arthritis Severity, Cachexia, and Insulin Sensitivity in Male Lewis Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stofková, A.; Železná, Blanka; Romzová, Marianna; Uličná, O.; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Jurcovicová, J.

    -, ID 398026 (2010), s. 1-12 ISSN 0962-9351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427; GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * feeding Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2010

  19. Sucrose fatty acid sulphate esters as novel vaccine adjuvants: effect of the chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.G.; Hilgers, L.A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Adjuvant activity of novel, synthetic sucrose derivatives towards a recombinant glycoprotein was determined in large, non-rodent animal species. Compared to antigen alone, up to 3000-fold higher virus neutralizing antibody titres (VNTs) and 10-fold higher cellular responses against classical swine

  20. Effectiveness of adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard-Montminy, Valérie; Gagnon, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Sebastien; Côté, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Background Cisplatin and vinorelbine given intravenously is a well-established adjuvant chemotherapy regimen after surgery for early non-small cell lung cancer. However, few validated alternatives exist when cisplatin is not indicated or tolerated. Carboplatin is frequently used in this setting. We evaluated the 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity in patients treated for stage IB to IIIB resected non-small cell lung cancer receiving adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in association with vinorelbine. Methods Single-center retrospective study of patients having received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2013 at the oncology clinic at Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (Canada). Three sub-groups, cisplatin/vinorelbine, carboplatin/vinorelbine and the substitution of cisplatin/vinorelbine for carboplatin/vinorelbine (cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine), were studied during treatment. Results One hundred twenty-seven patients were included in this study. The median PFS was not significantly different, with 50.4 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine, 57.3 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine and not yet achieved for the carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0.80). Overall survival also did not differ significantly between the three groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 66% in cisplatin/vinorelbine group, 55% in carboplatin/vinorelbine group and 70% in cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0, 95). No differences were noted between groups concerning high-grade hematologic toxicity. Conclusions Although the effectiveness and hematologic toxicity are comparable between cisplat in and carboplatin in the adjuvant treatment of resected non-small cell lung cancer, the results obtained corroborate the practice used at our oncology clinic. Nevertheless, more prospective studies would be needed to confirm these

  1. Effect of salvianolate injection adjuvant therapy on patients with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of salvianolate injection on related indexes of patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: 84 cases of patients with cerebral infarction from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and all patients suffered from thrombosis cerebral infarction. All patients were divided into control group and study group according to digital table method (n=42. Patients in control group were given individualized treatment, like nutrition, encephaledema elimination, thrombolytic treatment, according to their staging and individual actual situations. On the basis of control group, patients in study group were given salvianolate injection treatment. Endothelin-1 (ET-1, thrombomodulin (TM, blood platelet count, TXB2, 6-ketone-PGF1 α, antithrombin-Ⅲ (AT-Ⅲ, protein C, protein S, coagulation time, APTT , fibrinolysis activity: plasminogen activity loss: t-PA and PAI, plasma viscosity (ηb in both groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: 2 weeks after treatment, ET-1, TM, blood platelet count, TXB2, PAI-1, η b, whole blood viscosity in both groups were decreased, and compared with before treatment, difference had statistical significance (P<0.05; while 6-ketone-PGF1 α, coagulation time, APTT, antithrombin-Ⅲ, protein C, protein S, plasma t-PA in both groups were increased, and compared with before treatment, difference had statistical significance (P<0.05. After treatment, ET-1, TM, TXB2, η b in study group were obviously lower than that in control group, and comparison between groups had statistical significance (P<0.05, 6-ketone-PGF1α, antithrombin-Ⅲ, protein C, t-PA in study group were obviously higher than that in control group, and comparison between groups had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusions: Salvianolate injection adjuvant therapy in patients with thrombosis cerebral infarction could improve the related indexes of thrombus and had positive significance to the follow-up recovery of

  2. Effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Tan, M H; Yang, P; Li, W L; Xia, J; Du, H; Tang, W B; Wang, H; Chen, X W; Xiao, H Q

    2008-05-18

    Chemotherapy damages the bone marrow and that is one of the most important problems in the treatment of malignancies, particularly colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of surgical adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC patients on human MSCs using an in vitro culture system. The bone marrows of 43 CRC patients were harvested for separation and culture of MSC at pre- and post-chemotherapy. The number of colonies forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) was counted. The adhesive function of MSC was assayed and the growth of colony-forming unit-mixed hematopoietic cell (CFU-Mix) on the MSC layer was observed. The concentration of IL-6, SCF and FLT-T3 proteins in the MSC culture supernatant were also detected by ELISA assay. In the CRC patients with chemotherapy, we have demonstrated that the CFU-F exhibit significantly decreased. We also showed that the adhesive rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) was significantly decreased. The growth of CFU-Mix on the MSC layer was inhibited. Most importantly, decreased CFU-F and the adhesive rate of BMSC were correlated significantly with decreased interleukins and stem-cell factor (IL-6, SCF and FLT-3L) expressions in the CRC patients after chemotherapy. Our results suggest that MSCs of CRC patients can be damaged by chemotherapy. Our data also indicates that the decreased expression of haematogenesis factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis. In the future, the MSC refused may have a potential clinical application in chemotherapeutically treated patients.

  3. Anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bao Liang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis. Methods: A total of 90 children with viral myocarditis treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were included in the research and randomly divided into observation group (n=45 and control group (n=45 according to the different treatment. Control group received clinical routine therapy for viral myocarditis, observation group received adjuvant Danshen injection treatment, and then levels of IL23/IL-17 inflammatory axis as well as cytokines, oxidation and anti-oxidation indexes, myocardial enzyme and illness-related proteins were compared between two groups. Results: Serum IL-17, IL-23, IL-1毬, IL-6 and TNF-毩 values of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum MDA, AOPP and NO values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cTnT, CK-MB, MCP-1 and H-FABP values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant Danshen injection treatment for children with viral myocarditis can exert positive anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical function, and it plays a positive role in myocardial protection.

  4. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; Cruz, Adriana Dibo da; Poiate, EdgardJr.; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects re...

  5. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hees Hiske L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is among the medical conditions with the highest negative impact on work outcome. However, little is known regarding evidence-based interventions targeting the improvement of work outcomes in depressed employees. In this paper, the design of a randomized controlled trial is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression. This occupational intervention is based on an earlier intervention, which was designed and proven effective by our research group, and is the only intervention to date that specifically targets work outcome in depressed employees. Methods/Design In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, a total of 117 participants are randomized to either 'care as usual' or ' care as usual' with the addition of occupational therapy. Patients included in the study are employees who are absent from work due to depression for at least 25% of their contract hours, and who have a possibility of returning to their own or a new job. The occupational intervention consists of six individual sessions, eight group sessions and a work-place visit over a 16-week period. By increasing exposure to the working environment, and by stimulating communication between employer and employee, the occupational intervention aims to enhance self-efficacy and the acquisition of more adaptive coping strategies. Assessments take place at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-ups. Primary outcome measure is work participation (hours of absenteeism and time until work resumption. Secondary outcome measures are work functioning, symptomatology, health-related quality of life, and neurocognitive functioning. In addition, cost-effectiveness is evaluated from a societal perspective. Finally, mechanisms of change (intermediate outcomes and potential patient-treatment matching variables are investigated. Discussion This study hopes to provide valuable knowledge

  6. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  7. Thermoelectric assessment of laser peening induced effects on a metallic biomaterial Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, H.; Barriuso, S.; Porro, J. A.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Ocaña, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Laser peening has recently emerged as a useful technique to overcome detrimental effects associated to another wellknown surface modification processes such as shot peening or grit blasting used in the biomedical field. It is worth to notice that besides the primary residual stress effect, thermally induced effects might also cause subtle surface and subsurface microstructural changes that might influence corrosion resistance. Moreover, since maximum loads use to occur at the surface, they could also play a critical role in the fatigue strength. In this work, plates of Ti-6Al-4V alloy of 7 mm in thickness were modified by laser peening without using a sacrificial outer layer. Irradiation by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (9.4 ns pulse length) working in fundamental harmonic at 2.8 J/pulse and with water as confining medium was used. Laser pulses with a 1.5 mm diameter at an equivalent overlapping density (EOD) of 5000 cm-2 were applied. Attempts to analyze the global induced effects after laser peening were addressed by using the contacting and non-contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) techniques. It was demonstrated that the thermoelectric method is entirely insensitive to surface topography while it is uniquely sensitive to subtle variations in thermoelectric properties, which are associated with the different material effects induced by different surface modification treatments. These results indicate that the stress-dependence of the thermoelectric power in metals produces sufficient contrast to detect and quantitatively characterize regions under compressive residual stress based on their thermoelectric power contrast with respect to the surrounding intact material. However, further research is needed to better separate residual stress effects from secondary material effects, especially in the case of low-conductivity engineering materials like titanium alloys.

  8. A degradable soybean-based biomaterial used effectively as a bone filler in vivo in a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merolli, Antonio; Nicolais, Luigi; Ambrosio, Luigi; Santin, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    The 'gold standard' for bone filling is currently the bone autograft, but its use is limited by material availability and by the possible risks of infection or other donor site morbidity. Materials proposed so far as bone fillers do not show all the characteristics which are desirable. These are (a) osteoconductivity, (b) controlled biodegradation and (c) ease of adaptation to the implantation site. Recently, a new class of biodegradable material based on soybeans has been presented which shows good mechanical properties and an intrinsic bioactivity on inflammatory and tissue cells in vitro. The authors investigated the morphology in vivo of bone response in repairing a surgical lesion in the presence of granules of a novel soybean-based biomaterial (SB), comparing it with a sham-operated contralateral lesion of critical size (non-healing model); 26 operations were performed in New Zealand White rabbits, with back scattered electron microscopy as the analysis technique of choice. Implantation of SB granules over 8 weeks produced bone repair with features distinct from those obtained by healing in a non-treated defect. New and progressively maturing trabeculae appeared in the animal group where SB granules were implanted, while sham operation produced only a rim of pseudo-cortical bone still featuring a large defect. The trabeculae forming in the presence of SB granules had features typical of reticular bone. These findings suggest that the bone regeneration potential of SB granules and their intrinsic bioactivity, combined with their relatively easy and cost-effective preparation procedures, make them suitable candidates as a bone filler in clinical applications.

  9. Effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for brachial plexus block: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Shin

    Full Text Available Tramadol, a 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine, has a unique action in that it has a central opioidergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic analgesic, and peripheral local anesthetic (LA effect. Many studies have reported contradictory findings regarding the peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to LA in brachial plexus block (BPB. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol as an adjunct to LA in BPB during shoulder or upper extremity surgery.We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, KoreaMed databases, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared BPB with LA alone and BPB with LA and tramadol. Primary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia. Secondary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on time to onset of sensory block and motor block and on adverse effects. We performed the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3 software.We identified 16 RCTs with 751 patients. BPB with tramadol prolonged the duration of sensory block (mean difference [MD], -61.5 min; 95% CI, -95.5 to -27.6; P = 0.0004, motor block (MD, -65.6 min; 95% CI, -101.5 to -29.7; P = 0.0003, and analgesia (MD, -125.5 min; 95% CI, -175.8 to -75.3; P < 0.0001 compared with BPB without tramadol. Tramadol also shortened the time to onset of sensory block (MD, 2.1 min; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1; P < 0.0001 and motor block (MD, 1.2 min; 95% CI, 0.2 to 2.1; P = 0.010. In subgroup analysis, the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia was prolonged for BPB with tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.05 but not for BPB with tramadol 50 mg. The quality of evidence was high for duration of analgesia according to the GRADE system. Adverse effects were comparable between the studies.In upper extremity surgery performed under BPB, use of tramadol 100 mg as an adjuvant to LA appears to prolong the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia, and

  10. Late cutaneous effects of a local potent steroid during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ulff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with a local potent corticosteroid during adjuvant external radiotherapy (ERT of breast cancer is associated with late skin toxicity. Material and methods: Sixty patients (32 treated with potent corticoid cream versus 28 controls treated with moisturizer who had been included in a randomized study on prophylactic local corticosteroid treatment under adjuvant ERT in 2009 and 2010 were subjected to a follow-up study in 2016.Assessments of skin texture were registered according to the Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme (RTOG. Dryness, skin colour and skin thickness were objectively measured using non-invasive instruments. The patients were assessed for differences between their treated and untreated breasts. Results: Skin atrophy was not noticed in any of the 60 patients. Objective instrumental measurements did not reveal any significant differences in skin dryness, colour, pigmentation or skin thickness over the average follow-up time of six years. Clinical assessment based on the RTOG scoring system revealed that the odds ratio of having late skin problems in patients treated with moisturizer compared to patients treated with corticosteroid was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.0–10.1.Patients reported minor cosmetic dermatological sequelae. Seven patients developed telangiectasia, which caused cosmetic inconvenience. Conclusion: In this study, prophylactic corticosteroid treatment to ameliorate radiation dermatitis during adjuvant ERT of breast cancer was not associated with an increase in late skin toxicity nor did it result in skin atrophy. This study is limited by its small sample size, and the risk for false positive findings. Keywords: Adjuvant radiotherapy, Breast cancer, Corticosteroids, Radiation dermatitis, Steroid atrophy, Telangiectasia

  11. In vivo effect of pinosylvin and pterostilbene in the animal model of adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačičková, T.; Drábiková, K.; Nosál, R.; Bauerová, K.; Mihalová, D.; Harmatha, Juraj; Pečivová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl. 2 (2010), s. 91-95 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * pinosylvin * pterostilbene * generation of reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010 http://node.nel.edu

  12. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R Artz

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid, and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata, cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  13. High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.D. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: lbliu.csu@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Zhao, J.-C. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, J.L.; Zheng, F.; Jin, Z.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti–Zr–Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173 K for 1800 h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. - Highlights: • High-efficiency diffusion multiple of Ti–Zr–Ta was manufactured. • Composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems have been obtained effectively, • The methodology and the information can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys.

  14. Effect of increased strut porosity of calcium phosphate bone graft substitute biomaterials on osteoinduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Melanie J; Hing, Karin A; Samizadeh, Sorousheh; Chan, Oliver; Fang, Yvette S; Campion, Charlie; Buckland, Thomas; Blunn, Gordon W

    2012-06-01

    The effect of increasing strut porosity on the osteoinductivity of porous calcium phosphate (CaP) and silicate-substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) bone substitute materials was investigated in an ovine ectopic model. One to two millimeter-sized granules or block implants with strut porosities of 10, 20, or 30% were inserted into the left and right paraspinalis muscle. At 12 weeks, histological sections were prepared through the center of each implant and bone contact, bone area and implant area quantified. Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (bSEM) was used to visualize bone within small pores in the struts of the scaffolds. Increased bone formation was measured in the SiCaP with 30% strut porosity (5.482% ± 1.546%) when compared with the nonsilicate CaP with the same morphology (1.160% ± 0.502%, p = 0.02), indicating that silicate substitution may increase osteoinduction. Greater bone formation was seen in scaffolds with increased strut porosity. No bone growth was found in any of the SiCaP scaffold with 10% porosity. There was no significant difference between block and granule specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and EDX in combination with histology demonstrated bone formation within pores <5 μm in size. The use of silicate-substituted CaP material with increased strut porosity may further augment repair and regeneration in bony sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cleaning Effectiveness of Three NiTi Rotary Instruments: A Focus on Biomaterial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Bianchi, Stefano

    2015-02-16

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are commonly used for shaping the root canal system in endodontic practice. They are more flexible and have better cutting efficiency than conventional stainless steel files. The superelasticity of NiTi rotary files allows the clinicians to produce the desirable tapered root canal form with a reduced tendency to canal transportation and instrument fracture. HyFlex CM instruments are new NiTi rotary instruments with shape memory produced by an innovative methodology (patent pending) that uses a complex heating and cooling treatment that controls the material's memory. The aim of the present study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of two conventional (Mtwo, Revo-S) Ni-Ti rotary instruments with HyFlex CM. 30 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were divided into three groups. Root canals were shaped with three NiTi instruments (Mtwo, Revo-S and HyFlex CM) using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Specimens were fractured longitudinally and prepared for SEM analysis at standard magnification of 1000×. The presence/absence of debris smear layer and the presence/absence of smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were evaluated using a 5-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05. This study revealed significant differences among the various groups. Despite some minor differences, all instruments removed smear layer and debris produced during instrumentation. HyFlex CM seem to be not so effective in promoting cleanliness of root canal walls and in removing smear layer from dentine if compared to Mtwo and Revo-S.

  16. Effect of adjuvant reserpine treatment on catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenic patients under long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdy, G; Perenyi, A; Frecska, E; Seregi, A; Fekete, M I; Tothfalusi, L; Magyar, K; Bela, A; Arato, M

    1988-01-01

    The clinical and biochemical effects of adjuvant reserpine treatment were investigated in 12 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term neuroleptic medication. The global severity of the symptoms using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale did not change significantly in the whole group, however, a moderate decrease in positive symptoms (factors though disturbance, activation and hostile-suspiciousness) was observed for 5 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) noradrenaline levels showed a consistent decrease, but other biochemical parameters (CSF dopamine metabolites, platelet MAO and serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activities) did not change significantly. The changes of clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters did not show any correlation.

  17. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  18. Effect of probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy on serum indexes of acute cerebral infarction patients during rehabilitation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy on serum indexes of acute cerebral infarction patients in rehabilitation period. Methods: A total of 102 patients with acute cerebral infarction were treated in our hospital from August 2011 to June 2015, were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and were randomly divided into observation group 51 cases and control group 51 cases according to the order of hospitalization. Control group received atorvastatin treatment alone, observation group received probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy, and then differences in levels of serum CXCL16, HMGB1, CD40L and Fibulin-5, P-selectin, NPY, CGRP, visfatin and others, chemokines and inflammation-related factors, vascular endothelial cells and fibrinolytic function, etc were compared between two groups after treatment. Results: Serum CXCL16, HMGB1, CD40L and Fibulin-5 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum P-selectin, NPY, visfatin, UCH-L1, sVCAM-1 and SAA levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while CGRP level was higher than that of control group; serum CCL-19, CCL-21, YKL-40, IL-33 and IL- 18 values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum vWF, PAI-1 and plasminogen levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while 6-K-PGF1α and tPA levels were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy for acute cerebral infarction patients in rehabilitation period can effectively optimize patients’ general status and avoid re-infarction in recovery period, and it has positive clinical significance.

  19. Adjuvant effect of recombinant interleukin-12 in the Nocardiosis formalin-killed vaccine of the amberjack Seriola dumerili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Araki, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Kazuma; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Suetake, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Nocardiosis causes serious economic damage in the fish farming of Japanese yellowtail fish. Nocardia seriolae identified as pathogenic bacterium is an intracellular-pathogen. In general, induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is effective in infection defense against intracellular-pathogen. However, the conventional formalin-killed N. seriolae (FKC) vaccine induces humoral immunity. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is Th1 type heterodimeric cytokine and induces cell differentiation in mammals. Our previous study showed that recombinant amberjack IL-12 has a role in CMI induction in vitro and could be a possible CMI inducing adjuvant. However, its adjuvant effect of fish IL-12 was not studied. In the present study, six types of amberjack recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) were mixed and injected into amberjack with FKC. Firstly, we analyzed Th1- and Th2- related gene expression and monitored Th1/Th2 status followed by investigation of antibody titer. As a result, Th1-type immunity was induced in FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish. Secondly, we checked Th1/Th2 status of vaccinated fish after 10 days of N. seriolae infection using the expression of related genes. High T-bet/GATA-3 ratio was observed in FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish, suggesting that Th1 cells possesing antigen memory were induced against N. seriolae infection. Finally, the survival rate in challenge test showed that 88% of FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish was survived at 34 days after N. seriolae injection whereas PBS (control) and FKC only were exterminated. These result suggest that i) rIL-12 is viable CMI inducible adjuvant and ii) production of Th1 cells having antigen memory resulting from activation of IL-12 signaling pathway is important for defense against N. seriolae infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of adjuvant levosimendan therapy on neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of adjuvant levosimendan therapy on neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: A total of 100 elderly patients with chronic heart failure who were treated in the hospital between March 2014 and March 2017 were divided into control group and levosimendan group by random number table, each with 50 cases. Control group received clinical routine therapy for chronic heart failure, and levosimendan group received routine therapy combined with adjuvant levosimendan therapy. The differences in serum levels of RAAS indexes, thyroid hormones, myocardial damage indexes and endothelial function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: At T0, there was no statistically significant difference in serum levels of RAAS indexes, thyroid hormones, myocardial damage indexes and endothelial function indexes between the two groups. At T1, serum RAAS indexes PRA, AngⅡ and ALD levels of levosimendan group were lower than those of control group; serum thyroid hormones TT3, TT4, FT3 and FT4 levels of levosimendan group were higher than those of control group; serum myocardial damage indexes cTnⅠ, H-FABP and NT-proBNP levels of levosimendan group were lower than those of control group; serum endothelial function index NO level of levosimendan group was higher than that of control group while ET-1 level was lower than that of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant levosimendan therapy for elderly patients with chronic heart failure can effectively adjust the secretion of neuroendocrine hormones and reduce the myocardial and vascular endothelial damage.

  1. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  2. Ionic imbalance and lack of effect of adjuvant treatment with methylene blue in the hamster model of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis in humans usually involves hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia and the putative mechanism underlying such ionic imbalances may be related to nitric oxide (NO production. We previously demonstrated the correlation between serum levels of NO and the severity of renal disease in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methylene blue inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase (downstream of the action of any NO synthase isoforms and was recently reported to have beneficial effects on clinical and experimental sepsis. We investigated the occurrence of serum ionic changes in experimental leptospirosis at various time points (4, 8, 16 and 28 days in a hamster model. We also determined the effect of methylene blue treatment when administered as an adjuvant therapy, combined with late initiation of standard antibiotic (ampicillin treatment. Hypokalaemia was not reproduced in this model: all of the groups developed increased levels of serum potassium (K. Furthermore, hypermagnesaemia, rather than magnesium (Mg depletion, was observed in this hamster model of acute infection. These findings may be associated with an accelerated progression to acute renal failure. Adjuvant treatment with methylene blue had no effect on survival or serum Mg and K levels during acute-phase leptospirosis in hamsters.

  3. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A I Ali

    Full Text Available Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA in rat model were tested.We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  4. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A I; Barakat, Bassant M; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  5. Antioxidant and Angiostatic Effect of Spirulina platensis Suspension in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A. I.; Barakat, Bassant M.; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. Results We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. Conclusions The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:25853428

  6. In-vitro investigations of nanoparticle magnetic thermotherapy: adjuvant effects and comparison to conventional heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Z.; Strawbridge, R.; Gaito, C.; Dulatas, L.; Tate, J.; Ogden, J.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    Thermotherapy, particularly magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, is a promising modality both as a direct cancer cell killing and as a radiosensitization technique for adjuvant therapy. Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were mixed with multiple tumor cell lines in solution and exposed to varying magnetic field regimes and combined with traditional external radiotherapy. Heating of cell lines by water bath in temperature patterns comparable to those achieved by nanoparticle hyperthermia was conducted to assess the relative value of nano-magnetic thermotherapy compared with conventional bulk heating techniques and data.

  7. Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Christensen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...... changes, as well as protection against experimental infection with A. salmonicida. While adverse effects were not eliminated, reductions in microscopic and macroscopic adverse effects, in particular, were seen for both the nucleotide- and liposome-based vaccine formulations. Furthermore, the induced...

  8. Highly effective Cu/Zn-carbon micro/nanofiber-polymer nanocomposite-based wound dressing biomaterial against the P. aeruginosa multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Mohammad; Verma, Nishith; Khan, Suphiya

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most prevalent bacteria in the infections caused by burn, surgery, and traumatic injuries. Emergence of the P. aeruginosa bacterial resistance against various clinical drugs for wound treatment is the major concern nowadays. The present study describes the synthesis of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) polymeric composite film (~0.2mm thickness) reinforced with the Cu/Zn bimetal-dispersed activated carbon micro/nanofiber (ACF/CNF), as a wound dressing material. The focus is on determining the efficacy of the prepared biomaterial against the multi and extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the burning, surgical, and traumatic injury-wounds. The primary synthesis steps for the biomaterial include the mixing of a blend of CAP powder and the asymmetrically distributed Cu/Zn bimetals in ACF/CNF, into the polymerization reaction mixture of PVA. Biochemical tests showed that the prepared composite material significantly enhanced the in-vitro blood clotting rate, platelet aggregation, and macrophage cell proliferation, indicating the suitability of the material as a fast wound healer. The antibacterial tests performed against the P. aeruginosa strains showed that the material effectively suppressed the bacterial growth, with the bimetal nanoparticles dispersed in the material serving as an antibacterial agent. The PVA/CAP polymer composite served as an encapsulating agent providing a slow release of the nanoparticles, besides increasing the hemostatic properties of the biomaterial. The ACF/CNF served as a support to the dispersed bimetal nanoparticles, which also provided a mechanical and thermal stability to the material. Experimentally demonstrated to be biocompatible, the prepared metal-carbon-polymer nanocomposite in this study is an effective dressing material for the P. aeruginosa-infected wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomaterials and magnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetite (Fe34) is biocompatible and therefore is one of the most extensively used biomaterials for different applications ranging from cell separation and drug delivery to hyperthermia. Other than this, a large number of magnetic materials in bulk as well as in the form of nano particles have been exploited for a variety of ...

  10. Hot topics in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, Eric W; Griesenbach, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The expert coverage of the eight chapters in this book reflects the diverse nature of the field of biomaterials science and encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields, highlighting key classes of novel materials and exploring the underlying science and potential applications.

  11. Evaluation of the adjuvant effect of agonists of toll-like receptor 4 and 7/8 in a vaccine against leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamian, Mosayeb; Niknam, Hamid M

    2017-11-01

    There is no effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis. Achieving successful vaccines seems to need powerful adjuvants. Separate or combined use of toll like receptor (TLR) agonists as adjuvant is a promising approach in Leishmania vaccine research. In present study, we evaluated adjuvant effect of separate or combined use of a TLR7/8 agonist, R848 and a TLR4 agonist, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) beside soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in BALB/c mice. Mice were vaccinated three times by SLA with separate or combined TLR7/8 and TLR4 agonists and were then challenged by Leishmania major. Delay type hypersensitivity, lesion development, parasite load, and cytokines (interferon gamma, and interleukin-10) response were assessed. Results showed: 1) MPL can slightly assist SLA in parasite load reduction, but it is not able to increase SLA ability in evoking DTH and cytokine responses or decreasing lesion diameter. 2) R848 does not affect the DTH response and parasite load of mice vaccinated with SLA, but it decreases/inhibits cytokine responses induced by SLA, leading to increase lesion diameter. 3) MPL neutralized inhibitory effect of R848. In overall, these data emphasize that MPL slightly assists SLA to make a more potent vaccine, but R848 is not a good adjuvant to induce T cell-dependent immune response in BALB/c mice, and therefore combination of these TLR agonists in the current formulation, is not recommended for making a more powerful adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  13. Role of innate immunity against human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and effect of adjuvants in promoting specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Hernández-Valencia, José Fernando; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana; Lizano, Marcela

    2013-10-28

    During the early stages of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, the innate immune system creates a pro-inflammatory microenvironment by recruiting innate immune cells to eliminate the infected cells, initiating an effective acquired immune response. However, HPV exhibits a wide range of strategies for evading immune-surveillance, generating an anti-inflammatory microenvironment. The administration of new adjuvants, such as TLR (Toll-like receptors) agonists and alpha-galactosylceramide, has been demonstrated to reverse the anti-inflammatory microenvironment by down-regulating a number of adhesion molecules and chemo-attractants and activating keratinocytes, dendritic (DC), Langerhans (LC), natural killer (NK) or natural killer T (NKT) cells; thus, promoting a strong specific cytotoxic T cell response. Therefore, these adjuvants show promise for the treatment of HPV generated lesions and may be useful to elucidate the unknown roles of immune cells in the natural history of HPV infection. This review focuses on HPV immune evasion mechanisms and on the proposed response of the innate immune system, suggesting a role for the surrounding pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the NK and NKT cells in the clearance of HPV infections.

  14. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  15. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Goncalves Z, E., E-mail: madelon@cdtn.br [Pontifice Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar 500, Belo Horizonte 30535-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  16. Effect of Shot Peening in Different Shot Distance and Shot Angle on Surface Morphology, Surface Roughness and Surface Hardness of 316L Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbu Kondi Maliwemu, Erich; Malau, Viktor; Iswanto, Priyo Tri

    2018-01-01

    Shot peening is a mechanical surface treatment with a beneficial effect to generate compressive residual stress caused by plastic deformation on the surface of material. This plastic deformation can improve the surface characteristics of metallic materials, such as modification of surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of shot peening in different shot distance and shot angle on surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness of 316L biomaterial. Shot distance was varied at 6, 8, 10, and 12 cm and shot angle at 30, 60, and 90°, working pressure at 7 kg/cm2, shot duration for 20 minutes, and using steel balls S-170 with diameter of 0.6 mm. The results present that the shot distance and shot angle of shot peening give the significant effect to improve the surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness of 316 L biomaterial. Shot peening can increase the surface roughness by the increasing of shot distance and by the decreasing of shot angle. The nearest shot distance (6 cm) and the largest shot angle (90°) give the best results on the grain refinement with the surface roughness of 1.04 μm and surface hardness of 534 kg/mm2.

  17. Effect of substitutional element in the microstructure and hardness of Ti-Zr system alloys used as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Grandini, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    New titanium alloys had been developed with the aim of obtaining materials with improved properties for application as biomaterial, and alloys of the Ti-Zr system are among those most promising. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the zirconium concentration on microstructure and hardness of the Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr and Ti-15Zr alloys. After arc-melting melting, the samples were analyzed by chemical and gas composition, and characterized by density measurements, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness. The results showed a microstructure formed by alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure) and increased of hardness. (author)

  18. Thymoma size significantly affects the survival, metastasis and effectiveness of adjuvant therapies: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Dongliang; Zhou, Feng; Yang, Weiguang; Zhang, Kaixuan; Chen, Linsong; Jiang, Gening; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Chunyan; Fei, Ke; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Background Thymoma, though a rare tumor disease, is the most common tumor of the anterior mediastinum. However, tumor size, as a critical factor, has been underestimated. Results Age, advanced tumor stage, and preoperative radiotherapy were poor prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) (P thymoma patients were enrolled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Survival based on thymoma size and other characteristics of tumors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Correlation between thymoma size and thymoma metastatic status was contributed by logistic regression analysis. The efficiency of adjuvant therapy was analysis by stratification analysis. Conclusions Thymoma size could predict postoperative survival and guide chemotherapeutic regimens of patients. Larger tumor size indicated worse survival and higher metastatic rate. If thymoma is smaller than 90mm, traditional chemotherapy should be prohibited. While chemotherapy could be performed moderately when thymoma larger than 90 mm. PMID:29552309

  19. Long term effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtqvist, Åke; Bennet, Rutger; Hamrin, Johan; Rinder, Malin Ryd; Lindblad, Hans; Öhd, Joanna Nederby; Eriksson, Margareta

    2015-05-21

    Immunological studies have indicated that the effectiveness of AS03 adjuvanted monovalent influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine (Pandemrix) may be of longer duration than what is seen for non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines. Sixty-nine percent of children 6 months-18 years of age in Stockholm County received at least one dose of Pandemrix during the 2009 pandemic. We studied the effectiveness of the vaccine during the influenza seasons 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 in children hospitalized with virologically confirmed influenza. The season 2011-2012 was not included, since influenza A(H3N2) was the predominant circulating strain. In a retrospective case-control study using a modified test-negative design we compared the percentage vaccinated with Pandemrix among children diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (cases), with that of those diagnosed with influenza A(H3N2) or influenza B (controls) during the two seasons. We excluded children born after July 1, 2009, since only children who were 6 months of age or older received the pandemic vaccine in October-December 2009. During the 2010-2011 season, 3/16 (19%) of children diagnosed with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, vs. 32/41 (78%) of those with influenza A(H3N2) or influenza B had been vaccinated with Pandemrix in 2009. The odds ratio, after adjustment for sex, age and underlying diseases, for becoming a case when vaccinated with Pandemrix was 0.083 (95%CI 0.014, 0.36), corresponding to a VE of 91.7%. During the season 2012-2013, there was no difference between the two groups; 59% of children diagnosed with influenza A(H3N2)/B and 60% of those with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 had been vaccinated with Pandemrix in 2009. The AS03 adjuvanted monovalent influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine (Pandemrix) was effective in preventing hospital admission for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in children during at least two seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  1. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  2. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Lun Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future.

  3. [The adjuvant effect of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in dengue virus and hepatitis C virus DNA vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Man; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Zi-Yang; Wang, Juan; Fan, Dong-Ying; Gao, Na; An, Jing

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the adjuvant effect of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in Flaviviridae virus DNA vaccines. After DNA immunization, the antibody levels of serum from mice were detected by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Co-immunization of GM-CSF suppressed the immune responses induced by DV1 and DV2 candidate vaccines whereas enhanced the immune response induced by HCV C and E1 DNA vaccines. As genetic adjuvant for DNA vaccines, GM-CSF might display complex diversity on the immune responses: an augmentation or suppression due to different immunogens. Therefore, GM-CSF should be used with some cautions in clinic.

  4. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with a radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccine in LN-resident DCs for a robust adjuvant effect

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Ho, David D.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the present study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to a...

  5. The adjuvant effect of low frequency ultrasound when applied with an inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Labarca, Cristóbal; Makhutu, Mary; Lumsdon, Alexander E; Thompson, Kim D; Jung, Rainer; Kloas, Werner; Knopf, Klaus

    2015-03-10

    Vaccine adjuvants are classified according to their properties of either inducing the persistence of antigens within the animal after immunisation and/or activation of the animal's immune response. The adjuvant effect of low intensity low frequency sonophoresis (LFS) was tested in rainbow trout using an Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin vaccine administered by immersion vaccination using LFS at 37 kHz. The adjuvant effect obtained with LFS was compared with that of normal immersion or intraperitoneal injection vaccination. Quantitative PCR was used to measure bacterial DNA in vaccinated fish up to 35 days post-vaccination, while RT-qPCR was used to assess gene expression during the early and late immune response post-vaccination. Results showed that antigen uptake in the gills was significantly higher in the group exposed to low intensity LFS compared to the other two vaccination groups 15 min post-vaccination, but this initially high uptake did not persist over the rest of the experiment. In the kidney, by comparison, the vast majority of the samples analysed did not show the presence or persistence of the bacterin. Showing that the route of vaccine uptake using the A. salmonicida bacterin, does not influence the persistence of the bacterin in the gills or the kidney. On the other hand, LFS induced a higher inflammatory response and T-helper cell activation, characterized by a significant up-regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1ß and CD-4, respectively. The expression of Ig-M, Ig-T and Ig-D was up-regulated in gills (being significant for Ig-M), but not in the spleen and kidney of the sonicated group. Conversely, Ig-M was up-regulated in the spleen of the non-sonicated groups, but not in the sonicated group. This highlights the ability of ultrasound to enhance mucosal immunity. It remains to be established whether the up-regulation of Ig-M in gills would be sufficient to offer protection in fish infected with A. salmonicida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  8. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  9. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  10. Mast cell activator compound 48/40 is not an effective adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Chen, Shengjie; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2017-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii, Tg) is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan causing different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. Mast cells (MCs) play a role during T. gondii infection. Several studies suggest that MC activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) may be an effective vaccine adjuvant resulting in a potent and protective antigen-specific immune response against bacteria or virus infections. The present study was performed to determine whether C48/80 had adjuvant activity for ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated T. gondii vaccine to induce protective immune responses against T. gondii in mouse model. Kunming mice were divided into the following groups: naive mice, naive mice administrated with C48/80 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, mice infected by i.p. injection of 10 4 T. gondii RH strain alone (Tg group), mice infected with 10 4 RH tachyzoites plus C48/80 administration (Tg + C48/80), mice immunized with UV-Tg alone, and mice immunized with UV-Tg plus C48/80 administration (UV-Tg + C48/80). All the vaccinated mice were challenged with 10 4 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain at the same time as the primary infection. The survival rates, liver histopathologies, liver parasite burdens, and mRNA expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were compared among the aforementioned groups after primary infection or challenge infection. The results showed that, compared to the Tg group or Tg + C48/80 group, the UV-Tg + Tg group and UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group had significantly prolonged survival time, lower liver histopathological scores, decreased liver parasite burdens, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens. There was no significant difference of survival time between the UV-Tg + Tg group and the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group; however, the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group showed higher parasite burden, more severe

  11. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M. Tag

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis and related disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, are common diseases affecting millions of people. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lemon and hot pepper extracts on adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in mice. Arthritis was induced by injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA subcutaneously at the planter surface of hind paw, the lemon and hot pepper extracts were administered subcutaneously at the same site twice weekly (100 mg/kg, for 2 weeks starting 2 days after CFA injection. Arthritic scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C reactive protein (CRP, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and paw histopathology were assessed at the end of the experiment. The extract treatments reduced the severity of arthritic scores in the following order: lemon fruit peel (LFP > lemon leaf (LL > hot pepper leaf (HL during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA. LFP, LL and HL extracts significantly suppressed ESR, ANA, CRP and TNF-α as compared with RA group. HL, LFP and LL reduced the IL-1β by 63.02%, 47.22%, 44.92%, while IL-6 cytokine production significantly decreased by 29.74%, 28.96%, and 23.93% for IL 6 as compared with RA. Hot pepper fruit (HF extract treated-group showed a significant decrease for ESR on the other hand there was non-significant difference for TNF-α, IL-6, IL1β, CRP and ANA as compared with RA. Histopathological examination indicated that LFP, LL and HL extracts alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. The data showed that all extracts except HF have significant anti-arthritic and anti-inflammation effects and suggest that these effects may be mediated via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Immunological effects and tolerability of a new fast updosed immunologically enhanced subcutaneous immunotherapy formulation with optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Jung, K; Wolf, H; Decot, E; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Wüstenberg, E

    2012-05-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) traditionally includes an updosing phase injecting increasing doses of allergen over a period of several weeks, followed by a maintenance phase. To establish shorter and more convenient updosing schedules, a fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation has been developed by optimizing the allergen/adjuvant (aluminium hydroxide) ratio. In a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis with/without asthma were treated with an immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation (AVANZ, ALK, Denmark). The trial included updosing with five injections (300, 600, 3000, 6000 and 15,000 SQ+) injected either in weekly interval (Group 1) or in 3-4 days interval (Group 2) followed by two maintenance injections (15,000 SQ+), approximately 10 weeks treatment. The immunological effects (primary endpoint) and tolerability (secondary endpoint) of the updosing schedules were evaluated. Four hundred patients were treated (Group 1: 201, Group 2: 199). In both groups, an immunological response with statistically significant increases in levels of IgE-blocking factor, IgG(4) and IgE (P trial. Most frequently reported adverse events were local injection site reactions such as injection site swellings (Group 1: 30% of patients, Group 2: 41% of patients). Other frequently reported adverse events included systemic reactions (Group 1: 21% of patients, Group 2: 33% of patients), primarily mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT with an optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio induced significant immunological effects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical efficacy will be investigated in future clinical trials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Immunomodulation by Quillaja saponaria adjuvant formulations: in vivo stimulation of interleukin 12 and its effects on the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacres-Eriksson, M; Behboudi, S; Morgan, A J; Trinchieri, G; Morein, B

    1997-02-01

    The capacity of adjuvants to activate Ag-presenting cells during the induction of the primary immune response is of critical importance for the development of protective immunity to a number of pathogens. In this context, interleukin 12 (IL-12) has a key role by controlling the differentiation of T helper cells and favouring the expansion of Th1 cells. The capacity of iscoms with influenza virus Ag (flu-iscoms) and iscom matrix with EBV gp340 Ag to induce IL-12 was analysed in mice. The flu-iscom drives the immune response towards a Th1 type subsequent to IL-12 induction as measured in the serum of H2b, H2d and H2k mice. The iscom presenting the Ag and adjuvant in the same particle was considerably more efficient than the formulation of matrix and Ag in separate particles. Inhibition experiments with mAb neutralizing IL-12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) or IL-4, the latter two cytokines representing the Th1 and Th2 type of responses, showed that iscoms induce a broader immune response than that involving IL-12. This was shown by the additional effect that IL-4 neutralization had on the immune response to iscoms. Anti-IL 12 reduced the specific total Ab as well as IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b while anti-IL 4 influenced the response to iscom by decreasing IgG2a and increasing IgG1. Further, the neutralization experiments indicate that IL-12 has a broader effect than IFN-gamma on the Ab response by influencing the production of IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b.

  14. A potent adjuvant effect of a CD1d-binding NKT cell ligand in human immune system mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Kaneko, Izumi; Zhang, Min; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Yuda, Masao; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-01-01

    A CD1d-binding invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, namely 7DW8-5, is shown to enhance the efficacy of radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS)-based malaria vaccine in mice. In the current study, we aim to determine whether 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect in human immune system (HIS) mice. HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, which possess both functional human iNKT cells and CD8+ T cells, were generated by the transduction of NSG mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 9 expressing genes that encode human CD1d molecules and HLA-A*0201, followed by the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. The magnitudes of human iNKT-cell response against 7DW8-5 and HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response against a human malaria antigen in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice were determined by using human CD1d tetramer and human HLA-A*0201 tetramer, respectively. We found that 7DW8-5 stimulates human iNKT cells in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, as well as those derived from HIS-A2/hCD1d mice in vitro. We also found that 7DW8-5 significantly increases the level of a human malarial antigen-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice. Our study indicates that 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect on RAS vaccine-induced anti-malarial immunity by augmenting malaria-specific human CD8+ T-cell response.

  15. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  16. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey cytoprotect...

  17. Late effects of high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on white and gray matter in breast cancer survivors: Converging results from multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Boogerd, Willem; Veltman, Dick J.; Caan, Matthan; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Lavini, Cristina; Linn, Sabine C.; Boven, Epie; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2012-01-01

    The neural substrate underlying cognitive impairments after chemotherapy is largely unknown. Here, we investigated very late (>9 years) effects of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy on brain white and gray matter in primary breast cancer survivors (n = 17) with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

  18. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Therapeutic Effects of PADRE-BAFF Autovaccine on Rat Adjuvant Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available B cell activating factor (BAFF is a cytokine of tumor necrosis factor family mainly produced by monocytes and dendritic cells. BAFF can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of B lymphocytes by binding with BAFF-R on B cell membrane. Accumulating evidences showed that BAFF played crucial roles and was overexpressed in various autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This suggests that BAFF may be a therapeutic target for these diseases. In the present study, we developed a BAFF therapeutic vaccine by coupling a T helper cell epitope AKFVAAWTLKAA (PADRE to the N terminus of BAFF extracellular domains (PADRE-BAFF and expressed this fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purified vaccine can induce high titer of neutralizing BAFF antibodies and ameliorate the syndrome of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Our data indicated that the BAFF autovaccine may be a useful candidate for the treatment of some autoimmune diseases associated with high level of BAFF.

  20. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  1. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan N. Christo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  2. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical “antigen.” In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a “combined” immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation. PMID:26247017

  3. Innate Immunity and Biomaterials at the Nexus: Friends or Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan N; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial implants are an established part of medical practice, encompassing a broad range of devices that widely differ in function and structural composition. However, one common property amongst biomaterials is the induction of the foreign body response: an acute sterile inflammatory reaction which overlaps with tissue vascularisation and remodelling and ultimately fibrotic encapsulation of the biomaterial to prevent further interaction with host tissue. Severity and clinical manifestation of the biomaterial-induced foreign body response are different for each biomaterial, with cases of incompatibility often associated with loss of function. However, unravelling the mechanisms that progress to the formation of the fibrotic capsule highlights the tightly intertwined nature of immunological responses to a seemingly noncanonical "antigen." In this review, we detail the pathways associated with the foreign body response and describe possible mechanisms of immune involvement that can be targeted. We also discuss methods of modulating the immune response by altering the physiochemical surface properties of the biomaterial prior to implantation. Developments in these areas are reliant on reproducible and effective animal models and may allow a "combined" immunomodulatory approach of adapting surface properties of biomaterials, as well as treating key immune pathways to ultimately reduce the negative consequences of biomaterial implantation.

  4. Effects of Trichilia monadelpha (Meliaceae extracts on bone histomorphology in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INEMESIT OKON BEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of petroleum ether extract (PEE, ethyl acetate extract (EthE, and ethanol extract (EAE of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark on bone histomorphology in arthritis. Methods: Percentage inhibition of edema and arthritic scores in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced (0.1 ml of 5 mgml-1 of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin oil injected sub-plantar into the right hind paw arthritic Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PEE, EthE, or EAE (10, 30, and 100 mgkg-1, dexamethasone (0.3-3.0 mgkg-1 or methotrexate (0.1–1.0 mgkg-1 over a 28-day period were estimated. Rat paws were radiographed and scored. Body weights were taken and paw tissues harvested for histopathological studies. Results: The extracts significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 and dose-dependently reduced the polyarthritic phase of arthritis. EAE and PEE significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 minimized edema spread from acute arthritic phase (day 0-10 to polyarthritic phase (day 10-28. EthE improved deteriorated body weight in arthritis. All extracts significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 improved arthritic score; reducing erythema, swelling and joint rigidity, and also significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 reduced hyperplasia, pannus formation, and exudation of inflammatory cells into synovial spaces. Conclusion: The stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha reduce bone tissue damage and resorption associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis, hence could be useful in managing arthritis in humans. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 177-185

  5. Beneficial Effects of Adjuvant Melatonin in Minimizing Oral Mucositis Complications in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Receiving Concurrent Chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onseng, Kittipong; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Khuayjarernpanishk, Thanut; Subongkot, Suphat; Priprem, Aroonsri; Hurst, Cameron; Johns, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Oral mucositis is a major cause of pain and delayed cancer treatment leading to poor survival in head and neck cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation. The study evaluated the effect of adjuvant melatonin on minimizing oral mucositis complications to reduce these treatment delays and interruptions. A randomized, double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-nine head and neck cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation (5 days/week of radiation plus chemotherapy three or six cycles). Patients were randomized to receive 20 mg melatonin gargle (or matched placebo) before each irradiation, and 20 mg melatonin capsules (or matched placebo) taken nightly during 7 weeks of concurrent chemoradiation. Endpoints were oral mucositis events (incidence and time to grade 3 mucositis or grade 2 xerostomia), pain medication consumption and quality of life (QOL). Melatonin group reported lower incidence of grade 3 oral mucositis (42% vs. 55%) and grade 2 xerostomia (20% vs. 21%); no statistical significance was detected. Melatonin regimen delayed onset of grade 3 mucositis (median 34 days vs. 50 days; p = 0.0318), allowing median time of 16 more patient visits before its onset and fewer interrupted treatments due to oral mucositis were reported (n = 1 vs. n = 5). There was no difference of grade 2 xerostomia (median 32 days vs. 50 days; p = 0.624). Morphine consumption was also reduced (median 57 mg vs. 0 mg; p = 0.0342), while QOL was comparable during the study period. Adjuvant melatonin delayed the onset of oral mucositis, which enables uninterrupted cancer treatment and reduced the amount of morphine used for pain treatment.

  6. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide BIomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urry, Dan

    1998-01-01

    To design elastic polypeptide biomaterials in order to achieve diverse forms of free energy transduction by these water-miscible hydrophobic folding and assembling macromolecules, thereby to elucidate...

  7. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

  8. Chemotherapy for endometrial carcinoma (GOGO-EM1 study): TEC (paclitaxel, epirubicin, and carboplatin) is an effective remission-induction and adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Ueda, Yutaka; Kuragaki, Chie; Miyake, Takahito; Miyatake, Takashi; Fujita, Masami; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Ryuichi; Okazawa, Mika; Tsutsui, Tateki; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Kimura, Tadashi; Yamasaki, Masato; Nishizaki, Takamichi; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Ito, Kimihiko; Asada, Masahiro; Ogita, Kazuhide; Wakimoto, Akinori; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Nishio, Yukihiro; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2011-12-01

    TAP chemotherapy (paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) is effective for advanced and recurrent endometrial carcinoma, but has occasional severe toxicity. TEC chemotherapy (paclitaxel, epirubicin, and carboplatin) has been suggested to have less toxicity; however, the optimal dosage has yet to be determined. Phase I/II prospective study for TEC therapy was performed. A retrospective comparison of the prognosis between adjuvant TEC therapy and radiation for completely resected cases with risk factors was also performed. The recommended dose of TEC therapy was determined to be paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2), epirubicin 50 mg/m(2), and carboplatin AUC 4. A TEC regimen at this dose level was shown to be tolerable. The response rate and median overall survival were 74% and 37 months for those with advanced primary disease (Group B) and 50% and 26 months for recurrent tumors (Group C), respectively. A retrospective comparison showed that adjuvant TEC therapy for completely resected stage III cases improved their prognosis when compared to an adjuvant radiation therapy. TEC therapy was demonstrated to be a tolerable and effective treatment, not only as a remission-induction therapy for advanced and recurrent endometrial carcinomas but also as the adjuvant therapy.

  9. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, M; Varalakshmi, P

    2007-04-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Withania somnifera Linn. Dunal (family-Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, on adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Results were compared with those for Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 mL) into the right hind paw of Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/day) and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day) were orally administered for 8 days (from 11th to 18th day) after adjuvant injection. The anti-arthritic effect of W. somnifera root powder was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, and glycoprotein levels in plasma and spleen of arthritic animals. In addition, cartilage degradation was also assessed by estimating bone collagen, and urinary constituents in arthritic animals. Results of the present investigation showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxides, glycoproteins, and urinary constituents with the depletion of antioxidant status and bone collagen in arthritic animals. These biochemical alterations observed were ameliorated significantly by oral administration of W. somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg body weight) in arthritic animals. The results of this study clearly indicate that W. somnifera root powder is capable of rectifying the above biochemical changes in adjuvant arthritis.

  10. Personalized treatment of women with early breast cancer: a risk-group specific cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy accounting for companion prognostic tests OncotypeDX and Adjuvant!Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Beate; Rochau, Ursula; Kurzthaler, Christina; Hubalek, Michael; Miksad, Rebecca; Sroczynski, Gaby; Paulden, Mike; Bundo, Marvin; Stenehjem, David; Brixner, Diana; Krahn, Murray; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-10-16

    Due to high survival rates and the relatively small benefit of adjuvant therapy, the application of personalized medicine (PM) through risk stratification is particularly beneficial in early breast cancer (BC) to avoid unnecessary harms from treatment. The new 21-gene assay (OncotypeDX, ODX) is a promising prognostic score for risk stratification that can be applied in conjunction with Adjuvant!Online (AO) to guide personalized chemotherapy decisions for early BC patients. Our goal was to evaluate risk-group specific cost effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early stage BC in Austria based on AO and ODX risk stratification. A previously validated discrete event simulation model was applied to a hypothetical cohort of 50-year-old women over a lifetime horizon. We simulated twelve risk groups derived from the joint application of ODX and AO and included respective additional costs. The primary outcomes of interest were life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER). The robustness of results and decisions derived were tested in sensitivity analyses. A cross-country comparison of results was performed. Chemotherapy is dominated (i.e., less effective and more costly) for patients with 1) low ODX risk independent of AO classification; and 2) low AO risk and intermediate ODX risk. For patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high ODX risk, the ICER is below 15,000 EUR/QALY (potentially cost effective depending on the willingness-to-pay). Applying the AO risk classification alone would miss risk groups where chemotherapy is dominated and thus should not be considered. These results are sensitive to changes in the probabilities of distant recurrence but not to changes in the costs of chemotherapy or the ODX test. Based on our modeling study, chemotherapy is effective and cost effective for Austrian patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high

  11. Effect of substitutional element in the microstructure and hardness of Ti-Zr system alloys used as biomaterials; Efeito do elemento substitucional na microestrutura e dureza de ligas do sistema Ti-Zr para aplicacao como biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Grandini, C.R., E-mail: diegornc@fc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais

    2010-07-01

    New titanium alloys had been developed with the aim of obtaining materials with improved properties for application as biomaterial, and alloys of the Ti-Zr system are among those most promising. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the zirconium concentration on microstructure and hardness of the Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr and Ti-15Zr alloys. After arc-melting melting, the samples were analyzed by chemical and gas composition, and characterized by density measurements, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness. The results showed a microstructure formed by alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure) and increased of hardness. (author)

  12. The Effect of Organic and Bio Fertilizers on Maize (Zea mays, and HydroMax Adjuvants Application on Optimizing of Nicosulfuron Herbicide Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Mamnoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of adjuvant on nicosulfuron herbicide efficacy improvement in maize weed control under organic fertilizers application, field study was conducted during 2013- 2014 at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of treatments with 16 treatments and three replications. Factors in this experiment were application of organic fertilizers (cow manure and vermicompost and bio fertilizer mycorrhiza, and a plot without fertilizer as control, nicosulfuron dose at 40, and 80 g a.i ha-1 (Cruz®,4% SC with and without the adjuvant of HydroMax™. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L., and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L were the dominant weeds in the experimental fields. Black nightshade and common purslane had the highest relative density 20 and 45 days after spraying (DAS. Results showed that application of hydromax adjuvant increased herbicide efficiency, significantly. However dry weight of common purslane, black nightshade and redroot pigweed decreased 84, 71, 86 and 71, 79, 100 %, when nicosulfuron applied at reduced dose (40 g a.i. ha-1 with adjuvant 20 and 45 DAS, respectively. On the other hand, seed yield and dry weight of maize increased 49 and 60 % respectively, when nicosulfuron applied at 40 g a.i. ha-1 with Hydromax pulse cow manure. 

  13. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) by a perip......BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB......) by a peripheral mechanism, compared to ropivacaine alone when controlling for systemic effects. METHODS: We conducted a paired, blinded, randomized trial in healthy volunteers. Participants received bilateral ACBs containing 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml clonidine 150μg/ml in one leg and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.......5% + 1 ml saline in the other leg. The primary outcome measure was duration of sensory block assessed by temperature sensation (alcohol swab). Secondary outcome measures were duration of sensory block assessed by: pinprick, maximum pain during tonic heat stimulation, warmth detection threshold and heat...

  14. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intini Francesco E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore avoiding the need to activate the platelets with an agonist. Methods First, we tested CS-Platelet in heterotopic (muscle and orthotopic (bone bone regeneration bioassays. We then utilized CS-Platelet in a variety of dental and craniofacial clinical cases, where regeneration of bone was needed. Results The heterotopic bioassay showed formation of bone within the muscular tissue at the site of the implantation of CS-Platelet. Results of a quantitative orthotopic bioassay based on the rat calvaria critical size defect showed that only CS-Platelet and recombinant human BMP2 were able to induce a significant regeneration of bone. A non-human primate orthotopic bioassay also showed that CS-Platelet is completely resorbable. In all human clinical cases where CS-Platelet was used, a complete bone repair was achieved. Conclusion This study showed that CS-Platelet is a novel biomaterial able to induce formation of bone in heterotopic and orthotopic sites, in orthotopic critical size bone defects, and in various clinical situations. The discovery of CS-Platelet may represent a cost-effective breakthrough in bone regenerative therapy and an alternative or an adjuvant to the current treatments.

  15. The effect of hydroxyapatite addition on the mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan biomaterials for bone scaffolds application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramahdita, Ghiska; Puspita, Debie Maya; Albab, Muh Fadhil; Alfata, Rowi; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman

    2018-02-01

    The increasing number of bone fracture incident in Indonesia from year to year needs an urgent problem solving of the limited bone substitute which can meet the necessary criteria for that purpose. Motivated by this, therefore, the current study is focusing on the optimization of material properties used as bone scaffold. A biomaterial of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite was successfully made by wet chemistry method, followed by freeze thawing and freeze drying. For comparison purposes, the percentage of HA has been varied from 0, 25 and 40 % (wt/v). The resulting composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, and swelling behavior. The results showed that the addition of HA up to 40% (wt/v) has yielded a porous structure with an average pore size of 42.39 µm. In addition, the compressive modulus was enhanced from 14 MPa for 0% HA to 143, and 191 MPa for composites with the addition of HA from 25 to 40% (wt/v). The addition of HA has also reduced the swelling ratio from 296% for the sample without HA to 85 and 78 % for sample with addition of HA from 25 to 40 (wt/v), respectively. The obtained results show that PVA/chitosan-HA in this study is potential to be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  16. Biomaterials: An Introduction for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Renee B.

    1996-01-01

    Contains an overview of biomaterials, an interdisciplinary field in which research combines medicine, biological sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. Biomaterials are substances which improve quality of life by augmenting or replacing bodily tissues or functions. Highlights problems associated with collection development and literature…

  17. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Mariana G. de, E-mail: marianagm@fem.unicamp.br; Salvador, Camilo F., E-mail: csalvador@fem.unicamp.br; Cremasco, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra@fem.unicamp.br; Caram, Rubens, E-mail: caram@fem.unicamp.br

    2015-12-15

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) on α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.

  18. Pulmonary toxicity and adjuvant effect of di-(2-exylhexyl phthalate in ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease, which is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways. The majority of asthma is allergic asthma, which is a disease caused by type I hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. Exposures to a number of environmental chemicals are suspected to lead to asthma, one such pollutant is di-(2-ethylheyl phthalate (DEHP. DEHP is a manufactured chemical that is commonly added in plastic products to make them flexible. Epidemiological studies have revealed a positive association between DEHP exposure and asthma prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study was aimed to determine the underlying role of DEHP exposure in airway reactivity, especially when combined with allergen exposure. The biomarkers include pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (lung function, IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils. Healthy balb/c mice were randomly divided into eight exposure groups (n = 8 each: (1 saline control, (2 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (3 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (4 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (5 ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized group, (6 OVA-combined with 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (7 OVA-combined with 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (8 OVA-combined with 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP. Experimental tests were conducted after 52-day DEHP exposure and subsequently one week of challenge with aerosolized OVA. The principal findings include: (1 Strong postive associations exist between OVA-combined DEHP exposure and serum total IgE (T-IgE, as well as histological findings. These positive associations show a dose-dependent low dose sensitive effect of DEHP. (2 IL-4, eosinophil recruitment and lung function are also indicators for adjuvant effect of DEHP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that except the significant changes of immunological and inflammatory biomarkers (T-IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils, the pulmonary histological (histopathological

  19. Chronic fatigue syndrome with autoantibodies--the result of an augmented adjuvant effect of hepatitis-B vaccine and silicone implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy, Agmon-Levin; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2008-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) that defines by prolonged fatigue and other manifestations, was recently integrated into a spectrum of central sensitivity syndromes including several diseases as fibromylagia. CFS etiology is multi-factorial commonly triggered by infectious agents. Vaccines, induce an immune response similarly to infections, and may trigger just like infections autoimmune diseases, CFS and fibromyalgia. Furthermore vaccines contain an adjuvant which enhances their immune stimulation. A 56-year-old woman was diagnosed with CFS accompanied by fibromyalgia, demyelination and autoantibodies. Her illness begun following the 2nd dose of hepatitis-B vaccine, and was aggravated by the 3rd vaccination. She underwent silicone breast implantation 6 years before vaccination with no adverse events. However, between the 2nd and 3rd vaccination she suffered a breast injury with local inflammation. Upon explanation of her breast implants silicone leak was observed. Vaccines have been reported to precede CFS mainly following exposure to multiple vaccinations (e.g. the Gulf war syndrome), or as an adverse response to the vaccine adjuvant (e.g. the macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome). Silicone is considered an adjuvant to the immune system, and may induce "the adjuvant disease". Silicone implant, especially silicone leak relationship with autoimmunity and CFS has been the focus of considerable debates. Our patient illness started following hepatitis-B vaccine, suggesting that it was caused or accelerated by vaccination. In parallel to vaccination our patient suffered from breast injury, which might represent the time of silicone leak. The exposure to the adjuvant, silicone, might have augmented her immune response to the vaccine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of combined adverse effect to vaccine and silicone. Vaccine safety in individuals with silicone implants requires further studies.

  20. Anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects of traditional Chinese herb couple in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting; Cheng, Tao-Fang; Jia, Yu-Ran; Li, Ping; Li, Fei

    2017-06-09

    Clematis chinensis Osbeck / Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H, T-Chang (CN) is a traditional Chinese herb couple with prominent efficacy. The herb couple has been commonly used for clinical treatment of arthralgia syndrome ("Bi Zheng" in Chinese) for centuries in China, including rheumatic arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout in modern medicine. To evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of CN herb couple in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rats were divided randomly into six groups with eight each. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model was established by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Rats were treated orally with different dosages of CN (0.7g/kg, 2.1g/kg, 6.3g/kg) from day 16 till day 40. Ibuprofen (50.4mg/kg) served as a positive control. Spontaneous activity, body weight, paw swelling, and arthritis index (AI) were monitored throughout drug treatment. Then serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In addition, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the severity of arthritis. Three dosage of CN significantly ameliorated symptoms of RA via increasing body weight as well as reducing paw swelling (at dose of 6.3g/kg, p<0.01) in AIA rats. An extremely significant reduction of AI (p<0.001) was also observed with treatment of CN (6.3g/kg) compared with model group. In parallel, treatment of CN significantly down-regulated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and VEGF both in serum (p<0.01) and in joint synovial compared with model rats. And histopathology revealed noticeable reduction in synovial hyperplasia, cartilage damage, and inflammatory infiltration by CN treatment, especially at dose of 6.3g/kg. To conclude, all results suggest that CN possesses evident anti-arthritic effects in AIA rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on cosmetic outcome and late normal-tissue reactions after breast conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Joergen [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Overgaard, Jens [Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Danish Cancer Society, Aarhus (Denmark); Overgaard, Marie [Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    5.0 (2.0-12.5) and 9.6 (3.3-27.7) in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients, respectively. To circumvent the strong interaction between tamoxifen treatment and axillary irradiation, a subsequent analysis omitting axillary treatment from the multivariate regression showed a significant effect of both tamoxifen and CMF on the occurrence of breast fibrosis with relative risks of 5.3 (CI 1.8-15.8) and 4.4 (1.8-10.3), respectively. Adjuvant systemic treatment with CMF given sequentially to radiotherapy independently predicted an adverse cosmetic outcome as well as increased skin telangiectasia after breast conserving treatment. Due to a strong interaction between tamoxifen administration and radiation to the regional lymph nodes, the effect of tamoxifen on the development of fibrosis could not be fully discerned in this study. Axillary irradiation increased the incidence of moderate to severe breast fibrosis in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients.

  2. Suppressive effects of QFGJS, a preparation from an anti-arthritic herbal formula, on rat experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiong; Zhou Hua; Wong Yuenfan; Xie Ying; Liu Zhong Qiu; Jiang Zhhong; Bian Zhaoxiang; Xu Hongxi; Liu Liang

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the anti-arthritic effects of QFGJS (a pharmaceutical preparation from herbs) on rheumatoid arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was established in male SD rats, and two administration protocols, i.e., oral treatment with different doses of QFGJS on the day of arthritis induction or on the day when visible clinical signs of arthritis occurred, were initiated and continued until day 30. Treatments with QFGJS using both administration protocols significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of arthritis in a dose-dependent manner, showing dramatic reduction of paw swelling and ESR throughout the disease progression of AIA. Radiological and histopathological examinations showed markedly decreased tissue and bone destruction of ankle joints in the QFGJS-treated rats. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly decreased in the QFGJS-treated rats. QFGJS demonstrates pronounced anti-arthritic effects on AIA, indicating that this herbal preparation would be a potent candidate as a novel botanical drug for further investigation

  3. Elimination of aluminum adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Stanley L

    2002-05-31

    In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in New Zealand White rabbits of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, which were labelled with 26Al, revealed that 26Al was present in the first blood sample (1 h) for both adjuvants. The area under the blood level curve for 28 days indicated that three times more aluminum was absorbed from aluminum phosphate adjuvant than aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In vivo studies using 26Al-labelled adjuvants are relatively safe because accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can quantify quantities of 26Al as small as 10(-17) g. A similar study in humans would require a whole-body exposure of 0.7 microSv per year compared to the natural background exposure of 3000 microSv per year. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies indicate that aluminum-containing adjuvants which are administered intramuscularly are dissolved by alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids in interstitial fluid, absorbed into the blood, distributed to tissues, and eliminated in the urine.

  4. Colocalization of a CD1d-Binding Glycolipid with a Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoite Vaccine in Lymph Node-Resident Dendritic Cells for a Robust Adjuvant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D; Miller, Jessica L; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N; Porcelli, Steven A; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H I; Ho, David D; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-09-15

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant NK T cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the current study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered i.m. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. Although both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected i.v., after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. coadministration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response induced by IrPySpz and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the colocalization of a CD1d-binding invariant NK T cell-stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like radiation-attenuated sporozoites, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoint administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Aksoy, Sefika N; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post-botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 74.45 ± 3.72; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 72.43 ± 4.29) group significantly higher than for the baclofen group (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 68.23 ± 2.66; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 67.53 ± 2.67, P effective and has fewer side effects versus baclofen with adjuvant botulinum toxin A. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Trends in biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kothiyal, G P

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials research requires the union of materials scientists, engineers, biologists, biomedical doctors, and surgeons. Societal implications have invoked tremendous interest in this area of research in recent years. What started as a search for strong and durable implant materials has now led to path-breaking developments in tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, and tissue scaffolds. Viable applications of mesoporous structures, polymer biocomposites, and fibers (synthetic and natural) in the areas of clinical orthopedics, controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, orthodontics, etc., have emerged as relatively recent concepts. This book presents recent results related to both materials aspects and implant issues. The focus is on structural, magnetic, antibacterial, bioactivity/compatibility, mechanical, and other related properties and the implication of these results on biomedical applications. The book discusses technical problems faced by the surgeon during implant fixation in total hip repla...

  7. Biomaterials in orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Michiardi, A; Castaño, O; Planell, J.A

    2008-01-01

    At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field. PMID:18667387

  8. Effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization on postoperative survival of patients with liver cancer and related influencing factors for prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Zhixiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization (TACE on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, as well as influencing factors for prognosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 215 HCC patients who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2007 to December 2012. According to whether TACE was given after hepatectomy, these patients were divided into single group with 95 patients and combination group with 120 patients. A comparative analysis was performed for the two groups. The patients in the single group were given hepatectomy alone, and those in the combination group were given hepatectomy followed by TACE at one month after surgery. General status, treatment condition, and related clinical indices were recorded for both groups, and the two groups were compared in terms of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates and disease-free survival rates after surgery. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for comparison of survival rates between groups, and univariate analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to investigate the influencing factors for prognosis after hepatectomy. ResultsIn the combination group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 96.5%, 67.0%, and 51.0%, respectively, with a median survival time of 51 months; in the single group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 84.0%,49.5%, and 36.5%, respectively, with a median survival time of 39 months; there was a significant difference in survival rates between the two groups (χ2=5.540, P=0.018. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 91.7%, 62.5%, and 37.5%, respectively, in the combination group and 84.0%, 42.1%, and 26.3%, respectively, in the single

  9. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with a radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccine in LN-resident DCs for a robust adjuvant effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Ho, David D.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the present study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered intramuscularly (i.m.). Therefore, we evaluated the impact of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. While both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected intravenously, after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. co-administration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8+ T-cell response induced by IrPySpz, and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the co-localization of a CD1d-binding iNKT-cell stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like RAS, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoin administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. PMID:26254338

  10. Carbohydrate-based vaccine adjuvants - discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Qiu, Liying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zou, Xiaopeng; Lu, Mengji; Yin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The addition of a suitable adjuvant to a vaccine can generate significant effective adaptive immune responses. There is an urgent need for the development of novel po7tent and safe adjuvants for human vaccines. Carbohydrate molecules are promising adjuvants for human vaccines due to their high biocompatibility and good tolerability in vivo. The present review covers a few promising carbohydrate-based adjuvants, lipopolysaccharide, trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate, QS-21 and inulin as examples, which have been extensively studied in human vaccines in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. The authors discuss the current status, applications and strategies of development of each adjuvant and different adjuvant formulation systems. This information gives insight regarding the exciting prospect in the field of carbohydrate-based adjuvant research. Carbohydrate-based adjuvants are promising candidates as an alternative to the Alum salts for human vaccines development. Furthermore, combining two or more adjuvants in one formulation is one of the effective strategies in adjuvant development. However, further research efforts are needed to study and develop novel adjuvants systems, which can be more stable, potent and safe. The development of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry can improve the study of carbohydrate-based adjuvants.

  11. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Reid, Robert D; Friedenreich, Christine M; Ladha, Aliya B; Proulx, Caroline; Vallance, Jeffrey K H; Lane, Kirstin; Yasui, Yutaka; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer chemotherapy may cause unfavorable changes in physical functioning, body composition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life (QOL). We evaluated the relative merits of aerobic and resistance exercise in blunting these effects. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Canada between 2003 and 2005 that randomly assigned 242 breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy to usual care (n = 82), supervised resistance exercise (n = 82), or supervised aerobic exercise (n = 78) for the duration of their chemotherapy (median, 17 weeks; 95% CI, 9 to 24 weeks). Our primary end point was cancer-specific QOL assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia scale. Secondary end points were fatigue, psychosocial functioning, physical fitness, body composition, chemotherapy completion rate, and lymphedema. The follow-up assessment rate for our primary end point was 92.1%, and adherence to the supervised exercise was 70.2%. Unadjusted and adjusted mixed-model analyses indicated that aerobic exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .015), aerobic fitness (P = .006), and percent body fat (adjusted P = .076). Resistance exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .018), muscular strength (P exercise groups but did not reach statistical significance. Exercise did not cause lymphedema or adverse events. Neither aerobic nor resistance exercise significantly improved cancer-specific QOL in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but they did improve self-esteem, physical fitness, body composition, and chemotherapy completion rate without causing lymphedema or significant adverse events.

  13. Adjuvant effect of a probiotic fermented milk in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar typhimurium infection: mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moreno De Leblanc, A; Maldonado Galdeano, C; Dogi, C A; Carmuega, E; Weill, R; Perdigón, G

    2010-01-01

    Probiotics may offer protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium infection via different mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate, using mouse models, the effect of the administration of fermented milk containing the probiotic bacteria L. casei DN-114 001 in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium when this product is administered continuously before and after infection or only post-infection. The adjuvant effect of this probiotic fermented milk (PFM) against S. Typhimurium was also evaluated in newborn mice, whose mothers received the PFM during the suckling period or their offspring after weaning. The results obtained showed that PFM administration after salmonella infection was useful to decrease the severity of the infection. The best effect was obtained with continuous PFM administration. In the newborn mice model, PFM administration to the newborn mice after weaning showed the best effect against the pathogen. PFM administration to the mother during the suckling period was beneficial against this enterophatogen when their offspring did not receive probiotics after weaning. Continuous PFM administration to adult mice (before and after infection) was important to maintain the intestinal barrier and the immune surveillance in optimal conditions to diminish the pathway of entrance of salmonella and the spread of this pathogen to deeper tissues. In the newborn mice model, it was observed that PFM administration to the offspring after weaning or their mother during the suckling period had a protective effect against salmonella infection, however, in the mice from mothers that received PFM during nursing which were fed with PFM after weaning, we found a down regulated immune maturity that was not protective against this infection.

  14. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Della Bona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different substrates, which has offered a great challenge to dental zirconia research and development. This study characterizes zirconia as a dental biomaterial, presenting the current consensus and challenges to its dental applications.

  15. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of {sup 3}H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs.

  16. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of 3 H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs

  17. The "adjuvant effect" of the polymorphic B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex analyzed using purified molecules incorporated in liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Eriksson, H; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The polymorphic B-G region of the chicken major histocompatibility complex has previously been shown to mediate an "adjuvant effect" on the humoral response to other erythrocyte alloantigens. We demonstrate here that B-G molecules purified with monoclonal antibodies exert this adjuvant effect...... on the production of alloantibodies to chicken class I (B-F) molecules, when the two are in the same liposome. The adjuvant effect may in part be mediated by antibodies, since the antibody response to B-G molecules occurs much faster than the response to B-F molecules, and conditions in which antibodies to B-G...... are present increase the speed of the response to B-F molecules. We also found that the presence of B-G molecules in separate liposomes results in a lack of response to B-F molecules. In the light of this and other data, we consider the possible roles for the polymorphic B-G molecules, particularly...

  18. The effect of tensile and compressive loading on the hierarchical strength of idealized tropocollagen-hydroxyapatite biomaterials as a function of the chemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Devendra K; Tomar, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    Hard biomaterials such as bone, dentin and nacre have primarily a polypeptide phase (e.g. tropocollagen (TC)) and a mineral phase (e.g. hydroxyapatite (HAP) or aragonite) arranged in a staggered manner. It has been observed that the mechanical behaviour of such materials changes with the chemical environment and the direction of applied loading. In the presented investigation, explicit three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based analyses are performed on idealized TC-HAP composite biomaterial systems to understand the effects of tensile and compressive loadings in three different chemical environments: (1) unsolvated, (2) solvated with water and (3) calcinated and solvated with water. The MD analyses are performed on two interfacial supercells corresponding to the lowest structural level (level n) of TC-HAP interactions and on two other supercells with HAP supercells arranged in a staggered manner (level n+1) in a TC matrix. The supercells at level n+1 are formed by arranging level n interfacial supercells in a staggered manner. Analyses show that at level n, the presence of water molecules results in greater stability of TC molecules and TC-HAP interfaces during mechanical deformation. In addition, water also acts as a lubricant between adjacent TC molecules. Under the application of shear stress dominated loading, water molecules act to strengthen the TC-HAP interfacial strength in a manner similar to the action of glue. An overall effect of the observed mechanisms is that, in a staggered arrangement, tensile strength increases in the presence of water and calcinated water environments. On the other hand, corresponding compressive strength decreases under similar circumstances. Fundamentally, supercells with primarily normal load transfer at the TC-HAP interfaces are stronger in tensile shear loading. On the other hand, supercells with primarily tangential or shear load transfer at the TC-HAP interfaces are stronger in compressive shear loading. A

  19. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Della Bona; Oscar E. Pecho; Rodrigo Alessandretti

    2015-01-01

    Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different subs...

  20. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  1. Ki67 expression and the effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy on luminal HER2-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Yoshiya; Arakawa, Atsushi; Tanabe, Masahiko; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Igari, Fumie; Senuma, Koji; Tokuda, Emi; Shimizu, Hideo; Kosaka, Taijiro; Saito, Mitsue

    2014-07-30

    Patients with luminal HER2-negative tumours have a favourable prognosis. However, there is a subpopulation in which poorer outcomes are obtained with endocrine therapy alone. This subpopulation is considered to benefit from chemotherapy. However, the significance of chemotherapy for those with luminal tumours has decreased due to recent changes in treatment strategies. Thus, it is often difficult to determine whether we should recommend chemotherapy to such patients in clinical practice. We investigated Ki67 expression, as a means of predicting the responses of luminal HER2-negative breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), in order to identify a subpopulation that would benefit from these treatments. We enrolled 114 luminal HER2-negative breast cancer patients undergoing surgery after NAC. Biomarkers were examined using biopsy specimens obtained prior to treatment, to avoid any chemotherapy-related effects. Chemotherapy effects were determined employing operative specimens and we defined pathological complete response (pCR) as invasive nest disappearance, based only on the primary breast tumour. We applied receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to data from our 114 patients, to investigate Ki67 expression as a predictor of pCR. The pCR rate was significantly higher for tumours with high Ki67 expression (p Ki67 cut-off value which distinguishes those with a pCR from other cases. Another dataset, comprised of 196 patients with a median 29-month observation period, was recruited for validation. Disease-free survival was found to be significantly (p Ki67 expression was higher than 35%. Our results raise the possibility of the luminal HER2-negative subpopulation with Ki67 expression higher than 35% benefiting from chemotherapy, as evidenced by improved survival.

  2. To reduce the maximum stress and the stress shielding effect around a dental implant-bone interface using radial functionally graded biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H; Ayatollahi, M R; Asnafi, A

    2017-05-01

    In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants. To overcome these problems, a radial distributed functionally graded biomaterial (FGBM) was proposed in this paper and the effect of material property on the stress distribution around the dental implant-bone interface was studied. A three-dimensional finite element simulation was used to illustrate how the use of radial FGBM dental implant can reduce the maximum von Mises stress and, also the stress shielding effect in both the cortical and cancellous bones. The results, of course, give anybody an idea about optimized behaviors that can be achieved using such materials. The finite element solver was validated by familiar methods and the results were compared to previous works in the literature.

  3. Effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials on in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Type-I/III collagen membranes are advocated for clinical use in articular cartilage repair as being able of inducing chondrogenesis, a technique termed autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Area covered: The current in vitro and translational in vivo evidence for chondrogenic effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials. Expert commentary: In vitro, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) adhere to the fibers of the type-I/III collagen membrane. No in vitro study provides evidence that a type-I/III collagen matrix alone may induce chondrogenesis. Few in vitro studies compare the effects of type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds on chondrogenesis. Recent investigations suggest better chondrogenesis with type-II collagen scaffolds. A systematic review of the translational in vivo data identified one long-term study showing that covering of cartilage defects treated by microfracture with a type-I/III collagen membrane significantly enhanced the repair tissue volume compared with microfracture alone. Other in vivo evidence is lacking to suggest either improved histological structure or biomechanical function of the repair tissue. Taken together, there is a paucity of in vitro and preclinical in vivo evidence supporting the concept that solid acellular type-I/III collagen scaffolds may be superior to classical approaches to induce in vitro or in vivo chondrogenesis of MSCs.

  4. Effects of temperature and mixing on polymer adjuvant migration to corn oil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limm, W; Hollifield, H C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of mixing on the migration of Irganox 1010 antioxidant from polypropylene and high-density polyethylene to water and corn oil was compared at 77, 100, and 135 degrees C. Irganox 1010 migration to water is enhanced almost five-fold by mixing at 77 degrees C, whereas at 135 degrees C, mixing has only a nominal effect on migration. Irganox 1010 migration to corn oil is virtually unaffected by mixing at the temperatures studied. Migration data indicate a similar trend for Irganox 1076.

  5. Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic

  6. The natural stilbenoid pinosylvin and activated neutrophils: effects on oxidative burst, protein kinase C, apoptosis and efficiency in adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Perečko, T.; Nosál, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.; Drábiková, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2012), s. 1285-1292 ISSN 1671-4083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : pinosylvin * reactive oxygen species * adjuvant arthritis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.354, year: 2012

  7. The analgesic effect of clonidine as an adjuvant in dorsal penile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) is a commonly performed regional anesthetic technique for male circumcision. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of the adjunction of clonidine to bupivacaine 0.5% in this block. Methods: It was a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial including ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of Tripterygium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Wu, Tao; Li, Ji; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xue-jun; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yang, Shu-yu

    2012-08-15

    Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHF) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects and its clinical use was restricted to some extent due to some toxic effects on the digestive, urogenital, and blood circulatory systems, especially the male reproductive system. In the previous study, we had confirmed that TWHF-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have protective effects on male reproductive toxicity in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of TWHF-SLN remain to be unidentified. The present study was focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats treated with TWHF-SLN as well as the effects of SLN delivery system on decreasing the hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium. Sixty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats each. From day 18 after FCA injection, TWHF-SLN group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) and TWHF group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage for 24 consecutive days. The control group was with saline and model control group was without any treatment. The volume of the right hind paws was evaluated at 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 42 days post-injection of FCA by a home-made connected device. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated by an autoanalyzer. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels were determined using commercial kits. The PG level in sera was examined by double antibody sandwich method. Tissue histopathology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The results show that TWHF-SLN can significantly reduce rat paw volume at 60 mg/kg (psystem can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of TWHF, and meanwhile has a protective effect against TWHF

  9. Effective Respiratory CD8 T-Cell Immunity to Influenza Virus Induced by Intranasal Carbomer-Lecithin-Adjuvanted Non-replicating Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, David J; Neldner, Brandon; Plisch, Erin H; Rustom, Hani; Carrow, Emily; Imai, Hirotaka; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Suresh, M

    2016-12-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for clearing many viral infections, and protective CTL memory can be induced by vaccination with attenuated viruses and vectors. Non-replicating vaccines are typically potentiated by the addition of adjuvants that enhance humoral responses, however few are capable of generating CTL responses. Adjuplex is a carbomer-lecithin-based adjuvant demonstrated to elicit robust humoral immunity to non-replicating antigens. We report that mice immunized with non-replicating Adjuplex-adjuvanted vaccines generated robust antigen-specific CTL responses. Vaccination by the subcutaneous or the intranasal route stimulated systemic and mucosal CTL memory respectively. However, only CTL memory induced by intranasal vaccination was protective against influenza viral challenge, and correlated with an enhancement of memory CTLs in the airways and CD103+ CD69+ CXCR3+ resident memory-like CTLs in the lungs. Mechanistically, Myd88-deficient mice mounted primary CTL responses to Adjuplex vaccines that were similar in magnitude to wild-type mice, but exhibited altered differentiation of effector cell subsets. Immune potentiating effects of Adjuplex entailed alterations in the frequency of antigen-presenting-cell subsets in vaccine draining lymph nodes, and in the lungs and airways following intranasal vaccination. Further, Adjuplex enhanced the ability of dendritic cells to promote antigen-induced proliferation of naïve CD8 T cells by modulating antigen uptake, its intracellular localization, and rate of processing. Taken together, we have identified an adjuvant that elicits both systemic and mucosal CTL memory to non-replicating antigens, and engenders protective CTL-based heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus in the respiratory tract. Further, findings presented in this manuscript have provided key insights into the mechanisms and factors that govern the induction and programming of systemic and protective memory CTLs in the

  10. Effective Respiratory CD8 T-Cell Immunity to Influenza Virus Induced by Intranasal Carbomer-Lecithin-Adjuvanted Non-replicating Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Gasper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs are critical for clearing many viral infections, and protective CTL memory can be induced by vaccination with attenuated viruses and vectors. Non-replicating vaccines are typically potentiated by the addition of adjuvants that enhance humoral responses, however few are capable of generating CTL responses. Adjuplex is a carbomer-lecithin-based adjuvant demonstrated to elicit robust humoral immunity to non-replicating antigens. We report that mice immunized with non-replicating Adjuplex-adjuvanted vaccines generated robust antigen-specific CTL responses. Vaccination by the subcutaneous or the intranasal route stimulated systemic and mucosal CTL memory respectively. However, only CTL memory induced by intranasal vaccination was protective against influenza viral challenge, and correlated with an enhancement of memory CTLs in the airways and CD103+ CD69+ CXCR3+ resident memory-like CTLs in the lungs. Mechanistically, Myd88-deficient mice mounted primary CTL responses to Adjuplex vaccines that were similar in magnitude to wild-type mice, but exhibited altered differentiation of effector cell subsets. Immune potentiating effects of Adjuplex entailed alterations in the frequency of antigen-presenting-cell subsets in vaccine draining lymph nodes, and in the lungs and airways following intranasal vaccination. Further, Adjuplex enhanced the ability of dendritic cells to promote antigen-induced proliferation of naïve CD8 T cells by modulating antigen uptake, its intracellular localization, and rate of processing. Taken together, we have identified an adjuvant that elicits both systemic and mucosal CTL memory to non-replicating antigens, and engenders protective CTL-based heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus in the respiratory tract. Further, findings presented in this manuscript have provided key insights into the mechanisms and factors that govern the induction and programming of systemic and protective memory

  11. Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation: clinical findings and its effect on hepcidin mRNA expression in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoferremia observed during systemic inflammatory disorders is regulated by hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation is particularly important during acute inflammation, as it restricts the availability of iron, which is necessary for pathogenic microorganism growth before adaptive immunity occurs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in horses using a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA model of inflammation. The expression of hepcidin mRNA in the liver was determined in healthy horses following two intramuscular injections of FCA at 0 h and 12 h. Plasma iron and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at multiple time points between 0 h and 240 h post-FCA injection (PI. Hepcidin mRNA expression was determined by RT-qPCR using liver biopsy samples performed at 0 h (control, 6 h and 18 h PI. The mean plasma fibrinogen level was significantly different from the control values only between 120 and 216 h PI. The mean plasma iron level was significantly lower than the control between 16 and 72 h PI, reaching the lowest levels at 30 h PI (33 % of the initial value, and returned to the reference value from 96 h PI to the end of the experiment. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased at 6 h PI and remained high at 18 h PI. The iron plasma concentration was an earlier indicator of inflammatory processes in horses when compared with fibrinogen and might be useful for the early detection of inflammation in the horse. FCA administration caused the rapid onset of hypoferremia, and this effect was likely the result of up-regulated hepatic hepcidin gene expression. This study emphasizes the importance of hepcidin and iron metabolism during inflammation in horses.

  12. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San; Schafer, Elizabeth; Burrage, Thomas G.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co 2+ affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni 2+ -chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A 24 FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A 24 FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  13. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, CANR, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Schafer, Elizabeth [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Burrage, Thomas G. [Department of Homeland Security, S & T, Targeted Advance Development, Virus, Cellular and Molecular Imaging Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Hoeprich, Paul D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: Elizabeth.Rieder@ars.usda.gov [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co{sup 2+} affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni{sup 2+}-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A{sub 24} FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A{sub 24} FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  14. Iron supply to soybean plants through the foliar application of IDHA/Fe3+: effect of plant nutritional status and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Ropero, Edgar; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Fe chelates are commonly used to overcome Fe deficiencies in crops, but most of them are scarcely biodegradable. Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA) is a biodegradable chelating agent that is currently being evaluated as an alternative to EDTA. In this work, the efficacy of the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) to soybean chlorotic plants under controlled conditions was studied, testing the influence of the adjuvant used and of the plant nutritional status. When IDHA/Fe(3+) was applied to soybean plants with severe Fe chlorosis and the foliar sprays were the sole source of Fe, this chelate behaved similarly to the EDTA/Fe(3+) and the recovery of the plants was slight in both cases. The same chelates were tested when foliar sprays were an additional source of Fe for mildly chlorotic plants, which were also being supplied with low concentrations of Fe applied to the nutrient solution. Then, plant recovery was appreciable in all cases, and the IDHA/Fe(3+) was as effective as EDTA/Fe(3+). Among the adjuvants studied, a urea-based product was the only one that did not damage the leaf surface and that could improve the efficiency of IDHA/Fe(3+) up tp the level of EDTA/Fe(3+). Thus, it was concluded the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the non-biodegradable chelate EDTA/Fe(3+) when the appropriate adjuvant is used. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine for a potent adjuvant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Kawamura, Akira; Funakoshi, Ryota; Porcelli, Steven A; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-05-31

    A CD1d-binding, invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), has been shown to act as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying a higher binding affinity for CD1d molecule and more potent adjuvant activity than αGalCer. In the present study, 7DW8-5 co-administered intramuscularly (i.m.) with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), AdPyCS, has led to a co-localization of 7DW8-5 and a PyCSP in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), particularly in dendritic cells (DCs). This occurrence initiates a cascade of events, such as the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and their activation and maturation, and the enhancement of the ability of DCs to prime CD8+ T cells induced by AdPyCS and ultimately leading to a potent adjuvant effect and protection against malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic effects of oral liothyronine on aluminum phosphide poisoning as an adjuvant therapy: A clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharbari, M H; Taghaddosinejad, F; Arefi, M; Sharifzadeh, M; Mojtahedzadeh, M; Nikfar, S; Baeeri, M; Rahimifard, M; Abdollahi, M

    2018-02-01

    In aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning, death is mainly due to cardiovascular failure and refractory acute heart failure. There is a lot of evidence showing thyroid hormones have cardioprotective effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral liothyronine in the treatment of AlP poisoning. Twenty-four patients from intensive care unit of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were included based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly divided into two parallel groups of 12 cases and 12 controls. Intervention in the case group was administration of 50 µg liothyronine via nasogastric tube after gastric lavage, in the first 6 h of poisoning. In both groups, the routine treatment of AlP poisoning was performed. Blood samples were prepared at the beginning of the study and after 12 h. Patients were followed up till discharge from the hospital or death. The findings demonstrated that oral liothyronine was able to significantly improve systolic blood pressure, arterial blood pH, and total thiol molecules and also could decrease lipid peroxidation, increase catalase activity, and prevent further decline in total antioxidant capacity. Liothyronine administration is effective in controlling AlP poisoning and can improve patients' outcome.

  17. Drug switch because of treatment-related adverse side effects in endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy: how often and how often does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Uwe; Myrick, Mary Elizabeth; Schötzau, Andreas; Kilic, Nerbil; Schmid, Seraina Margaretha

    2011-10-01

    Therapy-related adverse side effects are a main reason for non-persistence to adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy. This study reports frequency of drug-related adverse side effects that were so severe that a modification of the therapy was necessary. We evaluated how many patients discontinued adjuvant endocrine therapy because of these side effects (non-persistence). Last, we analyzed how often a drug switch was undertaken for this reason and how often this measure led to the patient successfully continuing their endocrine therapy. Data concerning all postmenopausal breast cancer patients (≤ 80 years), who initiated endocrine adjuvant therapy between 1998 and 2008 in a Swiss breast center (n = 400), were analyzed. Out of these 400 women, 37 (9.3%) were defined as being non-persistent to the therapy; out of these, 24 (64.9%) because of therapy-related side effects. About 78 patients (19.5%) suffered from severe therapy-related side effects that made a modification of therapy necessary. Out of these 78 cases, 14 patients (17.9%) stopped the therapy without attempting a drug switch (non-persistence). In 64 patients (82.1%; 16% of all women who started endocrine therapy), a drug switch was undertaken. Out of these 64 cases, in 52 cases (81.3%) endocrine therapy was completed after therapy modification. Patients who reported one major adverse effect were more likely to continue the endocrine therapy after a drug switch (P = 0.048) compared with those who suffered from at least two different side effects. In 10 of the 64 cases (15.6%), modification of the therapy was not successful and the patients stopped the treatment prematurely (non-persistence) because of ongoing side effects. In cases when therapy-related side effects occur, a drug switch is a promising step to further improve persistence and, by doing so, the outcome of breast cancer patients.

  18. Radio-adjuvant effects of ginsan on murine breast carcinoma xenografted model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji Young; Son, Hyeog Jin; Kim, Hyung Doo; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In a number of studies, polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocyte, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. Macrophages are the first line of defense to infections or pathogens in host innate immunity. In addition, it plays a prominent role as a professional antigen presenting cells to trigger cellular immunity. In the light of that, the current study was designed to evaluate whether ginsan exhibits anti-tumor effect as well as synergistic function with chemo- or radio-therapy.

  19. Adsorptive Removal of Metal Ions from Water using Functionalized Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kanchanmala

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis and modification of cost-effective sorbents for removing heavy metals from water resources is an area of significance. It had been reported that materials with biological origins, such as agricultural and animal waste, are excellent alternatives to conventional adsorbents due to their higher affinity, capacity and selectivity towards metal ions. These properties of biomaterials help to reduce or detoxify metal ions concentration in contaminated water to acceptable regulatory standards. Synthesis of novel, efficient, cost effective, eco-friendly biomaterials for heavy metal adsorption from water is still an area of challenge. In this comprehensive review, acompilation of patents as well as published articles is carried out to outline the properties of different biomaterials based on their precursors along withdetailed description of biomaterial morphology and various surface modification approaches. A detailed study of the performance of adsorbents and the role of physical and chemical modification in terms of enhancing their potential for metal adsorption from water is compiled here. The factors affecting adsorption behavior i.e., capacity and affinity of e biomaterials is also compiled. This paper presents a concise review of reported studies on the synthesis and modification of biomaterials, their use for heavy metal removal from waters and future prospects of this technology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Specific recruitment of circulating angiogenic cells using biomaterials as filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, Matthew; Molenda, James; Murphy, William L

    2017-07-01

    Endogenous recruitment of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) is an emerging strategy to induce angiogenesis within a defect site, and multiple recent strategies have deployed soluble protein releasing biomaterials for this purpose. However, the way in which the design of biomaterials affects CAC recruitment and invasion are poorly understood. Here we used an enhanced-throughput cell invasion assay to systematically examine the effects of biomaterial design on CAC recruitment. The screens co-optimized hydrogel presentation of a stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) gradient, hydrogel degradability, and hydrogel stiffness for maximal CAC invasion. We also examined the specificity of this invasion by assessing dermal fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cell, and lymphocyte invasion individually and in co-culture with CACs to identify hydrogels specific to CAC invasion. These screens suggested a subset of MMP-degradable hydrogels presenting a specific range of SDF-1α gradient slopes that induced specific invasion of CACs, and we posit that the design parameters of this subset of hydrogels may serve as instructive templates for the future design of biomaterials to specifically recruit CACs. We also posit that this design concept may be applied more broadly in that it may be possible to utilize these specific subsets of biomaterials as "filters" to control which types of cell populations invade into and populate the biomaterial. The recruitment of specific cell types for cell-based therapies in vivo is of great interest to the regenerative medicine community. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), CD133+ cells derived from the blood stream, are of particular interest for induction of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues, and recent studies utilizing soluble-factor releasing biomaterials to recruit these cells in vivo show great promise. However, these studies are largely "proof of concept" and are not systematic in nature. Thus, little is currently known about how biomaterial design

  1. Safety of vaccine adjuvants: focus on autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Gould, Sarah; Tanir, Jennifer Y

    2015-03-24

    Questions have been recently raised regarding the safety of vaccine adjuvants, particularly in relation to autoimmunity or autoimmune disease(s)/disorder(s) (AID). The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed a scientific committee and convened a 2-day workshop, consisting of technical experts from around the world representing academia, government regulatory agencies, and industry, to investigate and openly discuss the issues around adjuvant safety in vaccines. The types of adjuvants considered included oil-in-water emulsions and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. The state of science around the use of animal models and biomarkers for the evaluation and prediction of AID were also discussed. Following extensive literature reviews by the HESI committee, and presentations by experts at the workshop, several key points were identified, including the value of animal models used to study autoimmunity and AID toward studying novel vaccine adjuvants; whether there is scientific evidence indicating an intrinsic risk of autoimmunity and AID with adjuvants, or a higher risk resulting from the mechanism of action; and if there is compelling clinical data linking adjuvants and AID. The tripartite group of experts concluded that there is no compelling evidence supporting the association of vaccine adjuvants with autoimmunity signals. Additionally, it is recommended that future research on the potential effects of vaccine adjuvants on AID should consider carefully the experimental design in animal models particularly if they are to be used in any risk assessment, as an improper design and model could result in misleading information. Finally, studies on the mechanistic aspects and potential biomarkers related to adjuvants and autoimmunity phenomena could be developed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Astragalus as an adjuvant treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A (preliminary) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiping; Lu, Jun; He, Hairong; Zhang, Lu; Dong, Yalin; Yao, Hongping; Feng, Weiyi; Wang, Siwen

    2016-09-15

    Astragalus is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for tonifying Qi (Qi mainly means life energy) to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Astragalus in adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to provide novel information to improve clinical decision-making. We conducted an exhaustive database search (PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), Wanfang data and SinoMed) of studies associated with "Astragalus" and "type 2 diabetes mellitus" until December 2015. Following quality assessment of study eligibility, the extracted data were statistically analyzed using STATA, ver. 12.0 (Stata Corp.). A total of 13 studies with 1054 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Two subgroups were identified, based on Astragalus dosing regimens: control group vs. Astragalus injection (AI); control group vs. Astragalus aqueous decoction (AAD). The pooled results showed that, in comparison with control group, Astragalus administration significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both the AI group (WMD=-0.28, 95% CI=-0.46 to -0.10, P=0.002, I(2)=18.5%) and the AAD group (WMD=-0.83, 95% CI=-1.07 to -0.58, P=0.000, I(2)=0.0%); postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) was also significantly reduced in the AI group (WMD=-0.47, 95% CI=-0.77 to -0.17, P=0.002, I(2)=46.8%) and the AAD group (WMD=-1.19, 95% CI=-1.63 to -0.75, P=0.000, I(2)=49.3%). Fasting insulin (Fins) was significantly reduced only in the AAD treatment group (SMD=-0.33, 95% CI=-0.55 to -0.10, P=0.005, I(2)=1.0%) as was the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI) levels (SMD=-1.66, 95% CI=-3.24 to -0.09, P=0.038, I(2)=94.0%). Although AAD treatment significantly reduced levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (WMD=-1.77, 95% CI=-3.06 to -0.47, P=0.007, I(2)=90.8%), AI treatment failed to show significant efficacy (WMD=-0.28, 95% CI=-0.63 to 0

  3. Fish Oil and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis: Inhibitory Effect on Leukocyte Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Kummer, Raquel; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, has been studied for its beneficial effects in many diseases. Recent studies have shown the robust anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil (FO), when administered orally to rats, in models of acute inflammation. Herein, we investigated if treatment with fish oil preparation (FOP) could interfere with the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. We also evaluated the effect of treatment on rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion in vivo and on leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment with FOP (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) initiated on the day of induction of arthritis (day 0) and maintained for 21 days reduced the total number of leukocytes recruited into the joint cavity, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in arthritic rats, and leukocyte migration in response to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Together, our data provide evidence that FOP plays an important inhibitory role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats.

  4. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  5. Biomaterials for nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdev, Preety; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Moon, James J

    2014-10-01

    Subunit vaccination benefits from improved safety over attenuated or inactivated vaccines, but their limited capability to elicit long-lasting, concerted cellular and humoral immune responses is a major challenge. Recent studies have demonstrated that antigen delivery via nanoparticle formulations can significantly improve immunogenicity of vaccines due to either intrinsic immunostimulatory properties of the materials or by co-entrapment of molecular adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor agonists. These studies have collectively shown that nanoparticles designed to mimic biophysical and biochemical cues of pathogens offer new exciting opportunities to enhance activation of innate immunity and elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses with minimal cytotoxicity. In this review, we present key research advances that were made within the last 5 years in the field of nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems. In particular, we focus on the impact of biomaterials composition, size, and surface charge of nanoparticles on modulation of particle biodistribution, delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory molecules, trafficking and targeting of antigen presenting cells, and overall immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. This review describes recent progresses in the design of nanoparticle vaccine delivery carriers, including liposomes, lipid-based particles, micelles and nanostructures composed of natural or synthetic polymers, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

  6. Family-building After Breast Cancer: Considering the Effect on Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Thom, Bridgette; Teplinsky, Eleonora; Carleton, Jane; Kelvin, Joanne F

    2017-06-01

    Adherence to endocrine therapy (ET) is a longstanding problem in breast cancer (BC) survivorship care, particularly among younger women. Younger patients have reported lower ET initiation rates and greater rates of early discontinuation and are considered an "at risk" group for nonadherence. For women who hope to have children in the future, concerns about premature menopause and the implications of postponing childbearing for the 5 to 10 years of ET are widespread. Preliminary evidence suggests that prioritizing fertility, along with concerns about side effects, leads to ET noninitiation and early discontinuation. Clinical efforts to improve adherence might need to consider patients' family-building goals during the course of treatment and to appropriately counsel patients according to their priorities and family-building intentions. Educational materials about family building after cancer are still not consistently available or provided. Helping patients to access trusted informational resources and decision support tools, in conjunction with medical counseling, will promote informed decisions regarding ET adherence and pregnancy that are medically appropriate. Such shared patient-provider decision-making about ET adherence and pregnancy could help to maximize patient autonomy by incorporating their values, preferences, and priorities into decisions, using providers' medical expertise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification of select granular biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, P; Sampathrajan, A; Venkatachalam, P

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials can be converted into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels through thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. Thermochemical conversion of granular biomaterials is difficult because of its physical nature and one of the suitable processes is fluidized bed gasification. In this study, coir pith, rice husk and saw dust were selected and synthetic gas was generated using a fluidized bed gasifier. Gas compositions of product gas were analyzed and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was in the range of 8.24-19.55 and 10.21-17.14, respectively. The effect of equivalence ratio (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) and reaction time (at 10 min interval) on gas constituents was studied. The gas yield for coir pith, rice husk and sawdust were found to be in the range of 1.98-3.24, 1.79-2.81 and 2.18-3.70 Nm3 kg(-1), respectively. Models were developed to study the influence of biomaterial properties and operating conditions on molar concentration of gas constituents and energy output. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomaterial strategies for alleviation of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Dan, Kai; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization estimated that heart failure initiated by coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to 29 per cent of deaths worldwide. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries and is expected to become a global epidemic within the twenty-first century. MI, the main cause of heart failure, leads to a loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. The damaged left ventricle undergoes progressive ‘remodelling’ and chamber dilation, with myocyte slippage and fibroblast proliferation. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro-engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for heart failure patients. These events reflect an apparent lack of effective intrinsic mechanism for myocardial repair and regeneration. Motivated by the desire to develop minimally invasive procedures, the last 10 years observed growing efforts to develop injectable biomaterials with and without cells to treat cardiac failure. Biomaterials evaluated include alginate, fibrin, collagen, chitosan, self-assembling peptides, biopolymers and a range of synthetic hydrogels. The ultimate goal in therapeutic cardiac tissue engineering is to generate biocompatible, non-immunogenic heart muscle with morphological and functional properties similar to natural myocardium to repair MI. This review summarizes the properties of biomaterial substrates having sufficient mechanical stability, which stimulates the native collagen fibril structure for differentiating pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21900319

  9. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  10. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  11. Reproductive hormone analyses and effects of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer – An AZURE (BIG 01/04 sub-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid.Patients and methods; The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, international phase III trial that randomised patients to standard adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy±intravenous zoledronic acid, 4 mg for 5 years. Serum from 865 patients taken at randomisation was stored at −80 °C prior to central batch analysis for inhibin A, oestradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. We assessed the clinical value of pretreatment hormone levels for predicting invasive disease free survival (IDFS, skeletal recurrence and distant recurrence and response to treatment with zoledronic acid. Results: Oestradiol in the postmenopausal range (26 IU/l was associated with a longer time to bone as first recurrence (HR 0.66 95%CI: 0.41–1.04 p=0.072 compared to an FSH ≤26 IU/l. When all 3 hormone levels were within the assay specified postmenopausal range, a trend to improved IDFS was seen with addition of zoledronic acid in biochemically postmenopausal women only (postmenopausal HR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.54–1.22, non-postmenopausal HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.69–1.39 with risk reductions that mirrored the results of the main AZURE study, although the interaction between menopausal status and treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.47. Conclusion: Oestradiol and FSH may influence the pattern of disease recurrence with postmenopausal levels possibly creating a less conducive environment for the

  12. Formulation of a Killed Whole Cell Pneumococcus Vaccine - Effect of Aluminum Adjuvants on the Antibody and IL-17 Response.

    OpenAIRE

    HogenEsch, Harm; Dunham, Anisa; Hansen, Bethany; Anderson, Kathleen; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Hem, Stanley L

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes widespread morbidity and mortality. Current vaccines contain free polysaccharides or protein-polysaccharide conjugates, and do not induce protection against serotypes that are not included in the vaccines. An affordable and broadly protective vaccine is very desirable. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal formulation of a killed whole cell pneumococcal vaccine with aluminum-containing adjuvants for intramuscular injection. Methods ...

  13. No serious late cardiac effects after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in premenopausal women with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Anita; Bendahl, Pear-Ola; Cwikiel, Magdalena; Eskilsson, Jan; Thapper, Kerstin Leofvander; Pahlm, Olle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess cardiac mortality, coronary artery disease, myocardial dysfunction, and valvular heart disease in women younger than 65 years of age, at least 10 years after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety women (45-64 years old) with Stage II breast cancer without relapse, included in the South Sweden Breast Cancer Trial (premenopausal arm), with or without adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy ± cyclophosphamide were examined with myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography/Doppler, 10-17 years after radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients had been irradiated for left-sided tumors, 33 for right-sided tumors, and 23 patients had not been treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (conventional roentgen, electron beams, and high-energy photon beams combined, in each patient) included the chest wall and the regional lymph nodes, with a specified target dose of 38-48 Gy, administered in daily fractions of 1.9-2.4 Gy, 5 days/week. Results: No cardiac deaths were found among the original 275 patients randomized to adjuvant therapy. In the 90 patients examined, abnormal findings were recorded for ECG (14 patients), exercise test (5 patients), myocardial scintigraphy (6 patients), thickening of valve cusps (14 patients), and mild valvular regurgitation (20 patients). All patients had normal systolic function. Diastolic dysfunction was observed in 6 patients (abnormal relaxation in 4 patients and restrictive filling abnormality in 2 patients). Although no significant differences were found between the 3 study groups, there was a tendency to more abnormal findings after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Women younger than 50 years of age at the time of adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer, had no serious cardiac sequelae 13 years (median) later, despite partly old-fashioned radiation techniques

  14. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Karin; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2013-03-28

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce.Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood.In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  15. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Medical advances that have prolonged the average life span have generated increased need for new materials that can be used as tissue and organ replacements, drug delivery systems and/or components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis. The first man-made plastic used as surgical implant was celluloid, applied for cranial defect repair. However, the first users applied commercial materials with no regard for their purity, biostability and post-operative interaction with the organism. Thus, these materials evoked a strong tissue reaction and were unacceptable. The first polymer which gained acceptance for man-made plastic was poly(methyl methacrylate). But the first polymer of choice, precursor of the broad class of materials known today as hydrogels, was poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) synthesized in the fifties by Wichterle and Lim. HEMA and its various combinations with other, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, polymers are till now the most often used hydrogels for medical purposes. In the early fifties, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking, also with hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of phenomena associated with mechanism of reactions, topology of network, and relations between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by Charlesby (1960) and Chapiro (1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in application of radiation to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents published by Japanese and American scientists. Among others, the team of the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment headed by Kaetsu as well as Hoffman and his colleagues from the Center of Bioengineering, University of Washington have created the base for spreading interest in the field of biomaterials formed by means of

  16. MF59-adjuvanted and virosomal influenza vaccines for preventing influenza hospitalization in older people: comparative effectiveness using the Valencia health care information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, J; Natividad-Sancho, A; Calabuig-Pérez, J; Lluch-Rodrigo, J A; Pastor-Villalba, E; Martínez-Úbeda, S; Pérez-Vilar, S; Díez-Domingo, J

    2013-08-20

    Adjuvanted influenza vaccines offer greater and broader immunogenicity to older adults than conventional vaccines. Studies assessing the comparative effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccines in this age group are lacking. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate the comparative effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and virosomal-TIV for prevention of influenza hospitalization in adults aged ≥65 years. We obtained administrative data on immunization status and influenza hospitalization for the 2010-2011 influenza season. We used Cox regression models to assess comparative effectiveness; crude and adjusted by age, sex, comorbidity, deprivation, type of insurance, and travel time to hospital. We accounted for data clustering at the hospital level by using a multilevel random effects model. Overall, 373,798 vaccinated subjects were evaluated. There were 40 hospitalizations for influenza among 176,618 subjects, contributing 4,288,109 person-weeks at risk in the virosomal-TIV group, and 37 hospitalizations for influenza among 197,180 subjects, contributing 4,786,360 person-weeks at risk in the MF59-TIV group. The crude hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (0.53-1.30), and the adjusted Cox estimated HR of MF59-TIV relative to virosomal-TIV was 0.86 (0.55-1.35). After accounting for data clustering, the HR of influenza hospitalization associated with MF59-TIV relative to virosomal-TIV was 0.94 (0.37-2.38). During the 2010-2011 influenza season, we found no differences in the risk of influenza hospitalization in subjects aged ≥65 years vaccinated with MF59-TIV compared with those vaccinated with virosomal-TIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical activity of ferroelectric biomaterials and its effects on the adhesion, growth and enzymatic activity of human osteoblast-like cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Přemysl; Kolská, Z.; Luxbacher, T.; García, J.A.L.; Lehocký, M.; Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Petzelt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 17 (2016), 1-12, č. článku 175403. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01558S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : biomaterials * ferroelectric * zeta potential * osteoblast-like cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  18. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  19. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  20. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Yujuan Wang; Xiuhua Wang; Jie Huang; Jun Li

    2016-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the ...

  1. Effect of microencapsulated phase change materials on the thermo-mechanical properties of poly(methyl-methacrylate) based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Roberto; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo; Ambrosio, Luigi; Nicolais, Luigi

    2006-12-01

    Microencapsulated paraffin based phase change material (PCM) have been incorporated into Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix in order to enhance the thermo-mechanical properties. Calorimetric and mechanical analyses are carried out and the thermo regulating potential of PMMA/PCM composites is investigated. Results indicate that the PCM phase has a negligible effect on the glass transition temperature of the PMMA matrix, and the thermal regulating capability spans around body temperature absorbing or releasing a thermal energy up to 30 J/g. One of the effect of the PCM phase into the cement is the reduction of the peak temperature developed during the exothermal reaction.

  2. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  3. Anti-inflammatory role of methotrexate in adjuvant arthritis: effect on substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide in thymus and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, J.A.; Iqbal, M.P.; Rehman, R.; Qureshi, A.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of methotrexate (MTX) in rats with adjuvant arthritis through its influence on the expression of proinflammatory neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in immune organs, thymus and spleen. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in rats by inoculation with heat-killed mycobacteria. One group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with MTX (0.2 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) on every 4th day for a period of 18 weeks, while another group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with physiological saline served as control. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and thymus and spleen were dissected and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP immunoreactivity in thymus and spleen was assessed by semi-quantitative analysis. There was a marked reduction in hind paw swelling and inflammation in the MTX-treated rats after 18 weeks of treatment. Restoration of joint spaces (tibiotalar and subtalar) was seen after 9 weeks of MTX treatment. CGRP-positive nerve fibres were significantly reduced (p=0.0001) in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to control rats. SP-positive nerve fibers were also found to be decreased in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to controls, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP-immunoreactivity in spleen was not significantly different in MTX-treated and placebo-treated rats. In arthritic rats, MTX significantly reduced CGRP expression in thymus. Suppression of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as CGRP and probably SP could be another mechanism by which MTX produces its antiinflammatory effect in adjuvant arthritis. (author)

  4. The inter-observer variability of breast density scoring between mammography technologists and breast radiologists and its effect on the rate of adjuvant ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Roei D; Savir, Avital; Gheorghiu, David; Weinstein, Yuliana; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the inter-observer variability of mammographic breast density scoring (BDS) between technologists and radiologists and evaluates the effect of technologist patient referral on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds. In this IRB approved study, a retrospective analysis of 503 prospectively acquired, random mammograms was performed between January and March 2014. Each mammogram was evaluated for BDS independently and blindly by both the performing technologist and the interpreting radiologist. Statistical calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient and weighted kappa were obtained to evaluate the inter-observer variability between technologists and radiologists and to examine whether it relates to the technologist's seniority or women's age. The effect on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds was evaluated. 10 mammography technologists and 7 breast radiologists participated in this study. BDS agreement levels between technologists and radiologists were in the fair to moderate range (kappa values: 0.3-0.45, Spearman coefficient values: 0.59-0.65). The technologists markedly over-graded the density compared to the radiologists in all the subsets evaluated. Comparison between low and high-density groups demonstrated a similar trend of over-grading by technologists, who graded 51% of the women as having dense breasts (scores 3-4) compared to 27% of the women graded as such by the radiologists. This trend of over grading breast density by technologists was unrelated to the women's age or to the technologists' seniority. Mammography technologists over-grade breast density. Technologists' referral to an adjuvant ultrasound leads to redundant ultrasound studies, unnecessary breast biopsies, costs and increased patient anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  7. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were the commerc......Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil as adjuvant in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is a life threatening autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Advent of systemic steroids has greatly reduced the mortality rate. However, steroids and adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy are nowadays frequent contributory agents of morbidity and mortality of PV. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF has been reported to be an effective adjuvant to systemic steroids. It helps in increasing the immunosuppressive effect and minimizing the toxicities by steroid sparing effect. However, its efficacy in refractory cases of PV is not well documented. The lowest possible dose with satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and least side effects is known. We used MMF 1 g/day and systemic steroids in 3 Indian patients with pemphigus vulgaris who were resistant to systemic steroid monotherapy or combination treatment with azathioprine. In our experience, MMF offers an effective adjuvant with minimal side-effects in the treatment of resistant PV.

  9. LCA of Biofuels and Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials can today substitute many commodities produced from fossil resources, and the bio-based production is increasing worldwide. As fossil resources are limited, and the use of such resources is a major contributor to global warming and other environmental impacts, the potent...

  10. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  11. Predoctoral Curriculum Guidelines for Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' predoctoral guidelines for biomaterials curricula includes notes on interrelationships between this and other fields, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives for each content area, and information on sequencing, faculty and…

  12. Integrated Biomaterials for Biomedical Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

    2012-01-01

    This cutting edge book provides all the important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in materials in biomedical technology, especially structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, as well as the applications. The volume consists of 12 chapters written by acknowledged experts of the biomaterials field and covers a wide range of topics and applications.

  13. Effect of bupivacaine and adjuvant drugs for regional anesthesia on nerve tissue oximetry and nerve blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Thomas; Müller, Stefan; Müller, Hans-Helge; Wulf, Hinnerk; Steinfeldt, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Nerve blood flow has a critical role in acute and chronic pathologies in peripheral nerves. Influences of local anesthetics and adjuvants on tissue perfusion and oxygenation are deemed as relevant factors for nerve damage after peripheral regional anesthesia. The link between low tissue perfusion due to local anesthetics and resulting tissue oxygenation is unclear. Combined tissue spectrophotometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used to assess nerve blood flow in 40 surgically exposed median nerves in pigs, as well as nerve tissue oximetry for 60 min. After baseline measurements, test solutions saline (S), bupivacaine (Bupi), bupivacaine with epinephrine (BupiEpi), and bupivacaine with clonidine (BupiCloni) were applied topically. Bupivacaine resulted in significant decrease in nerve blood flow, as well as tissue oximetry values, compared with saline control. Addition of epinephrine resulted in a rapid, but nonsignificant, reduction of nerve blood flow and extensive lowering of tissue oximetry levels. The use of clonidine resulted in a reduction of nerve blood flow, comparable to bupivacaine alone (relative blood flow at T60 min compared with baseline, S: 0.86 (0.67-1.18), median (25th-75th percentile); Bupi: 0.33 (0.25-0.60); BupiCloni: 0.43 (0.38-0.63); and BupiEpi: 0.41(0.30-0.54). The use of adjuvants did not result in any relevant impairment of tissue oximetry values (saturation values in percent at T60, S: 91.5 [84-95]; Bupi: 76 [61-86]; BupiCloni: 84.5 [76-91]; and BupiEpi: 91 [56-92]). The application of bupivacaine results in lower nerve blood flow, but does not induce relevant ischemia. Despite significant reductions in nerve blood flow, the addition of clonidine or epinephrine to bupivacaine had no significant impact on nerve tissue oximetry compared with bupivacaine alone. Nerve ischemia due to local anesthetics is not enhanced by the adjuvants clonidine or epinephrine.

  14. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Do Kim

    Full Text Available The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1 virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity.

  15. Effect of bupivacaine and adjuvant drugs for regional anesthesia on nerve tissue oximetry and nerve blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesmann T

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Wiesmann,1 Stefan Müller,1,2 Hans-Helge Müller,3 Hinnerk Wulf,1 Thorsten Steinfeldt1,4 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Marburg, Philipps University, Marburg, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, 3Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Philipps University, Marburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Diakoniekrankenhaus Schwäbisch Hall, Schwäbisch Hall, Germany Background: Nerve blood flow has a critical role in acute and chronic pathologies in peripheral nerves. Influences of local anesthetics and adjuvants on tissue perfusion and oxygenation are deemed as relevant factors for nerve damage after peripheral regional anesthesia. The link between low tissue perfusion due to local anesthetics and resulting tissue oxygenation is unclear.Methods: Combined tissue spectrophotometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used to assess nerve blood flow in 40 surgically exposed median nerves in pigs, as well as nerve tissue oximetry for 60 min. After baseline measurements, test solutions saline (S, bupivacaine (Bupi, bupivacaine with epinephrine (BupiEpi, and bupivacaine with clonidine (BupiCloni were applied topically.Results: Bupivacaine resulted in significant decrease in nerve blood flow, as well as tissue oximetry values, compared with saline control. Addition of epinephrine resulted in a rapid, but nonsignificant, reduction of nerve blood flow and extensive lowering of tissue oximetry levels. The use of clonidine resulted in a reduction of nerve blood flow, comparable to bupivacaine alone (relative blood flow at T60 min compared with baseline, S: 0.86 (0.67–1.18, median (25th–75th percentile; Bupi: 0.33 (0.25–0.60; BupiCloni: 0.43 (0.38–0.63; and BupiEpi: 0.41(0.30–0.54. The use of adjuvants did not result in any relevant impairment of tissue oximetry

  16. A Novel ZnONPs/PVA-Functionalized Biomaterials for Bacterial Cells Immobilization and its Strengthening Effects on Quinoline Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinjin; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Yu; Hou, Siyu

    2018-03-01

    A novel bacterial cells immobilized carrier (ZnONPs/PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites decorated with ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), was prepared and used for immobilization of the strain Ochrobactrum sp. LC-1, and subsequently for quinoline degrading in water. Characterization of ZnONPs/PVA by using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that ZnO NPs were coated on the surface of PVA cubes evenly and the bacterium grew well on the ZnONPs/PVA. Quinoline biodegradation results showed that the degradation effect of quinoline by ZnONPs/PVA immobilized cells was superior to the free cells significantly. The structure and physical properties of ZnNPs/PVA were maintained steady after the reuse of ZnNPs/PVA for cells immobilization several times. Reusability of the ZnONPs/PVA immobilized cells revealed that the quinoline removal ratio was above 97% within 8 h under the conditions of pH neutral, 37 °C when the initial quinoline concentration was 300 mg/L.

  17. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  18. Reproductive hormone analyses and effects of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer - An AZURE (BIG 01/04) sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Caroline; Hinsley, Samantha; Marshall, Helen; Cameron, David; Bell, Richard; Dodwell, David; Coleman, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid.Patients and methods; The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, international phase III trial that randomised patients to standard adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy)±intravenous zoledronic acid, 4 mg for 5 years. Serum from 865 patients taken at randomisation was stored at -80 °C prior to central batch analysis for inhibin A, oestradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). We assessed the clinical value of pretreatment hormone levels for predicting invasive disease free survival (IDFS), skeletal recurrence and distant recurrence and response to treatment with zoledronic acid. Oestradiol in the postmenopausal range (26 IU/l) was associated with a longer time to bone as first recurrence (HR 0.66 95%CI: 0.41-1.04 p=0.072) compared to an FSH ≤26 IU/l. When all 3 hormone levels were within the assay specified postmenopausal range, a trend to improved IDFS was seen with addition of zoledronic acid in biochemically postmenopausal women only (postmenopausal HR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.54-1.22, non-postmenopausal HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.69-1.39) with risk reductions that mirrored the results of the main AZURE study, although the interaction between menopausal status and treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.47). Oestradiol and FSH may influence the pattern of disease recurrence with postmenopausal levels possibly creating a less conducive environment for the formation of bone metastases, therefore disseminated tumour cells could seek

  19. Mixed adjuvant formulations reveal a new combination that elicit antibody response comparable to Freund's adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P J Lai

    Full Text Available Adjuvant formulations capable of inducing high titer and high affinity antibody responses would provide a major advance in the development of vaccines to viral infections such as HIV-1. Although oil-in-water emulsions, such as Freund's adjuvant (FCA/FIA, are known to be potent, their toxicity and reactogenicity make them unacceptable for human use. Here, we explored different adjuvants and compared their ability to elicit antibody responses to FCA/FIA. Recombinant soluble trimeric HIV-1 gp140 antigen was formulated in different adjuvants, including FCA/FIA, Carbopol-971P, Carbopol-974P and the licensed adjuvant MF59, or combinations of MF59 and Carbopol. The antigen-adjuvant formulation was administered in a prime-boost regimen into rabbits, and elicitation of antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs was evaluated. When used individually, only FCA/FIA elicited significantly higher titer of nAbs than the control group (gp140 in PBS (p<0.05. Sequential prime-boost immunizations with different adjuvants did not offer improvements over the use of FCA/FIA or MF59. Remarkably however, the concurrent use of the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 induced potent adjuvant activity with significantly higher titer nAbs than FCA/FIA (p<0.05. This combination was not associated with any obvious local or systemic adverse effects. Antibody competition indicated that the majority of the neutralizing activities were directed to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Increased antibody titers to the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER and gp120 V3 were detected when the more potent adjuvants were used. These data reveal that the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 is unusually potent for eliciting nAbs to a variety of HIV-1 nAb epitopes.

  20. DESCRIPTION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CILOSTAZOL AND ASPIRIN AS ADJUVANT OF DIABETIC FOOT WAGNER GRADE II AND III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandji Winata Nurikhwan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Inflammation in patients with diabetic foot will activate platelets and cause aggregation and lead to stasis of blood flow. This inflammation is caused by infection of the diabetic foot. Management of diabetic foot infections in patients is the use of antibiotics. However, the presence of vascularization disorders causing antibiotic delivery to the site of infection to be disrupted so that the process of eradication of infection would be inhibited. One of inflamation markers on patient with diabetic foot is increasing of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESRs.The general objective of this study was to determine the efficacy difference between cilostazol and aspirin as an adjuvant to accelerate tissue healing of diabetic foot care Wagner Grade II – III based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This study is a descriptive study using the double-blind and randomized pretest-posttest design. A total of 14 samples is obtained by consecutive sampling. The results showed that four patients given cilostazol showed a 35% reduction in ESR and ten patients were given aspirin showed a 35% reduction in ESR. It can be concluded giving cilostazol and aspirin as adjuvant diabetic foot Wagner II and III showed a decrease in ESR.

  1. Effect of botanical immunomodulators on human CYP3A4 inhibition: implications for concurrent use as adjuvants in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-03-01

    Many botanical immunomodulators are used as adjuvants along with cancer chemotherapy. However, information on the impact of concurrent administration of such botanicals on pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy agents is inadequate. This study investigates inhibitory activities of 3 popular botanical adjuvants: ASPARAGUS RACEMOSU: (root aqueous extract; ARE), WITHANIA SOMNIFER: (root aqueous extract; WSE), and TINOSPORA CORDIFOLI: (stem aqueous extract, TCE) on human CYP3A4 isoenzyme, responsible for metabolism of several chemotherapy agents. . Testosterone 6-β hydroxylation was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography as an indicator of CYP3A4 catalytic activities. Ketoconazole (positive control) and extracts were studied at their in vivo-relevant concentrations. TCE showed mild inhibition while no significant inhibitory activities were observed in WSE and ARE. TCE was further fractionated to obtain polar and nonpolar fractions. The nonpolar fraction showed significant CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 13.06 ± 1.38 µg/mL. Major constituents of nonpolar fraction were identified using HPLC-DAD-MS profiling as berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine, which showed IC50 values as 6.25 ± 0.30, 15.18 ± 1.59, and 15.53 ± 1.89 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that constituents of TCE extract especially protoberberine alkaloids have the potential to interact with cancer chemotherapy agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo.

  2. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on mesenchymal stem cell-seeded electrospinning biomaterial for treating ischemic diabetic ulcers via milieu-dependent differentiation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siyi; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yangxiao; Li, Li; Chen, Wen; Hou, Chunli; Yang, Mingcan; Zeng, Wen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2015-03-01

    Great challenges in transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating ischemic diabetic ulcers (IDUs) are to find a suitable carrier and create a beneficial microenvironment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin family, is considered angiogenic and neuroprotective. Given that IDUs are caused by vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy, we used BDNF as a stimulant, and intended to explore the role of new biomaterials complex with MSCs in wound healing. BDNF promoted the proliferation and migration of MSCs using MTT, transwell, and cell scratch assays. The activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was also enhanced by the MSC-conditioned medium in the presence of BDNF, via a vascular endothelial growth factor-independent pathway. Since proliferated HUVECs in the BDNF group made the microenvironment more conducive to endothelial differentiation of MSCs, by establishing co-culture systems with the two cell types, endothelial cells derived from MSCs increased significantly. A new biomaterial made of polylactic acid, silk and collagen was used as the carrier dressing. After transplantation of the BDNF-stimulated MSC/biomaterial complex, the ulcers in hindlimb ischemic mice healed prominently. More blood vessel formation was observed in the wound tissue, and more MSCs were co-stained with some endothelial-specific markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in the treatment group than in the control group. These results demonstrated that BDNF could improve microenvironment in the new biomaterial, and induce MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cells indirectly, thus accelerating ischemic ulcer healing.

  3. Adjuvant and salvage therapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: effect of combined transient androgen deprivation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulau, Stephen M.; Tate, David J.; Cox, Richard S.; Bagshaw, Malcolm A.; Hancock, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant and salvage irradiation have been shown to improve local control after radical prostatectomy for prostatic cancer in patients with high risk pathologic features, rising PSA, or evidence of local failure. Transient androgen deprivation combined with primary irradiation has resulted in improved local control and biochemical disease free survival in patients with locally advanced, unresected, prostate cancer. This retrospective study evaluates whether transient androgen blockade improves the outcome from post-prostatectomy irradiation given as either adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods: From August, 1985 to December, 1995, 105 patients were treated with radiotherapy to the prostatic fossa following radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. No patient had clinically or radiographically evident distant disease. Median follow-up was 4.6 years from the date of surgery and 3.2 years from completion of radiotherapy. Findings at prostatectomy included capsular penetration in 38 patients, seminal vesicle involvement in 42 patients, lymph node involvement in 15 patients, and positive surgical margins in 70 patients. Treatment was administered as adjuvant therapy for high risk pathologic features in 39 patients, for persistent or rising PSA in 52 patients, or for clinically evident local recurrence in 14 patients. Of the 105 patients, 32 received combined androgen deprivation/radiotherapy and 73 received radiotherapy alone. Both groups received 60-70 Gy in 2 Gy daily fractions to the prostatic fossa. Selected patients with poor prognostic features received pelvic irradiation to a median dose of 50 Gy. Androgen deprivation typically consisted of Lupron and Flutamide for 4 to 6 months before, during, and in selected cases, after irradiation. No patients received maintenance androgen deprivation or underwent orchiectomy. Tumor stage, lymph node status, Gleason sum, and indications for treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups

  4. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  5. Biomaterial-Based Implantable Devices for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Sue Anne; Danti, Serena

    2017-01-01

    This review article focuses on the current local therapies mediated by implanted macroscaled biomaterials available or proposed for fighting cancer and also highlights the upcoming research in this field. Several authoritative review articles have collected and discussed the state-of-the-art as well as the advancements in using biomaterial-based micro- and nano-particle systems for drug delivery in cancer therapy. On the other hand, implantable biomaterial devices are emerging as highly versatile therapeutic platforms, which deserve an increased attention by the healthcare scientific community, as they are able to offer innovative, more effective and creative strategies against tumors. This review summarizes the current approaches which exploit biomaterial-based devices as implantable tools for locally administrating drugs and describes their specific medical applications, which mainly target resected brain tumors or brain metastases for the inaccessibility of conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, a special focus in this review is given to innovative approaches, such as combined delivery therapies, as well as to alternative approaches, such as scaffolds for gene therapy, cancer immunotherapy and metastatic cell capture, the later as promising future trends in implantable biomaterials for cancer applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  7. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus upon Immersion Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L. Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS ((59.1 ± 13.6%, (81.7 ± 8.2%, (77.8 ± 9.6% were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP. Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05, but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05. Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route.

  8. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Xiuhua; Huang, Jie; Li, Jun

    2016-03-02

    The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L) than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05), but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05). Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route.

  9. Effect of adjuvant sleep hygiene psychoeducation and lorazepam on depression and sleep quality in patients with major depressive disorders: results from a randomized three-arm intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Shamsaei, Farshid; Cheraghi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are a common co-occurring disturbance in patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and accordingly deserve particular attention. Using a randomized design, we investigated the effects of three different adjuvant interventions on sleep and depression among patients with MDD: a sleep hygiene program (SHP), lorazepam (LOR), and their combination (SHP–LOR). Methods A total of 120 outpatients with diagnosed MDD (mean age: 48.25 years; 56.7% females) and treated with a standard SSRI (citalopram at 20–40 mg at therapeutic level) were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: SHP (n=40), LOR (1 mg/d; n=40), SHP–LOR (1 mg/d; n=40). At the beginning and at the end of the study 8 weeks later, patients completed two questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess symptoms of depression. Results Sleep disturbances decreased over time and in all groups. No group differences or interactions were observed. Symptoms of depression decreased over time and in all three groups. Reduction in symptoms of depression was greatest in the SHP–LOR group and lowest in the LOR group. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that all three adjuvant treatments improved symptoms of sleep disturbances and depression, with greater benefits for the SHP–LOR for symptoms of depression, but not for sleep. Nevertheless, risks and benefits of benzodiazepine prescriptions should be taken into account. PMID:27382293

  10. EFFECTS OF BETAHISTINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AS ADJUVANT TO ENALAPRIL THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE CLASS II-II (NYHA SUFFERING FROM GIDDINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study adjuvant effect of betahistine dihydrochloride to ACE inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF class II-III suffering from giddiness.Material and methods. 61 patients with CHF class II-III, ejection fraction ≤45% (Simpson suffering from giddiness were involved into randomized open parallel study. Patients were randomized to Betahistine dihydrochloride plus basic CHF therapy or only basic therapy groups. Enalapril dose titration was performed in all patients. Quality of life and giddiness severity evaluation, electrocardiogram was performed initially and after treatment. Clinical examination results, drug therapy and adverse event were registered at each visit.Results. The target ACE inhibitor dose (≥20 mg daily was reached in 97 % of patients. It led to significant reduction of dyspnea, edemas, CHF class reduction and life quality increase. Significant differences between investigated groups were not found. Reduction of giddiness severity was shown in both groups. There was a trend to more prominent improvement of life quality (р=0,08 and more frequent achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose in patients treated with betahistine dihydrochloride.Conclusion. The target ACE inhibitor dose can be achieved more than in 90% of patients with CHF class II-III without hypotension symptoms. Adjuvant usage of betahistine dihydrochloride is necessary in patients with CHF still suffering from giddiness after achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose.

  11. Anti-tumor effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma on vestibular schwannoma demonstrate its feasibility as an intra-operative adjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Jun; Suh, Michelle J; Lee, Hyun Young; Lee, Hae June; Choi, Eun Ha; Moon, In Seok; Song, Kiwon

    2018-02-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS), although a benign intracranial tumor, causes morbidities by brainstem compression. Since chemotherapy is not very effective in most Nf2-negative schwannomas, surgical removal or radiation therapy is required. However, depending on the size and site of the tumor, these approaches may cause loss of auditory or vestibular functions, and severely decrease the post-surgical wellbeing. Here, we examined the feasibility of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) as an intra-operative adjuvant treatment for VS after surgery. Cell death was efficiently induced in both human HEI-193 and mouse SC4 VS cell lines upon exposure to CAP for seven minutes. Interestingly, both apoptosis and necroptosis were simultaneously induced by CAP treatment, and cell death was not completely inhibited by pan-caspase and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIK1) inhibitors. Upon CAP exposure, cell death phenotype was similarly observed in patient-derived primary VS cells and tumor mass. In addition, CAP exposure after the surgical removal of primary tumor efficiently inhibited tumor recurrence in SC4-grafted mouse models. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that CAP should be developed as an efficient adjuvant treatment for VS after surgery to eliminate the possible remnant tumor cells, and to minimize the surgical area in the brain for post-surgical wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine to clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Elsawah, Heba; Abdelhafez, Aly; Bakry, Ahmed; Mostafa, Walaa Ai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to clomiphene citrate (CC) in induction of ovulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients. 120 women with PCOS were randomly divided into three equal groups: group I received CC only, group II received CC plus NAC and group III received CC plus metformin. There was a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding average number of ovulatory follicles >18 mm (2.25 versus 1.75 and 1.89, respectively), but no significant difference between the three study groups regarding number of intermediate follicles 14-18 mm (4, 10 and 4, respectively). There was no significant difference between the three study groups regarding occurrence and laterality of ovulation, pregnancy rate per cycle but a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding pregnancy rate per patient (20% versus 10% and 10%, respectively, p value 0.05). There was a highly statistically significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding peak endometrial thickness (7.3 ± 1.1 versus 5.4 ± 0.6 and 5.3 ± 0.6, respectively). NAC as an adjuvant to CC for induction of ovulation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with beneficial impacts on endometrial thickness.

  13. Effect of neonatal sublingual vaccination with native or denatured ovalbumin and adjuvant CpG or cholera toxin on systemic and mucosal immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-F; Wu, T-C; Chu, Y-H; Hwang, K-S; Wang, C-C; Peng, H-J

    2008-11-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has been applied for allergic diseases, but whether sublingual immunization in neonates can prevent sensitization has not been studied. In this study, we evaluate the effect of neonatal sublingual vaccination with native or denatured allergens alone or plus adjuvant on allergy prevention. Newborn BALB/c mice were sublingually vaccinated daily for the first 3 days with native or denatured ovalbumin (OVA) only, or combined adjuvant CpG or cholera toxin (CT). They were sensitized with OVA adsorbed onto alum 7 weeks after the last vaccination. Specific secretory IgA antibody responses were readily induced by neonatal vaccination with antigen plus CpG or CT, but not with antigen alone. Whereas vaccination with denatured OVA plus CpG markedly enhanced T helper 1 (Th1) responses and inhibited IgE production, vaccination with denatured OVA plus CT increased cervical lymph node cell production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, and serum IgG1 responses. These data demonstrate that neonatal sublingual vaccination with denatured OVA and CpG not only preferentially induces systemic Th1 responses and mucosal immunity, but also simultaneously abrogates IgE production. Neonatal sublingual vaccines may play a role for the strategy of allergy prevention.

  14. The effect of adjuvants on the immune response induced by a DBL4e-ID4 VAR2CSA based Plasmodium falciparum vaccine against placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, V V; Salanti, A; Joergensen, L M

    2012-01-01

    ¿-ID4 to induce binding-inhibitory antibodies when formulated with adjuvants approved for human use. We have characterized the immune response of DBL4¿-ID4 in combination with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant and with three adjuvants currently being used in clinical trials: Montanide(®) ISA...... 720, Alhydrogel(®) and CAF01. Antibodies induced against DBL4¿-ID4 in combination with these adjuvants inhibited parasite binding to CSA from 82% to 99%. Although, different epitope recognition patterns were obtained for the different formulations, all adjuvant combinations induced strong Th1 and Th2...... type responses, resulting in IgG with similar binding strength, with to the DBL4¿-ID4 antigen. These results demonstrate that the DBL4¿-ID4 antigen is highly immunogenic and that binding inhibitory antibodies are induced when formulated with any of the tested adjuvants....

  15. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  16. [Progress in the studies of methods for testing cytotoxicity of dental biomaterial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanbo; Zhang, Wenyun

    2009-06-01

    The favorable biocompatibility of dental biomaterial is very important, which guarantees the safety and effectiveness of its clinical application. The cytotoxicity test, as one of the biological evaluation screening tests, is known to be an important and frequently used method to evaluate biocompatibility of biomaterials. This text is devoted to an overview of the cytotoxicity test for dental materials.

  17. Effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on cosmetic outcome and late normal-tissue reactions after breast conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Marie

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether adjuvant treatment with CMF or tamoxifen predisposes to an unfavorable cosmetic outcome or increased breast morbidity after radiotherapy in breast conservation. Data from 266 patients who entered a randomized breast conservation trial (DBCG-82TM protocol) was analyzed......-risk patients: premenopausal patients (n = 67) received eight cycles of CMF intravenously (600/40/600 mg per m2) every fourth week; postmenopausal patients (n = 27) received 30 mg of tamoxifen daily for one year. Clinical assessments included cosmetic outcome, breast fibrosis, skin telangiectasia......, and dyspigmentation which were scored on a 4-point categorical scale after median 6.6 years. The observations were analyzed in multivariate logistic regression analysis which included potential risk factors on outcome related to systemic treatment, surgery, radiation technique, tumor, and patient characteristics...

  18. Biomaterial based cardiac tissue engineering and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyer, Locke Davenport; Montgomery, Miles; Zhao, Yimu; Xiao, Yun; Conant, Genevieve; Korolj, Anastasia; Radisic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, necessitating the development of effective treatment strategies. A myocardial infarction involves the blockage of a coronary artery leading to depletion of nutrient and oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes and massive cell death in a region of the myocardium. Cardiac tissue engineering is the growth of functional cardiac tissue in vitro on biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine application. This strategy relies on the optimization of the complex relationship between cell networks and biomaterial properties. In this review, we discuss important biomaterial properties for cardiac tissue engineering applications, such as elasticity, degradation, and induced host response, and their relationship to engineered cardiac cell environments. With these properties in mind, we also emphasize in vitro use of cardiac tissues for high-throughput drug screening and disease modelling. PMID:25989939

  19. Effect of incorporating cholesterol into DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants on bilayer properties, biodistribution, and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Randip; Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Wilkhu, Jitinder; Devitt, Andrew; Christensen, Dennis; Perrie, Yvonne

    2014-01-06

    Cholesterol is an abundant component of mammalian cell membranes and has been extensively studied as an artificial membrane stabilizer in a wide range of phospholipid liposome systems. In this study, the aim was to investigate the role of cholesterol in cationic liposomal adjuvant system based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) which has been shown as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines against a wide range of diseases. Packaging of cholesterol within DDA:TDB liposomes was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery and surface pressure-area isotherms of lipid monolayers; incorporation of cholesterol into liposomal membranes promoted the formation of a liquid-condensed monolayer and removed the main phase transition temperature of the system, resulting in an increased bilayer fluidity and reduced antigen retention in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies found that this increase in membrane fluidity did not alter deposition of liposomes and antigen at the site of injection. In terms of immune responses, early (12 days after immunization) IgG responses were reduced by inclusion of cholesterol; thereafter there were no differences in antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) responses promoted by DDA:TDB liposomes with and without cholesterol. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were induced by DDA:TDB liposomes, and liposome uptake by macrophages in vitro was also shown to be higher for DDA:TDB liposomes compared to their cholesterol-containing counterparts, suggesting that small changes in bilayer mechanics can impact both cellular interactions and immune responses.

  20. The major fimbrial subunit protein of Edwardsiella tarda: vaccine potential, adjuvant effect, and involvement in host infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Hu, Yong-Hua; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2013-09-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe fish pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the biological properties of the E. tarda major fimbrial subunit protein, FimA. We found that mutation of fimA resulted in defective biofilm growth, attenuated infectivity against host cells, and impaired ability to disseminate into and colonize host tissues following experimental infection. When used as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FimA (rFimA) elicited a high level of protection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) against lethal E. tarda challenge. Immunological analysis showed that rFimA vaccination induced production of specific serum antibodies that bound to live E. tarda via interaction with the FimA on bacterial cells, and that antibody-E. tarda interaction blocked bacterial infection. Furthermore, passive immunization of turbot with anti-rFimA serum before E. tarda infection reduced bacterial loads in fish tissues to significant extents. To examine the adjuvant potential of FimA, turbot were vaccinated with rVhhP2, a protective Vibrio harveyi antigen, in the presence or absence of rFimA. Subsequent analysis showed that the presence of rFimA significantly augmented the protectivity of rVhhP2. ELISA and quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that rFimA significantly increased rVhhP2-specific serum antibody production and enhanced the expression of immune relevant genes. Taken together, these results indicate that FimA is a virulence-associated protein that possesses vaccine as well as adjuvant potentials, and that the immunoprotectivity of FimA is most likely due to its ability to induce specific immune response that inhibits E. tarda infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  2. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  3. Enhanced synergistic anti-Lewis lung carcinoma effect of a DNA vaccine harboring a MUC1-VEGFR2 fusion gene used with GM-CSF as an adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Junzhong; Duan, Yong; Li, Fugen; Wang, Zitong

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a synergistic effect on anti-tumour and anti-angiogenesis activity, we designed and constructed a DNA vaccine that expresses MUC1and VEGFR2 in the same reading frame. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumour activity of this DNA vaccine. Furthermore, we also investigated the enhanced synergistic anti-Lewis lung carcinoma effect of this DNA vaccine by using GM-CSF as an adjuvant. A series of DNA plasmids encoding MUC1, VEGFR2, GM-CSF, and their conjugates were constructed and injected into mice intramuscularly (i.m.) followed by an electric pulse. The humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumour efficacy of these plasmids, murine models with MUC1-expressing tumours were generated. After injection into the tumour-bearing mouse model, the plasmid carrying the fusion gene of MUC1 and VEGFR2 showed stronger inhibition of tumour growth than the plasmid expressing MUC1 or VEGFR2 alone, which indicated that MUC1 and VEGFR2 could exert a synergistic anti-tumour effect. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with the combination of the GM-CSF expressing plasmid and the plasmid carrying the fusion gene of MUC1 and VEGFR2 showed an increased inhibition in the growth of MUC1-expressing tumours and prolonged mouse survival. These observations emphasize the potential of the synergistic anti-tumour and anti-angiogenesis strategy used in DNA vaccines, and the potential of the GM-CSF gene as an adjuvant for DNA vaccines, which could represent a promising approach for tumour immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Surgical adjuvant immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enker, W.E.; Jacobitz, J.L.; Craft, K.; Wissler, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred forty-four Wistar-Furth rats in 12 therapeutic groups have been studied in a long-term comparison of the effectiveness of nonspecific immunotherapy with MER (methanol extraction residue) vs active-specific immunotherapy with neuraminidase-modified tumor cells. Six months after surgical adjuvant immunotherapy a 100% improvement in survival was achieved with MER immunotherapy compared to untreated control animals. In addition, the use of MER enhanced the value of active-specific immunotherapy where both modalities were combined in sequence. The predicted value of MER-BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) for the immunotherapy of solid tumors was borne out by these results suggesting that present ongoing clinical trials of MER as adjuvant therapy for large bowel cancer should prove to be successful if properly controlled. The pattern of survival in these experiments suggests that surgical adjuvant immunotherapy is cytostatic rather than cytocidal, and implies the need for long-term, repeated immunizations.

  5. The adjuvant potential of synthetic alkylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Gil, Danay; del Campo, Judith; Bracho, Gustavo; Valdés, Yolanda; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Alkylglycerols (AGs) have shown immune stimulant and adjuvant activity in many studies, but natural sources are not so accessible and their extraction from them is very complicated. Therefore, a group of chemists at IFAL have synthesized AG analogs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adjuvant potential of different synthetic AGs. A mix of ovoalbumin (Ova) and AGs increase anti-Ova IgG antibodies production in sera of immunized mice. The predominant subclass was IgG1 although higher levels of IgG2a were observed as the carbon chain length of AGs increased. AGs also induced the production of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) in the U937 human histiocyte and J774 mouse macrophage cell lines, respectively. These results indicate that synthetic AGs are effective adjuvants for the standardized antigen, Ova.

  6. Graphite Oxide to Graphene. Biomaterials to Bionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brianna C; Murray, Eoin; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-12-09

    The advent of implantable biomaterials has revolutionized medical treatment, allowing the development of the fields of tissue engineering and medical bionic devices (e.g., cochlea implants to restore hearing, vagus nerve stimulators to control Parkinson's disease, and cardiac pace makers). Similarly, future materials developments are likely to continue to drive development in treatment of disease and disability, or even enhancing human potential. The material requirements for implantable devices are stringent. In all cases they must be nontoxic and provide appropriate mechanical integrity for the application at hand. In the case of scaffolds for tissue regeneration, biodegradability in an appropriate time frame may be required, and for medical bionics electronic conductivity is essential. The emergence of graphene and graphene-family composites has resulted in materials and structures highly relevant to the expansion of the biomaterials inventory available for implantable medical devices. The rich chemistries available are able to ensure properties uncovered in the nanodomain are conveyed into the world of macroscopic devices. Here, the inherent properties of graphene, along with how graphene or structures containing it interface with living cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerves and cells, are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Plasma assisted surface treatments of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, L; Migliaresi, C; Lunelli, L; Viero, G; Dalla Serra, M; Speranza, G

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant depends upon the material it is composed of, in addition to the prosthetic device's morphology, mechanical and surface properties. Properties as porosity and pore size should allow, when required, cells penetration and proliferation. Stiffness and strength, that depend on the bulk characteristics of the material, should match the mechanical requirements of the prosthetic applications. Surface properties should allow integration in the surrounding tissues by activating proper communication pathways with the surrounding cells. Bulk and surface properties are not interconnected, and for instance a bone prosthesis could possess the necessary stiffness and strength for the application omitting out prerequisite surface properties essential for the osteointegration. In this case, surface treatment is mandatory and can be accomplished using various techniques such as applying coatings to the prosthesis, ion beams, chemical grafting or modification, low temperature plasma, or a combination of the aforementioned. Low temperature plasma-based techniques have gained increasing consensus for the surface modification of biomaterials for being effective and competitive compared to other ways to introduce surface functionalities. In this paper we review plasma processing techniques and describe potentialities and applications of plasma to tailor the interface of biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adjuvant analgesics for spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence indicate that pain is insufficiently treated following surgical procedures. It is essential that pain treatment is effective with a minimum of side effects in order to promote postoperative rehabilitation. Multimodal analgesia is most likely an important strategy in reducing postoperative pain. Combinations of different analgesics with different mechanisms of action may have an additive analgesic effect with fewer side effects compared to using a single drug. However, there is still a pronounced lack of documentation for the effect and side effects of these multimodal analgesic regimes. More than 6,000 spine surgeries are performed annually in Denmark and spine surgery has been associated with high levels of pain compared to other surgical procedures. Therefore, we considered spine surgery to pose a group of well-defined surgical procedures and we used this model to investigate the efficacy of 3 adjuvant analgesics aiming to improve the multimodal approach in pain management.
 
In study I and II we hypothesized that preoperative IV dexamethasone 16 mg would reduce acute postoperative pain, opioid consumption and persistent pain after lumbar disk surgery. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced acute pain during mobilization. The clinical relevance is however debatable and we could not demonstrate an opioid sparing effect. Further, we discovered significantly higher pain levels in the dexamethasone group compared to placebo 1 year postoperatively.
 
In study III we explored the effect of 500 mg of oral chlorzoxazone on acute postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients with moderate to severe pain after spine surgery and found no effect of chlorzoxazone compared to placebo.
 
In study IV we hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would reduce postoperative opioid consumption and persistent pain after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency. We found a significantly reduced opioid

  9. The effect of antiemetics and reduced radiation fields on acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy in Stage I seminoma of the testis: a randomized pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Rainford, K.; Horwich, A.; Dearnaley, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute gastrointestinal morbidity of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for Stage I seminoma of the testis. Ten Stage I patients receiving para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodal (dog-leg) RT provided a toxicity baseline (group A). Twenty Stage I patients randomized to dog-let RT or para-aortic RT (10 per group) were further randomized to received prophylactic ondansetron or expectant therapy with metoclopramide (group B). Daily patient-completed questionnaires evaluated acute toxicity. Dog-leg RT for Stage I seminomas is associated with readily demonstrable gastrointestinal tract (GIT) toxicity. The number of patients in this study is too small to produce definitive results, but there appears to be reduced GIT toxicity with prophylactic antiemetics. The effect of reduced RT fields has been assessed further in the MRC randomized tiral of field sizes (TE10). (Author)

  10. Predicting biomaterial property-dendritic cell phenotype relationships from the multivariate analysis of responses to polymethacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Peng Meng; Pallassana, Narayanan; Bowden, Rebeca; Cunningham, Barry; Joy, Abraham; Kohn, Joachim; Babensee, Julia E

    2012-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in orchestrating the host responses to a wide variety of foreign antigens and are essential in maintaining immune tolerance. Distinct biomaterials have been shown to differentially affect the phenotype of DCs, which suggested that biomaterials may be used to modulate immune response toward the biologic component in combination products. The elucidation of biomaterial property-DC phenotype relationships is expected to inform rational design of immuno-modulatory biomaterials. In this study, DC response to a set of 12 polymethacrylates (pMAs) was assessed in terms of surface marker expression and cytokine profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) determined that surface carbon correlated with enhanced DC maturation, while surface oxygen was associated with an immature DC phenotype. Partial square linear regression, a multivariate modeling approach, was implemented and successfully predicted biomaterial-induced DC phenotype in terms of surface marker expression from biomaterial properties with R(prediction)(2) = 0.76. Furthermore, prediction of DC phenotype was effective based on only theoretical chemical composition of the bulk polymers with R(prediction)(2) = 0.80. These results demonstrated that immune cell response can be predicted from biomaterial properties, and computational models will expedite future biomaterial design and selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting biomaterial property-dendritic cell phenotype relationships from the multivariate analysis of responses to polymethacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Peng Meng; Pallassana, Narayanan; Bowden, Rebeca; Cunningham, Barry; Joy, Abraham; Kohn, Joachim; Babensee, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in orchestrating the host responses to a wide variety of foreign antigens and are essential in maintaining immune tolerance. Distinct biomaterials have been shown to differentially affect the phenotype of DCs, which suggested that biomaterials may be used to modulate immune response towards the biologic component in combination products. The elucidation of biomaterial property-DC phenotype relationships is expected to inform rational design of immuno-modulatory biomaterials. In this study, DC response to a set of 12 polymethacrylates (pMAs) was assessed in terms of surface marker expression and cytokine profile. Principal component analysis (PCA) determined that surface carbon correlated with enhanced DC maturation, while surface oxygen was associated with an immature DC phenotype. Partial square linear regression, a multivariate modeling approach, was implemented and successfully predicted biomaterial-induced DC phenotype in terms of surface marker expression from biomaterial properties with R2prediction = 0.76. Furthermore, prediction of DC phenotype was effective based on only theoretical chemical composition of the bulk polymers with R2prediction = 0.80. These results demonstrated that immune cell response can be predicted from biomaterial properties, and computational models will expedite future biomaterial design and selection. PMID:22136715

  12. Gold nanoparticle-coated biomaterial as SERS micro-probes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report for the first time, on the utility of plant-based biomaterial as enhanced-Raman scattering probes. The bio-substrate used in this study are commonly found in plant extracts, and are cost-effective, mecha- nically robust, flexible and easily transportable. The probe was fabricated by coating the plant extract ...

  13. Albumin removal from human fibrinogen preparations for manufacturing human fibrin-based biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available two component human fibrin sealants are commonly used to manufacture human fibrin-based biomaterials. However, this method is costly and allows little room for further tuning of the biomaterial. Human fibrinogen solutions offer a more cost-effective and versatile alternative to manufacture human fibrin-based biomaterials. Yet, human fibrinogen is highly unstable and contains certain impurities like human albumin. Within the context of biomaterials and tissue engineering we offer a simple yet novel solution based on classical biochemical techniques to significantly reduce albumin in human fibrinogen solutions. This method can be used for various tissue engineering and biomedical applications as an initial step in the manufacturing of human fibrin-based biomaterials to optimise their regenerative application.

  14. Effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Ming Zhu1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o analyze the effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: 90 patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=45. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received conventional therapy + adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and differences in blood gas parameters, cardiac function, inflammatory state, etc., were compared between two groups of patients 2 weeks after treatment. Results: Arterial blood gas parameters pH and alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A-aO2] levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while, potassium ion (K+, chloride ion (Cl﹣ and carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP levels were lower than those of control group 2 weeks after treatment; echocardiography parameters Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (DTIS and pulmonary arterial velocity (PAV levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while pulmonary artery accelerating time (PAACT, left ventricular enddiastolic dimension (LVDd and right atrioventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cardiac function indexes adiponectin (APN, Copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, cystatin C (CysC, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant

  15. The effect of adjuvant N-acetylcysteine effervescent tablets therapy on cardiopulmonary function and airway remodeling in patients with stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Hu1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant N-acetylcysteine (NAC effervescent tablets therapy on cardiopulmonary function and airway remodeling in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: Patients with stable COPD treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital and West China Hospital, Sichuan University between May 2014 and October 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, NAC group received N-acetylcysteine effervescent tablets combined with routine treatment, and control group received routine treatment. Before treatment as well as 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, oxidative stress indexes and airway remodeling indexes in serum as well as inflammatory response indexes in peripheral blood were determined. Results: MDA, PC, 8-OHdG, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 contents in serum as well as NLRP3, ASC, p38MAPK and TREM-1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both groups of patients after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment while TAC levels as well as TIMP1 and TIMP2 contents in serum were significantly higher than those before treatment, and MDA, PC, 8-OHdG, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 contents in serum a well as NLRP3, ASC, p38MAPK and TREM-1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of NAC group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group while TAC levels as well as TIMP1 and TIMP2 contents in serum were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant NAC effervescent tablets treatment of stable COPD can improve the effect of oxidative stress and inflammatory response on cardiopulmonary function, and inhibit the airway remodeling caused by protease activation.

  16. The effect of reduced rates of crop protection agents and adjuvants on productivity, weed infestation and health of spring barley (Hordeum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on the cultivation of spring barley was carried out in the period 2009–2011 at the Experimental Farm in Czesławice (central Lublin region on grey-brown podzolic soil derived from loess (soil quality class II. The study included 3 rates of herbicides, growth retardant and fungicides (100%, 75% and 50% as well as different types of adjuvant (oil, surface-active, mineral. Plots without adjuvant were the control treatment. A hypothesis was made that the reduction in rates of crop protection agents by 25–50%, with the simultaneous addition of adjuvants, would allow spring barley productivity to be maintained at a level similar to that obtained under the conditions when recommended rates are applied without adjuvant. It was also assumed that particular types of adjuvant would show different interactions with specific groups of crop protection agents. It has been proved that a rational reduction in rates of crop protection agents is up to a limit of 25%, especially when an adjuvant is added to such reduced rates. This allows spring barley productivity to be maintained at the level obtained after the application of full rates (without adjuvant. But a further reduction in rates of crop protection agents by 50%, in spite of the interaction of adjuvants, results in a significant deterioration of all spring barley yield components, since such conditions lead to increased occurrence of agricultural pests (weeds, fungal diseases as well as increased crop lodging. Among the group of adjuvants tested in the present experiment, the oil adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC showed the best interaction with crop protection agents used.

  17. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development. PMID:22073103

  18. Effect of montanide adjuvanted staphylococcus aureus bacterin-toxiod on prevalence and incidence of mastitis in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.; Muhmmad, G.; Masood, M.Z.; Rahman, S.U.; Siddique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence of mastitis associated with Montanide adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus bacterin toxiod in dairy cows in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan). A total of 60 mastitis free dairy cows, in first and second month of lactation, were selected on the basis of results determined by California mastitis test and Surf field mastitis test. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (C1, C2, and C3) each containing twenty cows. The vaccine was administered twice with four weeks interval at the rate of 5 ml intramuscularly in the neck region in all the animals of group C1 and C2. Levamisole HCl (Nilverm at the rate, ICI, Pakistan) at the rate 2.5 mg per kg weight was given orally to animals of group C2 after first and second injections of vaccine, while the animals in group C3 were kept as control (non-vaccinated and non-medicated with levamisole HCl). Prevalence and incidence rates were determined at 1st, 30th , 60th , 120th and 180th days post-vaccination. The results showed that maximum numbers of quarters were found positive in group C3 with maximum cumulative prevalence (27.5%) while minimum (11.25%) was recorded in group C2 followed by vaccinated group (13.75 %). There was no significant variation in cumulative incidence between the vaccinated and vaccinated plus levamisole HCl group. (author)

  19. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD) [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 15 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml] and 17 β-estradiol (E 2 ) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developd persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 109 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E 2 (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E 2 , 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related

  20. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 5 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developed persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 108 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E2 (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7,000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80 mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E2, 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related

  1. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 5 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developed persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 108 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E2 (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7,000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80 mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E2, 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related.

  2. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  3. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hayashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV, a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  4. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Aoshi, Taiki; Haseda, Yasunari; Kobiyama, Kouji; Wijaya, Edward; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Standley, Daron M; Yamada, Hiroshi; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Saito, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Coban, Cevayir; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Ishii, Ken J

    2017-02-01

    Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th)2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV), a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs) and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanotechnology in medicine: nanofilm biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Paul R

    2013-12-13

    By interrogating nature at the length scale of important biological molecules (proteins, DNA), nanotechnology offers great promise to biomedicine. We review here our recent work on nanofilm biomaterials: "nanoscopically" thin, functional, polymer-based films serving as biocompatible interfaces. In one thrust, films containing carbon nanotubes are shown to be highly antimicrobial and, thus, to be promising as biomedical device materials inherently resistive to microbial infection. In another thrust, strategies are developed toward films of independently controllable bioactivity and mechanical rigidity - two key variables governing typical biological responses.

  6. VMAT radiation-induced nausea and vomiting in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy: The incidental effect of low-dose bath exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lazzari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: To investigate the hypothesis on low-dose bath exposure related to radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV in adjuvant breast volumetric modulated arch therapy (VMAT. Methods and materials: A total of 106 consecutive breast cancer patients (pts treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT with VMAT from January 2013 to May 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. For each pt, a planning CT was reimported and the coeliac plexus and gastroesophageal junction with gastric mouth (GEJCPs were contoured as a new organ at risk (OAR in the upper abdominal area. RINV was associated with Dmax and Dmean to GEJCPs. Univariate analysis with χ2, t-test, and Pearson’s covariance was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 106 pts, 64% complained of acute RINV according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.03. RINV was related to Dmax > 10 Gy and Dmean > 3 Gy to GEJCPs (P < 0.005. The radiation breast side and planning target volume (PTV correlated with RINV. Conclusions: RINV in VMAT breast radiotherapy could be a new emerging acute side effect due to a low dose bath to upper abdominal structures such as the GEJCPs. A Dmax < 10 Gy and Dmean < 3 Gy to GEJCPs should be constrained in VMAT planning to minimize RINV risk in breast radiotherapy. Keywords: Volumetric modulated arch therapy, Gastroesophageal junction, Coeliac plexus, Nausea, Vomit

  7. Effect of adjuvant recombinant EPO therapy on neural functional recovery, inflammation and erythrocyte glucose metabolism in patients with severe craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant recombinant EPO therapy on neural functional recovery, inflammation and erythrocyte glucose metabolism in patients with severe craniocerebral injury. Methods: A total of 78 patients with severe craniocerebral injury treated in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into the EPO group and control group who received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO combined with conventional therapy and conventional therapy respectively. Before treatment as well as 7 d and 14 d after treatment, the degree of brain tissue hypoxia, nerve injury and inflammation as well as erythrocyte glucose metabolism were evaluated respectively. Results: PbtO2 levels, serum NGB and HGB content as well as PFK activity of both groups 7 d and 14 d after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment while serum NF-H, NF-L, NF-M, NSE, S100β, IL-2, P-selectin and sICAM-1 content as well as G-6PD and AR activity were significantly lower than those before treatment; PbtO2 levels, serum NGB and HGB content as well as PFK activity of EPO group 7 d and 14 d after treatment were significantly higher than those of control group while serum NF-H, NF-L, NF-M, NSE, S100 β, IL-2, P-selectin and sICAM-1 content as well as G-6PD and AR activity were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant recombinant EPO therapy can inhibit inflammation and improve erythrocyte glucose metabolism to reduce the nerve injury degree in patients with severe craniocerebral injury.

  8. A prospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy on taste function, food liking, appetite and associated nutritional outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boltong

    Full Text Available 'Taste' changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status.This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52 prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined.Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05 but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01 but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001. Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r = 0.31; p = 0.008 as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r = 0.34; p = 0.002 and protein intake (r = 0.36; p = 0.001 early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p = <0.0005 over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea.The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education.

  9. Adjuvant therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in high risk prostate cancer are suboptimal. Intensification of local therapy as well as early administration of systemic treatment adjuvant to RP is subject of clinical research. Results of randomised studies are presented. Improvement in overall survival has been reported in adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in pT3 (extracapsular extension and seminal vesicles invasion) or positive resection margin (R1) and in adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in pN+ disease. (author)

  10. Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Alberta; Preiss, Scott; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The concept of stimulating the body’s immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines. PMID:26343190

  11. Effects of MF59 Adjuvant on Induction of Isotype-Switched IgG Antibodies and Protection after Immunization with T-Dependent Influenza Virus Vaccine in the Absence of CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Youri; Denning, Timothy L; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells play a central role in orchestrating adaptive immunity. To better understand the roles of CD4(+) T cells in the effects of adjuvants, we investigated the efficacy of a T-dependent influenza virus split vaccine with MF59 or alum in CD4 knockout (CD4KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. CD4(+) T cells were required for the induction of IgG antibody responses to the split vaccine and the effects of alum adjuvant. In contrast, MF59 was found to be highly effective in raising isotype-switched IgG antibodies to a T-dependent influenza virus split vaccine in CD4KO mice or CD4-depleted WT mice equivalent to those in intact WT mice, thus overcoming the deficiency of CD4(+) T cells in helping B cells and inducing immunity against influenza virus. Vaccination with the MF59-adjuvanted influenza virus vaccine was able to induce protective CD8(+) T cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells in CD4KO mice. The effects of MF59 adjuvant in CD4KO mice might be associated with uric acid, inflammatory cytokines, and the recruitment of multiple immune cells at the injection site, but their cellularity and phenotypes were different from those in WT mice. These findings suggest a new paradigm of CD4-independent adjuvant mechanisms, providing the rationales to improve vaccine efficacy in infants, the elderly, immunocompromised patients, as well as healthy adults. MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines were licensed for human vaccination, but the detailed mechanisms are not fully elucidated. CD4(+) T cells are required to induce antibody isotype switching and long-term memory responses. In contrast, we discovered that MF59 was highly effective in inducing isotype-switched IgG antibodies and long-term protective immune responses to a T-dependent influenza vaccine independent of CD4(+) T cells. These findings are highly significant for the following reasons: (i) MF59 can overcome a defect of CD4(+) T cells in inducing protective immunity to vaccination with a T-dependent influenza virus

  12. Macrophages, Foreign Body Giant Cells and Their Response to Implantable Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biomaterials, when implanted in vivo, elicit cellular and tissue responses. These responses include the inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the implanted materials. Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are tactically situated throughout the tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells and foreign materials in addition to orchestrating inflammatory processes. Macrophages and their fused morphologic variants, the multinucleated giant cells, which include the foreign body giant cells (FBGCs are the dominant early responders to biomaterial implantation and remain at biomaterial-tissue interfaces for the lifetime of the device. An essential aspect of macrophage function in the body is to mediate degradation of bio-resorbable materials including bone through extracellular degradation and phagocytosis. Biomaterial surface properties play a crucial role in modulating the foreign body reaction in the first couple of weeks following implantation. The foreign body reaction may impact biocompatibility of implantation devices and may considerably impact short- and long-term success in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, necessitating a clear understanding of the foreign body reaction to different implantation materials. The focus of this review article is on the interactions of macrophages and foreign body giant cells with biomaterial surfaces, and the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of biomaterial surfaces that play a role in regulating the foreign body response. Events in the foreign body response include protein adsorption, adhesion of monocytes/macrophages, fusion to form FBGCs, and the consequent modification of the biomaterial surface. The effect of physico-chemical cues on macrophages is not well known and there is a complex interplay between biomaterial properties and those that result from interactions with the local environment. By having a

  13. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamberger, R.C. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD); Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD) (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 15 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml) and 17 ..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developd persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 109 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E/sub 2/ (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E/sub 2/, 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related.

  14. Keratoconus: Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karamichos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a bilateral, asymmetric, corneal disorder that is characterized by progressive thinning, steepening, and potential scarring. The prevalence of KC is stated to be 1 in 2000 persons worldwide; however, numbers vary depending on size of the study and regions. KC appears more often in South Asian, Eastern Mediterranean, and North African populations. The cause remains unknown, although a variety of factors have been considered. Genetics, cellular, and mechanical changes have all been reported; however, most of these studies have proven inconclusive. Clearly, the major problem here, like with any other ocular disease, is quality of life and the threat of vision loss. While most KC cases progress until the third or fourth decade, it varies between individuals. Patients may experience periods of several months with significant changes followed by months or years of no change, followed by another period of rapid changes. Despite the major advancements, it is still uncertain how to treat KC at early stages and prevent vision impairment. There are currently limited tissue engineering techniques and/or “smart” biomaterials that can help arrest the progression of KC. This review will focus on current treatments and how biomaterials may hold promise for the future.

  15. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  16. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  17. The preventive effects of natural adjuvants, G2 and G2F on tracheal responsiveness and serum IL-4 and IFN-γ (th1/th2 balance in sensitized guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The effects of natural adjuvants on lung inflammation and tracheal responsiveness were examined in sensitized guinea pigs.METHODS:The responses of guinea pig tracheal chains and the serum levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma were examined in control pigs and three other groups of guinea pigs: the sensitized group and two other sensitized groups treated with either adjuvant G2 or adjuvant G2F (n = 7 for each group. Sensitization of the animals was achieved by injection and inhalation of ovalbumin.RESULTS:The results showed that sensitized animals had increased tracheal responsiveness and increased serum levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma compared to controls (p<0.05 to p<0.001. Treatments with either G2 or G2F prevented the increase in tracheal responsiveness and serum interleukin-4 (p<0.01 to p<0.001. However, the serum levels of interferon-gamma and the interleukin-4-to-interferon-gamma ratio was increased in the treated groups (p<0.001 for all cases.CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate important preventive effects of two natural adjuvants, particularly G2, on the changes in tracheal responsiveness, serum cytokines and the interleukin-4-to-interferon-gamma ratio (T helper 1/T helper 2 balance in sensitized guinea pigs.

  18. Properties and clinical relevance of osteoinductive biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This thesis had two main goals: (¿) to investigate parameters influencing osteoinductive potential of biomaterials in order to unravel the mechanism underlying osteoinduction and (¿¿) to investigate performance of osteoinductive biomaterials orthotopically in order to get insight into their clinical

  19. Multi-arm Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA comparing different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab in early breast cancer, from the English NHS payer perspective.

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    Caroline S Clarke

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab improves survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients, with some evidence of adverse cardiac side effects. Current recommendations are to give adjuvant trastuzumab for one year or until recurrence, although trastuzumab treatment for only 9 or 10 weeks has shown similar survival rates to 12-month treatment. We present here a multi-arm joint analysis examining the relative cost-effectiveness of different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab.Network meta-analysis (NMA was used to examine which trials' data to include in the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA. A network using FinHer (9 weeks vs. zero and BCIRG006 (12 months vs. zero trials offered the only jointly randomisable network so these trials were used in the CEA. The 3-arm CEA compared costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with zero, 9-week and 12-month adjuvant trastuzumab durations in early breast cancer, using a decision tree followed by a Markov model that extrapolated the results to a lifetime time horizon. Pairwise incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were also calculated for each pair of regimens and used in budget impact analysis, and the Bucher method was used to check face validity of the findings. Addition of the PHARE trial (6 months vs. 12 months to the network, in order to create a 4-arm CEA including the 6-month regimen, was not possible as late randomisation in this trial resulted in recruitment of a different patient population as evidenced by the NMA findings. The CEA results suggest that 9 weeks' trastuzumab is cost-saving and leads to more QALYs than 12 months', i.e. the former dominates the latter. The cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier (CEAF favours zero trastuzumab at willingness-to-pay levels below £2,500/QALY and treatment for 9 weeks above this threshold. The combination of the NMA and Bucher investigations suggests that the 9-week duration is as efficacious as the 12-month duration for distant-disease-free survival and overall

  20. A mesoporous silica biomaterial for dental biomimetic crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Chih; Lin, Hong-Ping; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Tang, Hsin-Yen; Yen, Wei-Ching; Lin, Po-Yen; Chang, Kei-Wen; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2014-12-23

    The loss of overlying enamel or cementum exposes dentinal tubules and increases the risk of several dental diseases, such as dentin hypersensitivity (causing sharp pain and anxiety), caries, and pulp inflammation. This paper presents a fast-reacting, more reliable and biocompatible biomaterial that effectively occludes exposed dentinal tubules by forming a biomimetic crystalline dentin barrier. To generate this biomaterial, a gelatin-templated mesoporous silica biomaterial (CaCO3@mesoporous silica, CCMS) containing nanosized calcium carbonate particles is mixed with 30% H3PO4 at a 1/1 molar ratio of Ca/P (denoted as CCMS-HP), which enables Ca2+ and PO4(3-)/HPO4(2-) ions to permeate the dentinal tubules and form dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) or hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals at a depth of approximately 40 μm (sub-μ-CT and nano-SEM/EDS examinations). In vitro biocompatibility tests (WST-1 and lactate dehydrogenase) and ALP assays show high cell viability and mineralization ability in a transwell dentin disc model treated with CCMS-HP (pcrystal growth (DCPD, TCP or HAp-like) and no pulp irritation after 70 days (pcrystals within dentinal tubules. These findings demonstrate that the mesoporous silica biomaterials presented here have great potential for serving as both a catalyst and carrier in the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissue.

  1. Biomaterials and Bioactive Agents in Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rui M; Varanda, Pedro; Reis, Rui L; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion (SF), where bone growth is induced toward stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold-standard inducer, whereas new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms. The present review will analyze the most recent body of literature that is focused on new approaches for consistent bone fusion of spinal vertebrae, including the development of new biomaterials that pursue physical and chemical aptitudes; the delivery of growth factors (GF) to accelerate new bone formation; and the use of cells to improve functional bone development. Bone graft substitutes currently in clinical practice, such as demineralized bone matrix and ceramics, are still used as a starting point for the study of new bioactive agents. Polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid arise as platforms for the development of composites, where a mineral element and cell/GF constitute the delivery system. Exciting fusion outcomes were obtained in several small and large animal models with these. On what regards bioactive agents, mesenchymal stem cells, preferentially derived from the bone marrow or adipose tissue, were studied in this context. Autologous and allogeneic approaches, as well as osteogenically differentiated cells, have been tested. These cell sources have further been genetically engineered for specific GF expression. Nevertheless, results on fusion efficacy with cells have been inconsistent. On the other hand, the delivery of GF (most commonly bone morphogenetic protein-2 [BMP-2]) has provided favorable outcomes. Complications related to burst release and dosing are still the target of research through the development

  2. Non-CpG Oligonucleotides Exert Adjuvant Effects by Enhancing Cognate B Cell-T Cell Interactions, Leading to B Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Isotype Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Herbáth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural and synthetic nucleic acids are known to exert immunomodulatory properties. Notably, nucleic acids are known to modulate immune function via several different pathways and various cell types, necessitating a complex interpretation of their effects. In this study we set out to compare the effects of a CpG motif containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN with those of a control and an inhibitory non-CpG ODN during cognate B cell-T cell interactions. We employed an antigen presentation system using splenocytes from TCR transgenic DO11.10 mice and the ovalbumin peptide recognized by the TCR as model antigen. We followed early activation events by measuring CD69 expression, late activation by MHC class II expression, cell division and antibody production of switched, and nonswitched isotypes. We found that both of the tested non-CpG ODN exerted significant immunomodulatory effects on early T cell and on late B cell activation events. Importantly, a synergism between non-CpG effects and T cell help acting on B cells was observed, resulting in enhanced IgG production following cognate T cell-B cell interactions. We propose that non-CpG ODN may perform as better adjuvants when a strong antigen-independent immune activation, elicited by CpG ODNs, is undesirable.

  3. Non-CpG Oligonucleotides Exert Adjuvant Effects by Enhancing Cognate B Cell-T Cell Interactions, Leading to B Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Isotype Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbáth, Melinda; Papp, Krisztián; Erdei, Anna; Prechl, József

    2015-01-01

    Natural and synthetic nucleic acids are known to exert immunomodulatory properties. Notably, nucleic acids are known to modulate immune function via several different pathways and various cell types, necessitating a complex interpretation of their effects. In this study we set out to compare the effects of a CpG motif containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) with those of a control and an inhibitory non-CpG ODN during cognate B cell-T cell interactions. We employed an antigen presentation system using splenocytes from TCR transgenic DO11.10 mice and the ovalbumin peptide recognized by the TCR as model antigen. We followed early activation events by measuring CD69 expression, late activation by MHC class II expression, cell division and antibody production of switched, and nonswitched isotypes. We found that both of the tested non-CpG ODN exerted significant immunomodulatory effects on early T cell and on late B cell activation events. Importantly, a synergism between non-CpG effects and T cell help acting on B cells was observed, resulting in enhanced IgG production following cognate T cell-B cell interactions. We propose that non-CpG ODN may perform as better adjuvants when a strong antigen-independent immune activation, elicited by CpG ODNs, is undesirable. PMID:26380319

  4. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  5. Use of probiotics as an adjuvant to sequential H. pylori eradication therapy: impact on eradication rates, treatment resistance, treatment-related side effects, and patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Şahintürk, Yasin; Akbay Harmandar, Ferda; Uyar, Seyit; Yolcular, Başak Oğuz; Çekin, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of probiotics administered as an adjuvant to sequential Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy on treatment outcome and patient compliance. In total, 159 patients with H. pylori infection receiving sequential H. pylori eradication therapy were included in this randomized placebo-controlled study. Starting from day 0 of sequential eradication therapy (ERA), patients in the ERA+probiotic group [n=53, mean (SD) age: 47.7 (14.0) years, 54.7% were females] also received a probiotic supplement with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B94 (1 capsule/day), patients in the ERA+placebo group [n=52, mean (SD) age: 46.4 (13.4) years, 51.9% were males] received placebo treatment (1 capsule/day), and patients in the ERA-only group [n=54, mean (SD) age: 46.3 (11.9) years, 55.6% were females] received no additional treatments. Eradication rates, patient compliance, and side effects of eradication therapy were recorded in each treatment group. Significantly higher eradication rates were noted in the ERA+probiotic group (86.8% vs. 70.8%, p=0.025) than in the combined ERA (ERA-only and ERA-placebo) group. Non-compliance with anti-H. pylori treatment was noted in 24 (15.1%) of 159 patients. Lower rates of first week treatment non-compliance due to diarrhea (1.88% vs. 12.26%, p=0.036) were noted in the ERA+probiotic group than in the combined ERA (ERA-only and ERA-placebo) group. Treatment resistance (p: 0.389) was similar between the groups, indicating pure antibiotic resistance without any compliance problems. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) was 6.2 (CI 95%, 3.5 to 28.9) for probiotic use. In conclusion, adjuvant administration of probiotic (B. animalis subsp. lactis) in 2-week sequential H. pylori eradication therapy is associated with a higher H. pylori eradication rate, lower first week diarrhea-related treatment discontinuation rates, less common self-reported side effects, and higher treatment

  6. Adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL) in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mariana R D; Mota, Caroline M; Ribeiro, Dâmaso P; Noleto, Pablo G; Andrade, William B F; Souza, Maria A; Silva, Neide M; Mineo, Tiago W P; Mineo, José R; Silva, Deise A O

    2012-10-29

    Vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. A D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL) was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of ScLL in immunization of mice against neosporosis. First, we investigated in vitro cytokine production by dendritic cells stimulated with Neospora lysate antigen (NLA), ScLL or both. Each treatment induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 production in a dose-dependent manner, with synergistic effect of NLA plus ScLL. Next, four groups of C57BL/6 mice were immunized with NLA + ScLL, NLA, ScLL or PBS. The kinetics of antibody response showed a predominance of IgG and IgG1 for NLA + ScLL group, whereas IgG2a response was similar between NLA + ScLL and NLA groups. Ex vivo cytokine production by mouse spleen cells showed the highest IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in the presence of NLA stimulation for mice immunized with NLA + ScLL and the lowest for those immunized with ScLL alone. After parasite challenge, mice immunized with NLA + ScLL or ScLL alone presented higher survival rates (70-80%) and lower brain parasite burden as compared to PBS group, but with no significant changes in morbidity and inflammation scores. In conclusion, ScLL combined with NLA was able to change the cytokine profile induced by the antigen or lectin alone for a Th1-biased immune response, resulting in high protection of mice challenged with the parasite, but with low degree of inflammation. Both features may be important to prevent congenital neosporosis, since protection and low inflammatory response are necessary events to guide towards a successful pregnancy.

  7. Adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of a D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL in the mouse model of vaccination against neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Mariana R D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination is an important control measure for neosporosis that is caused by a coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, leading to abortion and reproductive disorders in cattle and serious economic impacts worldwide. A D-galactose-binding lectin from Synadenium carinatum latex (ScLL was recently described by our group with potential immunostimulatory and adjuvant effects in the leishmaniasis model. In this study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of ScLL in immunization of mice against neosporosis. First, we investigated in vitro cytokine production by dendritic cells stimulated with Neospora lysate antigen (NLA, ScLL or both. Each treatment induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 production in a dose-dependent manner, with synergistic effect of NLA plus ScLL. Next, four groups of C57BL/6 mice were immunized with NLA + ScLL, NLA, ScLL or PBS. The kinetics of antibody response showed a predominance of IgG and IgG1 for NLA + ScLL group, whereas IgG2a response was similar between NLA + ScLL and NLA groups. Ex vivo cytokine production by mouse spleen cells showed the highest IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in the presence of NLA stimulation for mice immunized with NLA + ScLL and the lowest for those immunized with ScLL alone. After parasite challenge, mice immunized with NLA + ScLL or ScLL alone presented higher survival rates (70-80% and lower brain parasite burden as compared to PBS group, but with no significant changes in morbidity and inflammation scores. In conclusion, ScLL combined with NLA was able to change the cytokine profile induced by the antigen or lectin alone for a Th1-biased immune response, resulting in high protection of mice challenged with the parasite, but with low degree of inflammation. Both features may be important to prevent congenital neosporosis, since protection and low inflammatory response are necessary events to guide towards a successful pregnancy.

  8. Sub-lethal effects of a glyphosate-based commercial formulation and adjuvants on juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas) exposed for 35days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Alexis; Mottier, Antoine; Perron, Carole; Lebel, Jean Marc; Serpentini, Antoine; Costil, Katherine

    2017-04-15

    Glyphosate-based herbicides include active matter and adjuvants (e.g. polyethoxylated tallow amines, POEAs). In addition to a previous investigation on the effect of glyphosate on oysters, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sub-chronic exposures (35days) to three concentrations (0.1, 1 and 100μgL -1 ) of Roundup Express® (R EX ) and POEAs on oysters belonging to the same age group. Low mortality rates were calculated, and only few significant differences (i.e. shell length) between exposure conditions were observed at a given date. However, when comparing the biomarker's temporal variations, some different patterns (e.g. condition index, reproduction, parameters of oxidative stress) were observed depending on the molecules and concentrations. These results suggest that a longer exposure to an environmental concentration (0.1μgL -1 ) of R EX and POEAs could induce harmful effects on oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion release from metallic biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Liliane Siqueira de; Guimarães, Glaucio Serra; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: todo biomaterial metálico implantado possui alguma interação com os tecidos em contato, havendo liberação de íons por dissolução, desgaste ou corrosão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a liberação de íons metálicos por alguns tipos de biomateriais metálicos, descrevendo a interação íon/tecido e os possíveis efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: os tratamentos de jateamento e ataque ácido propiciam aumento na dissolução e liberação de íons metálicos, mas o recobrimento destas superfície...

  10. Bioresorption and degradation of biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debarun; Zhang, Ziyang; Winkler, Thomas; Mour, Meenakshi; Gunter, Christina; Morlock, Michael; Machens, Hans-Gunther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2012-01-01

    The human body is a composite structure, completely constructed of biodegradable materials. This allows the cells of the body to remove and replace old or defective tissue with new material. Consequently, artificial resorbable biomaterials have been developed for application in regenerative medicine. We discuss here advantages and disadvantages of these bioresorbable materials for medical applications and give an overview of typically used metals, ceramics and polymers. Methods for the quantification of bioresorption in vitro and in vivo are described. The next challenge will be to better understand the interface between cell and material and to use this knowledge for the design of “intelligent” materials that can instruct the cells to build specific tissue geometries and degrade in the process.

  11. Biomaterial science meets computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Little, J Paige; Pettet, Graeme J; Loessner, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    There is a pressing need for a predictive tool capable of revealing a holistic understanding of fundamental elements in the normal and pathological cell physiology of organoids in order to decipher the mechanoresponse of cells. Therefore, the integration of a systems bioengineering approach into a validated mathematical model is necessary to develop a new simulation tool. This tool can only be innovative by combining biomaterials science with computational biology. Systems-level and multi-scale experimental data are incorporated into a single framework, thus representing both single cells and collective cell behaviour. Such a computational platform needs to be validated in order to discover key mechano-biological factors associated with cell-cell and cell-niche interactions.

  12. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Sandya, S; Pramod, C; Asha, S; Svenia, Jose P; Premlal, S; GrishKumar, B

    2017-02-01

    Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and

  14. Mx bio adjuvant for enhancing immune responses against influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Soleimani

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: These data revealed that Mx1 as biological adjuvant was able to increase antibody titer and induction memory immune responses against influenza immunization without causing any side effects.

  15. Evaluation of several adjuvants in avian influenza vaccine to chickens and ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine.

  16. Positive effects of oral β-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX-4 combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Halit; Bozkurt, Oktay; Ozaslan, Ersin; Baldane, Suleyman; Berk, Veli; Inanc, Mevlude; Duran, Ayse Ocak; Dikilitas, Mustafa; Er, Ozlem; Ozkan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral β-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in 62 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer treated with an adjuvant FOLFOX-4 regimen. The patients were retrospectively evaluated in 2 groups: one group received β-glucan and the other did not (control group). Leucocytes, neutrophils, and platelets were evaluated before and 1 week after chemotherapy and oral mucositis and diarrhea were noted. Leucocyte and neutrophil counts after chemotherapy in the β-glucan group were 7,300/mm3 and 3,800/mm3, respectively, and the reductions, as compared to baseline, were not significant (p=0.673 and 0.784). The median platelet count was 264,000/mm3 after chemotherapy in the β-glucan group and the reduction, as compared to baseline, was borderline significant (p=0.048). In the control group, reduction in leucocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts was statistically significant. Oral mucositis and diarrhea were less common in the β-glucan group. We conclude that β-glucan can be used to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy.

  17. Therapeutic effects of total steroid saponin extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright in Freund’s complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Ito, Yoichiro; Liang, Jin-ru; Liu, Jian-li; He, Jiao; Sun, Wen-ji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our present study is to explore the anti-arthritic potential effect of total steroid saponins (TSSN) extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright (DZW) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. This work was performed using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulated 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. In AIA-induced arthritic rats, TSSN significantly alleviated the arthritic progression through evaluating arthritic score, immune organ indexes, paw swelling, and body weight. This phenomenon was well correlated with significant suppression of the overproduction of inflammation cytokines (IL-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), oxidant stress makers (MDA and NO), eicosanoids (LTB4 and PGE2), and inflammatory enzymes (5-LOX and COX-2) versus the AIA rats without treatment. On the contrary, the release of SOD and IL-10 was profoundly increased. What’s more, TSSN could obviously ameliorate the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus through phosphorylation of the p65 and IκBα in vivo and vitro. The current findings demonstrated that TSSN could protect the injured ankle joint from further deterioration and exert its satisfactory anti-arthritis properties through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects via inactivating NF-κB signal pathway. This research implies that DZW may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of human arthritis. PMID:25066758

  18. Therapeutic effects of total steroid saponin extracts from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-xin; Ito, Yoichiro; Liang, Jin-ru; Liu, Jian-li; He, Jiao; Sun, Wen-ji

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our present study is to explore the anti-arthritic potential effect of total steroid saponins (TSSNs) extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright (DZW) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. This work was performed using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulated 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. In AIA-induced arthritic rats, TSSN significantly alleviated the arthritic progression through evaluating arthritic score, immune organ indexes, paw swelling, and body weight. This phenomenon was well correlated with significant suppression of the overproduction of inflammation cytokines (IL-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), oxidant stress makers (MDA and NO), eicosanoids (LTB4 and PGE2), and inflammatory enzymes (5-LOX and COX-2) versus the AIA rats without treatment. On the contrary, the release of SOD and IL-10 was profoundly increased. What's more, TSSN could obviously ameliorate the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus through phosphorylation of the p65 and IκBα in vivo and in vitro. The current findings demonstrated that TSSN could protect the injured ankle joint from further deterioration and exert its satisfactory anti-arthritis properties through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects via inactivating the NF-κB signal pathway. This research implies that DZW may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of human arthritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. CpG ODN and ISCOMATRIX Adjuvant: A Synergistic Adjuvant Combination Inducing Strong T-Cell IFN-γ Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McCluskie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses, a strong rationale exists to use vaccine-adjuvant combinations possessing both immune modulatory and enhanced delivery capabilities. Herein, we evaluated the combination of 2 different adjuvants, a TLR9 agonist, composed of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG, and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX, composed of saponin, phospholipid, and cholesterol, which possesses both immunostimulatory and delivery properties. While both individual adjuvants have been shown effective in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, it is likely that for optimal adjuvant activity a combined adjuvant approach will be necessary. Herein, using three different antigens, namely, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, ovalbumin (OVA, and influenza A haemagglutinin antigen (HA, we show in mice that some adjuvant effects of CpG and ISCOMATRIX are further enhanced if they are used in combination. In particular, with all three antigens, IFN-γ levels were greatly increased with the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination. The ability of the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination to induce antitumor responses when administered with OVA following administration to mice of a highly metastatic OVA-secreting tumor cell line (B16-OVA melanoma was also demonstrated. Thus the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of novel or improved vaccines.

  20. Metallic Biomaterials: Current Challenges and Opportunities

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    Karthika Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are engineered systems designed to provide internal support to biological tissues and they are being used largely in joint replacements, dental implants, orthopaedic fixations and stents. Higher biomaterial usage is associated with an increased incidence of implant-related complications due to poor implant integration, inflammation, mechanical instability, necrosis and infections, and associated prolonged patient care, pain and loss of function. In this review, we will briefly explore major representatives of metallic biomaterials along with the key existing and emerging strategies for surface and bulk modification used to improve biointegration, mechanical strength and flexibility of biometals, and discuss their compatibility with the concept of 3D printing.

  1. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lesley W; Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue's biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Polymeric biomaterials structure and function, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitriu, Severian

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume

  3. Effect of adjuvant sleep hygiene psychoeducation and lorazepam on depression and sleep quality in patients with major depressive disorders: results from a randomized three-arm intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Rahimi,1 Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Farshid Shamsaei,1 Fatemeh Cheraghi,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medial Sciences, Hamadan, 2Research Center for Chronic Disease Care at Home, Hamadan University of Medial Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 4Department of Sport, Exercise, and Health, Division of Sport and Psychosocial Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Sleep disturbances are a common co-occurring disturbance in patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs and accordingly deserve particular attention. Using a randomized design, we investigated the effects of three different adjuvant interventions on sleep and depression among patients with MDD: a sleep hygiene program (SHP, lorazepam (LOR, and their combination (SHP–LOR. Methods: A total of 120 outpatients with diagnosed MDD (mean age: 48.25 years; 56.7% females and treated with a standard SSRI (citalopram at 20–40 mg at therapeutic level were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: SHP (n=40, LOR (1 mg/d; n=40, SHP–LOR (1 mg/d; n=40. At the beginning and at the end of the study 8 weeks later, patients completed two questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess symptoms of depression. Results: Sleep disturbances decreased over time and in all groups. No group differences or interactions were observed. Symptoms of depression decreased over time and in all three groups. Reduction in symptoms of depression was greatest in the SHP–LOR group and lowest in the LOR group. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that all three adjuvant treatments improved symptoms of sleep disturbances and depression, with greater benefits for the SHP–LOR for symptoms of

  4. Involvement of gamma interferon in antibody enhancement by adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odean, M J; Frane, C M; Van derVieren, M; Tomai, M A; Johnson, A G

    1990-02-01

    In a previous study the adjuvant action of a monophosphoryl lipid A, a nontoxic derivative of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was found to be negated by a monoclonal anti-gamma interferon (anti-IFN-gamma) antibody. The present investigation centered on three other adjuvants of diverse microbial origins, testing for their capacity to affect the release of IFN-gamma as an explanation for their antibody-enhancing action. The adjuvant action of each of the three, a wild-type LPS, synthetic poly(A)-poly(U) complexes, and a synthetic muramyl dipeptide, n-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutaminyl-n-butyl ester (murabutide), was transferable by adjuvant-stimulated T cells to normal spleen cells on coculture. Supernatant fluids from these T cells contained increased levels of IFN-gamma. Addition of a monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibody to adjuvant-stimulated spleen cell cultures reduced the adjuvant action by approximately one-half. Removal of natural killer cells from spleen cell populations prior to culture with antigen had no effect on the enhancement induced by LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A. It was concluded that the enhancement induced by the adjuvants LPS, poly(A)-poly(U), and murabutide is mediated in part by their action on T cells resulting in release of IFN-gamma suggesting activation of a common transmembrane signal.

  5. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

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    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  6. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES:A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonke Gabe S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360 are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at

  7. Effects of cold-damp and hot-damp environment on VEGF and IL-1 expression in joint cartilage cells in adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun-Jing; Jiang, De-xun; An, Na; Shen, Hong-bo; Hu, Yin-qi

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of environmental factors on the degree of injury and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in cartilage cells of the joint in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis (AA). SD rats aged 10 months were randomly divided into 4 groups that varied by temperature and humidity housing conditions and induction of AA: a control group, a model group, a cold-damp group, and a hot-damp group. All groups except the control group were induced with AA. After 4 w, VEGF and IL-1 expression in cartilage cells of ankle joints of hind limbs were observed. Mean area, optical density, and numbers of VEGF- and IL-1-positive cells in the model group, the cold-damp group, and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the control group (all P damp group and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the model group (all P damp group were significantly higher than that of the cold-damp group. Bone in the hot-damp and cold-damp groups was severely injured. Environmental factors such as high humidity combined with either high or low temperature increase the severity of damage and expression of VEGF and IL-1 in cartilage cells of joints in rats induced with AA.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to cervical cancer screening in Hungary

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    Vokó Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical cancer screening program implemented in Hungary to date has not been successful. Along with screening, vaccination is an effective intervention to prevent cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to the current cervical cancer screening program in Hungary. Methods We developed a cohort simulation state-transition Markov model to model the life course of 12-year-old girls. Eighty percent participation in the HPV vaccination program at 12 years of age was assumed. Transitional probabilities were estimated using data from the literature. Local data were used regarding screening participation rates, and the costs were estimated in US $. We applied the purchasing power parity exchange rate of 129 HUF/$ to the cost data. Only direct health care costs were considered. We used a 3.7% discount rate for both the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. The time horizon was 88 years. Results Inclusion of HPV vaccination at age 12 in the cervical cancer prevention program was predicted to be cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of adding HPV vaccination to the current national cancer screening program was estimated to be 27 588 $/QALY. The results were sensitive to the price of the vaccine, the discount rate, the screening participation rate and whether herd immunity was taken into account. Conclusions Our modeling analysis showed that the vaccination of 12-year-old adolescent girls against cervical cancer with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent cervical cancer in Hungary.

  9. Role of Sigma-1 Receptor/p38 MAPK Inhibition in Acupoint Catgut Embedding-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kairong; Wang, Xue; Chi, Laiting; Li, Wenzhi

    2017-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1 R) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the mechanism of pain. Acupoint stimulation exerts an exact antihyperalgesic effect in inflammatory pain. However, whether Sig-1 R and MAPKs are associated with the acupoint stimulation-induced analgesic effects is not clear. This study investigated the analgesic effect of acupoint catgut embedding (ACE) and the inhibition of Sig-1 R and MAPKs in ACE analgesia. Rats were prepared with intrathecal catheter implantation. ACE was applied to bilateral "Kunlun" (BL60), "Zusanli" (ST36), and "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) acupoints in the rat model of inflammatory pain (complete Freund's adjuvant [CFA] intraplantar injection). Then, Sig-1R agonist PRE084 or saline was intrathecally given daily. The paw withdrawal thresholds and paw edema were measured before CFA injection and at 1, 3, and 5 day after CFA injection. Western bolt was used to evaluate the protein expression of spinal Sig-1R, p38MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and immunohistochemistry of Sig-1R was detected at 1, 3, and 5 days after CFA injection. ACE exhibited specific analgesic effects. ACE increased paw withdrawal thresholds and markedly decreased CFA-induced paw edema at 1, 3, and 5 days. ACE downregulated the protein expression of Sig-1R, which was increased significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days after CFA injection. ACE decreased the expression of p38 MAPK and ERK at 1 and 3 days but not at 5 days. However, an injection of Sig-1R agonist PRE084 markedly reversed these alterations, except ERK expression. The present study demonstrated that ACE exhibited antihyperalgesic effects via the inhibition of the Sig-1R that modulated p38 MAPK, but not ERK, expression in the CFA-induced inflammatory pain model in rats.

  10. Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Clare M.; Mirmow, Dwight; Huang Qingshon; Gerszten, Kristina; Day, Roger; Jones, Mirka W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a significant problem following primary surgery for advanced vulva carcinoma. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of adjuvant vulvar radiation on local control in high risk patients and the impact of local recurrence on overall survival. Methods and Materials: From 1980-1994, 62 patients with invasive vulva carcinoma and either positive or close (less 8 mm) margins of excision were retrospectively studied. Thirty-one patients were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the vulva and 31 patients were observed after surgery. Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on local recurrence and overall survival. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival were also assessed. Results: Local recurrence occurred in 58% of observed patients and 16% in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates in both the close margin and positive margin groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.0048). On both univariate and multivariate analysis adjuvant radiation and margins of excision were significant prognostic predictors for local control. Significant determinants of actuarial survival included International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, percentage of pathologically positive inguinal nodes and margins of excision. The positive margin observed group had a significantly poorer actuarial 5 year survival than the other groups (p = 0.0016) and adjuvant radiation significantly improved survival for this group. The 2 year actuarial survival after developing local recurrence was 25%. Local recurrence was a significant predictor for death from vulva carcinoma (risk ratio 3.54). Conclusion: Local recurrence is a common occurrence in high risk patients. In this study adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates and

  11. Diatoms and diatomaceous earth as novel poultry vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, A; Hauck, R; Davis, A; Hildebrand, M; Corbeil, L B; Gallardo, R A

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are single cell eukaryotic microalgae; their surface possesses a porous nanostructured silica cell wall or frustule. Diatomaceous earth (DE) or diatomite is a natural siliceous sediment of diatoms. Since silica has been proved to have adjuvant capabilities, we propose that diatoms and DE may provide an inexpensive and abundant source of adjuvant readily available to use in livestock vaccines.In a first experiment, the safety of diatoms used as an adjuvant for in-ovo vaccination was investigated. In a second experiment, we assessed the humoral immune response after one in-ovo vaccination with inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and DE as adjuvant followed by 2 subcutaneous boosters on d 21 and 29 of age. In both experiments, results were compared to Freund's incomplete adjuvant and aluminum hydroxide.No detrimental effects on hatchability and chick quality were detected after in-ovo inoculation of diatoms and DE in experiments 1 and 2 respectively. In experiment 2 no humoral responses were detected after the in-ovo vaccination until 29 d of age. Seven d after the second subcutaneous booster an antibody response against NDV was detected in chickens that had received vaccines adjuvanted with Freund's incomplete adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide, and DE. These responses became significantly higher 10 d after the second booster. Finally, 15 d after the second booster, the humoral responses induced by the vaccine with Freund's incomplete adjuvant were statistically higher, followed by comparable responses induced by vaccines containing DE or aluminum hydroxide that were significantly higher than DE+PBS, PBS+INDV and PBS alone. From an applied perspective, we can propose that DE can serve as a potential adjuvant for vaccines against poultry diseases. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry

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    Elena M. Varoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.

  13. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  14. The recent progress of tribological biomaterials

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    S.F. E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tribological phenomena abundantly exist in living beings, especially in human beings, such as in teeth, eyes, bones, skins, heart valves and so on, and it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of tribology in human body and fabricate artificial biomaterials to replace the damaged tissues to release the pain of patients. Alloys, ceramics and polymers are three uppermost materials used in engineering and some of them play a crucial role in biomedicine. In the paper, we provide an overview of the tribological behaviors of artificial biomaterials including alloys, ceramics and polymers. We aim to provide fundamental mechanistic and applications of tribological biomaterials, while emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of various kinds of tribological biomaterials. Finally, some challenges and the potential promising breakthroughs are also succinctly highlighted in this field.

  15. Applications of biomaterials to liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugai, Urara; Seki, Yasutaka; Furue, Hirokazu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2013-04-19

    Nowadays, chemically synthesized proteins and peptides are attractive building blocks and have potential in many important applications as biomaterials. In this review, applications of biomaterials to thermotropic liquid crystals are discussed. The review covers the improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays using liquid crystal physical gels consisting of a liquid crystal and amino acid-based gelators, and also new functionalization of liquid crystals. Moreover, the influence of DNA, which is one of the more attractive biomaterials, dispersed in thermotropic liquid crystals and its potential use in the liquid crystal industry is described. In addition, we found interesting results during electrooptical measurements of liquid crystals doped with DNA, and explain them from the point of view of biological applications. These recent approaches suggest that these biomaterials may be applicable in the electronic device industry and should be considered as an interesting material with their physical properties having the potential to create or refine an industrial product.

  16. Applications of Biomaterials to Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Sakaguchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, chemically synthesized proteins and peptides are attractive building blocks and have potential in many important applications as biomaterials. In this review, applications of biomaterials to thermotropic liquid crystals are discussed. The review covers the improvement of the performance of liquid crystal displays using liquid crystal physical gels consisting of a liquid crystal and amino acid-based gelators, and also new functionalization of liquid crystals. Moreover, the influence of DNA, which is one of the more attractive biomaterials, dispersed in thermotropic liquid crystals and its potential use in the liquid crystal industry is described. In addition, we found interesting results during electrooptical measurements of liquid crystals doped with DNA, and explain them from the point of view of biological applications. These recent approaches suggest that these biomaterials may be applicable in the electronic device industry and should be considered as an interesting material with their physical properties having the potential to create or refine an industrial product.

  17. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  18. Activity of glycated chitosan and other adjuvants to PDT vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judit; Čiplys, Evaldas; Szulc, Zdzislaw; Bielawska, Alicja; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Glycated chitosan (GC), a water soluble galactose-conjugated natural polysaccharide, has proven to be an effective immunoadjuvant for treatment of tumors based on laser thermal therapy. It was also shown to act as adjuvant for tumor therapy with high-intensity ultrasound and in situ photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, GC was examined as potential adjuvant to PDT-generated cancer vaccine. Two other agents, pure calreticulin protein and acid ceramidase inhibitor LCL521, were also tested as prospective adjuvants for use in conjunction with PDT vaccines. Single treatment with GC, included with PDT vaccine cells suspension, improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to vaccine alone. This attractive prospect of GC application remains to be carefully optimized and mechanistically elucidated. Both calreticulin and LCL521 proved also effective adjuvants when combined with PDT vaccine tumor treatment.

  19. Evaluation of the adjuvant effect of Salmonella-based Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunits on the efficacy of a live Salmonella-delivered avian pathogenic Escherichia coli vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Atul A; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the adjuvant effect of live attenuated salmonella organisms expressing the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli B subunit (LTB) on the efficacy of an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) vaccine. The Asd(+) (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) plasmid pMMP906 containing the LTB gene was introduced into a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain lacking the lon, cpxR and asd genes to generate the adjuvant strain. Live recombinant Salmonella-delivered APEC vaccine candidates were used for this study. The birds were divided into three groups: group A, non-vaccinated controls; group B, immunized with vaccine candidates only; and group C, immunized with vaccine candidates and the LTB strain. The immune responses were measured and the birds were challenged at 21 days of age with a virulent APEC strain. Group C showed a significant increase in plasma IgG and intestinal IgA levels and a significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation response compared with the other groups. Upon challenge with the virulent APEC strain, group C showed effective protection whereas group B did not. We also attempted to optimize the effective dose of the adjuvant. The birds were immunized with the vaccine candidates together with 1×10⁷ or 1×10⁸ colony-forming units of the LTB strain and were subsequently challenged at 3 weeks of age. The 1×10⁷ colony-forming units of the LTB strain showed a greater adjuvant effect with increased levels of serum IgG, intestinal IgA and a potent lymphocyte proliferation response, and yielded higher protection against challenge. Overall, the LTB strain increased the efficacy of the Salmonella -delivered APEC vaccine, indicating that vaccination for APEC along with the LTB strain appears to increase the efficacy for protection against colibacillosis in broiler chickens.

  20. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis in Biomaterials Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yanling

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive preventative efforts, the problem of controlling infections associated with biomedical materials persists. Bacteria tend to colonize on biocompatible materials and form biofilms; thus, novel biomaterials with antibacterial properties are of great interest. In this thesis, titanium dioxide (TiO2)-associated photocatalysis under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was investigated as a strategy for developing bioactivity and antibacterial properties on biomaterials. Although much of ...

  1. Biomaterials innovation bundling technologies and life

    CERN Document Server

    Styhre, A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances in the life sciences means that there is now a far more detailed understanding of biological systems on the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Sited at the intersection between the life sciences, the engineering sciences and the design sciences, innovations in the biomaterials industry are expected to garner increasing attention and play a key role in future development. This book examines the biomaterials innovations taking place in corporations and in academic research settings today.

  2. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  3. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  4. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a 14-gene risk score assay to target adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua A; Billings, Paul; Ramsey, Scott D; Dumanois, Robert; Carlson, Josh J

    2014-05-01

    Life Technologies has developed a 14-gene molecular assay that provides information about the risk of death in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery. The assay can be used to identify patients at highest risk of mortality, informing subsequent treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this novel assay. Patients and Methods. We developed a Markov model to estimate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs for testing versus standard care. Risk-group classification was based on assay-validation studies, and chemotherapy uptake was based on pre- and post-testing recommendations from a study of 58 physicians. We evaluated three chemotherapy-benefit scenarios: moderately predictive (base case), nonpredictive (i.e., the same benefit for each risk group), and strongly predictive. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results. In the base case, testing and standard-care strategies resulted in 6.81 and 6.66 life years, 3.76 and 3.68 QALYs, and $122,400 and $118,800 in costs, respectively. The ICER was $23,200 per QALY (stage I: $29,200 per QALY; stage II: $12,200 per QALY). The ICER ranged from "dominant" to $92,100 per QALY in the strongly predictive and nonpredictive scenarios. The model was most sensitive to the proportion of high-risk patients receiving chemotherapy and the high-risk hazard ratio. The 14-gene risk score assay strategy was cost-effective in 68% of simulations. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the 14-gene risk score assay may be a cost-effective alternative to standard guideline-based adjuvant chemotherapy decision making in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nano biomaterials 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Lee, S.Ch.; Zhang, Sh.; Akasaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that nano materials have developed rapidly over the past few decades. Based on their unique physicochemical properties and special mechanical properties, nano materials have provided application possibility in many different fields. Currently, as nano biomaterials, they are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, dental/bone implant, and biosensors. For example, nano biomaterials have been used in tissue engineering because of their satisfactory bioactivity, high mechanical properties, and large surface area to adsorb specific proteins. Many kinds of nano biomaterials are used to prepare composite scaffolds to get better biocompatibility and higher ability in repairing specific tissues. Several antibacterial metallic nano biomaterials are used to coat implant surfaces to improve the speed of healing fractures. In addition, lots of nano biomaterials have the potential to break the limitations of the traditional delivery systems. They can load larger amount of drugs and provide stable drug release for long time at the targeted sites, such as tumors. Moreover, they can combine with polymers to furnish simultaneous drug delivery systems with the controllable release rate. Besides these applications, more and more nano biomaterials show great potential to be applied as highly sensitive biosensors because they have higher ability in loading firmly or interacting completely with recognition aptamers.

  7. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  8. CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lois Larbie; Claude Fiifi Hayford; Elsie Effah Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml...

  9. Covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) onto biomaterial surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Costa; Isabel F Carvalho; Ronald C Montelaro; Gomes, P; Cristina C L Martins

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials remains a major problem in the medical devices field. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) are well-known components of the innate immune system that can be applied to over-come biofilm-associated infections. Their relevance has been increasing as a practical alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are declining in effectiveness. The recent interest focused on these peptides can be explained by a group of special features, including a wide spectrum of activi...

  10. Biomaterials from beer manufacture waste for bone growth scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Luengo, María Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural wastes are a source of renewable raw materials (RRM), with structures that can be tailored for the use envisaged. Here, theyhave proved to be good replacement candidates for use as biomaterials for the growth of osteoblasts in bone replacement therapies. Their preparation is more cost effective than that of materials presentlyin use with the added bonus of converting a low-cost waste into a value-added product. Due to their origin these solids are ecomaterials.

  11. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, AD; Strafford, S; Posada-Estefan, O; Thomson, CL; Hussaein, SA; Edwards, TJ; Malinowski, M; Hondow, N; Metzger, NK; Brown, CTA; Routledge, MN; Brown, AP; Duggal, MS; Jha, A

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluat...

  12. β-pyrophosphate : a potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, A. D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C. L.; Hussaein, S. A.; Edwards, T. J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N. K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Routledge, M. N.; Brown, A. P.; Duggal, M. S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors acknowledge support from the sponsors of this work; the EPSRC LUMIN (EP/K020234/1) and EU-Marie-Curie-IAPP LUSTRE (324538) projects. Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral trans...

  13. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    OpenAIRE

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma...

  14. Effects of carbohydrate modification of Quillaja saponaria Molina QH-B fraction on adjuvant activity, cholesterol-binding capacity and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, B; Fekadu, M; Behboudi, S; Kenne, L; Morein, B

    1997-12-01

    The iscom is an efficient antigen-presenting system for various antigens inducing both MHC class I and class II restricted immune responses. Protective immunity has been evoked against a variety of infectious agents. The saponin adjuvant Quil A, which was originally used to form iscoms, is composed of a mixture of structurally similar triterpenoids from Quillaja saponaria Molina having different biological activities. A purified, toxic Quillaja triterpenoid fraction with strong adjuvant activity, designated QH-B, was used to study whether modification of the carbohydrate moiety with sodium periodate would alter the toxicity without harming adjuvant activity and cholesterol-binding capacity. Most sugars, and in particular Api, Gal and Xyl, were modified by periodate treatment with only minor changes of the molecular weights indicating no loss of sugar residues. The adjuvant activity of QH-B was reduced in a dose-related manner, and at a concentration of 25 mM sodium periodate a significant reduction in toxicity was observed. The differences in both toxicity and adjuvant activity of the periodate-treated QH-B could be derived from alterations in the structure of the sugars Gal and Xyl, while modification of Api may influence adjuvant activity but not toxicity in vivo. The cholesterol-binding capacity, a prerequisite for iscom formation, was not affected by periodate oxidation at the doses tested. However, the use of modified QH-B as described in the present study for iscom-matrix formation resulted in "saponin-lipid complexes" which, to a various degree or totally, deviated from the characteristic iscom morphology.

  15. Biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, R; McArdle, A; Atashroo, D; Walmsley, G G; Senarath-Yapa, K; Zielins, E R; Paik, K J; Longaker, M T; Wan, D C

    2014-12-01

    Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell-based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  16. Feasibility and effects of a combined adjuvant high-intensity interval/strength training in breast cancer patients: a single-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian Viktor Waldemar; Laszlo, Roman; Otto, Stephanie; Prokopchuk, Dmytro; Schumann, Uwe; Ebner, Florian; Huober, Jens; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate feasibility of an exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity interval endurance and strength training in breast cancer patients. Twenty-six women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were consecutively assigned to the exercise intervention- (n= 15, mean age 51.9 ± 9.8 years) and the control group (n = 11, mean age 56.9 ± 7.0 years). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing that included lactate sampling, one-repetition maximum tests and a HADS-D questionnaire were used to monitor patients both before and after a supervised six weeks period of either combined high-intensity interval endurance and strength training (intervention group, twice a week) or leisure training (control group). Contrarily to the control group, endurance (mean change of VO 2 , peak 12.0 ± 13.0%) and strength performance (mean change of cumulative load 25.9 ± 11.2%) and quality of life increased in the intervention group. No training-related adverse events were observed. Our guided exercise intervention could be used effectively for initiation and improvement of performance capacity and quality of life in breast cancer patients in a relatively short time. This might be especially attractive during medical treatment. Long-term effects have to be evaluated in randomized controlled studies also with a longer follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation High-intensity interval training allows improvement of aerobic capacity within a comparable short time. Standard leisure training in breast cancer patients is rather suitable for the maintenance of performance capacity and quality of life. Guided high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be used effectively for the improvement of endurance and strength capacity and also quality of life. After exclusion of contraindications, guided adjuvant high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be safely used in breast cancer patients.

  17. Anti-nociceptive effects of Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) in a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shukai; Yin, Yue; Yin, Xin; Cao, Fale; Luo, Daoshu; Zhang, Ting; Li, Yunqing; Ni, Longxing

    2012-09-01

    Inflammatory pain is an important clinical symptom. The levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and the levels of cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play important roles in inflammatory pain. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is an important component of Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicine that has been commonly used to treat cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory nociceptive effects of TIIA on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation and inflammatory pain in rats. The effects of TIIA on CFA-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity were investigated using behavioral tests. The levels of ERKs, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the fifth segment of the lumbar spinal cord (L5) ganglia were detected by Western blot, and the levels of mRNA and protein production of IL1-β, IL-6 and TNF-α were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we found that TIIA attenuates the development of CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. In addition, p-ERK and NF-κB expression levels were inhibited by TIIA, and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced. Finally, we found that the expression level of TRPV1 was significantly decreased after TIIA injection. This study demonstrated that TIIA has significant anti-nociceptive effects in a rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory pain. TIIA can inhibit the activation of ERK signaling pathways and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that TIIA may be a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB...... pain detection threshold. RESULTS: We enrolled 21 volunteers and all completed the trial. There was no difference in duration of sensory block assessed with an alcohol swab: Mean duration in the leg receiving ropivacaine + clonidine was 19.4h (SD 2.7) compared to 19.3h (SD 2.4) in the leg receiving...

  19. Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, J R; Canham, L T; Anderson, S I

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, several studies revealed the requirement for silicon in bone development, while bioactive silicate glasses simultaneously pioneered the current era of bioactive materials. Considerable research has subsequently focused on the chemistry and biological function of silicon in bone, demonstrating that the element has at least two separate effects in the extracellular matrix: (i) interacting with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans during their synthesis, and (ii) forming ionic substitutions in the crystal lattice structure of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the dissolution products of bioactive glass (predominantly silicic acids) have significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Researchers have sought to capitalize on these effects and have generated a diverse array of biomaterials, which include bioactive glasses, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatites and pure, porosified silicon, but all these materials share similarities in the mechanisms that result in their bioactivity. This review discusses the current data obtained from original research in biochemistry and biomaterials science supporting the role of silicon in bone, comparing both the biological function of the element and analysing the evolution of silicon-containing biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  1. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlo, Timothy J; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L; Schmehl, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s). The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants) were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many social interactions. Organosilicone spray adjuvants may therefore contribute to the

  2. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  3. Global gene expression analysis for evaluation and design of biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Hanagata, Taro Takemura and Takashi Minowa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays has become a widespread technique in molecular biological research. In the biomaterials field, it is used to evaluate the biocompatibility or cellular toxicity of metals, polymers and ceramics. Studies in this field have extracted differentially expressed genes in the context of differences in cellular responses among multiple materials. Based on these genes, the effects of materials on cells at the molecular level have been examined. Expression data ranging from several to tens of thousands of genes can be obtained from DNA microarrays. For this reason, several tens or hundreds of differentially expressed genes are often present in different materials. In this review, we outline the principles of DNA microarrays, and provide an introduction to methods of extracting information which is useful for evaluating and designing biomaterials from comprehensive gene expression data.

  4. Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles Bearing 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ligands as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Bellia, Francesco; Vecchio, Graziella

    2017-03-28

    Cyclodextrins are used as building blocks for the development of a host of polymeric biomaterials. The cyclodextrin polymers have found numerous applications as they exhibit unique features such as mechanical properties, stimuli responsiveness and drug loading ability. Notwithstanding the abundance of cyclodextrin polymers studied, metal-chelating polymers based on cyclodextrins have been poorly explored. Herein we report the synthesis and the characterization of the first metal-chelating β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands. The metal ions (Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ ) can modulate the assembly of the polymer nanoparticles. Moreover, the protective activity of the new chelating polymer against self- and metal-induced Aβ aggregation and free radical species are significantly higher than those of the parent compounds. These synergistic effects suggest that the incorporation of hydroxyquinoline moieties into a soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer could represent a promising strategy to design multifunctional biomaterials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Stefanie; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Welters, Marij J P; Gravesteijn, Gido; Boei, Jan J W A; Jochems, Anouk; Houtsma, Daniel; Putter, Hein; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Nortier, Johan W R; Pijl, Hanno; Kroep, Judith R

    2015-10-05

    Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group with early breast cancer (BC). Eligible patients had HER2-negative, stage II/III BC. Women receiving (neo)-adjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) were randomized to fast 24 h before and after commencing chemotherapy, or to eat according to the guidelines for healthy nutrition. Toxicity in the two groups was compared. Chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantified by the level of γ-H2AX analyzed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were included of whom seven were randomized to the STF arm. STF was well tolerated. Mean erythrocyte- and thrombocyte counts 7 days post-chemotherapy were significantly higher (P = 0.007, 95 % CI 0.106-0.638 and P = 0.00007, 95 % CI 38.7-104, respectively) in the STF group compared to the non-STF group. Non-hematological toxicity did not differ between the groups. Levels of γ-H2AX were significantly increased 30 min post-chemotherapy in CD45 + CD3- cells in non-STF, but not in STF patients. STF during chemotherapy was well tolerated and reduced hematological toxicity of TAC in HER2-negative BC patients. Moreover, STF may reduce a transient increase in, and/or induce a faster recovery of DNA damage in PBMCs after chemotherapy. Larger studies, investigating a longer fasting period, are required to generate more insight into the possible benefits of STF during chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01304251 , March 2011.

  6. Structure-function characteristics of the biomaterials based on milk-derived proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun; Ali, M Azam; Selvanesan, Luxmanan; Dias, George J

    2010-05-01

    There is an impetus on development of implantable biomaterials with the characteristics of improved biodegradability, bio-absorbability and wound healing activities. The milk proteins have valuable nutritional and biological properties, which lead to the promotion of quality health. In this study, whey protein isolate or WPI (highly aggregated) and its component lactalbumin (less aggregated) were melt blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) and then compression moulded into thin sheets ( approximately 1mm thickness). The effects of structural morphologies of the proteins on the mechanical, morphological, in vitro enzymatic degradation, and cytotoxicity and cell proliferation characteristics of the biomaterials were examined. In general, the tensile strength and modulus of the biomaterials decreased with increasing protein content. Compared to WPI, lactalbumin showed a better compatibility with the PCL matrix as observed in the mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopic morphology. The biomaterials exhibited a good retention of the mechanical characteristics after digestion in a physiologically simulated fluid containing trypsin enzyme. However, lactalbumin containing biomaterials showed a better retention of the tensile properties compared to WPI containing biomaterials. The cell culture studies indicated that the biomaterials have no cytotoxic effects, moreover they enhanced the proliferation of L929 cells compared to the pure PCL. Finally, this study indicated that the PCL based biomaterials with a protein content of 20wt% may be applied in fabrication of implantable devices for soft tissue engineering, where it requires a reasonably low to moderate mechanical strength (e.g., approximately 10MPa tensile strength), and improved biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue healing activities. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The adjuvant mechanism of cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Karen Smith; Agger, Else Marie; Foged, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are being used increasingly as efficient adjuvants for subunit vaccines but their precise mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we investigated the adjuvant mechanism of cationic liposomes based on the synthetic amphiphile dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). The liposomes...... concentrations. This efficient adsorption onto the liposomes led to an enhanced uptake of OVA by BM-DCs as assessed by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy. This was an active process, which was arrested at 4 degrees and by an inhibitor of actin-dependent endocytosis, cytochalasin D....... In vivo studies confirmed the observed effect because adsorption of OVA onto DDA liposomes enhanced the uptake of the antigen by peritoneal exudate cells after intraperitoneal injection. The liposomes targeted antigen preferentially to antigen-presenting cells because we only observed a minimal uptake...

  8. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  9. Ignoring Adjuvant Toxicity Falsifies the Safety Profile of Commercial Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial formulations of pesticides are invariably not single ingredients. Instead they are cocktails of chemicals, composed of a designated pesticidal “active principle” and “other ingredients,” with the latter collectively also known as “adjuvants.” These include surfactants, antifoaming agents, dyes, etc. Some adjuvants are added to influence the absorption and stability of the active principle and thus promote its pesticidal action. Currently, the health risk assessment of pesticides in the European Union and in the United States focuses almost exclusively on the stated active principle. Nonetheless, adjuvants can also be toxic in their own right with numerous negative health effects having been reported in humans and on the environment. Despite the known toxicity of adjuvants, they are regulated differently from active principles, with their toxic effects being generally ignored. Adjuvants are not subject to an acceptable daily intake, and they are not included in the health risk assessment of dietary exposures to pesticide residues. Here, we illustrate this gap in risk assessment by reference to glyphosate, the most used pesticide active ingredient. We also investigate the case of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are strongly suspected to be involved in bee and bumblebee colony collapse disorder. Authors of studies sometimes use the name of the active principle (for example glyphosate when they are testing a commercial formulation containing multiple (active principle plus adjuvant ingredients. This results in confusion in the scientific literature and within regulatory circles and leads to a misrepresentation of the safety profile of commercial pesticides. Urgent action is needed to lift the veil on the presence of adjuvants in food and human bodily fluids, as well as in the environment (such as in air, water, and soil and to characterize their toxicological properties. This must be accompanied by regulatory precautionary

  10. Ignoring Adjuvant Toxicity Falsifies the Safety Profile of Commercial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Antoniou, Michael N.

    2018-01-01

    Commercial formulations of pesticides are invariably not single ingredients. Instead they are cocktails of chemicals, composed of a designated pesticidal “active principle” and “other ingredients,” with the latter collectively also known as “adjuvants.” These include surfactants, antifoaming agents, dyes, etc. Some adjuvants are added to influence the absorption and stability of the active principle and thus promote its pesticidal action. Currently, the health risk assessment of pesticides in the European Union and in the United States focuses almost exclusively on the stated active principle. Nonetheless, adjuvants can also be toxic in their own right with numerous negative health effects having been reported in humans and on the environment. Despite the known toxicity of adjuvants, they are regulated differently from active principles, with their toxic effects being generally ignored. Adjuvants are not subject to an acceptable daily intake, and they are not included in the health risk assessment of dietary exposures to pesticide residues. Here, we illustrate this gap in risk assessment by reference to glyphosate, the most used pesticide active ingredient. We also investigate the case of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are strongly suspected to be involved in bee and bumblebee colony collapse disorder. Authors of studies sometimes use the name of the active principle (for example glyphosate) when they are testing a commercial formulation containing multiple (active principle plus adjuvant) ingredients. This results in confusion in the scientific literature and within regulatory circles and leads to a misrepresentation of the safety profile of commercial pesticides. Urgent action is needed to lift the veil on the presence of adjuvants in food and human bodily fluids, as well as in the environment (such as in air, water, and soil) and to characterize their toxicological properties. This must be accompanied by regulatory precautionary measures to

  11. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival from colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdie Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity has a well documented detrimental effect on cancer survival. However it is difficult to disentangle the direct effects of comorbidity on survival from indirect effects via the influence of comorbidity on treatment choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of comorbidity on colon cancer patient survival, the effect of comorbidity on treatment choices for these patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Methods This retrospective cohort study reviewed 589 New Zealanders diagnosed with colon cancer in 1996–2003, followed until the end of 2005. Clinical and outcome data were obtained from clinical records and the national mortality database. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of comorbidity on cancer specific and all-cause survival, the effect of comorbidity on chemotherapy recommendations for stage III patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Results After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area deprivation, smoking, stage, grade and site of disease, higher Charlson comorbidity score was associated with poorer all-cause survival (HR = 2.63 95%CI:1.82–3.81 for Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0. Comorbidity count and several individual conditions were significantly related to poorer all-cause survival. A similar, but less marked effect was seen for cancer specific survival. Among patients with stage III colon cancer, those with a Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0 were less likely to be offered chemotherapy (19% compared with 84% despite such therapy being associated with around a 60% reduction in excess mortality for both all-cause and cancer specific survival in these patients. Conclusion Comorbidity impacts on colon cancer survival thorough both physiological burden of disease and its impact on treatment choices. Some patients with comorbidity may forego chemotherapy unnecessarily

  12. Adjuvant therapy for ampullary carcinomas: The Mayo Clinic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Sumita; Miller, Robert C.; Haddock, Michael G.; Donohue, John H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 125 patients who underwent definitive surgery for carcinomas involving the ampulla of Vater between April 1977 and February 2005 and who survived more than 50 days after surgery. Twenty-nine of the patients also received adjuvant radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Adverse prognostic factors were investigated, and overall survival (OS) and local and distant failure were estimated. Results: Adverse prognostic factors for decreased OS by univariate analysis included lymph node (LN) involvement, locally advanced tumors (T3/T4), and poor histologic grade. By multivariate analysis, positive LN status (p = 0.02) alone was associated with decreased OS. The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved OS for patients with positive LN (p = 0.01). Median survival for positive LN patients receiving adjuvant therapy was 3.4 years, vs. 1.6 years for those with surgery alone. Conclusions: The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy may improve OS in patients with LN involvement. The effect of adjuvant therapy on outcomes for patients with poor histologic grade or T3/T4 tumors without LN involvement could not be assessed

  13. Use of adjuvants to minimize leaching of herbicides in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Ashok K.; Singh, Megh

    1991-03-01

    Excessive leaching of herbicides affects their efficacy against target weeds and results in contamination of groundwater. Use of adjuvants that can weakly bind herbicides and in turn release them slowly is a valuable technique to prolong the efficacy of herbicides and to minimize their leaching into groundwater. Effects of activated charcoal, three humic substances (Enersol SP 85%, Enersol 12%, and Agroliz), or a synthetic polymer (Hydrosorb) on the leaching of bromacil, dicamba, and simazine were investigated in leaching columns using a Candler fine sand (Typic Quartzipsamment). The addition of adjuvants had no harmful effects on physical properties of the soil as evident from lack of its affects on water percolation. When no adjuvants were used, 69%, 37%, and 4% of applied dicamba, bromacil, and simazine, respectively, were leached in the first pore volume of leachate (⋍3.2 cm rainfall). With five pore volumes of leachate (⋍16 cm rainfall), bromacil and dicamba were leached completely and only 80% of simazine was leached. Using Enersol 12% adjuvant resulted in a 13%-18% reduction in leaching of dicamba and bromacil in five pore volumes of leachate. The leaching of simazine was significantly decreased when any of the five adjuvants mentioned above were used. However, the decrease in leaching was significantly greater when using Enersol SP 85% or Enersol 12% (24%-28%) than when using the other adjuvants (12%-16%).

  14. Biomaterials and medical devices a perspective from an emerging country

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to biomaterials with the focus on the current development and future direction of biomaterials and medical devices research and development in Indonesia. It is the first biomaterials book written by selected academic and clinical experts experts on biomaterials and medical devices from various institutions and industries in Indonesia. It serves as a reference source for researchers starting new projects, for companies developing and marketing products and for governments setting new policies. Chapter one covers the fundamentals of biomaterials, types of biomaterials, their structures and properties and the relationship between them. Chapter two discusses unconventional processing of biomaterials including nano-hybrid organic-inorganic biomaterials. Chapter three addresses biocompatibility issues including in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in vitro cell models, biocompatibility data and its related failure. Chapter four describes degradable biomaterial for medical implants...

  15. Marine Structural Biomaterials in Medical Biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Marine biomaterials display properties, behaviors, and functions that have not been artificially matched in relation to their hierarchical construction, crack-stopping properties, growth adaptation, and energy efficiency. The discovery and understanding of such features that are characteristic of natural biomaterials can be used to manufacture more energy-efficient and lightweight materials. However, a more detailed understanding of the design of natural biomaterials with good performance and the mechanism of their design is required. Far-reaching biomolecular characterization of biomaterials and biostructures from the ocean world is possible with sophisticated analytical methods, such as whole-genome RNA-seq, and de novo transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrophotometry-based sequencing. In combination with detailed material characterization, the elements in newly discovered biomaterials and their properties can be reconstituted into biomimetic or bio-inspired materials. A major aim of harnessing marine biomaterials is their translation into biomimetic counterparts. To achieve full translation, the genome, proteome, and hierarchical material characteristics, and their profiles in space and time, have to be associated to allow for smooth biomimetic translation. In this article, we highlight the novel science of marine biomimicry from a materials perspective. We focus on areas of material design and fabrication that have excelled in marine biological models, such as embedded interfaces, chiral organization, and the use of specialized composite material-on-material designs. Our emphasis is primarily on key materials with high value in healthcare in which we evaluate their future prospects. Marine biomaterials are among the most exquisite and powerful aspects in materials science today.

  16. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity...

  17. Clinical effects of sinus surgery and adjuvant therapy in cystic fibrosis patients - can chronic lung infections be postponed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, K; Johansen, H K; Skov, M

    2013-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses can be a bacterial reservoir for pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) METHODOLOGY: In this prospective, non-randomised, uncontrolled, intervention cohort study, the clinical effect of sinus surgery followed by two weeks` intravenous antibiotics, 6 months...

  18. Effect of sprayer output volume and adjuvants on efficacy of clove oil for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely cultivation with a tine weeder is the primary tool for successful weed control in organic Vidalia® sweet onion, but conditions frequently arise that delay the initial cultivation. Weeds that emerge during the delay are not effectively controlled by cultivation and herbicides derived from nat...

  19. Osteoconductivity of Complex Biomaterials Assayed by Fluorescent-Engineered Osteoblast-like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Marco; Mazzoni, Elisa; Barbanti-Brodano, Giovanni; Nocini, Pierfrancesco; D'agostino, Antonio; Trombelli, Leonardo; Tognon, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    Biomaterials employed for the bone regeneration can be assayed for specific features such as osteoconductivity and gene expression. In this study, the composite HA/collagen/chondroitin-sulfate biomaterial was investigated using an engineered human cell line, named Saos-eGFP. This cell line, a green fluorescent engineered human osteoblast-like cell, was employed as a cellular model for the in vitro study of biomaterial characteristics. The cytotoxicity was indirectly evaluated by fluorescence detection, osteoconductivity was assayed both by fluorescence and electron microscope analysis as well as cell morphology, whereas the RT-PCR technique was employed to assay gene expression. Saos-eGFP cells viability detection after 24 and 96 h of incubation showed that biomaterial enables the adhesion and proliferation of seeded cells as well as that of the plastic surface, the control. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicated that Saos-eGFP cells were homogeneously distributed on the HA granule surfaces, exhibiting cytoplasmic bridges, and were localized on the collagen-chondroitin sulfate extra-cellular matrix. An expression analysis of specific genes encoding for differentiation markers, showed that biomaterial assayed did not alter the osteogenic pathway of the Saos-eGFP cell line. Our assays confirm the cytocompatibility of this biomaterial, suggesting an osteoconductive capacity mediated by its chemical contents. We showed that the Saos-eGFP cellular model is suitable for in vitro biomaterial assays, and more specifically for assessing osteoconductivity. This result suggests that the cytocompatibility and osteoconductive features of the biomaterial assayed as bone substitute, could have a positive downstream effect on implant osteo-integration.

  20. Macrophage reaction against biomaterials in the mouse model - Phenotypes, functions and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R

    2016-10-01

    The foreign body reaction (FBR) is a response of the host tissue against more or less degradation-resistant foreign macromolecular material. The reaction is divided into five different phases which involve most aspects of the innate and the adaptive immune system: protein adsorption, acute and chronic inflammation, foreign body giant cell formation and fibrosis. It is long known, that macrophages play a central role in all of these phases except for protein adsorption. Initially it was believed that the macrophage driven FBR has a complete negative effect on biocompatibility. Recent progress in biomaterial and macrophage research however describe macrophages as more than pure antigen phagocytosing and presenting cells and thus pro-inflammatory cells involved in biomaterial encapsulation and failure. Quite contrary, both, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, the diverse regulatory M2 macrophage subtypes and even foreign body giant cells (FBGC) are after necessary for integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation and replacement of degradable biomaterials. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the taxonomy of the currently known macrophage subtypes. Their diverging functions, metabolism and markers are summarized and the relevance of this more diverse macrophage picture for the design of biomaterials is shortly discussed. The view on role of macrophages in the foreign body reaction against biomaterials is rapidly changing. Despite the initial idea that macrophage are mainly involved in undesired degradation and biomaterial rejection it becomes now clear that they are nevertheless necessary for proper integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation of placeholder, degradable biomaterials. As a pathologist I experienced a lack on a good summary on the current taxonomy, functions and phenotypes of macrophages in my recent projects on the biocompatibility of biomaterials in the mouse model. The submitted review therefore intends to gives a

  1. Efficacy and Economic Value of Adjuvant Imatinib for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This article presents the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of adjuvant imatinib mesylate for treating patients with localized primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and discusses the impact of prolonged treatment with adjuvant imatinib on health care costs. Methods. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted to explore recently reported clinical trials demonstrating the clinical benefit of adjuvant imatinib in GISTs, along with analyses discussing the economic impact of adjuvant imatinib. Results. Two phase III trials have demonstrated a significant clinical benefit of adjuvant imatinib treatment in GIST patients at risk of recurrence after tumor resection. Guidelines now suggest adjuvant treatment for at least 3 years in patients at high risk of recurrence. Despite this clinical effectiveness, prolonged use of adjuvant imatinib can lead to an increase in the risk for adverse events and to increased costs for both patients and health care systems. However, the increased cost is partially offset by cost reductions associated with delayed or avoided GIST recurrences. Three years of adjuvant treatment in high-risk patients was concluded to be cost-effective. Therefore, the careful selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment can lead to improved clinical outcomes and significant cost savings. Conclusion. Although introducing adjuvant imatinib has an economic impact on health plans, this effect seems to be limited. Several analyses have demonstrated that adjuvant imatinib is more cost-effective for treating localized primary GISTs than surgery alone. In addition, 3 years of adjuvant imatinib is more cost-effective than 1 year of adjuvant therapy. PMID:23709752

  2. Biomaterial property-controlled stem cell fates for cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI affects more than 8 million people in the United States alone. Due to the insufficient regeneration capacity of the native myocardium, one widely studied approach is cardiac tissue engineering, in which cells are delivered with or without biomaterials and/or regulatory factors to fully regenerate the cardiac functions. Specifically, in vitro cardiac tissue engineering focuses on using biomaterials as a reservoir for cells to attach, as well as a carrier of various regulatory factors such as growth factors and peptides, providing high cell retention and a proper microenvironment for cells to migrate, grow and differentiate within the scaffolds before implantation. Many studies have shown that the full establishment of a functional cardiac tissue in vitro requires synergistic actions between the seeded cells, the tissue culture condition, and the biochemical and biophysical environment provided by the biomaterials-based scaffolds. Proper electrical stimulation and mechanical stretch during the in vitro culture can induce the ordered orientation and differentiation of the seeded cells. On the other hand, the various scaffolds biochemical and biophysical properties such as polymer composition, ligand concentration, biodegradability, scaffold topography and mechanical properties can also have a significant effect on the cellular processes.

  3. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  4. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  5. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, James

    Myopia prevalence has steadily climbed worldwide in recent decades with the most dramatic impact in East Asian countries. Treatments such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser surgery for the refractive error are widely available, but none cures the underlying cause. In progressive high myopia, invasive surgical procedures using a scleral buckle for mechanical support are performed since the patient is at risk of becoming blind. The treatment outcome is highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the patient's myopia progression rate, with limited choices in buckling materials. This dissertation, in four main studies, represents efforts made to control high myopia progression through the exploration and development of biomaterials that influence scleral growth. First, mRNA expression levels of the chick scleral matrix metalloproteinases, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, and transforming growth factor-beta 2 were assessed for temporal and defocus power effects. The first study elucidated the roles that these factors play in scleral growth regulation and suggested potential motifs that can be incorporated in future biomaterials design. Second, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) as injectable gels and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as solid strips were implanted in chicks to demonstrate the concept of posterior pole scleral reinforcements. This second study found that placing appropriate biomaterials at the posterior pole of the eye could directly influence scleral remodeling by interacting with the host cells. Both studies advanced the idea that scleral tissue remodeling could be potentially controlled by well-designed biomaterials. These findings led to the exploration of biomimetic hydrogels comprising enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (edsIPNs) to determine their biocompatibility and effects on the chick posterior eye wall. This third study demonstrated the feasibility of stimulating scleral growth by applying biomimetic

  6. Effects of adjuvant exemestane versus anastrozole on bone mineral density for women with early breast cancer (MA.27B): a companion analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Hershman, Dawn L; Cheung, Angela M; Ingle, James N; Khosla, Sundeep; Stearns, Vered; Chalchal, Haji; Rowland, Kendrith; Muss, Hyman B; Linden, Hannah M; Scher, Judite; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Elliott, Catherine R; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; St Louis, Jessica; Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Shepherd, Lois E

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole. In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302. Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p

  7. Improving the biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against Mamestra brassicae: effect of spray application technique, adjuvants and an attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Brusselman, Eva; Nuyttens, David; Moens, Maurice; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), is a potential biological control agent for the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). This research aimed to identify a suitable spray application technique, and to determine whether yeast extract added to an EPN spray has an attracting and/or a feeding stimulant effect on M. brassicae. The biological control capabilities of EPN against this pest were examined in the field. Good coverage of the underside of cauliflower leaves, the habitat of young instar larvae (L1-L4) of M. brassicae was obtained using different spray boom configurations with vertical extensions that carried underleaf spraying nozzles. One of the configurations was selected for field testing with an EPN spray. Brewer's yeast extract stimulated larval feeding on leaves, and increased the mortality of these larvae when exposed to EPN. The field trial showed that a spray application with S. carpocapsae, Addit and xanthan gum can effectively lower the numbers of cabbage heads damaged by M. brassicae. Brewer's yeast extract did not significantly increase this field performance of EPN. Steinernema carpocapsae, applied with an appropriate spray technique, can be used within biological control schemes as part of a resistance management programme for Bt. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheithauer, W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the results of controlled clinical trials, an attempt has been made to summarize the current status of adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Several different adjuvant treatment approaches including immunotherapy, postoperative fibrinolysis, anticoagulation, pre- and postoperative radiotherapy when used as a single modality, have not resulted in any long-term survival benefit. Rather in contrast to previous experiences, recent prospective randomized trials have provided evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal cancer. Whereas its definitive role in the former disease remains somewhat controversial, for rectal cancer, it seems clear that combined modality therapy including polychemotherapy with or without radiation prolongs the disease-free interval, lowers the local recurrence rate, and may improve survival compared to surgery alone. Questions which remain to be answered by future clinical trials are related to the optimal duration and sequence of combined modality, to the role of different radiation sensitizers, and in both colon and rectal cancer, to the choice of the most effective systemtic chemotherapeutic drugs. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jung-Il; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Won Seog; Kwon, Ki-Hoon; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC. Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC

  10. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  11. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biomaterials for mRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice.

  13. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados à calda herbicida contendo glyphosate Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate através da adição de ácido e/ ou de sulfato de amônio à calda tem sido promissoras. A adição dessas substâncias otimiza as propriedades químicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda herbicida, sobre a eficiência do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores elevados de sais. Os tratamentos envolveram cinco doses de glyphosate (variáveis de 180 a 540 g/ha i.a. diluídas em água destilada e, mais glyphosate a 270 g/ha misturado às águas minera is Fonte Azul e Fonte Ijuí em presença de ácido sulfúrico (0,5 1/ha e/ou sulfato de amônio (2 ,5 kg/h a . A fitotoxicidade foi avaliada aos 7, 17 e 27 dias após as aplicações do herbicida sobre a aveia preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a aveia-preta é muito suscetível à ação de glyphosate, mesmo aplicado a 270 g/ha, independente da água utilizada ou da adição de adjuvantes e, que a adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda não alterou a atividade do herbicida.Attempts to increase phytotoxicity of glyphosat e her bic ide through addition of acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to the spray solution have been promising. Addition of these substances optimize chemical properties of the herbicide spray, overcoming negative effects of high pH and of íons present in it. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate addition to herbicide spray, on the efficiency of glyphosate mixed in diluents with high pH and high salts content. Glyphosate treatments consisted of five rates (variables from 180 to 540 g/ha a.e., diluted in distilled water, and also glyph osate at 270 g/h a a. e. mix ed in the mineral waters Fonte Azul and Fonte Ijuí. To this herbicide rate

  15. Prognostic Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea and Subsequent Resumption of Menstruation for Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Jeon, Myung Jae; Lee, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is a side effect that occurs in patients with breast cancer (BC) as a result of chemotherapy. These patients require special treatments to avoid infertility and menopause. However, the factors controlling CIA, resumption of menstruation (RM), and persistence of menstruation after chemotherapy are unknown. The long-term prognosis for premenopausal patients with BC and the prognostic factors associated with CIA and RM are subject to debate. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 249 patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The median patient age was 43 (range, 26–55 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 64 months (range, 28–100 months). The medical records indicated that 219 patients (88.0%) scored as positive for the hormone receptor (HR); the majority of these patients completed chemotherapy and then received additional therapy of tamoxifen. Our analyses revealed that 88.0% (n = 219) of patients experienced CIA, and the percentage of RM during follow-up was 48.6% (n = 121). A total of 30 patients (12.0%) did not experience CIA. Disease-free survival (DFS) was affected by several factors, including tumour size ≥2 cm, node positivity, HR negative status, and body mass index ≥23 kg/m2. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumour size ≥2 cm remained as a significant factor for DFS (hazard ratio = 3.3, P = 0.034). In summary, this study finds that the majority of premenopausal patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who receive chemotherapy experience CIA and subsequent RM. Although tumour size ≥2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27057900

  16. Microgel mechanics in biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E; Lyon, L Andrew

    2014-08-19

    The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels and their colloidal analogues, microgels, have been and continue to be heavily investigated as viable materials for biological applications because they offer numerous, facile avenues in tailoring chemical and physical properties to approach biologically harmonious integration. Mechanical properties in particular are recently coming into focus as an important manner in which biological responses can be altered. In this Account, we trace how mechanical properties of microgels have moved into the spotlight of research efforts with the realization of their potential impact in biologically integrative systems. We discuss early experiments in our lab and in others focused on synthetic modulation of particle structure at a rudimentary level for fundamental drug delivery studies. These experiments elucidated that microgel mechanics are a consequence of polymer network distribution, which can be controlled by chemical composition or particle architecture. The degree of deformability designed into the microgel allows for a defined response to an imposed external force. We have studied deformation in packed colloidal phases and in translocation events through confined pores; in all circumstances, microgels exhibit impressive deformability in response to their environmental constraints. Microgels further translate their mechanical properties when assembled in films to the properties of the bulk material. In particular, microgel films have been a large focus in our lab as building blocks for self

  17. Effects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Donders, Gilbert; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Levin, Myron; Tibaldi, Fabian; Poncelet, Sylviane; Moris, Philippe; Dessy, Francis; Giannini, Sandra L; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2014-06-17

    A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10 μg VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20 μg VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4(+) T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted

  18. Human Endothelial Cell Models in Biomaterial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sandra; Jung, Friedrich; Pietzsch, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) models have evolved as important tools in biomaterial research due to ubiquitously occurring interactions between implanted materials and the endothelium. However, screening the available literature has revealed a gap between material scientists and physiologists in terms of their understanding of these biomaterial-endothelium interactions and their relative importance. Consequently, EC models are often applied in nonphysiological experimental setups, or too extensive conclusions are drawn from their results. The question arises whether this might be one reason why, among the many potential biomaterials, only a few have found their way into the clinic. In this review, we provide an overview of established EC models and possible selection criteria to enable researchers to determine the most reliable and relevant EC model to use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manufacturing Cell Therapies Using Engineered Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Amr A; Saha, Krishanu

    2017-10-01

    Emerging manufacturing processes to generate regenerative advanced therapies can involve extensive genomic and/or epigenomic manipulation of autologous or allogeneic cells. These cell engineering processes need to be carefully controlled and standardized to maximize safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Engineered biomaterials with smart and tunable properties offer an intriguing tool to provide or deliver cues to retain stemness, direct differentiation, promote reprogramming, manipulate the genome, or select functional phenotypes. This review discusses the use of engineered biomaterials to control human cell manufacturing. Future work exploiting engineered biomaterials has the potential to generate manufacturing processes that produce standardized cells with well-defined critical quality attributes appropriate for clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Freezing-induced deformation of biomaterials in cryomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelikkale, Altug

    Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these freezing-induced deformation processes and their effects on post-thaw biomaterial functionality is currently lacking but will be critical to engineer improved cryomedicine procedures. This dissertation addresses this problem by presenting three separate but related studies of freezing-induced deformation at multiple length scales including nanometer-scale protein fibrils, single cells and whole tissues. A combination of rigorous experimentation and computational modeling is used to characterize post-thaw biomaterial structure and properties, predict biomaterial behavior and assess its post-thaw biological functionality. Firstly, freezing-induced damage on hierarchical extracellular matrix structure of collagen is investigated at molecular, fibril and matrix levels. Results indicate to a specific kind of fibril damage due to freezing-induced expansion of intrafibrillar fluid. This is followed by a study of freezing-induced cell and tissue deformation coupled to osmotically driven cellular water transport. Computational and semi empirical modeling of these processes indicate that intracellular deformation of the cell during freezing is heterogeneous and can interfere with cellular water

  1. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  2. Regulatory affairs for biomaterials and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Stephen F; Amato, B

    2015-01-01

    All biomaterials and medical devices are subject to a long list of regulatory practises and policies which must be adhered to in order to receive clearance. This book provides readers with information on the systems in place in the USA and the rest of the world. Chapters focus on a series of procedures and policies including topics such as commercialization, clinical development, general good practise manufacturing and post market surveillance.Addresses global regulations and regulatory issues surrounding biomaterials and medical devicesEspecially useful for smaller co

  3. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption of four tortricid species: effects of application height, rate, frequency, and sticker adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; McGhee, P; Haas, M; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2007-08-01

    Several application parameters of microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations were manipulated to determine their impact on efficacy of disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker). Depending on the experiment, the formulations evaluated were those formerly manufactured by 3M Canada (London, ON, Canada) or those that are currently available from Suterra LLC (Bend, OR). The efficacy of MEC formulations applied by air-blast sprayer evenly throughout the entire canopy of 2-3-m-tall apple (Malus spp.) trees was equivalent to treatments in which targeted applications of MECs were made to the lower or upper 1.5 m of the canopy (at equivalent overall rates) for oriental fruit moth and both leafroller species. The realized distribution of deposited microcapsules within the tree canopy corresponded well with the intended heights of application within the canopy. The additional coapplication of the pine resin sticker Nu-Film 17 increased efficacy but not longevity of MEC formulations for oriental fruit moth; this adjuvant had no added effects for codling moth or leafroller formulations. Increasing the rate of active ingredient (AI) per hectare by 20-30-fold (range 2.5-75.0 g/ha) did not improve the disruption efficacy of MECs for codling moth or either leafroller species when both low and high rates were applied at equivalent frequencies per season. A low-rate, high-frequency (nine applications per season) application protocol was compared with a standard protocol in which two to three applications were made per season, once before each moth generation for each species. The low-rate, high-frequency protocol resulted in equivalent or better disruption efficacy for each moth species, despite using two-fold less total AI per hectare per season with the former treatment. The low-rate, frequent

  4. Materiomics - High-Throughput Screening of Biomaterial Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    This complete, yet concise, guide introduces you to the rapidly developing field of high throughput screening of biomaterials: materiomics. Bringing together the key concepts and methodologies used to determine biomaterial properties, you will understand the adaptation and application of materomics

  5. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Synergistically Acting Natural Product Enhancing the Performance of Biomaterial Based Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sivasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multifunctional wound heal biomaterial relies on the optimal content of therapeutic constituents as well as the desirable physical, chemical, and biological properties to accelerate the healing process. Formulating biomaterials such as amnion or collagen based scaffolds with natural products offer an affordable strategy to develop dressing material with high efficiency in healing wounds. Using image based phenotyping and quantification, we screened natural product derived bioactive compounds for modulators of types I and III collagen production from human foreskin derived fibroblast cells. The identified hit was then formulated with amnion to develop a biomaterial, and its biophysical properties, in vitro and in vivo effects were characterized. In addition, we performed functional profiling analyses by PCR array to understand the effect of individual components of these materials on various genes such as inflammatory mediators including chemokines and cytokines, growth factors, fibroblast stimulating markers for collagen secretion, matrix metalloproteinases, etc., associated with wound healing. FACS based cell cycle analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential of biomaterials for induction of proliferation of fibroblasts. Western blot analyses was done to examine the effect of biomaterial on collagen synthesis by cells and compared to cells grown in the presence of growth factors. This work demonstrated an uncomplicated way of identifying components that synergistically promote healing. Besides, we demonstrated that modulating local wound environment using biomaterials with bioactive compounds could enhance healing. This study finds that the developed biomaterials offer immense scope for healing wounds by means of their skin regenerative features such as anti-inflammatory, fibroblast stimulation for collagen secretion as well as inhibition of enzymes and markers impeding the healing, hydrodynamic properties complemented

  6. The role of biomaterial properties in peri-implant neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Andrew Lawrence

    An understanding of the interactions between orthopaedic and dental implant surfaces with the surrounding host tissue is critical in the design of next generation implants to improve osseointegration and clinical success rates. Critical to the process of osseointegration is the rapid establishment of a patent neovasculature in the peri-implant space to allow for the delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and progenitor cells. The central aim of this thesis is to understand how biomaterials regulate cellular and host tissue response to elicit a pro-angiogenic microenvironment at the implant/tissue interface. To address this question, the studies performed in this thesis aim to (1) determine whether biomaterial surface properties can modulate the production and secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors by cells, (2) determine the role of integrin and VEGF-A signaling in the angiogenic response of cells to implant surface features, and (3) to determine whether neovascularization in response to an implanted biomaterial can be modulated in vivo. The results demonstrate that biomaterial surface microtopography and surface energy can increase the production of pro-angiogenic growth factors by osteoblasts and that these growth factors stimulate the differentiation of endothelial cells in a paracrine manner and the results suggest that signaling through specific integrin receptors affects the production of angiogenic growth factors by osteoblast-like cells. Further, using a novel in vivo model, the results demonstrate that a combination of a rough surface microtopography and high surface energy can improve bone-to-implant contact and neovascularization. The results of these studies also suggest that VEGF-A produced by osteoblast-like cells has both an autocrine and paracrine effect. VEGF-A silenced cells exhibited reduced production of both pro-angiogenic and osteogenic growth factors in response to surface microtopgraphy and surface energy, and conditioned media from VEGF

  7. Design strategies and applications of nacre-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Ethan Michael; Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyan; Guo, Jinshan; Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik; Rahn, Kevin Michael; Armstrong, April Dawn; Xia, Jingfen; Qian, Guoying; Yang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine relies heavily on materials capable of implantation without significant foreign body reactions and with the ability to promote tissue differentiation and regeneration. The field of bone tissue engineering in particular requires materials capable of providing enhanced mechanical properties and promoting osteogenic cell lineage commitment. While bone repair has long relied almost exclusively on inorganic, calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite and their composites or on non-degradable metals, the organically derived shell and pearl nacre generated by mollusks has emerged as a promising alternative. Nacre is a naturally occurring composite material composed of inorganic, calcium carbonate plates connected by a framework of organic molecules. Similar to mammalian bone, the highly organized microstructure of nacre endows the composite with superior mechanical properties while the organic phase contributes to significant bioactivity. Studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated nacre's biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteogenic potential, which are superior to pure inorganic minerals such as hydroxyapatite or non-degradable metals. Nacre can be used directly as a bulk implant or as part of a composite material when combined with polymers or other ceramics. While nacre has demonstrated its effectiveness in multiple cell culture and animal models, it remains a relatively underexplored biomaterial. This review introduces the formation, structure, and characteristics of nacre, and discusses the present and future uses of this biologically-derived material as a novel biomaterial for orthopedic and other tissue engineering applications. Mussel derived nacre, a biological composite composed of mineralized calcium carbonate platelets and interplatelet protein components, has recently gained interest as a potential alternative ceramic material in orthopedic biomaterials, combining the

  8. IL-27p28 Production by XCR1+ Dendritic Cells and Monocytes Effectively Predicts Adjuvant-Elicited CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Augustus M; Welsh, Seth; Cheney, Elizabeth E; Chitrakar, Alisha; Blain, Trevor J; Kedl, Benjamin J; Hunter, Chris A; Pennock, Nathan D; Kedl, Ross M

    2018-01-01

    It is well accepted that the innate response is a necessary prerequisite to the formation of the adaptive response. This is true for T cell responses against infections or adjuvanted subunit vaccination. However, specific innate parameters with predictive value for the magnitude of an adjuvant-elicited T cell response have yet to be identified. We previously reported how T cell responses induced by subunit vaccination were dependent on the cytokine IL-27. These findings were unexpected, given that T cell responses to an infection typically increase in the absence of IL-27. Using a novel IL-27p28-eGFP reporter mouse, we now show that the degree to which an adjuvant induces IL-27p28 production from dendritic cells and monocytes directly predicts the magnitude of the T cell response elicited. To our knowledge, these data are the first to identify a concrete innate correlate of vaccine-elicited cellular immunity, and they have significant practical and mechanistic implications for subunit vaccine biology.

  9. A Retrospective Study on the Effectiveness of Switching to Oral Methadone for Relieving Severe Cancer-Related Neuropathic Pain and Limiting Adjuvant Analgesic Use in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Onizuka, Mami; Ishida, Kyoko; Murata, Yuki; Iio, Ayaka; Sugano, Koji; Maeno, Ken; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Akechi, Tatsuo; Kimura, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Cancer-related neuropathic pain is resistant to treatment with multiple medications and results in reduced patient quality of life. The aim was to find a new curative to treat neuropathic pain without using adjuvant analgesics. This was a retrospective study that used the FACES Pain Scale (FPS) to measure pain intensity and pain relief. Twenty-eight inpatients who were treated with other strong opioids and who consulted the palliative care team about their pain relief. In 22 (78.6%) out of 28 patients who successfully switched to methadone from other strong opioids, such as oxycodone and fentanyl, within two weeks, the mean FPS score was significantly reduced from 4.43 to 1.86, and methadone switching either reduced the number of prescriptions or stopped them entirely in 12 out of 17 (70.5%) patients who had used adjuvant analgesics before switching to methadone. These results suggest that opioid switching to oral methadone not only achieves pain relief but also curtails substantial adjuvant analgesic use.

  10. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy on Attention and Mood in Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    To explore the efficacy of mindfulness-
based music therapy (MBMT) to improve attention and decrease mood distress experienced by women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal approach. A comprehensive cancer hospital and a university in southern Florida. 15 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, stages I-III, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants individually received MBMT for one hour per week for four weeks. The sessions consisted of varied music activities accompanied by mindfulness attitudes, or mental strategies that enhance moment-to-moment awareness, and weekly homework. Demographic information was collected at baseline. Attention was measured using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States-Brief Form. Narrative comments collected from the homework assignments served to reinforce quantitative data. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that attention improved significantly over time. Although all mood states significantly improved from the beginning to the end of each MBMT session, the mood state of fatigue decreased significantly more than the other mood states. MBMT enhances attention and mood, particularly the mood state of fatigue, in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. 
. A preferred music listening and mindfulness exercise may be offered to women with breast cancer who experience attention problems and mood distress.

  11. Defining a turnover index for the correlation of biomaterial degradation and cell based extracellular matrix synthesis using fluorescent tagging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Wimpenny, Ian; Wechsler, Roni; Shachaf, Yonatan; Yang, Ying; El Haj, Alicia J

    2016-11-01

    Non-destructive protocols which can define a biomaterial's degradation and its associated ability to support proliferation and/or promote extracellular matrix deposition will be an essential in vitro tool. In this study we investigate fluorescently tagged biomaterials, with varying rates of degradation and their ability to support cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Changes in fluorescence of the biomaterials and the release of fluorescent soluble by-products were confirmed as accurate methods to quantify degradation. It was demonstrated that increasing rates of the selected biomaterials' degradation led to a decrease in cell proliferation and concurrently an increase in osteogenic matrix production. A novel turnover index (TI), which directly describes the effect of degradation of a biomaterial on cell behaviour, was calculated. Lower TIs for proliferation and high TIs for osteogenic marker production were observed on faster degrading biomaterials, indicating that these biomaterials supported an upregulation of osteogenic markers. This TI was further validated using an ex vivo chick femur model, where the faster degrading biomaterial, fibrin, led to an increased TI for mineralisation within an epiphyseal defect. This in vitro tool, TI, for monitoring the effect of biomaterial degradation on extracellular matrix production may well act as predictor of the selected biomaterials' performance during in vivo studies. This paper outlines a novel metric, Turnover Index (TI), which can be utilised in tissue-engineering for the comparison of a range of biomaterials. The metric sets out to define the relationship between the rate of degradation of biomaterials with the rate of cell proliferation and ECM synthesis, ultimately allowing us to tailor material for set clinical requirements. We have discovered some novel comparative findings that cells cultured on biomaterials with increased rates of degradation have lower rates of proliferation but alternatively

  12. Collagen based Biomaterials from CLRI: An Inspiration from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Focus of Research on the Collagen-based Biomaterials in CLRI: Patient care and pain reduction · People at CLRI: for Whom Collagen matters as a Biomaterial · Skin as an organ: Is it smart? Collagen: Emerging Role as a Smart ... Wound Care Products from CLRI in the market place · Logic of Biomaterial devices from CLRI ...

  13. Collagen based Biomaterials from CLRI: An Inspiration from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Focus of Research on the Collagen-based Biomaterials in CLRI: Patient care and pain reduction · People at CLRI: for Whom Collagen matters as a Biomaterial · Skin as an organ: Is it smart? Collagen: Emerging Role as a Smart material · Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices · Collagen: its Organizational ...

  14. QS-21: a potent vaccine adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    QS-21 is an potent adjuvant derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, Quillaja saponaria. One of the advantages of this adjuvant is that it promotes a balanced humoral and cell-mediaed immune response and can be widely applicable to a variety of vaccines. This adjuvant has used for some veterinary va...

  15. Effects of Adjuvant Mental Practice on Affected Upper Limb Function Following a Stroke: Results of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity and Motor Activity Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Seung; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Doo Young; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of adjuvant mental practice (MP) on affected upper limb function following a stroke using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. In this AB/BA crossover study, we studied 10 hemiplegic patients who had a stroke within the past 6 months. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received MP combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy for the first 3 weeks followed by conventional rehabilitation therapy alone for the final 3 weeks; the other group received the same therapy but in reverse order. The MP tasks included drinking from a cup and opening a door. MP was individually administered for 20 minutes, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. To assess the tasks, we used 3D motion analysis and three additional tests: the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and the motor activity logs for amount of use (MAL-AOU) and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). Assessments were performed immediately before treatment (T0), 3 weeks into treatment (T1), and 6 weeks into treatment (T2). Based on the results of the 3D motion analysis and the FMA-UE index (p=0.106), the MAL-AOU scale (p=0.092), and MAL-QOM scale (p=0.273), adjuvant MP did not result in significant improvements. Adjuvant MP had no significant effect on upper limb function following a stroke, according to 3D motion analysis and three clinical assessment tools (the FMA-UE index and the two MAL scales). The importance of this study is its use of objective 3D motion analysis to evaluate the effects of MP. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings.

  16. Adjuvant synergy in the response to hepatitis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xu; Caulfield, Michael J

    2003-10-01