WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass-based bioenergy development

  1. Stakeholders' perceptions on forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes perceptions of four stakeholder groups (non-governmental organizations [NGOs], government, industry, and academia) regarding forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US (United States) by combining SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats) framework with AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Results suggest that NGO representatives perceived rural development as an important opportunity. Government stakeholder group noted that less or no competition with food production and promotes energy security were major strength factors. Conversion technologies are still under trial was identified as a major weakness by industry representatives. Representatives of academia felt that the competition from other renewable energy sources could be a major threat. Overall, all stakeholder groups were in favor of forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US.

  2. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  3. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  4. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  5. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chum, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Moreira, J.R.; Junginger, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy has a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential, provided that the resources are developed sustainably and that efficient bioenergy systems are used. Certain current systems and key future options including perennial cropping systems, use of biomass residues and wastes and

  7. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de; Bolkesjoe, Torjus; Bradley, Douglas; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva; Heinimoe, Jussi; Hektor, Bo; Leistad, Oeyvind; Ling, Erik; Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Ryckmans, Yves; Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul; Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  8. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  13. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  14. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  15. BIOENERGY AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaška Filip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with bioenergy as an innovative source of regional development in Europe.It provides overview about main drivers and barriers to bioenergy implementation andemphases the role of potential socio-economic factors. Brief summary of real contributionto regional development in Germany, Austria and Norway is presented. The paper analyzesproblems and benefits of Slovak bioenergy project in town Detva as well. The finalsuggestions focus on creating effective information campaign in combination withappropriate tax measures and setting up conditions for better utilization of municipalorganic waste.

  16. Strategy for increased development of bio-energy; Strategi for oekt utbygging av bioenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The goal for the bio-energy strategy is to secure goal-oriented and coordinated effort towards increased development of bio-energy by 14 TWh within 2020. The increase in development of bio-energy is important because it reduces greenhouse gases, contribute to industrial and commercial development and strengthen the reliability of energy supply

  17. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  18. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  19. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  20. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  1. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  2. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  3. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  4. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  5. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are several new bioenergy interventions (policies, projects, or programmes) that are being considered and these developments must be assessed in terms of their sustainability. Both public and private sector policy makers, decision makers, and technology...

  6. Development of new biomass-based furan/glass composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the development of new biomass-based furan resin/glass fibre composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique using a two-stage cure cycle to allow removal of water from the resin. The volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites...

  7. Bioenergy industries development in China. Dilemma and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peidong, Zhang; Yanli, Yang; Xutong, Yang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang; Yongsheng, Tian; Yongkai, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Having 2.8 x 10 8 -3.0 x 10 8 t/a of wood energy, 4.0 x 10 6 t/a of oil seeds, 7.7 x 10 8 t/a of crops straw, 3.97 x 10 9 t/a of poultry and livestock manure, 1.48 x 10 8 t/a of municipal waste, and 4.37 x 10 10 t/a of organic wastewater, China is in possession of good resource condition for the development of bioenergy industries. Until the end of 2007, China has popularized 2.65 x 10 7 rural household biogas, established 8318 large and middle-scale biogas projects, and produced 1.08 x 10 10 m 3 /a of biogas; the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biomass briquettes fuel and biomass power generation reached to 1.5 x 10 6 t/a, 3.0 x 10 5 t/a, 6.0 x 10 4 t/a and 6.42 x 10 9 kWh, respectively. In recent years, bioenergy industries developed increasingly fast in China. However, the industrial base was weak with some dilemma existing in raw material supply, technological capability, industry standards, policy and regulation, and follow-up services, etc. From the viewpoint of long-term effective development system for bioenergy industries in China, a series of policy suggestions have been offered, such as strengthening strategy research, improving bioenergy industries development policies and plan, enhancing scientific research input, persisting in technology innovation, establishing product quality standard, improving industrial standard system, opening market and accelerating commercialization, etc. It is expected that the advices mentioned above could be helpful for the improvement of bioenergy industries development. (author)

  8. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  9. Market development problems for sustainable bio-energy systems in Sweden. (The BIOMARK project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter (ed.); Boerjesson, Paal; Hansen, Anders Christian; Roos, Anders; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-03-01

    The report consists of three case studies relating to Swedish bio-energy markets. The first is concerned with a general analysis of costs and benefits of transition to biomass-based electricity in Sweden. The analysis indicates that many price relations in Sweden do not support the transition to bio-energy. Future prospects for biomass conversion technologies versus natural gas based technologies may not be in favour of bio-energy with the existing fuel prices. Additionally, there is no effective utilisation of the large economic benefits that could be gained by coordinating the bio-energy fuel chain with the management of other material flows such as the nutrient flows in the water cycle. In government policies, the supply of biomass does not seem to receive the same attention as the conversion technologies. Potentially, this could lead to a shortage of biomass feedstock when the conversion technology part of the programmes succeeds. The second study is about market development for energy crops, specifically Salix. The analysis shows that real-life development is far behind prognoses and scenarios, confirming worries about future supplies of biomass. While Salix is associated with significant positive externalities and provides a large potential for co-benefits, the institutional setting is not favourable for the exploitation of these advantages. A particular problem is the high risk farmers face when planting Salix, as future demand is uncertain and prices difficult to predict. A better distribution of risk among the market actors, particularly between farmers and district heating companies, might be the best strategy for renewed growth in this sector. The third study is concerned with the wood pellets market, which experienced a supply crisis in the winter 2001/02, as producers were unable to satisfy demand or did so only at highly elevated prices. The analysis points to weakness in market governance, especially insufficient information flows between actors

  10. Market development problems for sustainable bio-energy systems in Sweden. (The BIOMARK project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helby, Peter; Boerjesson, Paal; Hansen, Anders Christian; Roos, Anders; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-03-01

    The report consists of three case studies relating to Swedish bio-energy markets. The first is concerned with a general analysis of costs and benefits of transition to biomass-based electricity in Sweden. The analysis indicates that many price relations in Sweden do not support the transition to bio-energy. Future prospects for biomass conversion technologies versus natural gas based technologies may not be in favour of bio-energy with the existing fuel prices. Additionally, there is no effective utilisation of the large economic benefits that could be gained by coordinating the bio-energy fuel chain with the management of other material flows such as the nutrient flows in the water cycle. In government policies, the supply of biomass does not seem to receive the same attention as the conversion technologies. Potentially, this could lead to a shortage of biomass feedstock when the conversion technology part of the programmes succeeds. The second study is about market development for energy crops, specifically Salix. The analysis shows that real-life development is far behind prognoses and scenarios, confirming worries about future supplies of biomass. While Salix is associated with significant positive externalities and provides a large potential for co-benefits, the institutional setting is not favourable for the exploitation of these advantages. A particular problem is the high risk farmers face when planting Salix, as future demand is uncertain and prices difficult to predict. A better distribution of risk among the market actors, particularly between farmers and district heating companies, might be the best strategy for renewed growth in this sector. The third study is concerned with the wood pellets market, which experienced a supply crisis in the winter 2001/02, as producers were unable to satisfy demand or did so only at highly elevated prices. The analysis points to weakness in market governance, especially insufficient information flows between actors

  11. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste based fuels can substitute fossil fuels in a sustainable and environmental friendly way. In this study, bioenergy includes bio-resources that can be potentially used for modern energy production. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, ...

  12. Recent developments in microbial fuel cell technologies for sustainable bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbial catabolic activities to generate electricity from a variety of materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass. These sources provide MFCs with a great advantage over chemical fuel cells that can utilize only purified reactive fuels (e.g., hydrogen). A developing primary application of MFCs is its use in the production of sustainable bioenergy, e.g., organic waste treatment coupled with electricity generation, although further technical developments are necessary for its practical use. In this article, recent advances in MFC technologies that can become fundamentals for future practical MFC developments are summarized. Results of recent studies suggest that MFCs will be of practical use in the near future and will become a preferred option among sustainable bioenergy processes.

  13. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghali, Lucia; Clift, Roland; Sinclair, Philip; Panoutsou, Calliope; Bauen, Ausilio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  14. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  15. Developments in international bio-energy markets and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and sustainable supply of biomass is vital to any market activity aimed at bioenergy production. Given the high expectations for bioenergy on a global scale and of many nations, the pressure on available biomass resources is increasing rapidly. Due to high prices for fossil fuels

  16. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  17. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, H.J.; Berndes, G.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited...... substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production....

  18. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  19. Large or small? Rethinking China’s forest bioenergy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Yang, Yongping; Xu, Jianchu

    2013-01-01

    China’s forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China’s forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. -- Highlights: ► China’s bioenergy policy is at a crossroads. ► Trade-offs exist between forest bioenergy policy for urban and rural users in China. ► There are strong arguments for focusing forest bioenergy policy on rural areas. ► China’s rural energy policy should increasingly support modern energy carriers

  20. Recent developments of biofuels/bioenergy sustainability certification: A global overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Nicolae; Dallemand, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the latest developments on the main initiatives and approaches for the sustainability certification for biofuels and/or bioenergy. A large number of national and international initiatives lately experienced rapid development in the view of the biofuels and bioenergy targets announced in the European Union, United States and other countries worldwide. The main certification initiatives are analysed in detail, including certification schemes for crops used as feedstock for biofuels, the various initiatives in the European Union, United States and globally, to cover biofuels and/or biofuels production and use. Finally, the possible way forward for biofuel certification is discussed. Certification has the potential to influence positively direct environmental and social impact of bioenergy production. Key recommendations to ensure sustainability of biofuels/bioenergy through certification include the need of an international approach and further harmonisation, combined with additional measures for global monitoring and control. The effects of biofuels/bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain; addressing the unwanted ILUC requires sustainable land use planning and adequate monitoring tools such as remote sensing, regardless of the end-use of the product. - Research highlights: → There is little harmonisation between certification initiatives. → Certification alone is probably not able to avoid certain indirect effects. → Sustainability standards should be applied globally to all agricultural commodities. → A critical issue to certification is implementation and verification. → Monitoring and control of land use changes through remote sensing are needed.

  1. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  2. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Austria is interested in using of biomass for energy because of its energy, environmental, agricultural and social policy. The country imports more than two thirds of the energy (about 350 P J/a). As the energy production using fossils decreases, the dependence of the country on imported energy increases. Compensation of this could be only an increase of hydropower and of bio-energy utilization but about 70% of the domestic hydropower is already used and the use of the remaining 30% is ecologically objected. So this increase relies on bio-energy. It is non exhaustible and very attractive as is neutral to carbon dioxide emissions. With of 46% of its territory wooded and large quantities of by-products, the country has an enormous potential for bio-energy production. Like other European countries there is surplus food and feed production, expressed as about 350 000 ha arable and greenland . The cultivation of new and special crops could reduce the surplus area to 170 000 ha for energy crops. The regional utilization of biomass for energy production would contribute to the creation of new jobs in the undeveloped rural areas. Each MW installed capacity would result to 2-3 new jobs and prevent the migration of 2-3 families from rural to urban regions saving large subsidies. The share of bio-energy is 10.9% of the primary energy consumption or 13.5% of the end energy consumption and is continually increasing. Bio-energy by wood by-product is mainly used for space heating with a total capacity of 2.5 GW: 90% of the furnaces are of less than 100 k W, the rest are of medium capacity (100-1000 k W) and only 364 of a capacity larger than 1MW. Considerable technical progress in decreasing emissions from wood burning was made in recently. About 25% of the bio-fuels are used in industrial installations and about 75% for space heating. The industrial boilers use fluidized-bed technology and co-generation systems using steam. Starting from 2005 3% of the electricity have to be

  3. Bioenergy in Ukraine-Possibilities of rural development and opportunities for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslavicius, Laurencas; Grzybek, Anna; Dubrovin, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This review paper deals with colligated aspects of the BioPlus Project (ERA-ARD) implemented by Institute of Technology and Life Sciences (Poland) and Lithuanian University of Agriculture Institute of Agro-Engineering (Lithuania) in cooperation with National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine Institute of Ecobiotechnologies and Bioenergy (Ukraine). The drawn inferences intended to be an auxiliary material for policy makers and can briefly indicate on direction of the regional development of rural Ukraine, focusing on: (i) country's specific and sub-regional assessments of renewable energy potentials and spheres of its application; (ii) identification of major barriers for the expansion of renewable energy technologies and policy guidance to overcome those barriers; (iii) recommendations for future actions and strategies concerning renewable energy in Ukraine. The article concludes that low contribution of bioenergy towards rural development is to a large extent driven by energy policy that inhibits the delivery and use of modern energy sources in rural Ukraine. Consequently, an incentive for achieving bioenergy's future that has greater relevance to development of the Ukraine's regions requires a mix of policy tools and institutional actions, briefly summarized in this paper. - Highlights: → We examine current status and the potentials of bioenergy in Ukraine. → We examine major barriers for the expansion of bioenergy technologies in Ukraine. → Ukraine has the highest potential for renewable energy production in Europe. → Bioenergy sector of UA requires better mix of policy tools and institutional actions. → Cost-competitiveness and financing of technologies and projects are major challenges.

  4. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  5. Bioenergy in developing countries experiences and prospects: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    "Biomass energy programs offer a wide range of potential benefits for developing countries. Already traditional biomass products like firewood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues provide the main source of household energy use for some 2–3 billion people in the developing world, and this demand is likely to grow in the years ahead. But new technologies for commercial energy production from biomass are emerging that could lead to dramatic new opportunities for agriculture and the rural sector...

  6. Accounting for Human Health and Ecosystems Quality in Developing Sustainable Energy Products: The Implications of Wood Biomass-based Electricity Strategies to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Yemane W.

    The prospect for transitions and transformations in the energy sector to mitigate climate change raises concerns that actions should not shift the impacts from one impact category to another, or from one sustainability domain to another. Although the development of renewables mostly results in low environmental impacts, energy strategies are complex and may result in the shifting of impacts. Strategies to climate change mitigation could have potentially large effects on human health and ecosystems. Exposure to air pollution claimed the lives of about seven million people worldwide in 2010, largely from the combustion of solid fuels. The degradation of ecosystem services is a significant barrier to achieving millennium development goals. This thesis quantifies the biomass resources potential for Alberta; presents a user-friendly and sector-specific framework for sustainability assessment; unlocks the information and policy barriers to biomass integration in energy strategy; introduces new perspectives to improve understanding of the life cycle human health and ecotoxicological effects of energy strategies; provides insight regarding the guiding measures that are required to ensure sustainable bioenergy production; validates the utility of the Environmental Life Cycle Cost framework for economic sustainability assessment; and provides policy-relevant societal cost estimates to demonstrate the importance of accounting for human health and ecosystem externalities in energy planning. Alberta is endowed with a wealth of forest and agricultural biomass resources, estimated at 458 PJ of energy. Biomass has the potential to avoid 11-15% of GHG emissions and substitute 14-17% of final energy demand by 2030. The drivers for integrating bioenergy sources into Alberta's energy strategy are economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation policy objectives. Bioenergy pathways significantly improved both human health and ecosystem quality from coal

  7. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  8. A strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia to avoid dangerous climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the cost-effective strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia through the 21st century under a 400 ppmv CO 2 stabilization constraint using a global energy model that treats the bioenergy sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, under the 400 ppmv CO 2 stabilization constraint, it is cost-effective to use modern bioenergy largely to generate heat and replace direct coal use in developing Asia in the first half of the century, because direct heat generation from modern biomass is efficient and expected to achieve large CO 2 reduction. As second-generation bioenergy conversion technologies (mainly gasification-based technologies) become mature in the second half of the century, it becomes cost-effective to introduce biomass-derived hydrogen, electricity, and Fischer-Tropsch synfuels and bioethanol produced using these technologies into developing Asia instead of modern biomass-derived heat. All biomass gasification-based conversion technologies are combined with CO 2 capture and storage from 2060, which enables negative CO 2 emissions and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the stringent climate stabilization target. Second, due to its small availability of biomass resources, large-scale import of biofuels and wood pellets is inevitable in developing Asia except southeastern Asia under the CO 2 constraint used here. It is shown that this contributes to diversifying liquid fuel import sources and improving energy security in developing Asia. Third, sensitivity analysis shows that these findings are robust to bioenergy-related cost parameters. (author)

  9. How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandarajah Gabrial

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of bioenergy chains. The investigation was based on insights from MARKAL modelling, detailed literature reviews and expert consultations. Due to the number and complexity of bioenergy pathways and technologies in the model, three chains and two underpinning technologies were selected for detailed investigation: (1 lignocellulosic hydrolysis for the production of bioethanol, (2 gasification technologies for heat and power, (3 fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production, (4 biotechnological advances for second generation bioenergy crops, and (5 the development of agro-machinery for growing and harvesting bioenergy crops. Detailed literature searches and expert consultations (looking inter alia at research and development needs and economic projections led to the development of an 'accelerated' dataset of modelling parameters for each of the selected bioenergy pathways, which were included in five different scenario runs with UK-MARKAL (MED. The results of the 'accelerated runs' were compared with a low-carbon (LC-Core scenario, which assesses the cheapest way to decarbonise the energy sector. Results Bioenergy was deployed in larger quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with the LC-Core scenario. In the electricity sector, solid biomass was highly utilised for energy crop gasification, displacing some deployment of wind power, and nuclear and marine to a lesser extent. Solid biomass was also deployed for heat in the residential sector from 2040 in much higher quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with LC-Core. Although lignocellulosic ethanol increased, overall ethanol decreased in the transport sector in the bioenergy

  10. Developing tools to identify marginal lands and assess their potential for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsidas, Spyridon; Gounaris, Nikolaos; Dimitriadis, Elias; Rettenmaier, Nils; Schmidt, Tobias; Vlachaki, Despoina

    2017-04-01

    The term "marginal land" is currently intertwined in discussions about bioenergy although its definition is neither specific nor firm. The uncertainty arising from marginal land classification and quantification is one of the major constraining factors for its potential use. The clarification of political aims, i.e. "what should be supported?" is also an important constraining factor. Many approaches have been developed to identify marginal lands, based on various definitions according to the management goals. Concerns have been frequently raised regarding the impacts of marginal land use on environment, ecosystem services and sustainability. Current tools of soil quality and land potentials assessment fail to meet the needs of marginal land identification and exploitation for biomass production, due to the lack of comprehensive analysis of interrelated land functions and their quantitative evaluation. Land marginality is determined by dynamic characteristics in many cases and may therefore constitute a transitional state, which requires reassessment in due time. Also, marginal land should not be considered simply a dormant natural resource waiting to be used, since it may already provide multiple benefits and services to society relating to wildlife, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, etc. The consequences of cultivating such lands need to be fully addressed to present a balanced view of their sustainable potential for bioenergy. This framework is the basis for the development of the SEEMLA tools, which aim at supporting the identification, assessment, management of marginal lands in Europe and the decision-making for sustainable biomass production of them using appropriate bioenergy crops. The tools comprise two applications, a web-based one (independent of spatial data) and a GIS-based application (land regionalization on the basis of spatial data), which both incorporate: - Land resource characteristics, restricting the cultivation of agricultural crops but

  11. Stakeholder engagement in scenario development process - bioenergy production and biodiversity conservation in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haatanen, Anniina; den Herder, Michael; Leskinen, Pekka; Lindner, Marcus; Kurttila, Mikko; Salminen, Olli

    2014-03-15

    In this study participatory approaches were used to develop alternative forest resource management scenarios with particular respect to the effects on increased use of forest bioenergy and its effect on biodiversity in Eastern Finland. As technical planning tools, we utilized a forest management planning system (MELA) and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) to visualize the impacts of the scenarios. We organized a stakeholder workshop where group discussions were used as a participatory method to get the stakeholder preferences and insights concerning forest resource use in the year 2030. Feedback from the workshop was then complemented with a questionnaire. Based on the results of the workshop and a questionnaire we developed three alternative forest resource scenarios: (1) bioenergy 2030 - in which energy production is more centralized and efficient; (2) biodiversity 2030 - in which harvesting methods are more nature friendly and protected forests make up 10% of the total forest area; and (3) mixed bioenergy + biodiversity 2030 scenario - in which wood production, recreation and nature protection are assigned to the most suitable areas. The study showed that stakeholder engagement combined with the MELA and ToSIA tools can be a useful approach in scenario development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rural development and bioenergy - experiences from 20 years of development in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.

    2002-01-01

    Activities have been going on for a number of decades in Sweden in the field of job creation, rural development and development of local economies through the use of bioenergy. This paper relates the experience of different strategies of rural development projects over a 20-year period based on the rapid development of biofuel use, especially wood fuel use in Sweden. A successful strategy for people and companies involved, has been to specify the products and services opposed to bulky raw material production and to integrate them into the companies operations. Another success factor has been size rationalisation. Systems thinking with respect to the market and in different environmental values in the environmental cycle have also been successful. In the future, there will probably be room for different niche companies that can meet the needs of the market that the strongly rationalised companies cannot. This study calls for new studies of direct employment effects and multipliers. Continued internationalisation of the biofuel market will give greater competitiveness and press down prices among local producers. The strong competition will mean that the survivors will be those who are flexible and have activities and products integrated and apply systems thinking where contact will be with different parts of the chain and not only with the production of the raw material.(author)

  13. Developing a sustainability framework for assessing bioenergy projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, JA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Pretoria, Natural Resources & the Environment (NRE), Pretoria, South Africa 3Winrock International India, 788, Udyog Vihar, Phase V, Gurgaon 122 001, Haryana, India. ABSTRACT: Focusing on the situation relating... of the expanding, developing global population while protecting natural resources and the environment; all essential characteristics of sustainable development. There have been numerous global efforts to provide frameworks for sustainability assessment...

  14. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  15. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldu, Yemane W.; Assefa, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  16. Paving the Way for Heat. Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johnsen Rygg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s [1] four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.

  17. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  18. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries. A world-economy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchler, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio-economic development. (author)

  19. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries. A world-economy perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, Magdalena [Department of Thematic Studies - Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoeping University, 58183, Linkoeping (Sweden); Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linkoeping University, 60174, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio-economic development. (author)

  20. Jatropha. A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop. The Potential for Pro-Poor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittaine, R.; Lutaladio, NeBambi

    2010-01-01

    A review is given of the information currently available on jatropha as a bioenergy crop, starting with the papers presented to the April 2008 IFAD/FAO International Consultation on Pro-Poor Jatropha Development held in Rome, Italy (IFAD 2008). This information has been supplemented by consulting various reports, conference papers, and both published and unpublished scientific papers. Based on the output of the International Consultation, the aim of this report is to identify the jatropha production systems that are most sustainable and viable and that can contribute to rural development and alleviate poverty. It also points out the critical areas of needed research, trusting that this information will be useful for decision-makers as well as for those actively involved in jatropha production. This introductory chapter offers general background on liquid biofuels, energy poverty and global jatropha production trends.

  1. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  2. Information as a key-element for the development and dissemination of bioenergy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1999-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy sources which have to be developed to replace of CO 2 -intensive energy technologies the utilization of bio-energy has a lot of advantages: it is CO 2 - neutral; it is not dependent on imports and improves security of supply; has enormous potential of job creation for rural areas, in small and medium size enterprises; has an enormous market potential; biomass is a by-product in many industrial processes and its using would solve also the waste problem; biomass is an infinite energy source. Predominant market of the biomass for Europe is that for low temperature heating. Being underestimated this market is not attractive for high tech development and research perhaps because of the difficulties for collecting statistical data. Technologies vary from low efficient logwood boilers to sophisticated district heating plants. The strategy of the European Commission, referring to the White Paper, proposes to install 1mill sophisticated biomass heating systems in Europe till 2003. The low temperature heating market will be the most important for future information programmes and projects. For launching of biomass technologies onto a market it is necessary to inform the customer about it and the way to get it. The distribution systems have to rely on multipurpose equipment i.g. for different kind of bio-fuel. The information has to target the advantages of bio-energy fuels compared to the competing carriers like natural gas and oil. These advantages define the market niche. The information strategies include establishing of national and international networks and collaboration with other renewable energy sources associations and with the agricultural sector. The information related projects of the Austrian Biomass Association include: issuing a magazine, information campaigns, conferences, issuing of teaching materials for schools, information brochures and training programmes for plumbers so to be key-agents in the dissemination of small

  3. Predicted avian responses to bioenergy development scenarios in an intensive agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; McCoy, Tim D.; Guan, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of native prairie to agriculture has increased food and bioenergy production but decreased wildlife habitat. However, enrollment of highly erodible cropland in conservation programs has compensated for some grassland loss. In the future, climate change and production of second-generation perennial biofuel crops could further transform agricultural landscapes and increase or decrease grassland area. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an alternative biofuel feedstock that may be economically and environmentally superior to maize (Zea mays) grain for ethanol production on marginally productive lands. Switchgrass could benefit farmers economically and increase grassland area, but there is uncertainty as to how conversions between rowcrops, switchgrass monocultures and conservation grasslands might occur and affect wildlife. To explore potential impacts on grassland birds, we developed four agricultural land-use change scenarios for an intensively cultivated landscape, each driven by potential future climatic changes and ensuing irrigation limitations, ethanol demand, commodity prices, and continuation of a conservation program. For each scenario, we calculated changes in area for landcover classes and predicted changes in grassland bird abundances. Overall, birds responded positively to the replacement of rowcrops with switchgrass and negatively to the conversion of conservation grasslands to switchgrass or rowcrops. Landscape context and interactions between climate, crop water use, and irrigation availability could influence future land-use, and subsequently, avian habitat quality and quantity. Switchgrass is likely to provide higher quality avian habitat than rowcrops but lower quality habitat than conservation grasslands, and therefore, may most benefit birds in heavily cultivated, irrigation dependent landscapes under warmer and drier conditions, where economic profitability may also encourage conversions to drought tolerant bioenergy feedstocks.

  4. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  5. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  6. Hydrologic Impacts of Developing Forest-based Bioenergy Feedstock in Wisconsin, USA and Entre Rios, Argentina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for biomass-derived fuels has resulted in an increase in bioenergy projects across the Americas in recent years, a trend that is expected to continue. However, the expansion of bioenergy feedstock production might cause unintended environmental consequences. Accordingly, the goal of this research is to investigate how forest-based bioenergy development across the Americas may affect hydrological systems on a watershed scale. This study focuses on biofuel feedstock production with hybrid poplar cultivation in a snow-dominated watershed in northern Wisconsin, USA, and eucalyptus cultivation in a warm and temperate watershed in Entre Rios, Argentina. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), calibrated and validated for the two watersheds, is used to evaluate the effects of land use change corresponding to a range of biofuel development scenarios. The land use change scenarios include rules for limiting the location of the biofuel feedstock, and rotation time. These variables in turn impact the magnitude and timing of runoff and evapotranspiration. In Wisconsin, long term daily streamflow simulations indicate that planting poplar will increase evapotranspiration and decrease water yield, primarily through reduced baseflow contributions to streamflow. Results are also presented in terms of changes in flow relative to biomass production, to understand the sensitivity of potential biofuel generation to hydrologic impacts, and vice versa. In the end, alternative management practices were evaluated to mitigate the impacts. Keywords: Biofuel; Soil and Water Assessment Tool; Poplar; Baseflow; Evapotranspiration

  7. Development of a tool to model European biomass trade : Report for IEA Bioenergy Task 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Resch, G.; Matzenberger, J.; Panzer, C.; Pelkmans, L.

    2011-01-01

    This report investigated the potential of future intra- and inter-European trade of solid biomass for bioenergy purposes taking country to country specific intermodal transport routes into account and matching supply and demand for energy crops, forestry products and residues and agricultural

  8. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  9. The bio-energies development: the role of biofuels and the CO{sub 2} price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvet, Pierre-Andre [Universite Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense, Climate Economics Chair (France); Lantz, Frederic [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4, avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Le Cadre, Elodie [IFPEN, INRA, Universite Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense (France)

    2012-07-01

    Reduction in energy dependency and emissions of CO{sub 2} via renewable energies targeted in the European Union energy mix and taxation system, might trigger the production of bio-energy production and competition for biomass utilization. Torrefied biomass could be used to produce second generation biofuels to replace some of the fuels used in transportation and is also suitable as feedstock to produce electricity in large quantities. This paper examines how the CO{sub 2} price affects demand of torrefied biomass in the power sector and its consequences on the profitability of second generation biofuel units (Biomass to Liquid units). Indeed, the profitability of the BtL units which are supplied only by torrefied biomass is related to the competitive demand of the power sector driven by the CO{sub 2} price and feed-in tariffs. We propose a linear dynamic model of supply and demand. On the supply side, a profit-maximizing torrefied biomass sector is modelled. The model aims to represent the transformation of biomass into torrefied biomass which could be sold to the refinery sector and the power sector. A two-sided (demanders and supplier) bidding process led us to arrive at the equilibrium price for torrefied biomass. The French case is used as an example. Our results suggest that the higher the CO{sub 2} price, the more stable and important the power sector demand. It also makes the torrefied biomass production less vulnerable to uncertainty on demand coming from the refining sector. The torrefied biomass co-firing with coal can offer a near-term market for the torrefied biomass for a CO{sub 2} emission price lower than 20 euros/tCO{sub 2}, which can stimulate development of biomass supply systems. Beyond 2020, the demand for torrefied biomass from the power sector could be substituted by the refining sector if the oil price goes up whatever the CO{sub 2} price. (authors)

  10. The bio-energies development: the role of biofuels and the CO2 price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouvet, Pierre-Andre; Lantz, Frederic; Le Cadre, Elodie

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in energy dependency and emissions of CO 2 via renewable energies targeted in the European Union energy mix and taxation system, might trigger the production of bio-energy production and competition for biomass utilization. Torrefied biomass could be used to produce second generation biofuels to replace some of the fuels used in transportation and is also suitable as feedstock to produce electricity in large quantities. This paper examines how the CO 2 price affects demand of torrefied biomass in the power sector and its consequences on the profitability of second generation biofuel units (Biomass to Liquid units). Indeed, the profitability of the BtL units which are supplied only by torrefied biomass is related to the competitive demand of the power sector driven by the CO 2 price and feed-in tariffs. We propose a linear dynamic model of supply and demand. On the supply side, a profit-maximizing torrefied biomass sector is modelled. The model aims to represent the transformation of biomass into torrefied biomass which could be sold to the refinery sector and the power sector. A two-sided (demanders and supplier) bidding process led us to arrive at the equilibrium price for torrefied biomass. The French case is used as an example. Our results suggest that the higher the CO 2 price, the more stable and important the power sector demand. It also makes the torrefied biomass production less vulnerable to uncertainty on demand coming from the refining sector. The torrefied biomass co-firing with coal can offer a near-term market for the torrefied biomass for a CO 2 emission price lower than 20 euros/tCO 2 , which can stimulate development of biomass supply systems. Beyond 2020, the demand for torrefied biomass from the power sector could be substituted by the refining sector if the oil price goes up whatever the CO 2 price. (authors)

  11. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  12. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  13. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  14. Reconciling food security and bioenergy : Priorities for action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kline, Keith L.; Msangi, Siwa; Dale, Virginia H.; Woods, Jeremy; Souza, Glaucia m.; Osseweijer, P.; Clancy, Joy S.; Hilbert, Jorge A.; Johnson, Francis X.; Mcdonnell, Patrick C.; Mugera, Harriet K.

    Understanding the complex interactions among food security, bioenergy sustainability, and resource management requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Goals place a high priority on food and energy security; bioenergy

  15. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  16. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  17. Finnish bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the use of biofuels. The share of wood derived fuels of the total primary energy requirement was about 14% (ca. 4 million toe) and peat about 5% (1.4 million toe). The possibilities for increasing the use of biofuels in Finland are significant. There is theoretically about 10 million m{sup 3}/a (about 2 million toe/a) of harvestable wood. Areas suitable for fuel peat production (0.5 million ha) could produce ca. 420 million toe of peat. At present rates of use, the peat reserves are adequate for centuries. During the next few years 0.5--1 million hectares of fields withdrawn from farming could be used for biofuel production. The production potential of this field area is estimated to be about 0.2--0.5 million toe. In addition, the use of wastes in energy production could be increased. The aim of the new Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. New economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and use of biofuels will also be developed. The main research areas are production of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass.

  18. “Even our Dairy Queen shut down”: Risk and resilience in bioenergy development in forest-dependent communities in the US South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; J. Peter Brosius

    2017-01-01

    Wood-based bioenergy in the US South is a key element in a sociotechnical imaginary that brings together rural development, energy independence, and environmental sustainability; it is also a key element in another imaginary in which powerful interest groups from the private sector and government collude in ways that enrich them regardless of success of the endeavor,...

  19. Sustainable forest-based bioenergy in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kraxner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently – although given abundant resources – the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere, future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3, twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.

  20. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  1. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  2. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, T.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Nowak, C.A.; White, E.H.; Smart, L.B.; Tharakan, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities-including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development-were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops. Despite technological viability and associated environmental and local economic benefits, the high price of willow biomass relative to coal has been a barrier to wide-scale deployment of this system. The cost of willow biomass is currently $3.00GJ -1 ($57.30odt -1 ) compared to $1.40-1.90GJ -1 for coal. Yield improvements from traditional breeding efforts and increases in harvesting efficiency that are currently being realized promise to reduce the price differential. Recent policy changes at the federal level, including the provision to harvest bioenergy crops from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land and a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and state-level initiatives such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) will help to further reduce the difference and foster markets for willow biomass. Years of work on willow biomass crop research and demonstration projects have increased our understanding of the biology, ecophysiology and management of willow biomass crops. Using an adaptive management model, this information has led to the deployment of willow for other applications such as phytoremediation, living snow fences, and riparian buffers across the northeastern US. (author)

  3. Trends in european bioenergy law: problems, perspectives and risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Caputo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into new forms of energy is a current challenge. This paper aims to inquire into the real advantages of bioenergy and its sustainable development within the European legal framework, while also considering the negative aspects of bioenergy use. The European Union, in fact, is an important supporter of bioenergy and shows that, through good legislative policy, the negative aspects of bioenergy use can be surmounted . In conclusion, bioenergy and sustainable development can still be a plausible solution to feed the planet

  4. Bioenergy research advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijai G; Kubicek, Christian P; Saddler, Jack; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post...

  5. Hydrological and sedimentation implications of landscape changes in a Himalayan catchment due to bioenergy cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    There is a global effort to focus on the development of bioenergy and energy cropping, due to the generally increasing demand for crude oil, high oil price volatility and climate change mitigation challenges. Second generation energy cropping is expected to increase greatly in India as the Government of India has recently approved a national policy of 20 % biofuel blending by 2017; furthermore, the country's biomass based power generation potential is estimated as around ~24GW and large investments are expected in coming years to increase installed capacity. In this study, we have modelled the environmental influences (e.g.: hydrology and sediment) of scenarios of increased biodiesel cropping (Jatropha curcas) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a northern Indian river basin. SWAT has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for daily river flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). The study has applied two land use change scenarios of (1) increased bioenergy cropping in marginal (grazing) lands in the lower and middle regions of catchment (2) increased bioenergy cropping in low yielding areas of row crops in the lower and middle regions of the catchment. The presentation will describe the improved understanding of the hydrological, erosion and sediment delivery and food production impacts arising from the introduction of a new cropping variety to a marginal area; and illustrate the potential prospects of bioenergy production in Himalayan valleys.

  6. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  7. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  8. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  9. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  10. The Vermont Bioenergy Initiative: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, Chris [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Sawyer, Scott [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); Kahler, Ellen [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative (VBI) was to foster the development of sustainable, distributed, small-scale biodiesel and grass/mixed fiber industries in Vermont in order to produce bioenergy for local transportation, agricultural, and thermal applications, as a replacement for fossil fuel based energy. The VBI marked the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont’s dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives.

  11. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswarlal, Vimal Kumar; Vasudevan, Geoffrey; Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Vasudevan, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  12. Water-Soluble Lignins from Different Bioenergy Crops Stimulate the Early Development of Maize (Zea mays, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Savy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of water-soluble lignins isolated from four non-food bioenergy crops (cardoon CAR, eucalyptus EUC, and two black poplars RIP and LIM was characterized in detail, and their potential bioactivity towards maize germination and early growth evaluated. Lignins were found to not affect seed germination rates, but stimulated the maize seedling development, though to a different extent. RIP promoted root elongation, while CAR only stimulated the length of lateral seminal roots and coleoptile, and LIM improved only the coleoptile development. The most significant bioactivity of CAR was related to its large content of aliphatic OH groups, C-O carbons and lowest hydrophobicity, as assessed by 31P-NMR and 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopies. Less bioactive RIP and LIM lignins were similar in composition, but their stimulation of maize seedling was different. This was accounted to their diverse content of aliphatic OH groups and S- and G-type molecules. The poorest bioactivity of the EUC lignin was attributed to its smallest content of aliphatic OH groups and largest hydrophobicity. Both these features may be conducive of a EUC conformational structure tight enough to prevent its alteration by organic acids exuded from vegetal tissues. Conversely the more labile conformational arrangements of the other more hydrophilic lignin extracts promoted their bioactivity by releasing biologically active molecules upon the action of exuded organic acids. Our findings indicate that water-soluble lignins from non-food crops may be effectively used as plant biostimulants, thus contributing to increase the economic and ecological liability of bio-based industries.

  13. Water-Soluble Lignins from Different Bioenergy Crops Stimulate the Early Development of Maize (Zea mays, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savy, Davide; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Vinci, Giovanni; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2015-11-05

    The molecular composition of water-soluble lignins isolated from four non-food bioenergy crops (cardoon CAR, eucalyptus EUC, and two black poplars RIP and LIM) was characterized in detail, and their potential bioactivity towards maize germination and early growth evaluated. Lignins were found to not affect seed germination rates, but stimulated the maize seedling development, though to a different extent. RIP promoted root elongation, while CAR only stimulated the length of lateral seminal roots and coleoptile, and LIM improved only the coleoptile development. The most significant bioactivity of CAR was related to its large content of aliphatic OH groups, C-O carbons and lowest hydrophobicity, as assessed by (31)P-NMR and (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopies. Less bioactive RIP and LIM lignins were similar in composition, but their stimulation of maize seedling was different. This was accounted to their diverse content of aliphatic OH groups and S- and G-type molecules. The poorest bioactivity of the EUC lignin was attributed to its smallest content of aliphatic OH groups and largest hydrophobicity. Both these features may be conducive of a EUC conformational structure tight enough to prevent its alteration by organic acids exuded from vegetal tissues. Conversely the more labile conformational arrangements of the other more hydrophilic lignin extracts promoted their bioactivity by releasing biologically active molecules upon the action of exuded organic acids. Our findings indicate that water-soluble lignins from non-food crops may be effectively used as plant biostimulants, thus contributing to increase the economic and ecological liability of bio-based industries.

  14. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from......Based on the approach of 'arena of development' controversies over bioenergy in the shaping of a Danish climate strategy are analyzed as a contribution to a sustainable transition perspective on bioenergy in industrialized societies with substantial agricultural production. Bioenergy plays...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...

  15. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  16. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  17. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [UFRRJ/Conservation International Brazil, Seropedica (Brazil); Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medeiros, Rodrigo [Federal Rural Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Sparovek, Gerd [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Walter, Arnaldo [Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Venier, Lisa A. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie (Canada). Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2015-06-24

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  18. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  19. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  20. International bioenergy trade - a review of past developments in the liquid biofuels market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    Policies aimed to promote biofuels locally had tremendous effects on global market developments across the past decade. This article develops insights into the interaction of these policies and market forces via a comprehensive collection and analysis of international production and trade data. It

  1. Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural

  2. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  3. Major energy plants and their potential for bioenergy development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  4. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  5. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagasse combustion. In this work, the case of a sucrose and ethanol production plant, which mills ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, is considered. A tailor-made computational model was developed to assess the energy and material process balances in order to estimate the effect of different operating conditions on cogeneration boilers and turbines, and to optimize the overall process efficiency. The current situation was modeled with good precision from the developed model. Likewise, the concept of “Renewable Efficiency” was introduced to explain the degree of green power, which a process plant is able to produce. Consequently, new innovative solutions and process layouts were proposed in order to increase their renewable efficiency. With the new configurations, a convenient energy surplus of up to 33 MW can be reached, which could be sold in the national electricity grid, representing long-term interesting economic benefits for the company.

  6. Project ARBRE: Lessons for bio-energy developers and policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piterou, Athena; Shackley, Simon; Upham, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Project Arable Biomass Renewable Energy (ARBRE) was a 'flagship' project in the UK to demonstrate electricity generation from dedicated energy crops, employing the high efficiency of gasification combined cycle technology while also contributing to the waste management problem of sewage disposal. The plant never reached commercial operation and this paper provides the first detailed public account of the reasons, drawing on interviews with the main actors. Project ARBRE failed due to three unfortunate developments: the withdrawal for reasons of commercial strategy of the main company that initiated and financed the project; bankruptcy of the turnkey contractor appointed to oversee the project; and technical problems with the gasification technology, which could not be resolved within the financial and time constraints. All these factors acted in reinforcing manner and they were individually preventable: documenting the process of failure is a learning experience that can prevent their recurrence

  7. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Lewandoski, I.

    2004-07-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  8. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  9. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  10. Small-scale bioenergy alternatives for industry, farm, and institutions: A user's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folk, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases

  11. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  12. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  13. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  14. 8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This conference volume contains lectures and poster contributions with the following main topics: integrated biomass utilisation concepts; Solid bioenergy carrier; Bioenergy in the transport sector; Biogas. Seven papers are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  15. Developing an Experimental Watershed for Monitoring the Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Marginal Lands of the Northeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B. M.; Adler, P. R.; Kemanian, A. R.; Saha, D.; Montes, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern U.S. over 400,000 acres have been placed into conservation programs to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Most of this acreage is within the Chesepeake Bay watershed. Many of these acres may be suitable for raising second generation bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). Bioenergy production may provide a viable economic incentive to keep marginal lands in perennial crop production, and improve water quality. However, the environmental impacts and benefits of second generation bioenergy crop production are not well understood on marginal lands. We designed an experimental watershed to compare switchgrass and miscanthus production against typical conservation grasslands. The Mattern Watershed is a horseshoe shaped 1st order watershed located near Leck Kill, PA, and is representative of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. The upper portions of the watershed have been and are currently used for tillage corn and bean production. The lower portions of the watershed are excessively wet and have been in a conservation easement since 2005. In spring 2012 we planted eight 0.4 ha replicate plots of switchgrass (4 fertilized and 4 with no fertilizer) and four 0.4 ha plots of miscanthus into the lower portions of the watershed an additional four 0.4 ha plots were left in conservation grassland using a randomized block design. We compare biomass production, biomass elemental content, N2O emissions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater quality, surface runoff, and soil organic carbon in order to determine which treatment most effectively produces bioenergy feedstock, mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, and improves water quality. The experimental watershed will provide an unparalleled opportunity to verify and parameterize watershed, and bigeochemical models. Preliminary results suggest that early in the growing season cool season grasses minimized shallow groundwater NO3 and N2O

  16. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  17. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  18. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  19. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  20. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  1. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  2. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  3. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  4. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Ludwiczek, Nikolaus [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Pointner, Christian [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Verma, Vijay Kumar [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  5. Singular Strategic Project for the Development, Demonstration and Evaluation of Energy Crop Biomass-based Energy Production in Spain (On Cultivos); Proyecto Singular y Estragetico para el desarrollo, demostracion y evaluacion de la produccion de energia en Espana a partir de la biomasa de cultivos energeticos (On Cultivos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, E.; Maleta, E. J.; Carrasco, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The Singular Strategic Project (PSE) On Cultivos, Development, demonstration and evaluation of the viability of energy crop biomass-based energy production in Spain, has been under way since 2005. This article describes the project objectives and general data indicating the current project status and the most relevant preliminary results obtained since it began. The On Cultivos PSE is proving to be an effective tool to channel the R and D efforts required to achieve the integral commercial implementation of energy crops in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  7. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. Copyright © 2015

  8. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, J.M.C.; Zarrilli, S.; Mohamed, F.A.; Marchal, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international

  9. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  10. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  11. Wide Spread Exploitations of Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Lahdelma, Risto

    2016-01-01

    The recoverable proven reserves of fossil fuel sources are projected to be exhausted by the end of this century. In response to the exhaustion of fossil resources, there is a serious need to find alternative fuel sources. Bioenergy is one of the potential candidates to counteract the fossil-fuel depletion challenge. Despite bioenergy sources appear to be renewable and net-zero GHG emitting, bioenergy undergoes competition with food, feed and other crucial applications. Since earth’s eco syste...

  12. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  13. Potential of Biomass Based Electricity Generation in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Ariyadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has attracted much attention as a primary energy source for electricity generation due to its potential to supply low cost fuel source with considerable environmental and socio-economic benefits. Despite having favorable climatic conditions to grow and use biomass for electricity generation, biomass based electricity generation in Sri Lanka is lagging behind due to many reasons. Many countries rely on the agricultural or forestry by-products or residuals as the main source of biomass for electricity generation mainly due to the comparatively low cost and sustainable supply of these by-products. Sri Lanka does not have this advantage and has to rely mainly on purposely grown biomass for electricity generation. Development of short rotation energy plantations seems to be the best option available for Sri Lanka to produce biomass for commercial scale electricity generation. The highly favorable growing conditions, availability of promising tree species and a variety of plantation management options and significant environmental and socio-economic benefits associated with energy plantation development greatly favor this option. This paper examines the potential of using plantation grown biomass as a fuel source for electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

  14. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Edward Martinus Wilhelmus Utrecht University

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  16. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarullo, Mariana B. G.; Tavares, Eveline Q. P.; Padilla, Gabriel; Leite, Débora C. C.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes. PMID:27703463

  17. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. G. Latarullo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger. The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes.

  18. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  19. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  20. The market for bioenergy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Conference paper. The demand for energy in Europe at present amounts to 16 PWh. Of this, 50% is needed for heating, 27% for transportation, 23% for light, communication and power. The European Commission in 1996 proposed that the share of renewables should be doubled to 12% by 2010. It is calculated that 3/4 of the supply of renewables must be supplied by biomass. A comprehensive energy crop programme is needed to guarantee the supply. According to calculations, 77% of the bioenergy supply will be used to deliver heat. For small heating installations financial support is necessary to overcome the investment costs. It is recommended that biomass based district heating grids should be subsidized by a joint programme of the Commission and the national governments. For industrial users little or no subsidies are required. It is suggested that the members of the EU should submit to the commission regional heat concepts, ''heat from biomass'', of a certain specified content. The necessary investment should come from private investors, from public money and from the EU. Green electricity is a way to promote renewable energy resources. As a realistic target for electricity from biomass within 12 years, 80 TWh is proposed. The production of raw materials for the energy sector on set-aside land is unsuccessful because of the changing set-aside rate. Some remedial actions are proposed

  1. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  2. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based......Goal and scope The goal of this PhD project is to contribute to a more consistent methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) of biomaterials and to address the environmental performance and perspectives of biomaterials. In particular, it is the goal to develop an approach for dealing...... production is increasing. As the demand for biomaterials increases, so does the need for knowledge about their environmental performance – both in absolute terms and relative to the petrochemical counterparts that they may replace. LCA is a commonly used tool for assessing environmental sustainability...

  3. Critical success factors for biomass. Identification/specification of critical success factors in the development and market introduction of biomass conversion systems for the production of electricity and/or heat and/or gaseous/liquid secondary energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Dinkelbach, L.; Van Doorn, J.; Hemmes, K.; Gerlagh, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-06-01

    The Dutch government has set the policy target that in 2020 10% of the total energy consumption has to be provided by means of renewable energy sources. Biomass is expected to play a major role (25-30%) in this future renewable energy based energy supply system. However, it is still unclear if this biomass-based target will be reached. Although studies showed that success or failure of innovations and projects depend on a multitude of scientific, technical, economic and societal variables, a number of questions still remained unanswered. This information often concentrated exclusively on the cost price aspects. This study is conducted to identify the internal and external barriers or constraints other than cost aspects, which are of vital importance to a successful penetration of biomass in the Dutch energy market. Barriers with a decreasing influence on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands are: short-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams) for energy purposes, applicable emission and waste policies, and unfamiliarity of bioenergy by the public and government. Barriers that potentially could play an important role on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands in the near future are: long-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams and energy crops) for energy purposes, the 'new' emission constraints and their potential negative influence on the implementation of small-scale biomass-based combined-cycle plants, the rivalry of bioenergy with other renewable energy based technologies in a liberalising energy market, the social acceptance of bioenergy, the future European agriculture policy (energy crops), and the current status and development perspectives of biomass-based energy conversion technologies. 66 refs

  4. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  5. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development....

  6. Halophytes as Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  7. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  8. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Marco, Noelia; Hilbert, Jorge Antonio; Silva Colomer, Jorge; Anschau, Renee Alicia; Carballo, Stella

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  9. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Chen, Rick [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Ye, Ning [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Cheng, Zong-Ming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  10. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  11. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristen L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2016. The report compliments other annual market reports from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offices and is supported by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2016 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

  13. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    sources of biomass for energy purposes in the European Union. Estimation of European biomass resources is associated with significant uncertainty, and it is not sure if the European Union can meet its 2020 energy policy targets with biomass produced in the EU, although some countries hold sway over...... a total production of residues from these six crops of ~3.7 billion tonnes dry matter annually. North and South America; Eastern, South-Eastern and Southern Asia and Eastern Europe each produce more than 200 million tonnes dry matter annually. The theoretical energy potential from the selected crop......, where bio-ethanol production is integrated with combined heat and power production may improve the energy balance with about 30 % point and reach energy efficiencies almost comparable to those seen for conversion of petroleum into gasoline. Minimisation of GHG emissions from bioenergy production...

  14. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [de

  15. Young citizens' knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pietarinen, Janne; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years extensive discussions on bioenergy has been both positive and negative. In Europe, the image of bioenergy appears to be low with lack of broad public support. Previous studies show that younger people are unsure about many issues surrounding renewable energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among pupils in North Karelia, Finland. Data drawn from 495 ninth grade students indicate that the majority of them lack in-depth knowledge about different renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. Only a small percentage has a 'high' level of knowledge about bioenergy and the majority indicates critical perceptions of it. Statistically significant gender differences are not apparent. Girls appear to be more knowledgeable than boys. Results also show a clear 'urban' and 'rural' difference in perceptions of bioenergy. Perceptions of urban respondents being more positive than that of their rural counterparts. Developing collaboration between future bioenergy policies and bioenergy education for younger citizens is necessary for their engagement in critical debates on bioenergy.

  16. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  17. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  18. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  19. Proposed Volume Standards for 2018, and the Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA proposed volume requirements under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program for 2018 for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel, and biomass-based diesel for 2019 under the RFS.

  20. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  1. ACMECS Bioenergy Network: Implementing a transnational science-based policy network on bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Haruthaithanasan, Maliwan; Kraxner, Florian; Brenner, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Despite the currently low prices for fossil energy resulting from a number of geopolitical reasons, intergovernmental efforts are being made towards a transition to a sustainable bio-economy. The main reasons for this include climate change mitigation, decreasing dependencies fossil fuel imports and hence external market fluctuations, diversification of energy generation and feedstock production for industrial processes. Since 2012, the ACMECS bioenergy network initiative leads negotiations and organizes workshops to set up a regional bioenergy network in Indochina, with the aim to promote biomass and -energy markets, technology transfer, rural development and income generation. Policy development is guided by the International Union of Forest Research Institutions (IUFRO) Task Force "Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Network". In this paper, we highlight the achievements so far and present results of a multi-stakeholder questionnaire in combination with a quantitative analysis of the National Bioenergy Development Plans (NBDP's). We found that traditional fuelwood is still the most important resource for generating thermal energy in the region, especially in rural settings, and it will remain an important resource even in 25 years. However, less fuelwood will be sourced from natural forests as compared to today. NBDP's have a focus on market development, technology transfer and funding possibilities of a regional bioenergy strategy, while the responses of the questionnaire favored more altruistic goals, i.e. sustainable resource management, environmental protection and climate change mitigation, generation of rural income and community involvement etc. This is surprising, since a sub-population of the (anonymous) questionnaire respondents was actually responsible drafting the NBDP's. We therefore suggest the following measures to ensure regulations that represent the original aims of the network (climate change mitigation, poverty alleviation, sustainable resource use

  2. Bio-energy in global and local policy and planning in developing countries, in particular in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedacker, A.

    1997-01-01

    Biomass energy is investigated from different viewpoints; in business as usual developments, in local and global perspectives trying to promote sustainable development. The objectives and the methodology are clarified. It is considered how these principles are applicable in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. Local planning and implementation is also discussed. Activities of the RABEDE, an African Network on Bio-resources and Energies for Development and Environment are presented. (K.A.)

  3. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  4. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land—A case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge; Faaij, André

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  5. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  6. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  7. Land-Use and Environmental Pressures Resulting from Current and Future Bioenergy Crop Expansion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Renouf, Marguerite; Peterson, Ann; McAlpine, Clive; Smith, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Recent energy and climate policies, particularly in the developed world, have increased demand for bioenergy as an alternative, which has led to both direct and indirect land-use changes and an array of environmental and socio-economic concerns. A comprehensive understanding of the land-use dynamics of bioenergy crop production is essential for…

  8. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables ......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development.......The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification...

  9. Pd/TOMPP-catalyzed telomerization of 1,3-butadiene: from biomass-based substrates to new mechanistic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausoul, P.J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313957630; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646

    2012-01-01

    Studies aimed at synthesizing surfactants from biomass-based feedstocks using Pd-catalyzed telomerization of 1,3-butadiene resulted in the development of a highly active catalyst system. A ligand screening was performed, and Pd/tris(2-methoxyphenyl)phosphine (TOMPP) was identified as the most

  10. Management swing potential for bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, S.C.; Boddey, R.M.; Alves, B.J.R.; Cowie, A.L.; George, B.H.; Ogle, S.M.; Smith, P.; Noordwijk, van M.; Wijk, van M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy crops are often classified (and subsequently regulated) according to species that have been evaluated as environmentally beneficial or detrimental, but in practice, management decisions rather than species per se can determine the overall environmental impact of a bioenergy production

  11. Ecological assessment of integrated bioenergy systems using the Sustainable Process Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotscheck, C.; Konig, F.; Obernberger, I.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass utilisation for energy production presently faces an uphill battle against fossil fuels. The use of biomass must offer additional benefits to compensate for higher prices: on the basis of a life cycle assessment (using BEAM to evaluate a variety of integrated bioenergy systems in connection with the Sustainable Process Index as a highly aggregated environmental pressure index) it is shown that integrated bioenergy systems are superior to fossil fuel systems in terms of environmental compatibility. The implementation of sustainability measures provides additional valuable information that might help in constructing and optimising integrated bioenergy systems. For a set of reference processes, among them fast pyrolysis, atmospheric gasification, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion and steam cycle (CS) and conventional hydrolysis, a detailed impact assessment is shown. Sensitivity analyses of the most important ecological parameters are calculated, giving an overview of the impacts of various stages in the total life cycle and showing 'what really matters'. Much of the ecological impact of integrated bioenergy systems is induced by feedstock production. It is mainly the use of fossil fuels in cultivation, harvesting and transportation as well as the use of fertilisers in short-rotation coppice production that impose considerable ecological pressure. Concerning electricity generation the most problematic pressures are due to gaseous emissions, most notably the release of NO x . Moreover, a rather complicated process (high amount of grey energy) and the use of fossil pilot fuel (co-combustion) leads to a rather weak ecological performance in contrast to other 100% biomass-based systems. (author)

  12. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  13. Random preferences towards bioenergy environmental externalities: a case study of woody biomass based electricity in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Susaeta; Pankaj Lal; Janaki Alavalapati; Evan Mercer

    2011-01-01

    This paper contrasts alternate methodological approaches of investigating public preferences, the random parameter logit (RPL) where tastes and preferences of respondents are assumed to be heterogeneous and the conditional logit (CL) approach where tastes and preferences remain fixed for individuals. We conducted a choice experiment to assess preferences for woody...

  14. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  15. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  16. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  17. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  18. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  19. Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Science Division, Climate Change Science Inst.; Msangi, Siwa [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington DC (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Bioenergy Sustainability, Environmental Science Division; Woods, Jeremy [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Policy; Souza, Glaucia M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Osseweijer, Patricia [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biotechnology; Clancy, Joy S. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). CSTM; Hilbert, Jorge A. [Rural Engineering Institute (INTA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Johnson, Francis X. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Africa Centre, Nairobi (Kenya). World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF); McDonnell, Patrick C. [BEE Energy, Nicasio CA (United States); Mugera, Harriet K. [World Bank, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Addressing the challenges of understanding and managing complex interactions among food security, biofuels, and land management requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals prioritize food and energy security and bioenergy links these two priorities. Effective food security programs begin by clearly defining the problem and asking, What options will be effective to assist people at high risk? Headlines and cartoons that blame biofuels for food insecurity reflect good intentions but mislead the public and policy makers because they obscure or miss the main drivers of local food insecurity and opportunities for biofuels to contribute to solutions. Applying sustainability guidelines to bioenergy will help achieve near- and long- term goals to eradicate hunger. Priorities for achieving successful synergies between bioenergy and food security include (1) clarifying communications with clear and consistent terms, (2) recognizing that food and bioenergy do not compete for land but food and bioenergy systems can and do work together to improve resource management, (3) investing in innovations to build capacity and infrastructure such as rural agricultural extension and technology, (4) promoting stable prices that incentivize local production, (5) adopting flex crops that can provide food along with other products and services to society, and (6) engaging stakeholders in identifying and assessing specific opportunities for biofuels to improve food security. In conclusion, systematic monitoring and analysis to support adaptive management and continual improvement are essential elements to build synergies and help society equitably meet growing demands for both food and energy.

  20. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  1. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  2. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  3. Prospects for Bioenergy in Europe. Supply, Demand and Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Karin

    2006-11-01

    biofuel imports unless the EU chooses to expand the use of trade barriers and tariffs. When Swedish energy policy in the early 1990s made biofuels the most competitive fuel in the production of district heat, this stimulated biofuel import flows, neither foreseen nor intended by Swedish policy makers. These unintentional effects of policy can, however, be positive when viewed in a wider context as they lead to the development of biomass production and logistics in countries where current demand for bioenergy is low

  4. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  5. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  6. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  7. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  8. From Sustainability-as-usual to Sustainability Excellence in Local Bioenergy Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Kasurinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy business operators can significantly contribute to the sustainability of bioenergy systems. While research has addressed the maturity of corporate responsibility for sustainability, the maturity levels of bioenergy business have not been determined. The objectives of this research were to characterise the maturity levels of bioenergy corporate responsibility for sustainability and outline an approach by which companies can operate at the most mature sustainability excellence level. Literature, three workshops attended by bioenergy experts and a case study on biobutanol production in Brazil were used to develop the maturity model and approach. The results characterise the profitability, acceptability, and sustainability orientation maturity levels through sustainability questions and methods, and list the components of a systemic, holistic approach. Although the shift of business mindset from sustainability-as-usual to sustainability excellence is challenging, a systemic approach is necessary to broadly identify sustainability questions and a multitude of methods by which they can be answered.

  9. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Østergård, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions...... and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index = 100). The bioenergy supply (district...... a low nitrogen load to the environment. In conclusion, even after drastic landuse changes the bioenergy supply as final energy will not exceed 184 PJ annually (including 26 PJ processed biowaste sources) by far lower than the annual domestic total energy consumption ranging between 800 and 850 PJ yr−1....

  10. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  11. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  12. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Martin; Visser, Erika de; Hjort-Gregersen, Kurt; Koornneef, Joris; Raven, Rob; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  14. Moderne bioenergi har store muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Kossmann, J.; Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergi er energi, der stammer fra vedvarende kilder af biologisk oprindelse. Normalt bruges energiafgrøder dyrket specielt til formålet, eller biprodukter fra landbrug, skovbrug eller fiskeri. Eksempler på bioenergikilder er træbrændsel, bagasse(udpressede sukkerrør), organisk affald, biogas og...

  15. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  16. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  17. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    into biogas. In order to validate the proposed options of bioenergy application, we considered a food processing company in Denmark as a case company in a single in-depth case study. In the case studied, the produced biogas is to be utilized in one of two options at a bakery site: To substitute natural gas...

  18. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  19. Conditions for the sustainability of biomass based fuel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability of biomass based fuel use requires that in biomass production erosion and water usage do not exceed addition to stocks of soil and water and that levels of nutrients and organic matter in soils do not decrease. Levels of volatile carbon compounds and N 2 O in the atmosphere should remain unaffected. To maintain ecosystems services of nature useful to mankind, restriction of biomass production to degraded and currently fallow land is to be preferred. Also sustainability of biomass-for-energy use requires a high efficiency recycling of nutrients present in ashes and low emissions of persistent organics, acidifying compounds and heavy metals due to biomass combustion. Meeting such conditions requires major efforts

  20. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Luo, Xun; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Jirjis, Raida

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  1. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  2. Designing selection criteria for reed canarygrass as a bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a perennial C3 grass with a circumglobal distribution in the northern hemisphere and adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions. This species is currently under development as a bioenergy feedstock in both North America and Europe. Thus, the ...

  3. The South's outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy and biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wear; Robert Abt; Janaki Alavalapati; Greg Comatas; Mike Countess; Will McDow

    2010-01-01

    The future of a wood-based biofuel/bioenergy sector could hold important implications for the use, structure and function of forested landscapes in the South. This paper examines a set of questions regarding the potential effects of biofuel developments both on markets for traditional timber products and on the provision of various non-timber ecosystem services. In...

  4. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  5. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  6. Proceedings of the CANBIO workshop on Canadian bioenergy : export markets vs. domestic business opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    While there is a strong European demand for bioenergy products such as wood pellets, Canadian bioenergy markets remain relatively subdued. Organized by the Canadian Bioenergy Association, this workshop explored various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products. BioOil markets in Europe were considered as a potential market for Canadian bioenergy products. Various European and Canadian incentive programs and research initiatives were outlined. New technologies in bioenergy refinement practices were explored and new development in syngas production techniques were introduced. It was suggested that district heating programs and gasification fuels may provide new domestic markets for bioenergy products. Resource opportunities in the electricity sector were evaluated, and wood residue production trends in Canada were examined. It was noted that the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia (BC) has increased wood residue production surpluses in the province, which has resulted in increased sawmill activity. Sixteen presentations were given at this workshop, 4 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Networking to build a world-class bioenergy industry in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weedon, M. [BC Bioenergy Network, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the role of the BC Bioenergy Network and its goal of maximizing the value of biomass resources in British Columbia (BC) and developing a world-class bioenergy industry in the province. Established in March 2008 with $25 million in funding from the BC government, the BC Bioenergy Network is an industry-led association that promotes the development of near-term bioenergy technologies and demonstration of new bioenergy technologies that are environmentally appropriate for the province of BC. The following technology areas require funding support: solid wood residues, pulp and paper residues, harvesting and pelleting, agriculture residues, municipal wastewater, municipal landfill waste, municipal solid waste, and community heating-electricity greenhouse systems. This presentation demonstrated that BC is well positioned to become a major player in the global bioenergy sector, as it has one of the largest forested areas in the world, and is a leader in biomass to value-added wood products. The opportunities, challenges, and requirements to build a world class bioenergy industry in British Columbia were discussed along with successful Canadian, US, and European collaborations with industry, research, and government. tabs., figs.

  8. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  9. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  10. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  11. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  12. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  13. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  14. Evaluation on community tree plantations as sustainable source for rural bioenergy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, U. J.; Narendra, B. H.; Suryana, J.; Siregar, C. A.; Weston, C.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia has forest plantation resources in rural areas far from the national electricity grid that have potential as feedstock for biomass based electricity generation. Although some fast growing tree plantations have been established for bioenergy, their sustainability has not been evaluated to date. This research aimed to evaluate the growth of several tree species, cultivated by rural communities in Jawa Island, for their sustainability as a source for bio-electricity. For each tree species the biomass was calculated from diameter and height measurements and an estimate made for potential electricity generation based on density of available biomass and calorific content. Species evaluated included Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. crasicarpa, Anthocephalus cadamba, Calliandra calothirsus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Falcataria moluccana, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucochephala and Sesbania grandiflora. Among these species Falcataria moluccana and Anthocephalus cadamba showed the best potential for bioenergy production, with up to 133.7 and 67.1 ton/ha biomass respectively, from which 160412 and 80481 Kwh of electricity respectively could be generated. Plantations of these species could potentially meet the estimated demand for biomass feedstock to produce bioenergy in many rural villages, suggesting that community plantations could sustainably provide much needed electricity.

  15. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  16. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  17. Environmental policy integration in bioenergy: policy learning across sectors and levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Charlotta

    2011-07-01

    A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policy integration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targets and requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainable development. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy is a renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedish energy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendly bioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multi sector and a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many different sectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on different levels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in two sectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational). A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracing EPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporating environmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore, institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed. Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in the case of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consists of policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews. Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture of the EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused on studying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows that priorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; but that EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectors and on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdown process

  18. The Impact of Water Scarcity on Food, Bioenergy and Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, N.; Ledvina, K.; Strzepek, K. M.; Reilly, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate the impact of explicitly representing irrigated land and water scarcity in an economy-wide model on food prices, bioenergy production and deforestation both with and without a global carbon policy. The analysis develops supply functions of irrigable land from a water resource model resolved at 282 river basins and applies them within a global economy-wide model of energy and food production, land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions. The irrigable land supply curves are built on basin-level estimates of water availability, and the costs of improving irrigation efficiency and increasing water storage, and include other water requirements within each basin. The analysis reveals two key findings. First, explicitly representing irrigated land at has a small impact on food, bioenergy and deforestation outcomes. This is because this modification allows more flexibility in the expansion of crop land (i.e. irrigated and rainfed land can expand in different proportions) relative to when a single type of crop land is represented, which counters the effect of rising marginal costs for the expansion of irrigated land. Second, due to endogenous irrigation and storage responses, changes in water availability have small impacts on food prices, bioenergy production, land-use change and the overall economy, even with large scale ( 150 exajoules) bioenergy production.

  19. Bio-energy potential of Malawi and the Tanzanian cane sugar sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Several research programmes and projects have addressed the possibilities for using agro-industrial residues for production of valuable products. Anyhow, no complete analysis of the potential for bio-energy generation from these resources, including ways to implement and utilise the potential has been made, nor has an analysis of the importance of the bio-energy potential, in relation to the energy generation capacity of the countries of tropical Africa. The current project should be seen as a supplement and extension of these studies. It has its main focus on the bio-energy potential of Malawi, and the Tanzanian sugar industry. Development of and measures to maintain know-how on implementation and operation of biogas and biomass incineration facilities in East Africa, is of great importance for the exploitation of these resources. The current project should also be seen in this context. The main conclusions of this survey are: The potential for biogas production from municipal organic waste in Malawi is scarce. Household waste is not appropriate for bio-energy generation and only the city of Blantyre has an exploitable bio-energy potential from markets and small food processing industries; The bio-energy potential of the Malawian agro-industries is large, with the main sources concentrated on few large units; Smaller bio-energy units for heat production may be feasible at coffee and tobacco curing facilities; The cane sugar industry and related ethanol production facilities have the largest single potential; One wood processing factory has a good potential for exploitation of its bioenergy potential using wood chip incineration CHP units. The sugar cane sector of Tanzania is the second largest producer of biomass waste, feasible for bioenergy production in biogas and biomass incineration units, only exceeded by the Sisal sector. The potential is concentrated on five large units which each have a considerable exploitable potential. (EHS)

  20. Tweak, adapt, or transform: Policy scenarios in response to emerging bioenergy markets in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan. C. Atwell; Lisa. A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal

    2011-01-01

    Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios....

  1. IEA Bioenergy Tasks 30/31 : country report for the Netherlands : Biomass production for energy from sustainable forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Spijker, J.H.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This country report provides information on the biomass production from sustainable forestry in the Netherlands. In chapter 2, Policy on bioenergy in the Netherlands, some information is summarized on bioenergy production in the Netherlands, developments in the policy of the Dutch government on

  2. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Ugursal, V.I.; Fung, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed a proposed biomass-based district heating system to be built for the Pictou Landing First Nation Community in Nova Scotia. The community centre consists of 6 buildings and a connecting arcade. The methodology used to size and design heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, as well as biomass district energy systems (DES) were discussed. Annual energy requirements and biomass fuel consumption predictions were presented, along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the system with that of a conventional oil fired system was also conducted. It was suggested that the design and analysis methodology could be used for any similar application. The buildings were modelled and simulated using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP), a detailed 2-in-1 software program which can be used both for HVAC system sizing and building energy consumption estimation. A techno-economics analysis was conducted to justify the viability of the biomass combustion system. Heating load calculations were performed assuming that the thermostat was set constantly at 22 degrees C. Community centre space heating loads due to individual envelope components for 3 different scenarios were summarized, as the design architecture for the buildings was not yet finalized. It was suggested that efforts should be made to ensure air-tightness and insulation levels of the interior arcade glass wall. A hydronic distribution system with baseboard space heating units was selected, comprising of a woodchip boiler, hot water distribution system, convective heating units and control systems. The community has its own logging operation which will provide the wood fuel required by the proposed system. An outline of the annual allowable harvest covered by the Pictou Landing Forestry Management Plan was presented, with details of proposed wood-chippers for the creation of biomass. It was concluded that the woodchip combustion system is economically preferable to the

  3. Technical/economical analysis of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: (1) To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels; (2) To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on technoeconomic basis to establish future development needs, and (3) To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned. (orig.)

  4. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  5. Bioenergy has a key role to play!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;......Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;...

  6. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulat...... about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance....

  7. Bioenergy in energy transformation and climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a large inter-model comparison of 15 models, we comprehensively characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run

  8. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikurainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m 3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m 3 . On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m 3 /a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  9. Pest-Suppression Potential of Midwestern Landscapes under Contrasting Bioenergy Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Werling, Ben P.; Landis, Douglas A.; Gratton, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Biomass crops grown on marginal soils are expected to fuel an emerging bioenergy industry in the United States. Bioenergy crop choice and position in the landscape could have important impacts on a range of ecosystem services, including natural pest-suppression (biocontrol services) provided by predatory arthropods. In this study we use predation rates of three sentinel crop pests to develop a biocontrol index (BCI) summarizing pest-suppression potential in corn and perennial grass-based bioe...

  10. Aquatic weeds as the next generation feedstock for sustainable bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kumar, Manoj; Sachdeva, Sarita; Puri, S K

    2018-03-01

    Increasing oil prices and depletion of existing fossil fuel reserves, combined with the continuous rise in greenhouse gas emissions, have fostered the need to explore and develop new renewable bioenergy feedstocks that do not require arable land and freshwater resources. In this regard, prolific biomass growth of invasive aquatic weeds in wastewater has gained much attention in recent years in utilizing them as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. Aquatic weeds have an exceptionally higher reproduction rates and are rich in cellulose and hemicellulose with a very low lignin content that makes them an efficient next generation biofuel crop. Considering their potential as an effective phytoremediators, this review presents a model of integrated aquatic biomass production, phytoremediation and bioenergy generation to reduce the land, fresh water and fertilizer usage for sustainable and economical bioenergy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    residue‐based biogas production and nutrient cycling in a remote village was shown to be a viable alternative to wood fuel and synthetic fertiliser use, in spite of increased labour inputs. In future scenarios where materials are scarce and labour plentiful, the investigated biogas‐based and agroforestry......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological...

  12. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu Yonglong; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological performance and effectiveness. Results show that these projects have not achieved a satisfying performance after 10 years experience. Many projects have been discontinued. This failure is attributed to a complex of shortcomings in institutional structure, technical level, financial support and social factors. For a more successful future development of bioenergy in rural areas, China should reform its institutional structure, establish a renewable energy market and enhance the technological level of bioenergy projects

  13. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-31

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  14. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  15. Selecting Metrics for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Key decisions about land-use practices and dynamics in biofuel systems affect the long-term sustainability of biofuels. Choices about what crops are grown and how are they planted, fertilized, and harvested determine the effects of biofuels on native plant diversity, competition with food crops, and water and air quality. Those decisions also affect economic viability since the distance that biofuels must be transported has a large effect on the market cost of biofuels. The components of a landscape approach include environmental and socioeconomic conditions and the bioenergy features [type of fuel, plants species, management practices (e.g., fertilizer and pesticide applications), type and location of production facilities] and ecological and biogeochemical feedbacks. Significantly, while water (availability and quality) emerges as one of the most limiting factors to sustainability of bioenergy feedstocks, the linkage between water and bioenergy choices for land use and management on medium and large scales is poorly quantified. Metrics that quantify environmental and socioeconomic changes in land use and landscape dynamics provide a way to measure and communicate the influence of alternative bioenergy choices on water quality and other components of the environment. Cultivation of switchgrass could have both positive and negative environmental effects, depending on where it is planted and what vegetation it replaces. Among the most important environmental effects are changes in the flow regimes of streams (peak storm flows, base flows during the growing season) and changes in stream water quality (sediment, nutrients, and pesticides). Unfortunately, there have been few controlled studies that provide sufficient data to evaluate the hydrological and water quality impacts of conversion to switchgrass. In particular, there is a need for experimental studies that use the small watershed approach to evaluate the effects of growing a perennial plant as a biomass crop

  16. Social acceptability of bioenergy in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Peter Brosius; John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner

    2013-01-01

    Global interest in bioenergy development has increased dramatically in recent years, due to its promise to reduce dependence on fossil fuel energy supplies, its contribution to global and national energy security, its potential to produce a carbon negative or neutral fuel source and to mitigate climate change, and its potential as a vehicle for rural development....

  17. Securing a bioenergy future without imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The UK has legally binding renewable energy and greenhouse gas targets. Energy from biomass is anticipated to make major contributions to these. However there are concerns about the availability and sustainability of biomass for the bioenergy sector. A Biomass Resource Model has been developed that reflects the key biomass supply-chain dynamics and interactions determining resource availability, taking into account climate, food, land and other constraints. The model has been applied to the UK, developing four biomass resource scenarios to analyse resource availability and energy generation potential within different contexts. The model shows that indigenous biomass resources and energy crops could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050 without impacting food systems. The scenarios show, residues from agriculture, forestry and industry provide the most robust resource, potentially providing up to 6.5% of primary energy demand by 2050. Waste resources are found to potentially provide up to 15.4% and specifically grown biomass and energy crops up to 22% of demand. The UK is therefore projected to have significant indigenous biomass resources to meet its targets. However the dominant biomass resource opportunities identified in the paper are not consistent with current UK bioenergy strategies, risking biomass deficit despite resource abundance. - Highlights: • Biomass Resource Model and Scenarios reflect biomass supply-chain dynamics to 2050. • High potential availability of biomass and energy crops without food systems impacts. • UK Indigenous biomass resource could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050. • Robust residue resource from ongoing activities and large potential waste resource. • Indigenous resource abundance and the UK’s path towards increased resource deficit

  18. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  19. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  20. Planning for Increased Bioenergy use - Strategies for Minimising Environmental Impacts and Analysing the Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2006-08-01

    There are several goals aimed at increasing the use of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system. Bioenergy is one important renewable energy source and there is a potential to increase its use in the future. This thesis aimed to develop and analyse strategies and tools that could be used when planning for conversion to bioenergy-based heating systems and the building of new residential areas with bioenergy-based heating. The goal was to enable the increase of bioenergy and simultaneously minimise the negative health effects caused by emissions associated with the combustion of bioenergy. The thesis consists of two papers. Paper I concerned existing residential areas and conversion from electric heating and individual heating systems, such as firewood and oil boilers, to more modern and low-emitting pellet techniques and small-scale district heating. Paper II concerned new residential areas and how to integrate bioenergy-based heating systems that cause impacts on local air quality into the physical planning process through using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a meteorological dispersion model, ALARM. The results from Paper I indicated that it was possible to convert areas currently using electric heating to pellet techniques and small-scale district heating without degrading local air quality. Furthermore, it was possible to decrease high emissions caused by firewood boilers by replacing them with pellet boilers. The results from Paper II highlighted that GIS and ALARM were advantageous for analysing local air quality characteristics when planning for new residential areas and before a residential area is built: thus, avoiding negative impacts caused by bioenergy-based combustion. In conclusion, the work procedures developed in this thesis can be used to counteract negative impacts on local air quality with increasing use of bioenergy in the heating system. Analysis of potentially negative aspects before conversion to bioenergy-based heating

  1. Bioenergy/Biotechnology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napper, Stan [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Palmer, James [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Wilson, Chester [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Guilbeau, Eric [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Allouche, Erez [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report describes the progress of five different projects. The first is an enzyme immobilization study of cellulase to reduce costs of the cellulosic ethanol process. High reusability and use of substrates applicable to large scale production were focus areas for this study. The second project was the development of nanostructured catalysts for conversion of syngas to diesel. Cobalt nanowire catalyst was used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The third project describes work on developing a microfluidic calorimeter to measure reaction rates of enzymes. The fourth project uses inorganic polymer binders that have the advantage of a lower carbon footprint than Portland cement while also providing excellent performance in elevated temperature, high corrosion resistance, high compressive and tensile strengths, and rapid strength gains. The fifth project investigates the potential of turbines in drop structures (such as sewer lines in tall buildings) to recover energy.

  2. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume; Final...] RIN 2060-AR55 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume... biomass-based diesel to be used in setting annual percentage standards under the renewable fuel standard...

  3. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 'Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand' are amongst other objectives to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands and is an extended update of previous reports (2005 and 2006)

  4. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  5. Laurentian Bioenergy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berguson, William Evan [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Buchman, Daniel [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Rack, Jim [Minnesota Dept. of National Resources, Grand Rapids, MN (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McMahon, Bernard [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Hedke, Dale [SEH Consulting Inc., Duluth, MN (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Work performed under this contract involves development of forest management guidelines related to removal of forest harvest residues from forested sites and brushlands in Minnesota, assessments of biomass availability from forests and brushlands and logistics and equipment associated with handling woody biomass with emphasis on evaluation of a trailer-mounted bundling system. Also, work on hybrid poplar breeding, field testing and yield analysis is included. Evaluation of the production of aspen and red pine along with opportunities to procure woody biomass through thinning operations in red pine is described. Finally, an assessment of issues related to increasing biomass usage at the Laurentian Energy Authority generation facilities is discussed.

  6. Proposed Renewable Fuel Standards for 2017, and the Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing the volume requirements and associated percentage standards that would apply under the RFS program in calendar years 2016, 2017 and 2018 for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel.

  7. The Danish bioenergy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungersen, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m 3 reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  8. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  9. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    loading at watershed outlet were reduced with bioenergy scenarios except for stover removal scenarios with reduction ranging between 2.4% to 30.5%. Based on the simulation results for different bioenergy crop production scenario, we have also developed a multi-level spatial optimization framework (MLSOPT) to optimize production of food and energy crops under various sustainability objective functions. The method works in two levels, first level divides large watershed into small subareas and optimum solutions for individually for these subareas are identified. The second level uses these optimum solutions from the first level to identify watershed scale optimum solutions. The framework is tested with a complex spatial optimization case study designed to maximize crop residue (corn stover) harvest with minimum environmental impacts in a 2000 km2 watershed, located in Indiana, USA. In this presentation, results related to optimize sustainability of bioenergy crops will also be discussed.

  10. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  11. Bioenergy in the United States: progress and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Beyea, J.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change and air quality have increased interest in biomass and other energy sources that are potentially CO 2 -neutral and less polluting. Large-scale bioenergy development could indeed bring significant ecological benefits - or equally significant damage - depending on the specific paths taken. In particular, the land requirements for biomass production are potentially immense. Various entities in the United States have performed research; prepared cost-supply assessments, environmental impact assessments, life cycle analyses and externality impact assessments; and engaged in demonstration and development regarding biomass crops and other potential biomass energy feedstocks. These efforts have focused on various biomass wastes, forest management issues, and biomass crops, including both perennial herbaceous crops and fast-growing woody crops. Simultaneously, several regional and national groups of bioenergy stakeholders have issued consensus recommendations and guidelines for sustainable bioenergy development. It is a consistent conclusion from these efforts that displacing annual agricultural crops with native perennial biomass crops could - in addition to reducing fossil fuel use and ameliorating associated ecological problems - also help restore natural ecosystem functions in worked landscapes, and thereby preserve natural biodiversity. Conversely, if forests are managed and harvested more intensively - and/or if biomass crops displace more natural land cover such as forests and wetlands - it is likely that ecosystem functions would be impaired and biodiversity lost. (author)

  12. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  13. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large-scale bioenergy production: how to resolve sustainability trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Biewald, Anne; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Klein, David; Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Stevanovic, Miodrag

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale 2nd generation bioenergy deployment is a key element of 1.5 °C and 2 °C transformation pathways. However, large-scale bioenergy production might have negative sustainability implications and thus may conflict with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) agenda. Here, we carry out a multi-criteria sustainability assessment of large-scale bioenergy crop production throughout the 21st century (300 EJ in 2100) using a global land-use model. Our analysis indicates that large-scale bioenergy production without complementary measures results in negative effects on the following sustainability indicators: deforestation, CO2 emissions from land-use change, nitrogen losses, unsustainable water withdrawals and food prices. One of our main findings is that single-sector environmental protection measures next to large-scale bioenergy production are prone to involve trade-offs among these sustainability indicators—at least in the absence of more efficient land or water resource use. For instance, if bioenergy production is accompanied by forest protection, deforestation and associated emissions (SDGs 13 and 15) decline substantially whereas food prices (SDG 2) increase. However, our study also shows that this trade-off strongly depends on the development of future food demand. In contrast to environmental protection measures, we find that agricultural intensification lowers some side-effects of bioenergy production substantially (SDGs 13 and 15) without generating new trade-offs—at least among the sustainability indicators considered here. Moreover, our results indicate that a combination of forest and water protection schemes, improved fertilization efficiency, and agricultural intensification would reduce the side-effects of bioenergy production most comprehensively. However, although our study includes more sustainability indicators than previous studies on bioenergy side-effects, our study represents only a small subset of all indicators relevant for the

  15. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  16. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  17. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  18. Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    H2 production in microalgae and cyanobacteria • Genetically engineer pathways to improve the H2 producing capacity of these phototrophs 10...density of enzymatic fuel cells (EFC) - sustained oxygen-tolerant hydrogen production by photosynthetic microbes Artificial Systems Research...Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Biofuels 2 H2O water-splitting enzyme 4 e_ 4 H+ H2-generating hydrogenase enzyme

  19. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectives—reducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  20. Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

  1. Efficient and sustainable deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage in mitigation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Moriyama, R.; Kurosawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise well below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions at the end of the 21st century. Also, in the Paris agreement from COP21, it is denoted "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century" which could require large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies later in this century. Because of the additional requirement for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of large-scale BECCS. In this study, we present possible development strategies of low carbon scenarios that consider interaction of economically efficient deployment of bioenergy and/or BECCS technologies, biophysical limit of bioenergy productivity, and food production. In the evaluations, detailed bioenergy representations, including bioenergy feedstocks and conversion technologies with and without CCS, are implemented in an integrated assessment model GRAPE. Also, to overcome a general discrepancy about yield development between 'top-down' integrate assessment models and 'bottom-up' estimates, we applied yields changes of food and bioenergy crops consistent with process-based biophysical models; PRYSBI-2 (Process-Based Regional-Scale Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference) for food crops, and SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for bioenergy crops in changing climate conditions. Using the framework, economically viable strategy for implementing sustainable BECCS are evaluated.

  2. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  3. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  4. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    loss after land use change at 100 fieldsites which encapsulate a range of UK climates and soil types. Our overall objective is to use our measured data to parameterise and validate the models that we will use to predict the implications of bioenergy crop deployment in the UK up to 2050. The resultant output will be a meta-model which will help facilitate decision making on the sustainable development of bioenergy in the UK, with potential deployment in other temperate climates around the world. Here we report on the outcome of the first of three years of work. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). Don et al. (2012) Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon. GCB Bioenergy 4, 372-379.

  5. A holistic sustainability assessment tool for bioenergy using the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, T.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) released a set of indicators for sustainable bioenergy. However, two important issues still remain unresolved. One of them is the definition of “sustainability”, and the other is the lack of a holistic assessment tool for drawing conclusions from the

  6. Biofuel and Bioenergy implementation scenarios. Final report of VIEWLS WP5, modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, A.; Egging, R.; Van Thuijl, E.; Van Tilburg, X.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; De Lange, T.J.; Berndes, G.; Hansson, J.

    2005-11-01

    This report is published within the framework of the European Commission-supported project 'Clear Views on Clean Fuels' or VIEWLS. The overall objectives of this project are to provide structured and clear data on the availability and performance of biofuel and to identify the possibilities and strategies towards large-scale sustainable production, use and trading of biofuels for the transport sector in Europe, including Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). This reports constitutes the outcome of the Work Package 5 (WP5) of the VIEWLS project. In WP5 the EU biofuels and bioenergy markets are modelled with the aim to conduct quantitative analyses on the production and costs of biofuels and on the resulting market structure and supply chains. In a bigger context, where possible, WP5 aims also to provide insight into larger socio-economic impacts of bioenergy trade within Europe. The objective of this research is to develop a cost efficient biofuel strategy for Europe in terms of biofuel production, cost and trade, and to assess its larger impact on bioenergy markets and trade up to 2030. Based on the biomass availability and associated costs within EU25, under different conditions, scenarios for biofuels production and cost can be constructed using quantitative modelling tools. Combining this with (cost) data on biofuel conversion technologies and transport of biomass and biofuels, the lowest cost biofuel supply chain given a certain demand predetermined by the biofuels Directive can be designed. In a broader context, this is supplemented by a design of a sustainable bioenergy supply chain in view of the fact that biomass-heat, biomass-electricity and biofuels are competing for the same biomass resources. In other words, the scarcity of bioenergy crops, as manifested through overall bioenergy demand, is an essential variable in bioenergy scenarios

  7. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water

  8. Mathematical algorithm to relate digital maps of distribution of biomass with algorithms of linear programming to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  9. Mathematical algorithm to transform digital biomass distribution maps into linear programming networks in order to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  10. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  11. Bio-energy in China: Content analysis of news articles on Chinese professional internet platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mei; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss how information about the development and use of bio-energy is forwarded and disseminated to general public via the Internet in China. Furthermore, this study also explores in what manner the information of renewable energy policies is presented. A research method used in this study is an application of content analysis. Altogether 19 energy-related web platforms were found by searching keywords, such as 'energy net' or 'renewable energy net' or 'bio-energy net' on (www.Google.cn). A thorough analysis was conducted by focusing on one of them: (www.china5e.com). The news articles on (www.china5e.com) were examined according to whether the use of bio-energy was articulated positively or negatively in the contents of articles. It was also considered whether the articles were imported from abroad. The results of this study indicated that in China there is a tendency on the Internet to disseminate primarily the positive information about bio-energy with a great emphasis on its benefits. In addition, the study shows that when analyzing the content of the news articles, biogas and liquid bio-fuels will be the main bio-energy development trends in China in the near future.

  12. The Influence of Local Governance: Effects on the Sustainability of Bioenergy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cavicchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with processes and outcomes of sustainable bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna. It draws on an on-going research project concerning inclusive innovation in forest-based bioenergy and biogas in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Italy. The goal is to explore how local governance impacts on inclusive innovation processes and triple bottom sustainability of bioenergy development in Emilia Romagna and, ultimately, to contribute to the debate on the bioeconomy. It thus compares the case of biogas and forest-based bioenergy production. The study adopts an analytical framework called Grounded Innovation (GRIP and the local governance approach. The study uses qualitative methods and particularly semi-structured interviews and governance analysis. The key results show different outcomes on both inclusive innovation and triple bottom-line dimensions. Biogas has not fostered inclusiveness and triple bottom line sustainability benefits, contrary to forest-based bioenergy. The findings indicate that the minor role of local actors, particularly municipalities, in favour of industrial and national interests may jeopardise the sustainability of biobased industries. Besides, policies limited to financial incentives may lead to a land-acquisition rush, unforeseen local environmental effects and exacerbate conflicts.

  13. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Martins, Ricardo; Wang, Kefeng; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    When planning bioenergy production from biomass, planners should take into account each and every stakeholder along the biomass supply chains, e.g. biomass resources suppliers, transportation, conversion and electricity suppliers. Also, the planners have to consider social concerns, environmental and economical impacts related with establishing the biomass systems and the specific difficulties of each country. To overcome these problems in a sustainable manner, a robust decision support system is required. For that purpose, a two levels general Bioenergy Decision System (gBEDS) for bioenergy production planning and implementation was developed. The core part of the gBEDS is the information base, which includes the basic bioenergy information and the detailed decision information. Basic bioenergy information include, for instance, the geographical information system (GIS) database, the biomass materials' database, the biomass logistic database and the biomass conversion database. The detailed decision information considers the parameters' values database with their default values and the variables database, values obtained by simulation and optimization. It also includes a scenario database, which is used for demonstration to new users and also for case based reasoning by planners and executers. Based on the information base, the following modules are included to support decision making: the simulation module with graph interface based on the unit process (UP) definition and the genetic algorithms (GAs) methods for optimal decisions and the Matlab module for applying data mining methods (fuzzy C-means clustering and decision trees) to the biomass collection points, to define the location of storage and bioenergy conversion plants based on the simulation and optimization model developed of the whole life cycle of bioenergy generation. Furthermore, Matlab is used to set up a calculation model with crucial biomass planning parameters (e.g. costs, CO 2 emissions), over

  14. Sustainability of bioenergy chains. The result is in the details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-05-13

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use. Recently, governments, NGOs, companies and international organizations (e.g. Dutch government, Solidaridad, Shell or FAO) have taken initiatives to guarantee the sustainable production and use of biomass. Uncertainties on the feasibility, implementation and costs of international biomass certification systems and the compliance with international laws and agreements have to be resolved. A developed software tool shows that it is possible to allow users from various regions to use one methodology and tool to calculate the GHG balances and cost-effectiveness of biomass energy systems. Core methodological issues are accommodated in the tool. One of the case studies demonstrates e.g. that the allocation procedure should be carefully defined as is shown by the variation in results, which is 35 to 50 kg CO2 eq./GJ delivered in GHG emissions. The technical potentials and cost-supply curves of bioenergy are assessed for Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) on a regional level. The more favourable scenarios to 2030 show a highest potential of 11.7 EJ. In most CEEC, bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs below 2 euro/GJ. The cost performance of energy carriers supplied from the CEEC is assessed for a set of bioenergy chains. Ethanol can be produced at 12 to 21 euro/GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at selected destinations in Western Europe or at 15 to 18 euro/GJ if biomass to ethanol conversion takes place where the biomass is produced. A case in Argentina shows the potential and economic feasibility of large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass, cultivated in La Pampa province. For the various scenarios to 2030, biodiesel from

  15. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  16. Spatiotemporal Changes in Crop Residues with Potential for Bioenergy Use in China from 1990 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available China has abundant crop residues (CRE that could be used for bioenergy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of bioenergy production are crucial for high-efficiency use and appropriate management of bioenergy enterprises. In this study, statistical and remote-sensing data on crop yield in China were used to estimate CRE and to analyze its spatiotemporal changes between 1990 and 2010. In 2010, China’s CRE was estimated to be approximately 133.24 Mt, and it was abundant in North and Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and South China; CRE was scarce on the Loess and Qinghai–Tibet Plateaus. The quantity of CRE increased clearly over the 20-year analysis period, mainly from an increase in residues produced on dry land. Changes in cultivated land use clearly influenced the changes in CRE. The expansion of cultivated land, which mainly occurred in Northeast and Northwest China, increased CRE by 5.18 Mt. The loss of cultivated land, which occurred primarily in North China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, reduced CRE by 3.55 Mt. Additionally, the interconversion of paddy fields and dry land, which occurred mostly in Northeast China, increased CRE by 0.78 Mt. The findings of this article provide important information for policy makers in formulating plans and policies for crop-residue-based bioenergy development in China, and also for commercial ventures in deciding on locations and production schedules for generation of bioenergy.

  17. Impacts of Bioenergy Policies on Land-Use Change in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley U. Okoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bioenergy policies have increased the competition for land as well as the risk of adverse environmental impacts resulting from deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs. Primary land-use objectives confronting society today include meeting the growing demand for agricultural products, especially energy crops, preserving essential ecosystem services for human well-being and long-run agrarian production, and contributing to the climate policy target. Here, future agricultural, societal and environmental consequences of bioenergy policies under different global climate and societal development scenarios were assessed using a novel Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model for Nigeria (NGA–FASOM. The results reveal that, in Nigeria, meeting emission reduction requires an implementation of a minimum carbon price of $80/ton within the forest and agricultural sectors. A carbon price alone is not sufficient to preserve the remaining forests and pasture land in Nigeria when bioenergy is subsidized. Furthermore, the result shows that subsidy on bioenergy does not have any significant effect on the total social welfare. The findings in this study provide a guide for policymakers in designing appropriate policies addressing bioenergy industry issues in Nigeria.

  18. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects......-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihoods. The integration...

  19. Proceedings of the first meeting of IEA, Bioenergy, Task 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L.; Ledin, S. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The present proceedings are the result of the first meeting of Task 17 within the frame of IEA, Bioenergy. During the meeting the objectives of Task 17 were discussed and determined to be: * to stimulate the full-scale implementation of energy crops in participating countries; * to strengthen the contacts and co-operation between participating countries, scientists, biomass producers, machine developers, entrepreneurs, and end users; * to select the most urgent research and development areas, and to suggest projects of co-operation; * to deliver Proceedings from the meetings, and * to inform Ex-Co-members. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the 7 papers presented.

  20. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  1. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  2. Large scale international bioenergy trading. How bioenergy trading can be reliazed under safe and sustainable frame conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Kirchovas, Simas

    2011-01-01

    has for many years been forming the basis for the change together with wind and solar energy. These resources still contains great potentials for energy supply chains in increasing areas of Europe and the World. Biomass sustainability issues could be solved by developing the international...... sustainability criteria. The sustainability criteria agreed internationally could be realized as a tool to secure the positive impacts of bioenergy and to foster the international trade. This study investigates the developments by national and international bodies of biomass standardization and certification...

  3. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  4. The role of sustainability requirements in international bioenergy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelkmans, Luc; Goovaerts, Liesbet; Goh, Chun Sheng

    2014-01-01

    impact on worldwide markets and trade. On the basis of these studies, recommendations were made on how sustainability requirements could actually support further bioenergy deployment. Markets would gain from more harmonization and cross-compliance. A common language is needed as ‘sustainability...... into account how markets work, in relation to different biomass applications (avoiding discrimination among end-uses and users). It should also take into account the way investment decisions are taken, administrative requirements for smallholders, and the position of developing countries....

  5. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  6. Pest-suppression potential of midwestern landscapes under contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy D; Werling, Ben P; Landis, Douglas A; Gratton, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Biomass crops grown on marginal soils are expected to fuel an emerging bioenergy industry in the United States. Bioenergy crop choice and position in the landscape could have important impacts on a range of ecosystem services, including natural pest-suppression (biocontrol services) provided by predatory arthropods. In this study we use predation rates of three sentinel crop pests to develop a biocontrol index (BCI) summarizing pest-suppression potential in corn and perennial grass-based bioenergy crops in southern Wisconsin, lower Michigan, and northern Illinois. We show that BCI is higher in perennial grasslands than in corn, and increases with the amount of perennial grassland in the surrounding landscape. We develop an empirical model for predicting BCI from information on energy crop and landscape characteristics, and use the model in a qualitative assessment of changes in biocontrol services for annual croplands on prime agricultural soils under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios. Our analysis suggests that the expansion of annual energy crops onto 1.2 million ha of existing perennial grasslands on marginal soils could reduce BCI between -10 and -64% for nearly half of the annual cropland in the region. In contrast, replacement of the 1.1 million ha of existing annual crops on marginal land with perennial energy crops could increase BCI by 13 to 205% on over half of the annual cropland in the region. Through comparisons with other independent studies, we find that our biocontrol index is negatively related to insecticide use across the Midwest, suggesting that strategically positioned, perennial bioenergy crops could reduce insect damage and insecticide use on neighboring food and forage crops. We suggest that properly validated environmental indices can be used in decision support systems to facilitate integrated assessments of the environmental and economic impacts of different bioenergy policies.

  7. Water usage in southeastern bioenergy crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southeastern United States with its long growing season and mild winter temperatures has long been able to produce a variety of food, forage, and fiber crops. In addition to these crops, the Southeast is capable of producing a plethora of lignoceullosic-based bioenergy crops for conversion into ...

  8. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  9. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  10. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchner, Sarah [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); McKinnon, Taryn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Broad, Max [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  11. Water for bioenergy: A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.; Gasparatos, A.; Stromberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is by far the largest water user. This chapter reviews studies on the water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy (in the form of bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat and electricity produced from biomass) and compares their results with the WFs of fossil energy and other types of renewables (wind

  12. The Role of Bioenergy in Enhancing Energy, Food and Ecosystem Sustainability Based on Societal Perceptions and Preferences in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth A. Acosta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the analysis of the survey on sustainability of bioenergy conducted in the Philippines, India and China. It acquired general perceptions of the people by asking them (a specific questions about their level of familiarity with bioenergy; (b relationship of their work to bioenergy; and (c their opinion on contribution of various feedstock on the economy and impact of bioenergy production on food security. In addition to these questions, we estimated preference weights of various feedstock based on the conjoint choices on bioenergy’s contribution to social stability, social welfare and ecological balance. The estimates revealed significant trade-offs not only among these three dimensions of sustainability but also the relative importance of energy security, food security and ecosystem capacity to other economic, social and environmental objectives. The types of first generation feedstock that are currently used for biofuel production in the respective countries and those that offer alternative household use are perceived as important to the economy and preferred bioenergy feedstock. Based on the results of the study, the preferred role of bioenergy for sustainable development reflects the social and economic concerns in the respective Asian countries, e.g., energy security in China, food security in India, and ecosystem degradation in the Philippines.

  13. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  14. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  15. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  16. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gases: the importance of land base interactions between forests, agriculture, and residential development in the face of changes in bioenergy and carbon prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Darius Adams; Bruce. McCarl

    2009-01-01

    The forest sector can contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, while also providing other environmental, economic, and social benefits. Policy tools for climate change mitigation include carbon-related payment programs as well as laws and programs to impede the loss of agricultural and forest lands to development. Policy makers will base their expectations...

  18. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  19. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  20. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  1. The IEA/bioenergy implementing agreement and other activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, R. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C. (United States). Biofuels Systems Div.

    1996-12-31

    Implementing Agreements (IAs) are used widely in international collaborative work within the International Energy Agency (IEA). These agreements are meant to be very flexible depending on the nature of the work and the interests of the participating countries. Many IAs are directed at the development of specific technologies, while a number of IAs are primarily used to facilitate information collection and dissemination. There are also a number of agreements that do not deal directly with technology development, but deal with environmental, economic and safety aspects of the technologies under development. The IEA Bioenergy Agreement is a prime example of how Implementing Agreements can be utilised to establish and expand cooperative research for the effective leveraging of technical knowledge and financial resources in finding solutions to the future needs of a growing energy dependent world. As will be illustrated, these activities are important to the commercialisation and deployment of bioenergy technologies, which increasingly are being visualized as one of the few options that can maintain and promote economic and environmental stability

  2. 7. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 7. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2013-10-01

    the generation of biofuels (K. Schiemenz); (20) BioBoost - Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production (A. Niebel); (21) Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources (M. Kroeger); (22) Production of diesel fuels from vegetable oils by means of homogenous catalysed metathesis of methyl oleate (F. Erben); (23) Investigation on application properties of liquid fuels with biogenic compounds (M. Neulen); (24) ENIAK - Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels (H. Hoffmann); (25) Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors (K. Thuneke); (26) Plasma regeneration of mineral adsorbents for the precipitation of formaldehyde from exhaust gases of biogas engines (S. Mueller); (27) Economical efficiency of bio energy as the level of prices in the agricultural sector rises (H. Heilmann); (28) Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize (K. Jaekel); (29) New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets (H. Bormann); (30) Losses of the potential in methane formation during the storage of sugar beet pulp in open ground basins (F. Weissbach); (31) Overlapping effects during the fermentation of substrate mixtures (N. Engler); (32) Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing (I. Seick); (33) Application of a qualitative image analysis on the evaluation of microbial process parameters of biogas plants (Y.S. Kim); (34) Practical application of the microbial activity analysis on the monitoring of the process biological stability of biogas plants (L. Neumann); (35) Requirement-specific use of trace element biogas additives under consideration of the bioavailability (A. Feher); (36) Application of the membrane technology on the exhaustive fermentation of renewable raw materials in biogas plants (A. Schreiber); (37) The opportunity of rising efficiency at biogas plants without BHKW (K. Wemken); (38) Quantification of diffuse

  3. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  4. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-01-01

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: — Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.— Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.— Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  5. 75 FR 41173 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... overwhelming permitting burdens that would be created under the statutory emissions thresholds, does not itself... influenced subsequent reporting systems, such as the World Resources Institute/ World Business Council for... bioenergy.\\7\\ \\6\\ World Resources Institute/World Business Council on Sustainable Development. 2004. A...

  6. Bioenergy and the Sustainability Transition: from Local Resource to Global Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.

    2007-07-01

    The looming threat of climate change and the invaluable role of energy in development have complicated the global transition to sustainable energy while also increasing the urgency of the transition. Bioenergy has a key role in this transition due to its unique characteristics among renewable energy sources, the concentration of bioenergy potential in major developing country regions, and the close relationship between biomass resources and carbon management strategies. This paper offers a conceptual model for bioenergy's role in the transition, outlining its key elements and their significance with respect to environment and development. In spite of the globalising economy, the security of energy supply continues to be threatened by geo-political conflicts. Continued expansion of energy consumption is constrained by its environmental impacts. At the same time two billion persons have little or no access to modern energy services. The diversity and flexibility of bioenergy systems offers opportunities to bridge some of the key divisions-technical, political, economic, and environmental-that have complicated international efforts to address climate change and promote equitable development of global resources. The challenge is to take advantage of the heterogeneity of biomass resources to facilitate the most effective use of those resources in the emerging bio-economy. (auth)

  7. Modifying lignin composition and content of sorghum biomass for improved bioenergy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is an opportune crop for bioenergy due to its high yield potential, and lower nitrogen and water requirements. Transgenic constructs expressing monolignol biosynthetic genes under control of 35S promoter have been developed and used for sorghum transformation to examine the...

  8. Logistic regression models of factors influencing the location of bioenergy and biofuels plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Young; R.L. Zaretzki; J.H. Perdue; F.M. Guess; X. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Logistic regression models were developed to identify significant factors that influence the location of existing wood-using bioenergy/biofuels plants and traditional wood-using facilities. Logistic models provided quantitative insight for variables influencing the location of woody biomass-using facilities. Availability of "thinnings to a basal area of 31.7m2/ha...

  9. Long Distance Bioenergy Logistics: An assessment of costs and energy consumption for various biomass transport chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study gives an analysis of costs and energy consumption, associated with long distance bioenergy transport systems. In order to create the possibility of obtaining an insight in the system’s key factors, a model has been developed, taking into account different production systems,

  10. Risø energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    internationalorganisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. The report is based on internationally-recognised scientific material, and is fully referenced. The presentation of current global developments in bioenergy is based on the latest informationfrom authoritative sources including the IEA, the World...

  11. Next steps in determining the overall sustainability of perennial bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial bioenergy crops are being developed and evaluated in the United States to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Accurate accounting of upstream and downstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to measure the overall carbon intensity of new biofuel feedstocks. For example, c...

  12. Establishment of a Bioenergy-Focused Microalgae Strain Collection Using Rapid, High-Throughput Methodologies: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This project is part of the overall effort by and among NREL, Colorado State University, University of Colorado, and Colorado School of Mines known as the Colorado Center for Biorefining and Biofuels. This is part of a larger statewide effort provided for in House Bill 06-1322, establishing a Colorado Collaboratory that envisions these four institutions working together as part of the state'senergy plan. This individual project with Colorado School of Mines is the first of many envisioned in this overall effort. The project focuses on development of high throughput procedures aimed at rapidly isolating and purifying novel microalgal strains (specifically green alga and diatoms) from water samples obtained from unique aquatic environments.

  13. Responses of agricultural bioenergy sectors in Brandenburg (Germany) to climate, economic and legal changes: An application of Holling's adaptive cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Melf-Hinrich; Uckert, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural bioenergy production is subject to dynamics such as yield fluctuations, volatile prices, resource competition, new regulation and policy, innovation and climate change. This raises questions, to what extent bioenergy production is able to adapt to changes and overcome critical events. These dynamics have important implications for effective policy development. Using a case study method, which draws on various data sources, we investigate in detail how agricultural bioenergy sectors in the German State of Brandenburg adapted to diverse past events. The case analysis rests on the adaptive-cycle concept and the system properties potential, connectedness and resilience as defined by . Our case study concludes that Brandenburg's biogas sector has a low potential and connectedness within the system, and a low resilience against crop failures. The biofuels sector displays similar properties in the short term. In the medium term the potential could increase in both sectors. The properties imply risks and opportunities for biogas production and the possibility to develop towards a stage with a higher potential and a higher connectedness. But adaptive capacity is limited and there are certain barriers for the agricultural bioenergy sectors to overcome potentially critical states. Policy needs to be tailored accordingly. - Highlights: ► Bioenergy sectors respond to climatic, economic and legal changes in different ways. ► Responses to changes expose critical features and bottlenecks of bioenergy sectors. ► Resilience, potential and connectedness are critical features for bioenergy sectors. ► Stages of development of the biogas and biofuel production sectors are identified. ► Effective policy design needs to match the sectors' features and development stages.

  14. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.

    2005-07-01

    Two of the short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 are to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands, and also sets the first step to make an inventory of barriers as perceived by various Dutch stakeholders. The report organizes as follows. Section 2 and 3 presents a brief overview of the policy setting on renewable energy and bio-energy in the Netherlands and the policy instruments deployed to stimulate renewable energy market penetration. In section 4, the achievements, the current status and the short-term expectations for the use of biomass energy in the Netherlands are described. Next, in section 5, the biomass market and biomass trade in the Netherlands are discussed, including the major biomass streams involved, conversion technologies, import and export volumes, biomass prices, barriers for further import and biomass certification efforts. Section 6 concludes with a general discussion and conclusions.

  15. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  16. Developing ground penetrating radar (GPR) for enhanced root and soil organic carbon imaging: Optimizing bioenergy crop adaptation and agro-ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, D. B.; Delgado, A.; Bruton, R.; Dobreva, I. D.; Teare, B.; Jessup, R.; Rajan, N.; Bishop, M. P.; Lacey, R.; Neely, H.; Hons, F.; Novo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Selection of the ideal high biomass energy feedstock and crop cultivars for our national energy and production needs should consider not only the value of the harvested above ground feedstock, but also the local and global environmental services it provides in terms of terrestrial carbon (C) phyto-sequestration and improved soil organic matter enrichment. Selection of ideal crops cultivars is mature, while biofuel feedstock is well under way. What is lacking, however, is high throughput phenotyping (HTP) and integrated real-time data analysis technologies for selecting ideal genotypes within these crops that also confer recalcitrant high biomass or perennial root systems not only for C phyto-sequestration, but also for adaptation to conservation agro-ecosystems, increasing soil organic matter and soil water holding capacity. In no-till systems, significant studies have shown that increasing soil organic carbon is derived primarily from root and not above ground biomass. As such, efforts to increase plant soil phyto-sequestration will require a focus on developing optimal root systems within cultivated crops. We propose to achieve a significant advancement in the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as one approach to phenotype root biomass and 3D architecture, and to quantify soil carbon sequestration. In this context, GPR can be used for genotypic selection in breeding nurseries and unadapted germplasm with favorable root architectures, and for assessing management and nutrient practices that promote root growth. GPR has been used for over a decade to successfully map coarse woody roots. Only few have evaluated its efficacy for imaging finer fibrous roots found in grasses, or tap root species. The objectives of this project is to: i) Empirically define the optimal ground penetrating radar (GPR)-antenna array for 3D root and soil organic carbon imaging and quantification in high biomass grass systems; and ii) Develop novel 3- and 4-dimensional data analysis

  17. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  18. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  19. Stream Health Sensitivity to Landscape Changes due to Bioenergy Crops Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadhashemi, A.; Einheuser, M. D.; Woznicki, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for bioenergy has increased due to uncertainty in oil markets, environmental concerns, and expected increases in energy consumption worldwide. To develop a sustainable biofuel production strategy, the adverse environmental impacts of bioenergy crops expansion should be understood. To study the impact of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health, the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to predict macroinvertebrate and fish stream health measures. The Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family Index of Biological Integrity (Family IBI), and Number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT taxa) were used as macroinvertebrate measures, while the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) was used for fish. A high-resolution biophysical model built using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to obtain water quantity and quality variables for input into the ANFIS stream health predictive models. Twenty unique crop rotations were developed to examine impacts of bioenergy crops expansion on stream health in the Saginaw Bay basin. Traditional intensive row crops generated more pollution than current landuse conditions, while second-generation biofuel crops associated with less intensive agricultural activities resulted in water quality improvement. All three macroinvertebrate measures were negatively impacted during intensive row crop productions but improvement was predicted when producing perennial crops. However, the expansion of native grass, switchgrass, and miscanthus production resulted in reduced IBI relative to first generation row crops. This study demonstrates that ecosystem complexity requires examination of multiple stream health measures to avoid potential adverse impacts of landuse change on stream health.

  20. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  1. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  2. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Peat and field biomass production; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Turpeen ja peltobiomassojen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The development target for peat production technology is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing the production costs by 20 % from the level of 1992 (5-6 FIM/MWh) and to reduce the environmental load. In addition to this, the main parts of the production methods will be demonstrated. In 1995 there were 10 projects going on in the field of peat production. The results of 1995 projects will be presented in this publication. Field biomass research started in the Bioenergy Research Programme in 1994. The number of projects was three, funded mainly by the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The results of previous researches show that economically most promising possibilities are in the utilization of straw and reed canary grass

  3. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    the region. (7) Bio-alcohols/DME have estimated production costs about 3 times higher than for natural gas-based methanol/DME but below the price of taxed petrol per energy unit on the market in W. Europe today. (8) The taxation of 'green' products or other control means are decisive for the fate of the products on the market and for decisions on biomass-based production projects.

  4. Opportunities and trade-offs of biomass based negative emissions within planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Paris Agreement requires "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of the century" (UNFCCC, 2015). Without a full decarbonization of the energy and land use sector until the second half of this century, negative emission technologies (NETs) are required to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment studies indicate that bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), a land based NET, has the potential to contribute substantially to balancing anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. However, significant negative emission potentials from BECCS require substantial biomass potentials, which can only be achieved by intensively managed (fertilized and irrigated) large-scale biomass plantations. Additional to direct trade-offs of land and water availability, the implementation of large-scale biomass plantations implies major restructuring of the land surface on top of existing land use and would be accompanied by indirect trade-offs such as changes in moisture and energy fluxes. In the context of the planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009), BECCS might contribute to reduce the transgression of the planetary boundary (PB) for climate change, but would most likely steer the Earth system closer to the PB for freshwater use and lead to further transgression of the PBs for land system change, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows. This presentation will investigate the opportunities of second generation biomass potentials within the safe operating space for humanity and highlight the multidimensional trade-offs between biomass potentials for BECCS in relation to the PBs. Scenarios of land availability for biomass plantations and land based carbon sequestration were developed with a spatially explicit multi-criterial optimization framework, considering the precautionary need to stay within the safe operating space vis-à-vis the need to

  5. Public–private partnerships value in bioenergy projects: Economic feasibility analysis based on two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Bartocci, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Arampatzis, Stratos; Manos, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Greece and Italy are facing serious energy challenges concerning sustainability and greenhouse gas emissions as well as security of supply and the competitiveness of the internal energy market. These challenges require investments by the public sector, while the countries have seen in the last years their debts rising. A solution to promote bioenergy business, without rising public debt, could be the use of PPP (Public–Private Partnership). This paper presents a methodology to develop agro-energy business using PPP in two rural areas: the municipality of Evropos (in Greece) and the municipality of Montefalco (in Italy). At first biomass availability is studied, then the optimal technology is selected. Once technological issues have been analyzed PPP value for money has to be assessed. Conventional methods to evaluate economic viability of a project are not enough and a Public-Sector Comparator (PSC) has to be calculated. Typical risks of bioenergy projects are identified, estimating their probabilities and consequences. This will lead to associate a monetary value to each risk. Then the identified risks are allocated among private and public partners, establishing synergies. The allocation of risks will have consequences on the preparation of PPP contract and on partner selection procedure. - Highlights: • PPPs can control or reduce risks in bioenergy business. • Development of a methodology for risk allocation in bioenergy projects. • Development of a methodology for risk valuing in bioenergy projects. • A Public-Sector Comparator has been realized for an agro-energy PPP. • Risk allocation has to be clearly indicated in PPP contract

  6. Synergies between agriculture and bioenergy in Latin American countries: A circular economy strategy for bioenergy production in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Quezada, Cristhian; Blanco, María; Romero, Hugo

    2017-10-25

    This study quantifies the synergies between agriculture and bioenergy considering biodiesel production as part of a set of systemic initiatives. We present a case study in Ecuador taking into account the recent government measures aimed at developing the bioenergy sector. Four scenarios have been evaluated through a newly designed systemic scheme of circular-economy initiatives. These scenarios encompass three production pathways covering three energy crops: palm oil (PO), microalgae in open ponds (M1) and microalgae in laminar photobioreactors (M2). We have applied Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) methodology considering the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) as the main evaluation criteria. In terms of private investment, biodiesel production from PO is more attractive than from M2. However, regarding efficiency and effectiveness of public funds, M2 is superior to PO because the public BCR and NPV are higher, and the pressure on agricultural land is lower. Moreover, M2 as part of a systemic approach presents a better carbon balance. These findings show that, under a systemic approach based on circular economy, strategies like the one analyzed in this study are economically feasible and may have a promising future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial Variability of Near-surface Soil Moisture for Bioenergy Crops at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, R. L.; Diker, K.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    We used time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor spatial and temporal soil moisture variability below ten different potential bioenergy cropping systems at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center’s sustainability research site in Michigan, U.S.A. These crops range from high-diversity, low-input grasses and poplars to low-diversity, high-input corn-soybean-canola rotations. We equipped the 28x40m vegetation plots with permanent 2D resistivity arrays, each consisting of 40 graphite electrodes at 30cm spacing. Other permanent equipment in each plot includes multi-depth temperature and time domain reflectometry (TDR) based moisture sensors, and two tension soil water samplers. The material at the site consists of coarse sandy glacial tills in which a soil with an approximately 50cm thick A-Bt horizon has developed. ERI data were collected using a dipole-dipole configuration every four weeks since early May 2009. After removal of bad points, the data were inverted and translated into 2D images of water content using lab-derived petrophysical relationships, including corrections for soil temperature and salinity. The results show significant seasonal variation within and between vegetation plots. We compare our results to high-temporal resolution point-based measurements of soil moisture from TDR probes and present statistical analysis of the variability of soil moisture within and between plots.

  8. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  9. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Global land use patterns and the production of bioenergy to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-01

    The results of a bottom-up analysis of the theoretical global bioenergy production potential are presented and discussed, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing studies on agriculture and forestry and gaps in the knowledge base that explain ranges in estimates. The impact of various factors is analysed by means of scenario analysis. Results indicate that the key factor for bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land is the type of agricultural management system. Theoretically, 70% of the present agricultural land use can be made available for bioenergy production, without further deforestation or endangering the future supply of food. The bioenergy potential from surplus agricultural land is estimated at 215 EJy -1 to 1471 EJy -1 in 2050. The bulk of this potential comes from the developing regions South America and the Carribean (47-221 EJy -1 ) and sub-Saharan Africa (31-317 EJy -1 ) and the transition economies of the CIS and Baltic States (45-199 EJy -1 )

  11. Global land use patterns and the production of bioenergy to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-15

    The results of a bottom-up analysis of the theoretical global bioenergy production potential are presented and discussed, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing studies on agriculture and forestry and gaps in the knowledge base that explain ranges in estimates. The impact of various factors is analysed by means of scenario analysis. Results indicate that the key factor for bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land is the type of agricultural management system. Theoretically, 70% of the present agricultural land use can be made available for bioenergy production, without further deforestation or endangering the future supply of food. The bioenergy potential from surplus agricultural land is estimated at 215 EJy{sup -1} to 1471 EJy{sup -1} in 2050. The bulk of this potential comes from the developing regions South America and the Carribean (47-221 EJy{sup -1}) and sub-Saharan Africa (31-317 EJy{sup -1}) and the transition economies of the CIS and Baltic States (45-199 EJy{sup -1})

  12. Final Renewable Fuel Standards for 2014, 2015 and 2016, and the Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing the volume requirements and associated percentage standards that would apply under the RFS program in calendar years 2014, 2015, and 2016 for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel.

  13. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  14. Legal framework for a sustainable biomass production for bioenergy on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Pelikan, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The EU H2020 funded project SEEMLA is aiming at the sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Partners from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Greece are involved in this project. Whereas Germany can be considered as well-established and leading country with regard to the production of bioenergy, directly followed by Italy and Greece, Ukraine is doing its first steps in becoming independent from fossil energy resources, also heading for the 2020+ goals. A basic, overarching regulation is the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has been amended in 2015; these amendments will be set in force in 2017. A new proposal for the period after 2020, the so called RED II, is under preparation. With cross-compliance and greening, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) offers measures for an efficient and ecological concept for a sustainable agriculture in Europe. In country-specific National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) a concept for 2020 targets is given for practical implementation until 2030 which covers e.g. individual renewable energy targets for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport sectors, the planned mix of different renewables technologies, national policies to develop biomass resources, and measures to ensure that biofuels are used to meet renewable energy targets are in compliance with the EU's sustainability criteria. While most of the NREAP have been submitted in 2010, the Ukrainian NREAP was established in 2014. In addition, the legal framework considering the protection of nature, e.g. Natura 2000, and its compartments soil, water, and atmosphere are presented. The SEEMLA approach will be developed in agreement with this already existing policy framework, following a sustainable principle for growing energy plants on marginal lands (MagL). Secondly, legislation regarding bioenergy and biomass potentials in the EU-28 and partner countries is introduced. For each SEEMLA partner an overview of regulatory

  15. Global land-use and market interactions between climate and bioenergy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past few years, interest in bioenergy has boomed with higher oil prices and concerns about energy security, farm incomes, and mitigation of climate change. Large-scale commercial bioenergy production could have far reaching implications for regional and global land use and output markets associated with food, forestry, chemical, and energy sectors, as well as household welfare. Similarly, there is significant interest in international agricultural and forestry based carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, which could also provide revenue to developing countries and farmers in exchange for modifying land management practices. However, bioenergy and climate policies are being formulated largely independent of one another. Understanding the interaction between these potentially competing policy objectives is important for identifying possible constraints that one policy might place on the other, potential complementarities that could be exploited in policy design, and net land-use change and management implications over time. This study develops a new dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model GDyn-E-AEZ to assess the interaction between biofuels production and climate mitigation policies. The model is built on several existing CGE platforms, including 1) GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009), 2) GTAP-BIO (Birur et al., 2008; Taheripour and Tyner, 2011), and 3) GDyn framework (Ianchovichina and McDougall, 2001) extended to investigate the role of population and per capita income growth, changing consumption patterns, and global economic integration in determining long-run patterns of land-use change. The new model is used to assess the effects of domestic and global bioenergy expansion on future land use, as well as sectoral, regional and global GHG emissions mitigation potential. Do bioenergy programs facilitate or constrain GHG mitigation opportunities? For instance, Golub et al. (2009) estimate substantial GHG

  16. Bioenergy and Food Supply: A Spatial-Agent Dynamic Model of Agricultural Land Use for Jiangsu Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesheng Shu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop an agent-based model to explore a feasible way of simultaneously providing sufficient food and bioenergy feedstocks in China. Concerns over the competition for agricultural land resources between food and bioenergy supply hinder the further development of bioenergy, especially in China, the country that needs to feed the world’s largest population. Prior research has suggested the introduction of energy crops and reviewed the resulting agricultural land use change in China. However, there is a lack of quantitative studies which estimate the value, contribution, and impact of bioenergy for specific conditions at the county level and provide adequate information to guide local practices. To fill this gap, we choose the Jiangsu Province in China as a case study, build up a spatial-agent dynamic model of agricultural land use, and perform a sensitivity analysis for important parameters. The simulation results show that straw from conventional crops generally dominates Jiangsu’s biomass supply with a contribution above 85%. The sensitivity analyses reveal severe consequences of bioenergy targets for local land use. For Jiangsu Province, reclaimed mudflats, an alternative to arable lands for energy crop plantation, help to secure the local biomass supply and to alleviate the land use conflict between food and biomass production.

  17. A comparison of bioenergy policies and institutional frameworks in the rural areas of Emilia Romagna and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavicchi, Bianca; Bryden, John M.; Vittuari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between bioenergy, rural development and related innovation processes in two case studies (Emilia Romagna in Italy—and Norway), for a better understanding of the impacts of different policy regimes on bioenergy innovation. Regional innovation systems theory is used to explain the results emerging from the case studies and to identify the presence of potential elements for innovation. We used policy and relevant literature analysis and a grounded approach based on semi- structured interviews of relevant actors involved in the local bioenergy system. The main findings show that the case studies present consistent differences in terms of policy instruments and socio-political dynamics. Emilia Romagna has major weaknesses and threats that hinder innovation, but some positive potential elements for the future. Norway presents stronger local elements for innovation within local bioenergy systems, such as the employment of local resources and knowledge, but critical market and policy features that threaten further innovation developments. The conclusion draws on the comparative analysis to discuss policy implications of the study. - Highlights: • We compare policies and institutional frameworks which regulate bioenergy systems. • We use the SWOT analysis to evaluate the results of the case studies. • Emilia Romagna has major systemic weaknesses. • Norway has local elements for innovation but policy weaknesses. • Policies and policy instruments should be decentralised

  18. Wood-based bioenergy value chain in mountain urban districts: An integrated environmental accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodinoska, Natasha; Buonocore, Elvira; Paletto, Alessandro; Franzese, Pier Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Sarentino bioenergy value chain (North Italy) was investigated. • A multi-method environmental accounting framework was implemented. • Environmental costs and impacts of a forest bioenergy chain were assessed. • Indicators show a good environmental performance and sustainability. • Linking wood industry and energy production could lower the environmental burden. - Abstract: Using wood biomass for bioenergy production in mountain urban settlements can represent a win–win strategy when it combines a continuous energy provision to households with a sustainable management of local forests, also boosting rural development and stakeholders’ cooperation. In this study, we implemented a multi-method environmental accounting framework aimed at investigating environmental costs and impacts of a bioenergy value chain located in Sarentino Valley (North Italy). This assessment framework encompasses material, energy, and emergy demands as well as main emissions generated at each step of the chain: (1) forestry, (2) logistics, and (3) conversion. The resulting global to local ratios of abiotic material calculated for forestry, logistics, and conversion subsystems show that the global (direct and indirect) consumption of abiotic matter was respectively 3.6, 3.2, and 7.6 times higher than the direct material demand. The Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) of wood biomass and wood chips production (37.1 and 22.4) shows a high energy performance of these processes, while the EROI of heat generation (11.35) reflects a higher support of human-driven inputs. The emergy renewable fraction, ranging from 77% to 37% across the value chain, shows a high use of local renewable resources in the bioenergy value chain. The total CO 2 emissions of the bioenergy value chain (4088 t CO 2 yr −1 ) represent only 7.1% of the CO 2 sequestration potential of the Sarentino Valley forest ecosystem, highlighting the capability of the local forests to offset the CO 2

  19. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  20. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO 2 e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable. Resorting to first generation ethanol would require the allocation of over 580,000 ha of agricultural land for ethanol production. - Highlights: • This paper examines modern bioenergy contribution to Ghana's future energy mix. • Three scenarios are developed and analysed. • Opportunities exist for modern bioenergy to replace carbon intensive fuels. • Introducing modern bioenergy to the mix could result in a 14% reduction in GHG.

  1. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  2. Bioenergy futures in Sweden – Modeling integration scenarios for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Börjesson Hagberg, Martin; Pettersson, Karin; Ahlgren, Erik O.

    2016-01-01

    Use of bioenergy can contribute to greenhouse gas emission reductions and increased energy security. However, even though biomass is a renewable resource, the potential is limited, and efficient use of available biomass resources will become increasingly important. This paper aims to explore system interactions related to future bioenergy utilization and cost-efficient bioenergy technology choices under stringent CO 2 constraints. In particular, the study investigates system effects linked to integration of advanced biofuel production with district heating and industry under different developments in the electricity sector and biomass supply system. The study is based on analysis with the MARKAL-Sweden model, which is a bottom-up, cost-optimization model covering the Swedish energy system. A time horizon to 2050 is applied. The results suggest that system integration of biofuel production has noteworthy effects on the overall system level, improves system cost-efficiency and influences parameters such as biomass price, marginal CO 2 emission reduction costs and cost-efficient biofuel choices in the transport sector. In the long run and under stringent CO 2 constraints, system integration of biofuel production has, however, low impact on total bioenergy use, which is largely decided by supply-related constraints, and on total transport biofuel use, which to large extent is driven by demand. - Highlights: • Long-term bioenergy scenarios for Sweden are modeled. • Efficient use of biomass resources will become increasingly important. • Integration of biofuel production with industry or heating improves efficiency. • Integration can reduce biomass prices and marginal CO 2 reduction costs. • Cost-efficient biofuel choices in the transport sector are affected.

  3. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and

  4. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Biofuels AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of Contract for Proposal... Year 2009 for the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP... Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels. In response to the previously published NOCP, approximately $14.5...

  5. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The

  6. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada P C, Pietro; Grassi, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO 2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  7. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for

  8. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and

  9. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials - Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential asessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  10. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  11. Site-specific global warming potentials of biogenic CO2 for bioenergy: contributions from carbon fluxes and albedo dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    Production of biomass for bioenergy can alter biogeochemical and biogeophysical mechanisms, thus affecting local and global climate. Recent scientific developments have mainly embraced impacts from land use changes resulting from area-expanded biomass production, with several extensive insights available. Comparably less attention, however, has been given to the assessment of direct land surface–atmosphere climate impacts of bioenergy systems under rotation such as in plantations and forested ecosystems, whereby land use disturbances are only temporary. Here, following IPCC climate metrics, we assess bioenergy systems in light of two important dynamic land use climate factors, namely, the perturbation in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration caused by the timing of biogenic CO 2 fluxes, and temporary perturbations to surface reflectivity (albedo). Existing radiative forcing-based metrics can be adapted to include such dynamic mechanisms, but high spatial and temporal modeling resolution is required. Results show the importance of specifically addressing the climate forcings from biogenic CO 2 fluxes and changes in albedo, especially when biomass is sourced from forested areas affected by seasonal snow cover. The climate performance of bioenergy systems is highly dependent on biomass species, local climate variables, time horizons, and the climate metric considered. Bioenergy climate impact studies and accounting mechanisms should rapidly adapt to cover both biogeochemical and biogeophysical impacts, so that policy makers can rely on scientifically robust analyses and promote the most effective global climate mitigation options. (letter)

  12. Techno-economic analysis of bioenergy systems; Bioenergiasysteemien teknistaloudellinen analyysi. IEA Bioenergy Agreement Techno-economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels. To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on techno-economic basis to establish future development needs. To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned

  13. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Maglinao, Randy [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  14. Possibilities for biomass-based power plant and wind system integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, Francisco [Jaen Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Linares (Jaen) (Spain); Saenz, Jose R. [Univ. of the Basque Country, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, the integration of a biomass-based diesel-wind system is investigated. The system consists of a pitch controlled wind turbine, which is equipped with an induction generator. The induction generator is connected to an ac bus-bar in parallel with a diesel-generator set consisting of a diesel engine driving a synchronous generator. A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from the olive tree in Spain. A gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a diesel engine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as the higher heating value of the biogas or wind speed, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of biomass-based wind-diesel systems is quite valid for robust control studies. (Author)

  15. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Ugursal, V.I.; Fung, A.

    2005-01-01

    District energy systems (DES) that produce steam, hot water or chilled water at a central plant and then distribute that energy to buildings in the district for space heating, domestic hot water heating and air conditioning provide opportunities for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of biomass, such as wood, wood byproducts and wastes, fast-growing trees, agricultural crops and waste, in place of conventional fossil fuels to produce the thermal energy needed by a DES, presents further opportunities for reducing green house gas emissions as well as providing rural employment, and local solutions to rural and remote energy needs. In this paper, a technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based DES for a community center in Nova Scotia, Canada is presented. The methodology used to size and design the heating and ventilating system, as well as the biomass based DES is discussed. Annual energy requirement and biomass fuel consumption predictions are presented along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the economic feasibility of the system vis-a-vis a conventional oil fired system is conducted. While the results are specific to the particular application, the design and analysis methodology that is presented in the paper can be used for any similar application. (author)

  16. REMARKS TO THE CURRENT DISCUSSION ABOUT BIOENERGYBIOENERGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND/ OR FOR THE AGRICULTURAL OR RURAL AREAS ONLY ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruckenbauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.

  17. Optimization of bioenergy crop selection and placement based on a stream health indicator using an evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Matthew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Abouali, Mohammad; Ross, Dennis M; Woznicki, Sean A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases continues to amplify the impacts of global climate change. This has led to the increased focus on using renewable energy sources, such as biofuels, due to their lower impact on the environment. However, the production of biofuels can still have negative impacts on water resources. This study introduces a new strategy to optimize bioenergy landscapes while improving stream health for the region. To accomplish this, several hydrological models including the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Hydrologic Integrity Tool, and Adaptive Neruro Fuzzy Inference System, were linked to develop stream health predictor models. These models are capable of estimating stream health scores based on the Index of Biological Integrity. The coupling of the aforementioned models was used to guide a genetic algorithm to design watershed-scale bioenergy landscapes. Thirteen bioenergy managements were considered based on the high probability of adaptation by farmers in the study area. Results from two thousand runs identified an optimum bioenergy crops placement that maximized the stream health for the Flint River Watershed in Michigan. The final overall stream health score was 50.93, which was improved from the current stream health score of 48.19. This was shown to be a significant improvement at the 1% significant level. For this final bioenergy landscape the most often used management was miscanthus (27.07%), followed by corn-soybean-rye (19.00%), corn stover-soybean (18.09%), and corn-soybean (16.43%). The technique introduced in this study can be successfully modified for use in different regions and can be used by stakeholders and decision makers to develop bioenergy landscapes that maximize stream health in the area of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perennial Forages as Second Generation Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Adler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production.

  19. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

  20. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  1. Perennial Forages as Second Generation Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matt A.; Adler, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production. PMID:19325783

  2. Regional economic impacts of biomass based energy service use. A comparison across crops and technologies for East Styria, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trink, Thomas; Schmid, Christoph; Schinko, Thomas; Loibnegger, Thomas; Kettner, Claudia; Pack, Alexandra; Toeglhofer, Christoph; Steininger, Karl W.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass action plans in many European countries seek to expand biomass heat and fuel supply, mainly to be supplied by peripheral, agricultural regions. We develop a two-plus-ten-region energy-focused computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that acknowledges land competition in analysing the sub-state local-regional economic implications of such a strategy, embedded within a global context. Our model is based on a full cost analysis of selected biomass technologies covering a range of agricultural and forestry crops, as well as thermal insulation. The local-regional macroeconomic effects differ significantly across technologies and are governed by factors such as net labour intensity in crop production. The high land intensity of agricultural biomass products crowds out conventional agriculture, and thus lowers employment and drives up land prices and the consumer price index. The regional economic results show that net employment effects are positive for all forestry based biomass energy, and also show for which agriculture based biomass systems this is true, even when accounting for land competition. When regional consumer price development governs regional wages or when the agricultural sector is in strong enough competition to the international market, positive employment and welfare impacts vanish fully for agriculture based bio-energy. (author)

  3. Multi-spatial analysis of forest residue utilization for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Ryan A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC Canada; Keefe, Robert F. [University of Idaho, Moscow ID USA; Smith, Alistair M. S. [University of Idaho, Moscow ID USA; Metlen, Scott [University of Idaho, Moscow ID USA; Saul, Darin A. [University of Idaho, Moscow ID USA; Newman, Soren M. [University of Idaho, Moscow ID USA; Laninga, Tamara J. [Western Washington University, Bellingham WA USA; Inman, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden CO USA

    2016-06-17

    The alternative energy sector is expanding quickly in the USA since passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Increased interest in wood-based bioenergy has led to the need for robust modeling methods to analyze woody biomass operations at landscape scales. However, analyzing woody biomass operations in regions like the US Inland Northwest is difficult due to highly variable terrain and wood characteristics. We developed the Forest Residue Economic Assessment Model (FREAM) to better integrate with Geographical Information Systems and overcome analytical modeling limitations. FREAM analyzes wood-based bioenergy logistics systems and provides a modeling platform that can be readily modified to analyze additional study locations. We evaluated three scenarios to test the FREAM's utility: a local-scale scenario in which a catalytic pyrolysis process produces gasoline from 181 437 Mg yr-1 of forest residues, a regional-scale scenario that assumes a biochemical process to create aviation fuel from 725 748 Mg yr-1 of forest residues, and an international scenario that assumes a pellet mill producing pellets for international markets from 272 155 Mg yr-1 of forest residues. The local scenario produced gasoline for a modeled cost of $22.33 GJ-1*, the regional scenario produced aviation fuel for a modeled cost of $35.83 GJ-1 and the international scenario produced pellets for a modeled cost of $10.51 GJ-1. Results show that incorporating input from knowledgeable stakeholders in the designing of a model yields positive results.

  4. The availability and economic analyses of using marginal land for bioenergy production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqi, Chen; Xudong, Guo; Chunyan, Lv

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, China has witnessed rapid increase in the dependence of foreign oil import. In 2015, the primary energy consumption of China is 543 million tons, of which 328 million tons was imported. The total amount of imported foreign oil increased from 49.8% in 2008 to 60.41% in 2016. To address the national energy security and GHG emission reduction, China has made considerable progress in expanding renewable energy portfolio, especially liquid biofuels. However, under the pressure of high population and vulnerable food security, China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) ruled that bioenergy is only allowed to be produced using non-cereal feedstock. In addition, the energy crops can only be planted on marginal land, which is the land not suitable for growing field crops due to edaphic and/or climatic limitations, and other environmental risks. Although there have been a number of studies about estimating the marginal land for energy plants' cultivation in China, as to the different definition of marginal land and land use data, the results are quite different. Furthermore, even if there is enough marginal land suitable for energy plants' cultivation, economic viability of cultivating energy plants on marginal land is critical. In order to analyze the availability and economic analyses of the marginal land for bioenergy production strategy, firstly, by using of the latest and most authoritative land use data, this study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bioenergy potential by planting five species of energy plants including Cassava, Jatropha curcas, Helianthus tuberous L, Pistacia chinensis, Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. The results indicate that there are 289.71 million ha marginal land can be used for these five energy plants' cultivation, which can produce 24.45 million tons bioethanol and 8.77 million tons of biodiesel. Secondly, based on field survey data and literature reviews, we found that, from the farmers

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy from Lignocellulosic Crops Cultivated on Marginal Land in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Nils; Schmidt, Tobias; Gärtner, Sven; Reinhardt, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Population growth and changing diets due to economic development lead to an additional demand for land for food and feed production. Slowly but surely turning into a mass market, also the cultivation of non-food biomass crops for fibre (bio-based products) and fuel (biofuels and bioenergy) is increasingly contributing to the pressure on global agricultural land. As a consequence, the already prevailing competition for land might even intensify over the next decades. Against this background, the possibilities of shifting the cultivation of non-food biomass crops to so-called 'marginal lands' are investigated. The EC-funded project 'Sustainable exploitation of biomass for bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe' (SEEMLA) aims at the establishment of suitable innovative land-use strategies for a sustainable production of bioenergy from lignocellulosic crops on marginal lands while improving general ecosystem services. For a complete understanding of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of the envisioned cultivation of bioenergy crops on marginal land, life cycle assessments (LCA) have proven to be a suitable and valuable tool. Thus, embedded into a comprehensive sustainability assessment, a screening LCA is carried out for the entire life cycles of the bioenergy carriers researched in SEEMLA. Investigated systems, on the one hand, include the specific field trials carried out by the SEEMLA partners in Ukraine, Greece and Germany. On the other hand, generic scenarios are investigated in order to derive reliable general statements on the environmental impacts of bioenergy from marginal lands in Europe. Investigated crops include woody and herbaceous species such as black locust, poplar, pine, willow and Miscanthus. Conversion technologies cover the use in a domestic or a district heating plant, power plant, CHP as well as the production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FT diesel) and lignocellulosic ethanol. Environmental impacts are compared to conventional reference

  6. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  7. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  8. 11. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 11. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2017-08-01

    The seven main focus of the bioenergy forum were: 1. Political regulation and its consequences; 2. Flexible energy supply; 3. Biorefineries for the use of residues from bioenergy production; 4. Process optimization biogas; 5. Alternative substrates for biogas production; 6. Cross-sectoral bioenergy concept; 7. Transport sector (biofuels). Five lectures are separately analyzed for this database. [German] Die sieben Themenschwerpunkte des Bioenergieforums waren: 1. Politische Regulierung und deren Folgen; 2. Flexible Energiebereitstellung; 3. Bioraffinerie zur Nutzung von Reststoffen der Bioenergiegewinnung; 4. Prozessoptimierung Biogas; 5. Alternative Substrate zur Biogasgewinnung; 6. Sektoruebergreifende regionale Bioenergiekonzept; und 7. Transportsektor (Biokraftstoffe). Fuenf Vortraege wurden fuer diese Datenbank separat aufgenommen.

  9. Precipitation partitioning in short rotation bioenergy crops: implications for downstream water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Chelcy F. Miniat; Doug Aubrey; Rhett Jackson; Jeff McDonnell; Ken W. Krauss; James S. Latimer

    2016-01-01

    The southern United States is a potential leader in producing biofuels from intensively managed, short rotation (8–12 years) woody crops such as southern pines, and native and non-native hardwoods. However, their accelerated development under intensive management has raised concerns that fast-growing bioenergy crops could reduce recharge to stream flows and groundwater...

  10. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  11. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  12. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of “precipitation of the warmest quarter” and “annual mean temperature” were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

  13. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wang

    Full Text Available Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080 on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  14. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  15. A mathematical model for transporting the biomass to biomass based power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagtar [Mechanical Engineering Department, SLIET Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab (India); Panesar, B.S. [Project Professional, SCS Engineers, 11260 Roger Bacon Drive, 300, Virginia 20190 (United States); Sharma, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)

    2010-04-15

    In Punjab, million of tons of agricultural biomass are being generated every year, but it is spatially scattered. The spatial distribution of this resource and the associated costs on collection and transportation are the major bottleneck in the success of biomass energy-conversion facilities. This paper deals with the mathematical model for collection and transporting the biomass from fields to biomass based power plant. The unit transport cost was calculated by using this model. Four systems of transport were conceptualized for two transport modes (tractor with wagon and truck). Three types of agricultural biomass (loose, baled and briquetted) were considered for transport analysis. For all modes of transport, it was observed that unit cost of transport decreases with increase in distance. The transport cost was least for briquetted biomass as compared to loose and baled biomass. (author)

  16. Robust control for a gas turbine in biomass-based electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melguizo, F.J.; Ortega, M.; Cano, A.

    2002-07-01

    A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from olive trees in Spain. The gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a gas turbine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as biogas pressure or specific heat ratio in gas turbines, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of gas turbine is quite valid for robust control studies in biomass-based electric power plants. (author)

  17. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioenergy, Pollution, and Economic Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankarhem, Mattias

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of four papers: two of them deal with the effects on the forest sector of an increase in the demand for forest fuels, and two of them concern the relation between economic growth and pollution. Paper [I] is a first, preliminary study of the potential effects on the Swedish forest sector of a continuing rise in the use of forest resources as a fuel in energy generation. Sweden has made a commitment that the energy system should be sustainable, i.e., it should be based on renewable resources. However, an increasing use of the forest resources as an energy input could have effects outside the energy sector. We consider this in a static model by estimating a system of demand and supply equations for the four main actors on the Swedish roundwood market; forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy sector. We then calculate the industries' short run supply and demand elasticities. Paper [II], is a development of the former paper. In this paper, we estimate the dynamic effects on the forest sector of an increased demand for forest fuels. This is done by developing a partial adjustment model of the forest sector that enables short, intermediate, and long run price elasticities to be estimated. It is relevant to study the effects of increased demand for forest fuels as the Swedish government has committed to an energy policy that is likely to further increase the use of renewable resources in the Swedish energy system. Four subsectors are included in the model: forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy industry. The results show that the short run elasticities are fairly consistent with earlier studies and that sluggish adjustment in the capital stock is important in determining the intermediate and long run responses. Simulation shows that an increase in the demand for forest fuels has a positive effect on the equilibrium price of all three types of wood, and a negative effect on the equilibrium quantities of sawtimber and pulpwood. In paper [III] a

  19. Bioenergy. A sustainable option for Germany?; Bioenergie. Eine nachhaltige Option fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schink, Bernhard [Konstanz Univ. (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Biogas, biodiesel and bioethanol have experienced a major boom over the past years. However, a critical look at the climate impact, surface area efficiency and ecosystem impact of these energy resources shows them to be in need of reassessment, along with the policies in place for their promotion. This is the conclusion to which the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina comes in an opinion entitled ''Bioenergy - possibilities and limits''.

  20. Biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches for metabolic engineering of bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M; Liang, Yan; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The Green Revolution has fuelled an exponential growth in human population since the mid-20th century. Due to population growth, food and energy demands will soon surpass supply capabilities. To overcome these impending problems, significant improvements in genetic engineering will be needed to complement breeding efforts in order to accelerate the improvement of agronomical traits. The new field of plant synthetic biology has emerged in recent years and is expected to support rapid, precise, and robust engineering of plants. In this review, we present recent advances made in the field of plant synthetic biology, specifically in genome editing, transgene expression regulation, and bioenergy crop engineering, with a focus on traits related to lignocellulose, oil, and soluble sugars. Ultimately, progress and innovation in these fields may facilitate the development of beneficial traits in crop plants to meet society's bioenergy needs. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Agricultural Management on Energy Yield and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction of Bioenergy Production Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, S.; Corre, W.J.; Langeveld, H.; Davies, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The role of energy crops in reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is much debated. To improve decision making on the use of crops for producing bioenergy, a tool (Energy Crop Simulation Model or E-CROP) has been developed to calculate 1) sustainable crop dry matter yield levels as

  2. Biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops: proceedings of the short rotation crops international conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Rob Mitchell; Jim, eds. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this conference was to initiate and provide opportunities for an international forum on the science and application of producing both agricultural and forest crops for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts. There is a substantial global need for development of such systems and technologies that can economically and sustainably produce short rotation crops...

  3. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States); Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Maglinao, Randy Latayan [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this project was to establish the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) of Montana State University Northern (MSUN) as a Regional Research Center of Excellence in research, product development, and commercialization of non-food biomass for the bio-energy industry. A three-step approach, namely, (1) enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities, (2) develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops, and (3) educate the community through outreach programs for public understanding and acceptance of new technologies was identified to achieve this goal. The research activities aimed to address the obstacles concerning the production of biofuels and other bio-based fuel additives considering feedstock quality, conversion process, economic viability, and public awareness. First and foremost in enhancing the capabilities of the Center is the improvement of its laboratories and other physical facilities for investigating new biomass conversion technologies and the development of its manpower complement with expertise in chemistry, engineering, biology, and energy. MSUN renovated its Auto Diagnostics building and updated its mechanical and electrical systems necessary to house the state-of-the-art 525kW (704 hp) A/C Dynamometer. The newly renovated building was designated as the Advanced Fuels Building. Two laboratories, namely Biomass Conversion lab and Wet Chemistry lab were also added to the Center’s facilities. The Biomass Conversion lab was for research on the production of advanced biofuels including bio-jet fuel and bio-based fuel additives while the Wet Chemistry lab was used to conduct catalyst research. Necessary equipment and machines, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, were purchased and installed to help in research and testing. With the enhanced capabilities of the Center, research and testing activities were very much facilitated and more precise. New biofuels derived from Camelina sativa (camelina), a locally

  4. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  5. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  6. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects......Due to increased burden on the environment caused by human activities, focus on industrial ecology designs are gaining more attention. In that perspective an environ- mentally effective integration of bionergy and agriculture systems has significant potential. This work introduces a modeling...... of the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success- fully...

  7. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  8. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinksi, Sharon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  9. Forest Carbon Accounting Considerations in US Bioenergy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid A. Miner; Robert C. Abt; Jim L. Bowyer; Marilyn A. Buford; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Jay O' Laughlin; Elaine E. Oneil; Roger A. Sedjo; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Four research-based insights are essential to understanding forest bioenergy and “carbon debts.” (1) As long as wood-producing land remains in forest, long-lived wood products and forest bioenergy reduce fossil fuel use and long-term carbon emission impacts. (2) Increased demand for wood can trigger investments that increase forest area and forest productivity and...

  10. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for change in the Netherlands and point out barriers & opportunities for trade in detail, and Current biomass user (energy use) Table ES-1 shows the energy use of biomass in the Netherlands in 2010. The...

  11. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  12. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  13. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  14. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  15. The bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides for biogas in an urbanized region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Ottoy, Sam; De Meyer, Annelies; Van Schaeybroeck, Tom; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart; Hermy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders. • An area of 31,055 ha produces 203 kton DM of herbaceous biomass annually. • The associated biomass supply chain was optimized with OPTIMASS in four scenarios. • The net energy balance of the studied systems was 7 GJ ha −1 in the 2020 scenarios. • We show that this biomass can play a role to meet the increased biomass demand in 2020. - Abstract: In many urbanized areas the roadside and nature conservation management offers a biomass-for-bioenergy resource potential which is barely valorized, because of the fragmented biomass production sites and the scarcity of accurate data on the spatial availability of the biomass. In this study, a GIS based assessment was performed to determine the regional non-woody biomass-for-bioenergy potential for biogas from conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders, Belgium. These systems, with an area of 31,055 ha, have an annual herbaceous biomass production of 203 kton dry matter. The full associated biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain was optimized in four scenarios to maximize the net energy output and the profit. The scenario analysis was performed with OPTIMASS, a recently developed GIS based strategic decision support system. The analysis showed that the energetic valorization of conservation and roadside biomass through anaerobic digestion had a positive net energy balance, although there is still much room for improvements. Economically, however, it is a less interesting biomass resource. Most likely, the economic picture would change when other ecosystem services delivered by the protected biodiversity would be taken into account. Future technical advances and governmental incentives, like green energy certificates, will be necessary to incorporate the biomass into the energy chain. By tackling the existing barriers and providing a detailed methodology for biomass potential assessments, this study tries to

  16. Changes in N-transforming archaea and bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejian Mao

    Full Text Available Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop, in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA not bacteria (AOB, indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community.

  17. Expanding Bioenergy in Europe: Analysing Interactions and Dysfunction between Policy and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, P.; McCormick, K. (International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden)). e-mail: philip.peck@iiiee.lu.se

    2008-10-15

    Despite apparently favourable conditions for investment in the bioenergy sector provided by sustained high oil prices and a multitude of policy support measures throughout the EU that are ostensibly intended to create improved economic conditions, many industrialists and investors are still apparently wary of engagement. National policy interventions intended to support and to expand the bioenergy industry are often uncertain and variable, and there have been many negative market experiences as a result of policy shifts. Moreover, there are cases where industry and/or finance sector actors appear to have invested unwisely within reigning economic and policy support regimes. As a first output of a body of broader research, this paper investigates and compares two cases of interactions and dysfunction between national policy interventions and industrial bio-energy strategies in Sweden and Germany. The paper tests a policy evaluation framework upon the two case studies in order to shed light on why problems have arisen and how similar problems might be avoided in the future. The framework tested here is to be further developed and applied to other analyses in the future

  18. The Implications of Growing Bioenergy Crops on Water Resources, Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Song, Y.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    What is the potential for the crops Corn, Miscanthus and switchgrass to meet future energy demands in the U.S.A., and would they mitigate climate change by offsetting fossil fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? The large-scale cultivation of these bioenergy crops itself could also drive climate change through changes in albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and GHG emissions. Whether these climate effects will mitigate or exacerbate climate change in the short- and long-term is uncertain. This uncertainty stems from our incomplete understanding of the effects of expanded bioenergy crop production on terrestrial water and energy balance, carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and their interactions. This study aims to understand the implications of growing large-scale bioenergy crops on water resources, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the United States using a data-modeling framework (ISAM) that we developed. Our study indicates that both Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass can attain high and stable yield over parts of the Midwest, however, this high production is attained at the cost of increased soil water loss as compared to current natural vegetation. Alamo switchgrass can attain high and stable yield in the southern US without significant influence on soil water quantity.

  19. Sustainable bioenergy production with little carbon debt in the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Zhifen; Liu, Yue; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As a key strategy for mitigating global climate change, bioenergy production by reducing CO2 emissions plays an important role in ensuring sustainable development. However, land-use change by converting natural ecosystems into energy crop field could create a carbon debt at the beginning. Thus, the potential carbon debt calculation is necessary for determining a promising bioenergy crop production, especially in the region rich of marginal land. Here, we used high-resolution historical land-use data to identify the marginal land available and to evaluate the carbon debt of planting Miscanthus in the Loess Plateau, China. We found that there were 27.6 Mha for energy production and 9.7 Mha for ecological restoration, with total annual production of 0.41 billion tons of biomass. We also found that soil carbon sequestration and total CO2 mitigation were 9.3 Mt C year(-1) and 542 Mt year(-1), respectively. More importantly, the result showed that planting Miscanthus on marginal land in the Loess Plateau only took 0.97 years on average to repay the carbon debt. Our study demonstrated that Miscanthus production in suitable marginal land in the Loess Plateau can offer considerable renewable energy and mitigate climate change with little carbon debt. These results suggested that bioenergy production in the similar arid and semiarid region worldwide would contribute to carbon sequestration in the context of rapid climate change.

  20. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  1. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  2. Performance and emissions of a spark-ignited engine driven generator on biomass based syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajay; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; To, Suminto D Filip; Columbus, Eugene P

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of biomass based energy warrants the evaluation of syngas from biomass gasification as a fuel for personal power systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the performance and exhaust emissions of a commercial 5.5 kW generator modified for operation with 100% syngas at different syngas flows and to compare the results with those obtained for gasoline operation at same electrical power. The maximum electrical power output for syngas operation was 1392 W and that for gasoline operation was 2451 W. However, the overall efficiency of the generator at maximum electrical power output for both the fuels were found to be the same. The concentrations of CO and NO(x) in the generator exhaust were lower for the syngas operation, respectively by 30-96% and 54-84% compared to the gasoline operation. However, the concentrations of CO(2) in the generator exhaust were significantly higher by 33-167% for the syngas operation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  4. Biomass-based negative emissions difficult to reconcile with planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Popp, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, 195 nations have committed to holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to strive to limit the increase to 1.5 °C (ref. 1). It is noted that this requires "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of the century"1. This either calls for zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or a balance between positive and negative emissions (NE)2,3. Roadmaps and socio-economic scenarios compatible with a 2 °C or 1.5 °C goal depend upon NE via bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) to balance remaining GHG emissions4-7. However, large-scale deployment of BECCS would imply significant impacts on many Earth system components besides atmospheric CO2 concentrations8,9. Here we explore the feasibility of NE via BECCS from dedicated plantations and potential trade-offs with planetary boundaries (PBs)10,11 for multiple socio-economic pathways. We show that while large-scale BECCS is intended to lower the pressure on the PB for climate change, it would most likely steer the Earth system closer to the PB for freshwater use and lead to further transgression of the PBs for land-system change, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows.

  5. Analysis of the Relative Sustainability of Land Devoted to Bioenergy: Comparing Land-Use Alternatives in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing land to meet various human needs, conducting assessments of different alternatives regarding their sustainability is critical. Among different alternatives of land-use, devoting land to bioenergy is relatively novel, in high demand, and important for addressing the energy crisis and mitigating carbon emissions. Furthermore, the competition and disputes among limited land-use for bioenergy and the combination of food production and housing are tense. Thus, which alternative of land-use is more sustainable is an important question, yet it is still under-investigated. The main purposes of this study are to investigate the merits and problems of land-use for bioenergy and to compare the relative sustainability of land-use for bioenergy, food production, and housing based on habitants’ perceptions. Multi-criteria analysis is applied to the case study in the context of China, evaluating multiple criteria in economic, environmental, and social dimensions. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive assessment of different scenarios of land-use designed to be implemented and some implications for optimum land-use policies.

  6. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  7. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  8. An introduction to BIOSSAM: the South African BIOenergy systems sustainability assessment and management portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global bioenergy industry is advancing rapidly. New technologies and potential feedstocks are being proposed that aim for bioenergy to contribute to a wider range of economic, social, and environmental objectives. However, these advancements all...

  9. A Brief Global Perspective on Biomass for Bioenergy and Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has a large energy potential. A comparison between the available potential with the current use shows that, on a worldwide level, about two-fifths of the existing biomass energy potential is used. In most areas of the world the current biomass use is clearly below the available potential. Only for Asia does the current use exceed the available potential, i.e. non-sustainable biomass use. Therefore, increased biomass use, e.g. for upgrading is possible in most countries. A possible alternative is to cover the future demand for renewable energy, by increased utilization of forest residues and residues from the wood processing industry, e.g. for production of densified biofuels (Parrika, 2004.If carried out on a large scale, the increased use of agricultural resources for energy will have the effect of raising the prices of most commodity crops and reducing the need for subsidies – with particular benefit for producers of commodity crops in developing countries. An aggressive program of bioenergy development could lead to reductions in government support to farmers without any loss of income. The long-term success of bio-based facilities and markets is dependent in part on the level of commitment of feedstock from forest landowners and farmers.  Forest, crop, and animal residues present considerable potential as a biomass feedstock.  They are renewable, sustainable, locally available, and often considered carbon-neutral when compared to fossil fuels (Hoogwijk, 2004; Mathews, 2008.

  10. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  11. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  12. Improving Bioenergy Crops through Dynamic Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Faraji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.

  13. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdonk, M.; Dieperink, C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  14. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M. [Department of Water and Energy, Grontmij Nederland BV, P.O. Box 203, 3730 AE, De Bilt (Netherlands); Dieperink, C. [Department of Innovation and Environmental Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  15. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residues of bioenergy production chains as soil amendments: Immediate and temporal phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gell, K.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Cayuela, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel,

  17. Numerical modeling of NOx reduction using pyrolysis products from biomass-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisupati, Sarma V.; Bhalla, Sumeet

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis products of biomass (bio-oils) have been shown to cause a reduction in NO x emissions when used as reburn fuel in combustion systems. When these bio-oils are processed with lime, calcium is ion-exchanged and the product is called BioLime TM . BioLime TM , when introduced into a combustion chamber, causes oils to pyrolyze and reduce NO x emissions through reburn mechanisms while simultaneously causing Ca to react with SO 2 . Thus NO x and SO 2 emissions are reduced at the same time. The devolatilization rates of two biomass-based materials were studied using TGA and were related to the yield of pyrolysis gases and char during flash pyrolysis. Numerical simulations using CHEMKIN to model NO reduction through homogeneous gas phase reactions were reported. The numerical predictions were then compared to NO x emission levels from experiments in a down-fired combustor (DFC) to validate the model. A difference in NO reduction was observed by use of different bio-oils under similar operating conditions. This is believed to be due to the difference in yield of flash pyrolysis products of bio-oils. Also, different pyrolysis gases have different NO x reduction potentials. Knowledge of the relative contribution of pyrolysis gases in NO reduction will help choose a feedstock of biomass that will aid in increasing the yield of the desired species. A parametric analysis was done using the model to study the effect of varying concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO 2 , CO, and H 2 , and the results were then verified using a flow reactor. The analysis showed that hydrocarbons were mainly responsible for causing reduction in emissions of NO, whereas CO 2 , CO, and H 2 have very little effect on NO reduction

  18. Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: A dynamic problem in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, S.; Lundgren, J.; Franklin, O.; Dotzauer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 EUR/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand. (author)

  19. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  20. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long

  1. A prospective study of bioenergy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (CIE-UNAM), Aptdo. Postal 34, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico); Masera, Omar [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (CIECO-UNAM), Antigua Carretera a Patzcuaro No. 8701, Morelia 58190, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Bioenergy is one of the renewable energy sources that can readily replace fossil fuels, while helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable rural development. This paper analyses the feasibility of future scenarios based on moderate and high use of biofuels in the transportation and electricity generation sectors with the aim of determining their possible impact on the Mexican energy system. Similarly, it evaluates the efficient use of biofuels in the residential sector, particularly in the rural sub-sector. In this context, three scenarios are built within a time frame that goes from 2005 to 2030. In the base scenario, fossil fuels are assumed as the dominant source of energy, whereas in the two alternative scenarios moderate and high biofuel penetration diffusion curves are constructed and discussed on the basis of their technical and economical feasibility. Simulation results indicate that the use of ethanol, biodiesel and electricity obtained from primary biomass may account for 16.17% of the total energy consumed in the high scenario for all selected sectors. CO{sub 2} emissions reduction - including the emissions saved from the reduction in the non-sustainable use of fuelwood in the rural residential sector - is equivalent to 87.44 million tons of CO{sub 2} and would account for 17.84% of the CO{sub 2} emitted by electricity supply and transportation sectors when the base case and the high scenario are compared by 2030. (author)

  2. A prospective study of bioenergy use in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Masera, Omar

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is one of the renewable energy sources that can readily replace fossil fuels, while helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable rural development. This paper analyses the feasibility of future scenarios based on moderate and high use of biofuels in the transportation and electricity generation sectors with the aim of determining their possible impact on the Mexican energy system. Similarly, it evaluates the efficient use of biofuels in the residential sector, particularly in the rural sub-sector. In this context, three scenarios are built within a time frame that goes from 2005 to 2030. In the base scenario, fossil fuels are assumed as the dominant source of energy, whereas in the two alternative scenarios moderate and high biofuel penetration diffusion curves are constructed and discussed on the basis of their technical and economical feasibility. Simulation results indicate that the use of ethanol, biodiesel and electricity obtained from primary biomass may account for 16.17% of the total energy consumed in the high scenario for all selected sectors. CO 2 emissions reduction-including the emissions saved from the reduction in the non-sustainable use of fuelwood in the rural residential sector-is equivalent to 87.44 million tons of CO 2 and would account for 17.84% of the CO 2 emitted by electricity supply and transportation sectors when the base case and the high scenario are compared by 2030

  3. Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Donald R.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Alric, Jean; Barkan, Alice; Blankenship, Robert E.; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta; Hanson, Maureen R.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Long, Stephen P.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moroney, James; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Prince, Roger C.; Redding, Kevin E.; Spalding, Martin H.; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Yeates, Todd O.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Zhu, Xin Guang

    2015-01-01

    The world’s crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production. PMID:26124102

  4. 10. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 10. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    Biomass energy not only contributes to the energy transition, but also for climate and resource protection. The main topics of the conference are: Alternative solid bioenergy sources; Optimizing the use of heat; Prospects for biofuels; Emission reduction through use of biofuels; Alternative biomass for biogas; Optimization and adjustment in the biogas sector; Flexibility of biogas plants; New uses of bioenergy. 12 contributions were recorded separately for the INIS database. [German] Energie aus Biomasse traegt nicht nur zur Energiewende bei, sondern auch zum Klima- und Ressourcenschutz. Die Schwerpunktthemen der Konferenz sind: Alternative feste Bioenergietraeger; Optimierung der Waermenutzung; Perspektiven fuer Biokraftstoffe; Emissionsminderung durch Biokraftstoffnutzung; Alternative Biomassen fuer Biogas; Optimierung und Anpassung im Biogasbereich; Flexibilisierung von Biogasanlagen; Neue Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten der Bioenergie. Fuer die Datenbank INIS wurden 12 Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  5. The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attenuation as a means of mitigating climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. < finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime. (author)

  6. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  7. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  8. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  9. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  10. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses.

  11. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  12. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  13. Mercury from bioenergy. Environmental problem or phobia?; Kwik uit bio-energie. Milieuprobleem of fobie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, W.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    An overview is given of the consequences of mercury emission from bioenergy projects, based on several environmental effect reports (so-called Mer or 'Milieueffectrapportages' in Dutch). It is concluded that in the Netherlands there is no atmospheric mercury problem. [Dutch] De gevolgen van de kwikemissies bij bioenergieprojecten worden beschreven op basis van diverse uitgevoerde Milieu-effectrapportages. Daarbij wordt ingegaan op de bezwaren ten aanzien van deze emissies die onder andere door milieugroepen worden ingebracht en de verpande emissie-eisen die vergunningverleners menen te moeten opleggen. De auteur beargumenteert dat er geen atmosferisch kwikprobleem is in Nederland en ten gevolge van de bio-energieprojecten ook niet is te verwachten. Alleen een Europese aanpak van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging is effectief. De Nederlandse kwikemissie is verhoudingsgewijs al zeer laag. Op basis hiervan zijn er volgens de auteur geen goede redenen om in Nederland strengere kwikeisen op te leggen dan elders in Europa.

  14. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  15. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  16. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  17. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  20. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  1. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences. (letter)

  2. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  3. Evolutionary algorithms approach for integrated bioenergy supply chains optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, Nasser; Elmoshi, Elsayed; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization model and solution approach for designing and evaluating integrated system of bioenergy production supply chains, SC, at the local level. Designing SC that simultaneously utilize a set of bio-resources together is a complicated task, considered here. The complication arises from the different nature and sources of bio-resources used in bioenergy production i.e., wet, dry or agriculture, industrial etc. Moreover, the different concerns that decision makers should take into account, to overcome the tradeoff anxieties of the socialists and investors, i.e., social, environmental and economical factors, was considered through the options of multi-criteria optimization. A first part of this research was introduced in earlier research work explaining the general Bioenergy Decision System gBEDS [Ayoub N, Martins R, Wang K, Seki H, Naka Y. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48:709-23]. In this paper, brief introduction and emphasize on gBEDS are given; the optimization model is presented and followed by a case study on designing a supply chain of nine bio-resources at Iida city in the middle part of Japan.

  4. Bioenergy production and food security in Africa | Ogbonna | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable, renewable and clean energy. In order to minimize possible negative effects of bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. Energy security cannot be separated from ...

  5. determination of bio-energy potential of palm kernel shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Keywords: palm kernel shell, bioenergy, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, gasification ... tain higher energy density fuels. Fast Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass for bio-char, bio- oil and combustible gas production in the absence of ... Calorific Value of Coal and Coke) was used for the.

  6. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  7. Sustainability of bioenergy chains: the result is in the details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use.

  8. Field windbreaks for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree windbreaks are a multi-benefit land use with the ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate for improved crop growth and sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. Agroforestry practices are also being considered for bioenergy production by direct combustion or produci...

  9. Carbon debt and carbon sequestration parity in forest bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Mitchell; M.E. Harmon; K.B. O' Connell

    2012-01-01

    The capacity for forests to aid in climate change mitigation efforts is substantial but will ultimately depend on their management. If forests remain unharvested, they can further mitigate the increases in atmospheric CO2 that result from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Alternatively, they can be harvested for bioenergy production and...

  10. Research on use of bioenergy; Bioenergian kaeyttoe. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helynen, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aims of Bioenergy Research Programme have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small scale combustion concepts but 3 - 4 large scale demonstration projects (0,2 - 0,3 million toe/year per utilization concept) before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. Ignition and explosion properties of wood and agro biomasses and biomass-coal mixtures are determined in atmospheric and pressurized conditions by VTT Energy with Spanish, French, Dutch and German partners in JOULE-project. Explosion suppression systems have also been tested successfully in pressurized conditions up to 10 bar with British partners. Feasibility of reed canary grass for chemical pulp and fuel is evaluated in a large FAIR project. VTT Energy is responsible for pelletising of fuel fraction, combustion of pellets, gasification and combustion of pulverized fuel fraction. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel material was concentrated on a heavy-duty two-rotor crusher and a crushing screen by BMH Wood Technology. Primary and secondary crushing are needed for optimum particle size distribution. The system will be demonstrated in Sweden. Dry gas-cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass gasification are developed by VTT Energy. Catalytic gas-cleaning methods are tested for engine applications in PDU-scale. Removal of trace metals, chlorine and other harmful contaminants of CFB gasification is studied with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers

  11. Global land and water grabbing for food and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing demand for food, fibers and biofuels, the consequently escalating prices of agricultural products, and the uncertainty of international food markets have recently drawn the attention of governments and corporations toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in developing countries. Since 2000 more than 37 million hectares of arable land have been purchased or leased by foreign investors worldwide. The targeted regions are typically located in areas where crop yields are relatively low because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale investments in agriculture and the consequent development of commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crop yield gaps. Recently, a number of studies and reports have documented the process of foreign land acquisition, while the associated appropriation of land based resources (e.g., water and crops) has remained poorly investigated. The amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still needs to be quantified. It is also unclear to what extent the acquired land will be used to for biofuel production and the role played by U.S. and E.U. bioenergy policies as drivers of the ongoing land rush. The environmental impacts of these investments in agriculture require adequate investigation. Here we provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of water and crop appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We evaluate the associated impacts on the food and energy security of both target and investors' countries, and highlight the societal and environmental implications of the land rush phenomenon.

  12. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  13. Does replacing coal with wood lower CO2 emissions? Dynamic lifecycle analysis of wood bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, John D.; Siegel, Lori; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.

    2018-01-01

    Bioenergy is booming as nations seek to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The European Union declared biofuels to be carbon-neutral, triggering a surge in wood use. But do biofuels actually reduce emissions? A molecule of CO2 emitted today has the same impact on radiative forcing whether it comes from coal or biomass. Biofuels can only reduce atmospheric CO2 over time through post-harvest increases in net primary production (NPP). The climate impact of biofuels therefore depends on CO2 emissions from combustion of biofuels versus fossil fuels, the fate of the harvested land and dynamics of NPP. Here we develop a model for dynamic bioenergy lifecycle analysis. The model tracks carbon stocks and fluxes among the atmosphere, biomass, and soils, is extensible to multiple land types and regions, and runs in ≈1s, enabling rapid, interactive policy design and sensitivity testing. We simulate substitution of wood for coal in power generation, estimating the parameters governing NPP and other fluxes using data for forests in the eastern US and using published estimates for supply chain emissions. Because combustion and processing efficiencies for wood are less than coal, the immediate impact of substituting wood for coal is an increase in atmospheric CO2 relative to coal. The payback time for this carbon debt ranges from 44-104 years after clearcut, depending on forest type—assuming the land remains forest. Surprisingly, replanting hardwood forests with fast-growing pine plantations raises the CO2 impact of wood because the equilibrium carbon density of plantations is lower than natural forests. Further, projected growth in wood harvest for bioenergy would increase atmospheric CO2 for at least a century because new carbon debt continuously exceeds NPP. Assuming biofuels are carbon neutral may worsen irreversible impacts of climate change before benefits accrue. Instead, explicit dynamic models should be used to assess the climate impacts of biofuels.

  14. Integrating fuel reduction management with local bioenergy operations and businesses: A community responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Kenneth; Van Demark, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In approximately 20,000 US wildfire 'at-risk' communities, private citizen awareness and involvement is essential for the effective integration of sustainable fuel reduction programs with the establishment of local biomass/woody materials businesses and bioenergy facilities. The factors that influence local community bioenergy and wood products economic development are mostly social, political, and financial not biological, ecological, or technological. It is the private sector that is the driving force for creating and influencing sustainable forest resources and broadening access to public lands. The many years of no-wood harvesting policies in the United States have caused excessive overgrowth and eliminated local forest products markets. Now with the severe overgrowth, drought and beetle-infested conditions in many Southwestern forests, actions are necessary to reduce fire hazards, improve public safety, and promote forest health. It is the local communities that must take an active role in creating bioenergy facilities and wood products markets to use these fuel reduction supplies. A case in point is Prescott, Arizona, which is enclosed in the south and west by the Bradshaw Mountains and Sierra Prieta range. In 1990, under companion resolution of the Mayor of the City of Prescott and the Yavapai County Supervisors, the Prescott Area Wildland/Urban Interface Commission (PAWUIC) was formed to address the continuing growth of urban population into the wildland areas surrounding the Prescott basin. This organization of private volunteers and cooperating government agencies has the objectives to provide community fire safety education, wildland/urban fire hazard removal, and to promote the local markets for materials harvested from the wildland areas. (author)

  15. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  16. Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Yu; Brummer, E Charles

    2012-11-01

    Genetic engineering offers the opportunity to generate unique genetic variation that is either absent in the sexually compatible gene pool or has very low heritability. The generation of transgenic plants, coupled with breeding, has led to the production of widely used transgenic cultivars in several major cash crops, such as maize, soybean, cotton and canola. The process for regulatory approval of genetically engineered crops is slow and subject to extensive political interference. The situation in forage grasses and legumes is more complicated. Most widely grown forage, turf and bioenergy species (e.g. tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, switchgrass, alfalfa, white clover) are highly self-incompatible and outcrossing. Compared with inbreeding species, they have a high potential to pass their genes to adjacent plants. A major biosafety concern in these species is pollen-mediated transgene flow. Because human consumption is indirect, risk assessment of transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy species has focused on their environmental or ecological impacts. Although significant progress has been made in genetic modification of these species, commercialization of transgenic cultivars is very limited because of the stringent and costly regulatory requirements. To date, the only transgenic forage crop deregulated in the US is 'Roundup Ready' (RR) alfalfa. The approval process for RR alfalfa was complicated, involving several rounds of regulation, deregulation and re-regulation. Nevertheless, commercialization of RR alfalfa is an important step forward in regulatory approval of a perennial outcrossing forage crop. As additional transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy crops are generated and tested, different strategies have been developed to meet regulatory requirements. Recent progress in risk assessment and deregulation of transgenic forage and turf species is summarized and discussed.

  17. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials-Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  18. Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade. Evaluating the impact of sustainability criteria and policy on past and future bioenergy supply and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Within a single decade, bioenergy has shifted from a largely local energy source with marginal trade volumes to a globally traded item. The primary objective of this thesis is to evaluate the links between national renewable energy support and trade policies and market forces on past global

  19. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  20. Bioenergy in Brazil and Europe: a comparative analysis; Bioenergia no Brasil e na Europa: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Nivalde Jose de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia], e-mail: nivalde@ie.ufrj.br; Dantas, Guilherme de Azevedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GESEL/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos do Setor Eletrico], e-mail: guilhermecrvg@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    A higher application of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to adequate the necessity of an expansion in the energy supply with the mitigation of global warming. The consumption of biofuel in the transport sector is the most usual and important use of biomass, however, bioenergy may also have a relevant contribution to the world electrical matrix. A comparative analysis shows that Brazil has consolidate the usage of biofuel while Europe is having problems to accomplish the biofuels levels established in the European Union guidelines. However, some european countries are developing their bioelectrical generation potential in a much more efficient way than Brazil. Therefore , brazilian policies to support bioelectricity should observe the successful instruments applied in Europe. (author)

  1. Snake oil, silver buckshot, and people who hate us: metaphors and conventional discourses of wood-based bioenergy in the rural southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; J. Peter  Brosius

    2016-01-01

    Multiple experiences and sources of information influence ideas about wood-based bioenergy, and people often use similar language to reference various discourses (e.g., energy independence, rural development, environmental sustainability). We collected data during ethnographic research in three primary and three secondary field sites in the southeastern...

  2. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  3. Sustainable energy equals freedoms and choice: bioenergy and biofuels als energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)

    2006-07-01

    We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)

  4. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P.

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of

  5. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review—Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2013-05-22

    The presentation provides an overview of the Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center). It summarizes the project history, timeline, budget, partners, objectives, goals, future plans and in closer detail reviews the used approaches and technical accomplishments. The main project goals were (1) developing strategies and tools that assist in the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy industries within ecologically-sensitive regions such as South Florida and, in particular, the greater Everglades, (2) using these bioenergy strategies and tools in evolving the existing agricultural, urban, and ecological sectors towards more sustainable structures and practices and (3) using bioenergy as a focal point in the larger effort to mitigate climate change and sea level rise, realities with particularly catastrophic consequences for South Florida. The project started on Oct 1, 2010 and ended on Feb 28, 2013. It yearly average budget was $369,770, with the Dept. of Energy annual cost share of $317,167. The main project partners were Hendry County, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Intelligentsia International, Inc., Edison State College and University of South Florida. Used approaches, main accomplishments and results in the categories of (1) technical research, (2) education and (3) business development are presented in detail. The project uniqueness is mainly related to the use of system approaches and integrating several systems analyses. Relevance of the project applicable to sustainability of bioenergy, food production, & restoration is explained, critical success factors are challenges are outlined and future work drafted. Finally, the main publications and presentations catalogue list is presented.

  6. Green supply chain management and environmental performance of firms in the bioenergy sector in Brazil: An exploratory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanelli, Nelson Oliveira; Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. In this context, the importance of green supply chain management (GSCM) increases because it can contribute to improving firms’ environmental performance (EP). However, little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production in Brazil). Thus, the objective of this work is to present the results of a survey conducted on 80 micro-, small-, and medium-sized firms that are suppliers in the Brazilian bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). These results indicate that GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature because it addresses the relationship between GSCM and EP in an understudied sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). - Highlights: • To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. • Little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector. • This research is based on an exploratory survey. • GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector

  7. Impact of bioenergy on regionalized nitrogen balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußermann, Uwe; Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin

    2017-04-01

    use a dataset which is kept and regularly updated by the Germany Federal Network Agency („Bundesnetzagentur") (Bundesnetzagentur 2016). These dataset does not include information about substrate input and therefore need to be intersect with regionalized substrate input data (DBFZ 2012), and to obtain nitrogen input quantities with the nitrogen content of these substrates (KTBL 2016). Without including bioenergy production, the linear trend of the net-N-surplus in 2003 to 2014 for Germany is -1.66x + 71.25 kg N (ha LF a)-1? , therefore, an overall decrease of the net-N-surplus of 18.3 kg N ha LF-1 within 11 years was calculated. No such decrease was calculated, when biogas production was included into the net-N-balance.

  8. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands. Update 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; De Wit, M.; Faaij, A.

    2006-09-01

    Short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 'Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand' are amongst other objectives to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands, and also sets the first step to make an inventory of barriers as perceived by various Dutch stakeholders. The information gathered in this report is to a large extent based on existing statistics and reports from Dutch institutions. The literature data is complemented by additional information obtained from stakeholders, such as utilities, biomass traders, the port of Rotterdam, policy makers and custom institutions. In some cases, the data source was left anonymous because of the confidential nature of the data concerned. This report was first published in 2005. In this updated 2006 version, additional data has been collected for the year 2005, mainly concerning the import of biomass and renewable electricity. Also the policy section has been updated (situation September 2006), and some information on the use of biofuels has been added.

  9. Chapter 10: Research and Deployment of Renewable Bioenergy Production from Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glasser, Melodie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress towards the implementation of renewable bioenergy production has included microalgae, which have potential to significantly contribute to a viable future bioeconomy. In a current challenging energy landscape, where an increased demand for renewable fuels is projected and accompanied by plummeting fossil fuels' prices, economical production of algae-based fuels becomes more challenging. However, in the context of mitigating carbon emissions with the potential of algae to assimilate large quantities of CO2, there is a route to drive carbon sequestration and utilization to support a sustainable and secure global energy future. This chapter places international energy policy in the context of the current and projected energy landscape. The contribution that algae can make, is summarized as both a conceptual contribution as well as an overview of the commercial infrastructure installed globally. Some of the major recent developments and crucial technology innovations are the results of global government support for the development of algae-based bioenergy, biofuels and bioproduct applications, which have been awarded as public private partnerships and are summarized in this chapter.

  10. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U.; Delavy, P.

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  11. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  12. Beetle-kill to carbon-negative bioenergy in the Rockies: stand, enterprise, and regional-scale perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Paustian, K.

    2016-12-01

    The interior mountain West is particularly vulnerable to climate change with potential impacts including drought and wildfire intensification, and wide-scale species disruptions due to shifts in habitable elevation ranges or other effects. One such example is the current outbreak of native mountain pine and spruce beetles across the Rockies, with warmer winters, dryer summers, and a legacy of logging and fire suppression all interacting to result in infestation and unprecedented tree mortality over more than 42 million acres. Current global climate change mitigation commitments imply that shifts to renewable energy must be supplemented with widespread deployment of carbon-negative technologies such as BECCS and biochar. Carefully-designed forest bioenergy and biochar industries can play an important role in meeting these targets, valorizing woody biomass and allowing more acres to be actively managed under existing land management goals while simultaneously displacing fossil energy use and directly sequestering carbon. In this work we assess the negative emissions potential from the deployment of biochar co-producing thermochemical bioenergy technologies in the Rockies using beetle-kill wood as a feedstock, a way of leveraging a climate change driven problem for climate mitigation. We start with a review and classification of bioenergy lifecycle assessment emission source categories, clarifying the differences in mechanism and confidence around emissions sources, offsets, sequestration, and leakage effects. Next we develop methods for modeling ecosystem carbon response to biomass removals at the stand scale, considering potential species shifts and regrowth rates under different harvest systems deployed in different areas. We then apply a lifecycle assessment framework to evaluate the performance of a set of real-world bioenergy technologies at enterprise scale, including biomass logistics and conversion product yields. We end with an exploration of regional

  13. Modelling sustainable bioenergy potentials from agriculture for Germany and Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Sonja; Wiegmann, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for analyzing the sustainable potential of agricultural biomass for energy production. Available land and residue potentials are assessed up to 2030 for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Two scenarios are presented: a ''business as usual'' scenario is compared to a sustainability scenario. The latter implements a comprehensive sustainability strategy, taking also into account non-agricultural land use such as building activity and nature conservation. On the one hand our model quantifies the conflict of objectives between enhanced extensification in agriculture and increased area for nature conservation. On the other hand the synergies in restricting built up area and increased mobilisation of agricultural residues are assessed. Additionally the impact of reduced subsidized agricultural exports from the EU is calculated, also as an indicator for the influence of world food markets on bioenergy potentials. Our results show that the sustainable energy potential from agricultural biomass is strongly restricted for Germany and the Czech Republic compared to their energy demand. But in Poland and Hungary native agricultural biomass provides a much higher potential for energy supply, even if sustainability is comprehensively considered. However, this is strongly influenced by the amount of agricultural exports of each country. For bioenergy from agricultural cultivation to remain a sustainable option in the energy sector, its influence on the food markets must be respected more thoroughly and a comprehensive approach to sustainable development in land use is a prerequisite. (author)

  14. Assessing the potential of bioenergy. Final report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, J.; Badin, J.

    1998-12-31

    As electricity restructuring proceeds, traditional concepts of how energy is produced, transported, and utilized are likely to change dramatically. Marketplace, policy, and regulatory changes will shape both the domestic and global energy industry, improving opportunities for clean, low-cost energy, competitively priced fuels, and environmentally responsible power systems. Many of these benefits may be obtained by commercial deployment of advanced biomass power conversion technologies. The United BioEnergy Commercialization Association represents the US biomass power industry. Its membership includes investor-owned and public utilities, independent power producers, state and regional bioenergy, equipment manufacturers, and biomass energy developers. To carry out its mission, UBECA has been carrying out the following activities: production of informational and educational materials on biomass energy and distribution of such materials at public forums; technical and market analyses of biomass energy fuels, conversion technologies, and market issues; monitoring of issues affecting the biomass energy community; and facilitating cooperation among members to leverage the funds available for biomass commercialization activities.

  15. Residential bioenergy heating: A study of consumer perceptions of improved woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyrud, Anders Q.; Roos, Anders; Sande, Jon Bingen

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' choices play a key role for the development of biomass heating in the residential sector. The city of Oslo has granted subsidies to households who change to new, improved low-emission woodstoves. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about users' experiences and attitudes to residential biomass heating. An adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to model households' inclination to continue using their woodstoves for heating. More than 800 questionnaires were collected from households that recently had invested in an improved woodstove. The respondents were satisfied with the new woodstoves. The respondents also considered themselves competent to use and maintain the stove and few had problems acquiring fuelwood. Further analyses showed that the intention to continue to use the new woodstove depends on economic benefits, heating performance, perceived time and effort to operate the stove, environmental effects of heating as well as perceived subjective norm. The results imply that when marketing a modern technology for bioenergy heating, both public authorities and producers should consider issues related to the users' perception of subjective norm, such as perceived status of using bioenergy or environmental concerns, when designing campaigns to promote the use of woodstoves

  16. Bioenergy Potential Based on Vinasse From Ethanol Industrial Waste to Green Energy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harihastuti, Nani; Marlena, Bekti

    2018-02-01

    The waste water from alcohol industry is called vinasse has a high organic content, with BOD5 = 109.038 mg / l, COD = 353.797 mg / l and TSS = 7200 mg / l, pH 4-5 with a temperature of around 40-50ºC. The current treatment of alcohol waste water, most still using facultative anaerobic technology with open ponds that are only covered with HDPE plastics. This technology produces less optimal biogas and has a weakness that is the hydraulic residence time (HRT) for long (40-50 days), wide land needs, low COD reduction efficiency as well as high risk of fire and leakage of biogas release high to trigger the occurrence of greenhouse gas and global warming effects. Development of technology with innovation reactor integration model Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic Filter aims to expand the contact area between the substrate and microbial with modification of the substrate flow system and the area of the filter and integrate with the gas accumulator. The design of this Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic filter integration model technology, has the advantage of producing optimal bioenergy with CH4 more than 50% content with decrease of COD more than 85% and hydraulic residence time of about 10 (ten) days, bioenergy result is renewable energy made from raw material vinasse from alcohol industrial waste which can be utilized for fuel substitution on the distillation process or boiler process of the industry in a sustainable and cleaner environment.

  17. Bioenergy Potential Based on Vinasse From Ethanol Industrial Waste to Green Energy Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harihastuti Nani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste water from alcohol industry is called vinasse has a high organic content, with BOD5 = 109.038 mg / l, COD = 353.797 mg / l and TSS = 7200 mg / l, pH 4-5 with a temperature of around 40-50ºC. The current treatment of alcohol waste water, most still using facultative anaerobic technology with open ponds that are only covered with HDPE plastics. This technology produces less optimal biogas and has a weakness that is the hydraulic residence time (HRT for long (40-50 days, wide land needs, low COD reduction efficiency as well as high risk of fire and leakage of biogas release high to trigger the occurrence of greenhouse gas and global warming effects. Development of technology with innovation reactor integration model Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic Filter aims to expand the contact area between the substrate and microbial with modification of the substrate flow system and the area of the filter and integrate with the gas accumulator. The design of this Fixed Dome-Hybrid Anaerobic filter integration model technology, has the advantage of producing optimal bioenergy with CH4 more than 50% content with decrease of COD more than 85% and hydraulic residence time of about 10 (ten days, bioenergy result is renewable energy made from raw material vinasse from alcohol industrial waste which can be utilized for fuel substitution on the distillation process or boiler process of the industry in a sustainable and cleaner environment.

  18. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  19. Interdependencies in the energy-bioenergy-food price systems: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d'Artis

    2011-01-01

    The present paper studies the interdependencies between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. We develop a vertically integrated multi-input, multi-output market model with two channels of price transmission: a direct biofuel channel and an indirect input channel. We test the theoretical hypothesis by applying time-series analytical mechanisms to nine major traded agricultural commodity prices, including corn, wheat, rice, sugar, soybeans, cotton, banana, sorghum and tea, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. The data consists of 783 weekly observations extending from January 1994 to December 2008. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that the prices for crude oil and agricultural commodities are interdependent including also commodities not directly used in bioenergy production: an increase in oil price by 1 $/barrel increases the agricultural commodity prices between 0.10 $/tonne and 1.80 $/tonne. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the indirect input channel of price transmission is found to be small and statistically insignificant. (author)

  20. MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812361The evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production demands to consider several characteristicsand properties that may be correlated. This fact demands the use of various multivariate analysis techniquesthat allow the evaluation of relevant energetic factors. This work aimed to apply cluster analysis and principalcomponents analyses for the selection and evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production.8 types of residual biomass were used, whose the elemental components (C, H, O, N, S content, lignin, totalextractives and ashes contents, basic density and higher and lower heating values were determined. Bothmultivariate techniques applied for evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic wastes were efficient andsimilarities were observed between the biomass groups formed by them. Through the interpretation of thefirst principal component obtained, it was possible to create a global development index for the evaluationof the viability of energetic uses of biomass. The interpretation of the second principal component alloweda contrast between nitrogen and sulfur contents with oxygen content.

  1. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect energy input of agricultural machinery in bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu J.; Ahokas, Jukka [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie) 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-01-15

    Sustainability of bioenergy products should be evaluated by means of an energy analysis that takes into account all relevant direct and indirect energy inputs. Direct energy input is viewed as the major energy consuming factor, and is quite easy to measure. Indirect energy input, however, has received relatively scant attention, so it is likely to be insufficiently analysed and possibly underestimated. This paper reviews the data available and suggests the type of research that would be needed to get a better understanding of the indirect energy input. The analysis addresses questions about the use of energy to produce and maintain agricultural machinery, the allocation of energy to different bioenergy products, and the real use and lifetime of machinery. (author)

  3. Bioenergy potentials from forestry to 2050. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, E.; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-05-01

    In this study a bottom-up scenario analysis of the global bioenergy production potential is carried out, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing outlook studies on demand and supply and gaps in the knowledge base that explain the large range in estimates. Key variables are the demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, plantation establishment rates and natural forest growth. Key uncertainties are the supply of wood from trees outside and the impact of sustainable forest management (SFM) of yields. Results show that the world is capable of meeting the future demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, without further deforestation. The total potential of bioenergy from surplus forest growth and residues is estimated at 27 to 140 EJy -1 in 2050

  4. Support and opportunity for lifelong learning in the field of bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaemsen, M.; Wihersaari, M.; Paeaellysaho, J. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland), Dept.of Biological and Environmental Sciences), e-mail: miia.jamsen@jyu.fi

    2010-07-01

    The expanding bioenergy sector requires well-educated professionals with specialised expertise. The objective of the Bioenergy Cluster of Central Finland Project (BEV-specialist) is to map the pathways, and identify the obstacles, of lifelong learning in the field of bioenergy. Learning is not only a question of desire or curiosity; it is also affected by one's standing in life as well as by different legislation, support mechanisms and limitations. These factors have an enormous impact on lifelong learning. Pathways of learning and their influential elements have been identified. Now is the time to pass the knowledge forward and start building bioenergy know-how within this framework. (orig.)

  5. Sustainability standards for bioenergy-A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Renate; Blasch, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market.

  6. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  7. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  8. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  9. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept; Die Rolle der Bioenergie in der Energiewende. Das ''Smart Bioenergy''-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thraen, Daniela [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie (BEN); DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2016-08-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  10. Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domac, J. [Energy Institute ' Hrvoje Pozar' , Zagreb (Croatia); Richards, K. [TV Energy Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom); Risovic, S. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2005-02-01

    Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, etc) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others. (Author)

  11. U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    challenges of biofuel production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs are providing the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use (see sidebar, Bridging the Gap from Fundamental Biology to Industrial Innovation for Bioenergy, p. 6). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations - the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast - with partners across the nation (see U.S. map, DOE Bioenergy Research Centers and Partners, on back cover). DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; and the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and bioinformatics, and engineering. Institutional partners include DOE national laboratories, universities, private companies, and nonprofit organizations.

  12. A systematic review of bioenergy life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Stefan; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted a systematic literature review of bioenergy LCAs. • We provide a detailed overview of GWP, AP, and EP for biomass electricity and heat. • We discuss methodological choices that can lead to variations in results. • Relevant choices are functional unit, allocation method, system boundary, and carbon modelling. - Abstract: On a global scale, bioenergy is highly relevant to renewable energy options. Unlike fossil fuels, bioenergy can be carbon neutral and plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass electricity and heat contribute 90% of total final biomass energy consumption, and many reviews of biofuel Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) have been published. However, only a small number of these reviews are concerned with electricity and heat generation from biomass, and these reviews focus on only a few impact categories. No review of biomass electricity and heat LCAs included a detailed quantitative assessment. The failure to consider heat generation, the insufficient consideration of impact categories, and the missing quantitative overview in bioenergy LCA reviews constitute research gaps. The primary goal of the present review was to give an overview of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. A systematic review was chosen as the research method to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. We conducted a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. There is a significant variability in results of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. Assumptions regarding the bioenergy system and methodological choices are likely reasons for extreme values. The secondary goal of this review is to discuss influencing methodological choices. No general consensus has been reached regarding the optimal functional unit, the ideal allocation of environmental impact between co-products, the definition of the system boundary

  13. The role of bioenergy in the energy transition. The ''Smart Bioenergy'' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraen, Daniela; DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig; Seitz, Stefanie B.; Wirkner, Ronny; Nelles, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The energy system's transformation away from fossil and therefore finite resources and ecological harmful use towards renewable energy sources and sustainable forms of usage proceeds. But even after 35 years, the German energy transition has yet not reached its ambitious goals. Moreover, in the recent years the progress has stagnated in certain areas. This is due to the fact that one of the central challenges of the energy system's changeover to an sole use renewable energy (RE) have not yet mastered: the reliable and stable delivery of RE for all energy dependent sectors starting form electricity via heat to mobility in the face of fluctuating energy sources like sun and wind. Bioenergy with its flexible use of innovative technologies and smart integration in the overall system is therefore vital to grant stability of energy supply. Furthermore, bioenergy can recourse on sustainable resources and may become therefore the backbone of the future bioeconomy. For this purpose an integrative approach is necessary that aligns the aforementioned building blocks in a cohesive whole: the Smart Bioenergy concept - that will be presented here with its elements but also open questions and challenges.

  14. Nonindustrial private forest owners' opinions to and awareness of energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification. Results of a case study from Finnish Karelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Mei, Qu; Pelkonen, Paavo [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). School of Forest Sciences; Weckroth, Timo

    2012-12-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners (NIPFs) in Finland are important stakeholders of forest management and roundwood supply decisions. Their role will also be significant to supply energy wood to meet Finland's target for renewable energy in the future. The main objectives of this study were to explore the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to the energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification issues in Finland and their relevance for future bioenergy policies. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among NIPFs in Finnish Karelia (N = 79). NIPFs considered price as the main deciding factor in harvesting and selling of energy wood. The present low price of energy wood compared to pulpwood did not motivate them to increase harvesting and selling of energy wood. The NIPFs appeared to be unaware of the forest-based bioenergy certification. However, they expected that such certification schemes would be easy to follow, develop energy wood market, and promote environmentally sound forest management practices in Finland. Private forest owners' associations and personal information letters emerged as the most favored means to disseminate information on forest-based bioenergy certification to the Finnish NIPFs. The study explored the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to energy wood market and forest based bioenergy certification from Finnish Karelia. The conclusions derived from the study might be highly policy-relevant concerning the development of energy wood market and related certification schemes. Future studies should include larger sample size for increasing the representativeness of the findings. (orig.)

  15. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  16. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  17. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  18. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Nausika; Plaza, Marta G.; Rubiera, Fernando; Pevida, Covadonga