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Sample records for biomass weight air

  1. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  2. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnley, E.

    2009-01-01

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  3. Biomass energy, air pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the negative effects on human health due to the use of biomass for energy. In addition to the emission of nitrogen oxides and of metals, these effects result largely from an incomplete combustion, generating various air pollutants: fine particles, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Four situations are discussed: indoor air pollution due to cooking in developing countries, residential wood combustion for heating, the use of biofuels, and waste incineration. In all cases, negative health effects have been demonstrated, but they can be prevented by appropriate strategies. (author)

  4. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the gasification of nickel-preloaded oil palm biomass as an alternative catalytic approach to produce clean syngas. To eliminate the use of catalyst support, nickel was added directly to the oil palm mesocarp fiber via ion-exchange using an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. Nickel species was found to disperse very well on the biomass at a nano-scale dispersion. The presence of the finely dispersed nickels on biomass enhanced syngas production and reduced tar content in the producer gas during the air gasification of biomass. It is believed that nickel particles attached on the biomass and its char promote the catalytic cracking of tar on their surface and supply free radicals to the gas phase to enhance the radical-driven gas-phase reactions for the reforming of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. The unconsumed nickel-containing char shows great potential to be re-utilised as a catalyst to further enhance the destruction of tar components in the secondary tar reduction process. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd September 2015; Revised: 10th January 2016; Accepted:16th January 2016 How to Cite: Syed-Hassan, S.S.A., Nor-Azemi, S. (2016. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 262-272 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272

  5. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  6. Catalytic tar removal from biomass producer gas with secondary air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Corella, J. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of air addition on biomass tar conversion in catalytic packed bed crackers was studied using both an isothermal micro reactor and a fluidised bed bench scale biomass gasification set up with down stream tar crackers. The micro reactor was applied for experiments with artificial biomass producer gas containing naphthalene as a model tar compound. Experiments were carried out with inert silica and catalytically active calcined dolomite bed material both with and without air addition. Experimental results with real tar from the fluidised bed bench scale gasification set up were in qualitative agreement with results from the micro reactor experiments. (author)

  7. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  8. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass- related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and ...

  9. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  10. Biomass gasification with preheated air: Energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarkovic Rade M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irreversibilities that occur during biomass gasification, gasifiers are usually the least efficient units in the systems for production of heat, electricity, or other biofuels. Internal thermal energy exchange is responsible for a part of these irreversibilities and can be reduced by the use of preheated air as a gasifying medium. The focus of the paper is biomass gasification in the whole range of gasification temperatures by the use of air preheated with product gas sensible heat. The energetic and exergetic analyses are carried with a typical ash-free biomass feed represented by CH1.4O0.59N0.0017 at 1 and 10 bar pressure. The tool for the analyses is already validated model extended with a heat exchanger model. For every 200 K of air preheating, the average decrease of the amount of air required for complete biomass gasification is 1.3% of the amount required for its stoichiometric combustion. The air preheated to the gasification temperature on the average increases the lower heating value of the product gas by 13.6%, as well as energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the process. The optimal air preheating temperature is the one that causes gasification to take place at the point where all carbon is consumed. It exists only if the amount of preheated air is less than the amount of air at ambient temperature required for complete gasification at a given pressure. Exergy losses in the heat exchanger, where the product gas preheats air could be reduced by two-stage preheating.

  11. Emission of toxic air pollutants from biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.; Rock, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Combustion of biomass for power generation, home heating, process steam generation, and waste disposal constitutes a major source of air pollutants nationwide. Emissions from hog-fueled boilers, demolition wood-fired power plants, municipal waste incinerators, woodstoves, fireplaces, pellet stoves, agricultural burning, and forestry burning have been characterized for a variety of purposes. These have included risk assessment, permitting, emission inventory development, source profiling for receptor modeling, and control technology evaluations. From the results of the source characterization studies a compilation of emission factors for criteria and non-criteria pollutants are presented here. Key among these pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, priority pollutant metals, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and PM 10 particles. The emission factors from the biomass combustion processes are compared and contrasted with other pollutant sources. In addition, sampling and analysis procedures most appropriate for characterizing emissions from the biomass combustion sources are also discussed

  12. Biomass burning aerosol detection over Buenos Aires City, August 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, L A; Ristori, P R; Pawelko, E E; Pallotta, J V; D'Elia, R L; Quel, E J

    2011-01-01

    At the end of August 2009, a biomass burning aerosol intrusion event was detected at the Laser and Applications Research Center, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET) (34.5 deg. S - 58.5 deg. W) at Villa Martelli, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This center has a sunphotometer from the AERONET-NASA global network, UV solar radiation sensors, a meteorological station and an aerosol lidar system. The aerosol origin was determined by means of back-trajectories and satellite images. This work studies the aerosol air mass optical characterization and their effect in UV solar radiation.

  13. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  14. Air-steam gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed: Process optimisation by enriched air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoy, Manuel; Gomez-Barea, Alberto; Vidal, Fernando B.; Ollero, Pedro [Bioenergy Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros (University of Seville), Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n. 41092 - Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The effect of oxygen concentration in the gasification agent was studied by enriched-air-steam biomass gasification tests in a bubbling fluidised-bed gasification (FBG) plant. The oxygen content in the enriched air was varied from 21% (v/v, i.e. air) to 40% (v/v), aiming at simulating FBG where enriched air is produced by membranes. The stoichiometric ratio (ratio of actual to stoichiometric oxygen flow rates) and steam-to-biomass ratio (ratio of steam to biomass, dry and ash-free, flow rates) were varied from 0.24 to 0.38 and from 0 to 0.63, respectively. The tests were conducted under simulated adiabatic and autothermal conditions, to reproduce the behaviour of larger industrial FBG. The temperature of the inlet gasification mixture was fixed consistently at 400 C for all tests, a value that can be achieved by energy recovery from the off-gas in large FBG without tar condensation. It was shown that the enrichment of air from 21 to 40% v/v made it possible to increase the gasification efficiency from 54% to 68% and the lower heating value of the gas from 5 to 9.3 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, while reaching a maximum carbon conversion of 97%. The best conditions were found at intermediate values of steam-to-biomass ratio, specifically within the range 0.25-0.35. The enriched-air-steam gasification concept explored in this work seems to be an interesting option for the improvement of standalone direct air-blown FBG because it considerably improves the process efficiency while maintaining the costs relatively low as compared to oxygen-steam gasification. (author)

  15. Contribution of biomass combustion to air pollutant emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Catia Vanessa Maio

    In Portugal, it was estimated that around 1.95 Mton/year of wood is used in residential wood burning for heating and cooking. Additionally, in the last decades, burnt forest area has also been increasing. These combustions result in high levels of toxic air pollutants and a large perturbation of atmospheric chemistry, interfere with climate and have adverse effects on health. Accurate quantification of the amounts of trace gases and particulate matter emitted from residential wood burning, agriculture and garden waste burning and forest fires on a regional and global basis is essential for various purposes, including: the investigation of several atmospheric processes, the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, and quantification of the air pollution sources that affect human health at regional scales. In Southern Europe, data on detailed emission factors from biomass burning are rather inexistent. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemical and climate change models use default values obtained for US and Northern Europe biofuels. Thus, it is desirable to use more specific locally available data. The objective of this study is to characterise and quantify the contribution of biomass combustion sources to atmospheric trace gases and aerosol concentrations more representative of the national reality. Laboratory (residential wood combustion) and field (agriculture/garden waste burning and experimental wildland fires) sampling experiments were carried out. In the laboratory, after the selection of the most representative wood species and combustion equipment in Portugal, a sampling program to determine gaseous and particulate matter emission rates was set up, including organic and inorganic aerosol composition. In the field, the smoke plumes from agriculture/garden waste and experimental wildland fires were sampled. The results of this study show that the combustion equipment and biofuel type used have an important role in the emission levels and

  16. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lei; G. Li; C. Wiedinmyer; R. J. Yokelson; L. T. Molina

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season,...

  17. BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. PLANTATIONS IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferrere

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the West of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina with the objective of adjusting functions of biomass of individual trees, in their different compartments and in the understorey. Stands of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. were identified, with ages between 4 and 14 years-old. Twenty-one individuals were felled with diameters ranging from 9,2 to 32,5 cm. Simple and multiple regression models were developed and volume, branch leaf and stem biomass were estimated. The best volume equations were based on lineal models and the most adequate behavior was obtained with d2. To estimate leaf, branch and stem, ln-ln models have been suggested, with diameter and h or only diameter. The leaf biomass presented the weakest adjustment. The distribution of trees biomass agrees with the bibliography. The proportion of crown biomass decreases with age; on the other hand, the proportion of stem biomass increases with age.

  18. Health and cost impact of air pollution from biomass burning over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Sadeghi, B.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Effective assessment of health and cost effects of air pollution associated with wildfire events is critical for supporting sustainable management and policy analysis to reduce environmental damages. Since biomass burning events result in higher ozone, PM2.5, and NOx concentration values in urban regions due to long-range transport, preliminary results indicated that wildfire events cause a considerable increase in incident estimates and costs. This study aims to evaluate the health and cost impact of biomass burning events over the continental United States using combined air quality and health impact modeling. To meet this goal, a comprehensive air quality modeling scenarios containing biomass burning emissions were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system from 2011 to 2014 with a spatial resolution of 12 km. The modeling period includes fire seasons between April and October over the course of four years. By using modeled pollutants concentrations, the USEPA's GIS-based computer program Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) provides an inclusive figure of health and cost impact caused by changing gaseous and particulate air pollution due to fire events. The basis of BenMAP-CE is the use of a damage-function approach to estimate the health impact of an applied change in air quality by comparing a biomass burning scenario (the one that includes wildfire events) with a baseline scenario (without biomass emissions). This approach considers several factors containing population, exposure to the pollutants, adverse health effects of a particular pollutant, and economic costs. Hence, this study made it capable of showing how biomass burning across U.S. influences people's health in different months, seasons, and regions. Besides, the cost impact of the wildfire events during study periods has also been estimated at both national and regional levels. The results of this study demonstrate the

  19. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO 2 ) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 10 15 g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 10 12 g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  20. Soil and air temperature and biomass after residue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; J.D. Helvey

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature at 0.5 m and soil temperature at 0.01 m were measured during May and early June after forest harvest on four residue treatment sites and a control. Broadcast burning or burning in piles increased daily accumulation of heat in air while scattered chips and scarified and cleared treatments were equal to the control (broadcast, untreated slash). During mid...

  1. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to bio- mass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of ...

  2. Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass constitutes the energetic form more important and of greater potential after solar energy (source of origin), being consumed in direct form through the combustion, or indirectly through the fossil fuels (those which originates) or by means of different technical of thermochemical and of biochemistry for its conversion and utilization. The current document describes the origin and the energetic characteristics of biomass, its energetic and environmental importance for a developing Country as Colombia, its possibilities of production and the technologies developed for its utilization and transformation, mainly, of the residual biomass

  3. Assessment of the emissions and air quality impacts of biomass and biogas use in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Williams, Robert; Dabdub, Donald

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that there is sufficient in-state "technically" recoverable biomass to support nearly 4000 MW of bioelectricity generation capacity. This study assesses the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants and resulting air quality impacts of new and existing bioenergy capacity throughout the state of California, focusing on feedstocks and advanced technologies utilizing biomass resources predominant in each region. The options for bioresources include the production of bioelectricity and renewable natural gas (NG). Emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases are quantified for a set of scenarios that span the emission factors for power generation and the use of renewable natural gas for vehicle fueling. Emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict regional and statewide temporal air quality impacts from the biopower scenarios. With current technology and at the emission levels of current installations, maximum bioelectricity production could increase nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 10% in 2020, which would cause increases in ozone and particulate matter concentrations in large areas of California. Technology upgrades would achieve the lowest criteria pollutant emissions. Conversion of biomass to compressed NG (CNG) for vehicles would achieve comparable emission reductions of criteria pollutants and minimize emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Air quality modeling of biomass scenarios suggest that applying technological changes and emission controls would minimize the air quality impacts of bioelectricity generation. And a shift from bioelectricity production to CNG production for vehicles would reduce air quality impacts further. From a co-benefits standpoint, CNG production for vehicles appears to provide the best benefits in terms of GHG emissions and air quality. This investigation provides a consistent analysis of air quality impacts and greenhouse gas emissions for scenarios examining

  4. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the central Mexican Plateau [Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; D. R. Blake; L. K. Emmons; T. L. Campos; E. C. Apel; A. D. Clarke; A. J. Weinheimer; D. C. McCabe; R. J. Yokelson; J. L. Jimenez; P. O. Wennberg

    2009-01-01

    Observations during the 2006 dry season of highly elevated concentrations of cyanides in the atmosphere above Mexico City (MC) and the surrounding plains, demonstrate that biomass burning (BB) significantly impacted air quality in the region. We find that during the period of our measurements, fires contribute more than half of the organic aerosol mass and submicron...

  5. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; D. R. Blake; L. K. Emmons; T. L. Campos; E. C. Apel; A. D. Clarke; A. J. Weinheimer; D. C. McCabe; R. J. Yokelson; J. L. Jimenez; P. O. Wennberg

    2009-01-01

    Observations during the 2006 dry season of highly elevated concentrations of cyanides in the atmosphere above Mexico City (MC) and the surrounding plains demonstrate that biomass burning (BB) significantly impacted air quality in the region. We find that during the period of our measurements, fires contribute more than half of the organic aerosol mass and submicron...

  6. Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: the separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M B; Bates, M N; Arora, N K; Balakrishnan, K; Jack, D W; Smith, K R

    2013-08-01

    We examined the impact of maternal use of different household cooking fuels in India on low birth weight (LBWfuels for cooking - biomass, coal, and kerosene - using low-pollution fuels (gas and biogas) as the comparison "control" group. Taking socioeconomic and child-specific factors into account, we employed logistic regression to examine the impact of fuel use on fetal and infant health. The results indicate that household use of high-pollution fuels is significantly associated with increased odds of LBW and neonatal death. Compared to households using cleaner fuels (in which the mean birth weight is 2901g), the primary use of coal, kerosene, and biomass fuels is associated with significant decreases in mean birth weight (of -110g for coal, -107g for kerosene, and -78g for biomass). Kerosene and biomass fuel use are also associated with increased risk of LBW (pfuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of anaerobic biomass drying and exposure to air on their recovery and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Nedal; Brenner, Asher; Sheindorf, Chaim; Sabbah, Isam

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to test the effect of various drying methods of granular anaerobic biomass on biomass survival, potential and rate of methane re-production, and structure. This may facilitate the development of drying methods to preserve excess anaerobic biomass in dry form for re-inoculation of existing digesters after process failure or wash out or for the start-up of new digesters. To that end, anaerobic granular biomass was collected from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The biomass was dried using two alternative methods: oven with air circulation at 50 °C for 24 h (DAO), and vacuum rotary evaporator at anaerobic conditions (DAN). For comparison, the control was a biomass with no drying (WET). Biomass samples were tested for specific methanogenic activity using synthetic wastewater. The microbial communities were also tested for viability using the LIVE/DEAD kit, and total biomass was initially quantified by qPCR targeting 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the mcrA functional gene was used s a target for the detection of the most abundant methanogens. Basic bacterial morphology classification was done by VIT(®) gene probe technology using a fluorescence microscope. Dried DAN and DAO biomasses required approximately four operational runs to recover their initial methanogenic activity compared to WET biomass. LIVE/DEAD results showed clear increases in the proportions of the viable biomass of the total bacterial communities over time, especially for the DAN and DAO samples. A comparison of the qPCR results of both DAN and DAO to the WET biomass showed that the methanogenic mcrA gene fraction of the total biomass population of 16S rRNA gene concentrations decreased moderately by about 17.2% in the samples of DAO and by approximately 6.7% in the samples of DAN over all runs after Run1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Air Quality and Acute Respiratory Illness in Biomass Fuel using homes in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didn’t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.

  9. [Fungal biomass estimation in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using calcofluor white stain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María B; Amodeo, Martín R; Bianchinotti, María V

    Soil microorganisms are vital for ecosystem functioning because of the role they play in soil nutrient cycling. Agricultural practices and the intensification of land use have a negative effect on microbial activities and fungal biomass has been widely used as an indicator of soil health. The aim of this study was to analyze fungal biomass in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province using direct fluorescent staining and to contribute to its use as an indicator of environmental changes in the ecosystem as well as to define its sensitivity to weather conditions. Soil samples were collected during two consecutive years. Soil smears were prepared and stained with two different concentrations of calcofluor, and the fungal biomass was estimated under an epifluorescence microscope. Soil fungal biomass varied between 2.23 and 26.89μg fungal C/g soil, being these values in the range expected for the studied soil type. The fungal biomass was positively related to temperature and precipitations. The methodology used was reliable, standardized and sensitive to weather conditions. The results of this study contribute information to evaluate fungal biomass in different soil types and support its use as an indicator of soil health for analyzing the impact of different agricultural practices. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomass Burning Related Pollutions and Their Contributions to the Local Air Quality in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. L.; Qin, K.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data. From the model simulation results, we estimated that biomass burning contributes 12 % of total black carbon and 16 % of atmospheric CO in Hong Kong on annual average. South East Asia shows the largest influence to the black carbon and CO levels in Hong Kong, accounts for 11 % of the total atmospheric black carbon and 8 % of CO. Biomass burning in North East Asia and Africa also show significant impacts to Hong Kong. Elevated levels of atmospheric black carbon aerosols and CO were observed during springtime (March and April) which is mainly due to the enhancement of biomass burning contributions. Black carbon and CO originating from biomass burning sources are estimated to contribute 40 % of atmospheric black carbon and 28 % of CO in Hong Kong during March 2014. An investigation focusing on the biomass burning pollution episode during springtime suggests the intensified biomass burning activities in the Indochinese Peninsula are the major sources of black carbon and CO in Hong Kong during the time.

  11. BIOMASS BURNING RELATED POLLUTIONS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LOCAL AIR QUALITY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO. The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data. From the model simulation results, we estimated that biomass burning contributes 12 % of total black carbon and 16 % of atmospheric CO in Hong Kong on annual average. South East Asia shows the largest influence to the black carbon and CO levels in Hong Kong, accounts for 11 % of the total atmospheric black carbon and 8 % of CO. Biomass burning in North East Asia and Africa also show significant impacts to Hong Kong. Elevated levels of atmospheric black carbon aerosols and CO were observed during springtime (March and April which is mainly due to the enhancement of biomass burning contributions. Black carbon and CO originating from biomass burning sources are estimated to contribute 40 % of atmospheric black carbon and 28 % of CO in Hong Kong during March 2014. An investigation focusing on the biomass burning pollution episode during springtime suggests the intensified biomass burning activities in the Indochinese Peninsula are the major sources of black carbon and CO in Hong Kong during the time.

  12. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM 2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM 2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM 2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  13. Outdoor air pollution and term low birth weight in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in geographically distinct areas and suffer from lack of important potential covariates. We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on term low birth weight (LBW) using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2001. We restricted participants to term singletons (n=44,109). Air pollution concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and were assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. We found that air pollution exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of term LBW. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following one interquartile range increase in each pollutant were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.19) for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 1.11 (0.99, 1.26) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.71 (1.18, 2.46) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). Specifically, effect estimates for SPM and NO2 exposure at the first trimester were higher than those at other trimesters, while SO2 was associated with the risk at all trimesters. Nonsmoking mothers were more susceptible to SPM and NO2 exposure compared with smoking mothers. Ambient air pollution increases the risk of term LBW in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-combustion of low rank coal/waste biomass blends using dry air or oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass species such as the rice husk and the olive milling residue, and a low quality Turkish coal, Soma Denis lignite, were burned in a thermal analyzer under pure oxygen and dry air up to 900 °C, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis profiles were obtained. Co-combustion experiments of lignite/biomass blends containing 5–20 wt% of biomass were also performed. The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio of biomass were evaluated considering some thermal reactivity indicators such as the maximum burning rate and its temperature, the maximum heat flow temperature, and the burnout levels. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to characterize the samples, and the variations in the combustion characteristics of the samples were interpreted based on the differences in the intrinsic properties of the samples. - Highlights: ► Co-combustion of lignite/biomass blends. ► The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio. ► Effects of intrinsic properties on combustion characteristics.

  16. Weight equations for determining biomass fractions of young hardwoods from natural regenerated stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsmo, H. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research

    1995-12-31

    This study gives an account of dry weight equations in biomass fractions of seven hardwoods from 90 plots in a hemiboreal forest zone in southeast Norway. The following species were investigated: goat willow (Salix caprea L.), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), aspen (Populus tremula L.), and european ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Sample trees were collected in stands -pure in species- from abandoned land, forest sites, and brook valleys below maximum shoreline height since the last glaciation (marine limit). The highest predictive equations appeared to be natural logarithms with base e. The equations have been generated from three models depending on their ability to explain the whole variation in the regression. In most cases over 80% of the variation in the dependent variables can be explained by the independent variables in the linear model. For various biomass fractions, the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) decreases in this order of rank: dry weight of stem wood including bark, branch wood including bark, and foliage. Analyses of regression coefficients showed highly significant differences between most of the hardwoods with regard to tree components. However, no difference was found between goat willow and grey alder for branch wood including bark. For these species, there was no statistical difference in the intercept at the 5% significant level. Percentage bias increased from stem wood including bark (1.47%) to foliage (32.71%). Types of equations and selection of parameters in the regressions are discussed. 79 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Impacts of Particulate Pollution from Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burnings on the Air Quality and Human Health in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Iraqui, O.; Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia have attracted the attention of governments and the general public in recent years, due to their impact on local economies, air quality and public health. Widespread biomass burning activities are a major source of severe haze events in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning also play an important role in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. These pollutants can be locally produced or brought in from neighboring regions by long-range transport. A better understanding of the respective contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality degradation becomes an urgent task in forming effective air pollution mitigation policies in Southeast Asia. In this study, to examine and quantify the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality and visibility degradation over Southeast Asia, we conducted three numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem). These simulations were driven by different aerosol emissions from: (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. By comparing the simulation results, we examined the corresponding impacts of fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, separately and combined, on the air quality and visibility of the region. The results also showed that the major contributors to low visibility days (LVDs) among 50 ASEAN cities are fossil fuel burning aerosols (59%), while biomass burning aerosols provided an additional 13% of LVDs in Southeast Asia. In addition, the number of premature mortalities among ASEAN cities has increased from 4110 in 2002 to 6540 in 2008, caused primarily by fossil fuel burning aerosols. This study suggests that reductions in both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions are necessary to improve the air quality in Southeast Asia.

  18. Experimental study of cyclone pyrolysis - Suspended combustion air gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijun; Feng, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhibo; Sun, Shaozeng; Zhou, Xinwei; Luan, Jiyi; Wu, Jiangquan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the original biomass cyclone gasifier, the cyclone pyrolysis-suspension combustion gasification technology was constituted with a bottom wind ring to build the biochar suspension combustion zone. This technology decouples the biomass pyrolysis, gasification (reduction reaction) and combustion (oxidation reaction) within the same device. With the feed amount and total air fixed, the effect of air rate arrangement on temperature distribution of the gasifier, syngas components and gasification parameters was studied. With the secondary air rate (0.20) and bottom air rate (0.50), the gasification efficiency was best, with gas heating value of 5.15MJ/Nm 3 , carbon conversion rate of 71.50%, gasification efficiency of 50.80% and syngas yield of 1.29Nm 3 /kg. The device with biochar for the tar catalytic cracking was installed at the gasifier outlet, effectively reducing the tar content in syngas, with a minimum value of 1.02g/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Performance of different dolomites on hot raw gas cleaning from biomass gasification with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orio, A.; Corella, J.; Narvaez, I. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Calcined dolomites (CaO-MgO) from four different quarries have been tested for the upgrading of the hot raw gas from a fluidized bed gasifier of biomass with air. These calcined dolomites have big macropores (900--4,000 {angstrom}) and low (3.8--12 m{sup 2}/g) BET surface areas. They have been tested in a fixed bed of 6 cm i.d. downstream from the air-blown biomass gasifier. The change in gas composition (contents in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, {hor_ellipsis}), tar content, gas heating value, etc., has been studied in different temperatures (780--920 C) as well as space-times for the gas in the bed (0.03--0.10 kg{center_dot}h/m{sup 3}) and the type of dolomite. Increasing the equivalence ratio used in the gasifier and decreasing the H/C ratio of the gas increases the refractoriness of the tars to be eliminated by the calcined dolomite. Activation energies (100 {+-} 20 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors for the overall tar elimination reaction have been calculated for the different dolomites under realistic conditions. The activity of the dolomite for tar elimination can increase by 20% on increasing its pore diameter or its Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. Comparison of results with similar ones obtained in biomass gasification with steam is also presented.

  1. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Wang, Ying; Moore, Meagan J K; Gaston, Cassandra J; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-07-16

    Intense wildfires burning >360000 acres in San Diego during October, 2007 provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of wildfires on local air quality and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) aging. The size-resolved mixing state of individual particles was measured in real-time with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for 10 days after the fires commenced. Particle concentrations were high county-wide due to the wildfires; 84% of 120-400 nm particles by number were identified as BBA, with particles wildfires, ammonium nitrate and amines after an increase of relative humidity, and sulfate dominated when the air mass back trajectories passed through the Los Angeles port region. Understanding BBA aging processes and quantifying the size-resolved mass and number concentrations are important in determining the overall impact of wildfires on air quality, health, and climate.

  2. Impact of smoke from biomass burning on air quality in rural communities in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Fabienne; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); McCaw, Lachie; Powell, Jennifer C.; Tolhurst, Kevin; Keywood, Melita D.; Gras, John L.

    2011-08-01

    In rural towns of southern Australia, smoke from biomass burning such as prescribed burning of forests, wildfires and stubble burning is often claimed to be the major source of air pollution. To investigate the validity of this claim, ambient measurements of PM 2.5 and ozone were made in two rural locations in southern Australia between 2006 and 2008. In order to distinguish PM 2.5 associated with smoke from other sources of particulate pollution, PM 2.5 samples were analysed for specific smoke tracers, levoglucosan, non sea-salt potassium (nssK +) and oxalate. Monitoring was also undertaken in four homes to determine the extent to which ambient pollutants from prescribed burning penetrate indoors into houses. Monitoring clearly showed that, on occasions, air quality in rural areas is significantly affected by smoke from biomass combustion with PM 2.5 showing the greatest impact. Concentrations of PM 2.5 increased significantly above background levels at both sites during periods of wildfire and prescribed fire leading to exceedences of the 24-h PM 2.5 Air National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) Advisory standard. The 1-h and 4-h ozone NEPM standards were exceeded only during protracted forest wildfires. The impact of prescribed burning on the indoor air quality of residences depended on the duration of the smoke event and the ventilation rate of the houses. During short-duration events indoor air quality was determined by household activities. During events that persisted for several days, indoor air quality was determined by external conditions coupled with management of household ventilation rate.

  3. Measurements of CO in an aircraft experiment and their correlation with biomass burning and air mass origin in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boian, C.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements are obtained in an aircraft experiment during 1-7 September 2000, conducted over Central Brazil in a special region of anticyclonic circulation. This is a typical transport regime during the dry season (July-September), when intense biomass burning occurs, and which gives origin to the transport of burning poluents from the source to distant regions. This aircraft experiment included in situ measurements of CO concentrations in three different scenarios: (1) areas of fresh biomass burning air masses, or source areas; (2) areas of aged biomass burning air masses; and (3) areas of clean air or pristine air masses. The largest CO concentrations were of the order of 450 ppbv in the source region near Conceicao do Araguaia (PA), and the smallest value near 100 ppbv, was found in pristine air masses, for example, near the northeast coastline (clean air, or background region). The observed concentrations were compared to the number of fire pixels seen by the AVHRR satellite instrument. Backward isentropic trajectories were used to determine the origin of the air masses at each sampling point. From the association of the observed CO mixing ratios, fire pixels and air mass trajectories, the previous scenarios may be subdivided as follows: (1a) source regions of biomass burning with large CO concentrations; (1b) regions with few local fire pixels and absence of contributions by transport. Areas with these characteristics include the northeast region of Brazil; (1c) regions close to the source region and strongly affected by transport (region of Para and Amazonas); (2) regions that have a consistent convergence of air masses, that have traveled over biomass burning areas during a few days (western part of the Cerrado region); (3a) Pristine air masses with origin from the ocean; (3b) regions with convergent transport that has passed over areas of no biomass burning, such as frontal weather systems in the southern regions.

  4. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  5. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  6. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author).

  7. Fusion of pan-tropical biomass maps using weighted averaging and regional calibration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Y.; Avitabile, V.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Wang, J.; Herold, M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is a key environmental variable that influences many biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Recently, a number of biomass maps at national, regional and global scales have been produced using different approaches with a variety of input data, such as from field observations, remotely sensed

  8. Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Meena; Rizwan, Suliankatchi Abdulkader; Krishnan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass cooking fuel use is an important risk factor for a range of diseases, especially among adult women who are primary cooks, in India. About 80% of rural households in India use biomass fuel for cooking. The aim of this study is to estimate the attributable cases (AC) for four major diseases/conditions associated with biomass cooking fuel use among adult Indian women. Methods We used the population attributable fraction (PAF) method to calculate the AC of chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis (TB), cataract, and stillbirths due to exposure to biomass cooking fuel. A number of data sources were accessed to obtain population totals and disease prevalence rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) for strength of association. Using this, PAF and AC were calculated using a standard formula. Results were presented as number of AC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The fixed effects pooled OR obtained from the meta-analysis were 2.37 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.54) for chronic bronchitis, 2.33 (1.65, 3.28) for TB, 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) for cataract, and 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for stillbirths. PAF varied across conditions being maximum (53%) for chronic bronchitis in rural areas and least (1%) for cataract in older age and urban areas. About 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.1) of 5.6 m cases of chronic bronchitis, 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) of 0.76 m cases of TB, 5.0 (2.8, 6.7) of 51.4 m cases of cataract among adult Indian women and 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) of 0.15 m stillbirths across India are attributable to HAP due to biomass cooking fuel. These estimates should be cautiously interpreted in the light of limitations discussed which relate to exposure assessment, exposure characterization, and age-specific prevalence of disease. Conclusions HAP due to biomass fuel has diverse and major impacts on women’s health in India. Although challenging, incorporating the agenda of universal clean fuel access or cleaner technology within

  9. Single-particle characterization of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA: evidence for non-uniform mixing of high molecular weight organics and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA can be emitted from natural forest fires and human activities such as agricultural burning and domestic energy generation. BBOA is strongly associated with atmospheric brown carbon (BrC that absorbs near-ultraviolet and visible light, resulting in significant impacts on regional visibility degradation and radiative forcing. The mixing state of BBOA can play a critical role in the prediction of aerosol optical properties. In this work, single-particle measurements from a Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-SP-AMS were performed to examine the mixing state of BBOA, refractory black carbon (rBC, and potassium (K, a tracer for biomass burning aerosol in an air mass influenced by wildfire emissions transported from northern Québec to Toronto, representing aged biomass burning plumes. Cluster analysis of single-particle measurements identified five BBOA-related particle types. rBC accounted for 3–14 wt % of these particle types on average. Only one particle type exhibited a strong ion signal for K+, with mass spectra characterized by low molecular weight organic species. The remaining four particle types were classified based on the apparent molecular weight of the BBOA constituents. Two particle types were associated with low potassium content and significant amounts of high molecular weight (HMW organic compounds. Our observations indicate non-uniform mixing of particles within a biomass burning plume in terms of molecular weight and illustrate that HMW BBOA can be a key contributor to low-volatility BrC observed in BBOA particles. The average mass absorption efficiency of low-volatility BBOA is about 0.8–1.1 m2 g−1 based on a theoretical closure calculation. Our estimates indicate that low-volatility BBOA contributes ∼ 33–44 % of thermo-processed particle absorption at 405 nm; and almost all of the BBOA absorption was associated with low

  10. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  11. Air pollution and the birth weight - are they correlated?

    OpenAIRE

    Zisovska, Elizabeta; Lazarevska, Liljana; Arsenova, Jagoda

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution has harmful effects to fetuses. Pregnant women have to be protected from a dirty air environment and smoking. The birthweight is a determinant of neonatal well being, and recently published studies potentiated air pollution as a potential factor for low birthweight, and that was investigated in our study. The results showed more Small-for-gestational age babies in the central city district (highly polluted) compared to the eastern rural area, and because we exclu...

  12. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB, which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC. The effects of equivalence ratio (1.6<Φ<6.4 and steam-to-fuel ratio (0.4

  13. Experimental study of biomass gasification with oxygen-enriched air in fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingqin; Huang, Yaji; Cao, Jianhua; Liu, Changqi; Dong, Lu; Xu, Ligang; Zha, Jianrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the universality, renewability and cleanness of biomass, an experimental research is carried out using rice straw in a two-stage fluidized bed. The experimental analysis identified the relevant parameters in the operation of the two-stage fluidized bed to investigate the properties of biomass enriched air gasification. Results show that higher gasification temperature is conducive to enhance the gasification performance. An increasing ER is shown to go against adding gas heat value. When oxygen concentration increases from 21% to 45%, the gas heating value increases from 4.00MJ/kg to 5.24MJ/kg and the gasification efficiency increases from 29.60% to 33.59%, which shows higher oxygen concentration is conducive to higher quality gas and higher gasification efficiency. A secondary oxygen injection leads to reduction of tar concentration from 15.78g/Nm 3 to 10.24g/Nm 3 . The optimal secondary oxygen ratio is about 33.00%. When the secondary oxygen ratio increased to 46.86%, monocyclic aromatics reduced from 28.17% to 19.65% and PAHs increased from 34.97% to 44.05%, leading to the increase aromatization of tar. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Concept, Design and Performance of a Novel Rotary Kiln Type Air-Staged Biomass Gasifier

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    Huiyuan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tar formation is the main bottleneck for biomass gasification technology. A novel rotary kiln type biomass gasification process was proposed. The concept design was based on air staging and process separation. This concept was demonstrated on a pilot scale rotary kiln reactor under ambient pressure and autothermic conditions. The pilot scale gasifier was divided into three different reaction regions, which were oxidative degradation, partial oxidation and char gasification. A series of tests was conducted to investigate the effect of key parameters. The results indicate that under optimum operating conditions, a fuel gas with high heat value of about 5500 kJ/Nm3 and gas production rate of 2.32 Nm3/kg could be produced. Tar concentration in the fuel gas could be reduced to 108 mg/Nm3 (at the gasifier outlet and 38 mg/Nm3 (after gas conditioning. The cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion rate reached 75% and 78%, respectively. The performance of this gasification system shows considerable potential for implementation in distributed electricity and heat supply projects.

  15. When smoke comes to town - effects of biomass burning smoke on air quality down under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keywood, Melita; Cope, Martin; (C. P) Meyer, Mick; Iinuma, Yoshi; Emmerson, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Annually, biomass burning results in the emission of quantities of trace gases and aerosol to the atmosphere. Biomass burning emissions have a significant effect on atmospheric chemistry due to the presence of reactive species. Biomass burning aerosols influence the radiative balance of the earth-atmosphere system directly through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and indirectly through their influence on cloud microphysical processes, and therefore constitute an important forcing in climate models. They also reduce visibility, influence atmospheric photochemistry and can be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lungs, so that they can have a significant effect on human health. Australia experiences bushfires on an annual basis. In most years fires are restricted to the tropical savannah forests of Northern Australia. However in the summer of 2006/2007 (December 2006 - February 2007), South Eastern Australia was affected by the longest recorded fires in its history. During this time the State of Victoria was ravaged by 690 separate bushfires, including the major Great Divide Fire, which devastated 1,048,238 hectares over 69 days. On several occasions, thick smoke haze was transported to the Melbourne central business district and PM10 concentrations at several air quality monitoring stations peaked at over 200 µg m-3 (four times the National Environment Protection Measure PM10 24 hour standard). During this period, a comprehensive suite of air quality measurements was carried out at a location 25 km south of the Melbourne CBD, including detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical composition measurements. Here we examine the chemical and physical properties of the smoke plume as it impacted Melbourne's air shed and discuss its impact on air quality over the city. We estimate the aerosol emission rates of the source fires, the age of the plumes and investigate the transformation of the smoke as it progressed from its source to the Melbourne airshed. We

  16. A FIRST APPROXIMATION CALCULATION OF AIR CUSHION CHASSIS WEIGHT OF TRANSPORT AIRPLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a first approximation of a weighted estimate of air cushion chassis. The algorithm for calculating the weight of air cushion chassis allows not only to estimate the mass of the chassis to a first approximation, but also to conduct a preliminary analysis of the influence of various parameters of the aircraft and the chassis on the weight of the aircraft at the stage of before designing. The algorithm can be expanded to include additional design decisions, such as the transformation of the fuselage, increasing the air cushion chassis canopy due to extensions, center of gravity, etc.

  17. SPUTUM CYTOLOGY CULTURE HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AND AIR QUALITY IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SMOKE FROM BIOMASS FUEL IN RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Razia Sultana; Raghu B. P; Shashidhar Buggi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Air pollution is generally perceived as an urban problem associated with automobiles and industries. However, half of the world’s population in rural areas of the developing countries is exposed to some of the highest levels of air pollution due to burning of traditional biomass fuels. In view of this, the health impact of biomass fuel use in rural India has been evaluated in this study. OBJECTIVES To analyse the mass concentration in biomass fuel user and LPG use...

  18. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  19. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  20. Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Placental Weight in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Air Quality Index (AQI in the first trimester of pregnancy on birth weight, placental weight, and the ratio of placental weight to the birth weight (pw-bw in Isfahan.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 312 consecutive pregnant women in Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan city in 2013. Information on air pollution was received from the Environmental department of Isfahan. Average exposure to air pollution in the first trimester of pregnancy was calculated for eachpregnant woman. In order to compare quantitative and qualitative variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and chi-square were applied. After that, the multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association the Air Quality Index (AQI on birth weight, placental weight and the ratio of pw-bw. Potential confounders including age, baby gender, smoking of husband, maternal BMI, maternal occupation, and education and mother’s residential area were considered. A statistical significant association were considered for P-value less than 0.05.Results: The findings showed that there is inverse relationship between exposure to air pollution and placental weight in the first trimester of pregnancy after controlling potential confounders (β = -2.57, p-value = 0.008. The inverse relationship between air pollution and the ratio of pw-bw was found. (β = -0.001, p-value = 0.002.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that air pollution is associated with newborns’ health which in turn is a warning alarm for considering some actions in both sides of reducing the air pollution and teaching the pregnant women about the adverse effects of air pollution on the pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Effect of Exposure to Air Pollution on Placental Weight in Isfahan-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Tehrani, Hatav; Fallah, Setare; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Miranzadeh, Sareh; Sadeghi, Shokooh; Azidhak, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Air Quality Index (AQI) in the first trimester of pregnancy on birth weight, placental weight, and the ratio of placental weight to the birth weight (pw-bw) in Isfahan. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 312 consecutive pregnant women in Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan city in 2013. Information on air pollution was received from the Environmental department of Isfahan. Average exposure to air pollution in the first trimester of pregnancy was calculated for eachpregnant woman. In order to compare quantitative and qualitative variables, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and chi-square were applied. After that, the multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association the Air Quality Index (AQI) on birth weight, placental weight and the ratio of pw-bw. Potential confounders including age, baby gender, smoking of husband, maternal BMI, maternal occupation, and education and mother's residential area were considered. A statistical significant association were considered for P-value less than 0.05. Results: The findings showed that there is inverse relationship between exposure to air pollution and placental weight in the first trimester of pregnancy after controlling potential confounders (β = -2.57, p-value = 0.008). The inverse relationship between air pollution and the ratio of pw-bw was found. (β = -0.001, p-value = 0.002). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that air pollution is associated with newborns' health which in turn is a warning alarm for considering some actions in both sides of reducing the air pollution and teaching the pregnant women about the adverse effects of air pollution on the pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  3. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2013-03-01

    the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  4. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; Slama, Rémy; Pedersen, Marie

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term

  5. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  6. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoszka Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1.

  7. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoszka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG) as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1).

  8. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  9. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  10. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging in cerebral air embolism complicating angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, T.; Inamura, T.; Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Mitani, M.; Yagi, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Yagi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of cerebral air embolism resulting from accidental air infection during cerebral angiography. A 60-year-old man was accidentally injected with air via the left subclavian artery. Angiography demonstrated air within the basilar artery. The patient showed signs of posterior circulation ischaemia (confusion, blindness, gaze palsy and hemiparesis). However, MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, showed no abnormality 4 h later. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen within 5 h of the embolism. All symptoms and signs resolved completely within a week. (orig.)

  11. Effect of the Agricultural Biomass Burning on the Ambient Air Quality of Lumbini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, M.; Panday, A. K.; Praveen, P. S.; Bhujel, A.; Pokhrel, S.; Ram, K.

    2017-12-01

    The emissions from increasing anthropogenic activities has led to degradation in ambient air quality of Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site) and its surrounding environments. The presence of high concentrations of air pollutants is of concern because of its implications for public health, atmospheric visibility, chemistry, crop yield, weather and climate on a local to regional scale. The study region experiences wide-spread on-field agricultural residue burning, particularly in the months of November (paddy residue burning) and April (wheat residue burning). In an attempt to study the impact of emissions from post-harvest burning of paddy and wheat residue in Nepal, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, in collaboration with the Government of Nepal's Department of Environment and the Lumbini International Research Institute, established the Lumbini Air Quality Observatory (LAQO) in May 2016 for continuous measurement of Black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1), as well as concentration of gaseous pollutant and meteorological parameters. Here we present results of the surface observations from LAQO for the months with intensified paddy and wheat open biomass burning during November 2016 and April 2017, respectively. The average concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and PM10 were 11.3±6.2 µg m-3, 96.7±48.9 µg m-3 and 132.3±59.1 µg m-3 respectively during the month of November 2016. On the other hand, the surface concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 11.0±8.3 µg m-3, 45.0±35.0 µg m-3 and 114.0±96.1 µg m-3 during April 2017. A significant increase in the primary pollutant concentration was observed during both types of open agricultural burning periods. However, BC/PM2.5 ratio was almost higher by factor of two during paddy burning as compared to wheat residue burning. Source characteristics and the relative contribution of agricultural burning to PM concentrations at Lumbini are being computed based on

  12. Steam-air fluidized bed gasification of distillers grains: Effects of steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Eskridge, Kent; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2009-03-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass gasification was performed on a bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Distillers grains, a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstock for the gasification. The goal was to investigate the effects of furnace temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition, carbon conversion efficiency and energy conversion efficiency of the product gas. The experiments were conducted using a 3x3x3 full factorial design with temperatures of 650, 750 and 850 degrees C, steam to biomass ratios of 0, 7.30 and 14.29 and equivalence ratios of 0.07, 0.15 and 0.29. Gasification temperature was found to be the most influential factor. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents, carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. Increasing equivalence ratio decreased the hydrogen content but increased carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. The steam to biomass ratio was optimal in the intermediate levels for maximal carbon conversion and energy efficiencies.

  13. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, C.; De Angelis, P.; Scarascia-Mungozza, G.; Gielen, B.; Ceulemans, R.; Galema, A. N. J.; Lukac, M.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Yamamoto, S

    2015-06-01

    Available evidence concerning the association between indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and solid fuel combustion and preeclampsia/eclampsia is not available in developing countries. We investigated the association between exposure to IAP from biomass and solid fuel combustion and symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia in Indian women by analyzing cross-sectional data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Self-reported symptoms of preeclampsia/eclampsia during pregnancy such as convulsions (not from fever), swelling of legs, body or face, excessive fatigue or vision difficulty during daylight, were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the previous 5 years. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, ascertained by type of fuel used for cooking on preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for various confounders. Results indicate that women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have two times higher likelihood of reporting preeclampsia/eclampsia symptoms than do those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR = 2.21; 95%: 1.26-3.87; P = 0.006), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. This study is the first to empirically estimate the associations of IAP from biomass and solid fuel combustion and reported symptoms suggestive of preeclampsia/eclampsia in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women and we observed increased risk. These findings have important program and policy implications for countries such as India, where large proportions of the population rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and space heating. More epidemiological research with detailed exposure assessments and clinical measures of preeclampsia/eclampsia is needed in a developing country setting to validate these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. SPUTUM CYTOLOGY CULTURE HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AND AIR QUALITY IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SMOKE FROM BIOMASS FUEL IN RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Air pollution is generally perceived as an urban problem associated with automobiles and industries. However, half of the world’s population in rural areas of the developing countries is exposed to some of the highest levels of air pollution due to burning of traditional biomass fuels. In view of this, the health impact of biomass fuel use in rural India has been evaluated in this study. OBJECTIVES To analyse the mass concentration in biomass fuel user and LPG user household and to investigate the effects of biomass smoke exposure in a group of rural women who cook regularly with biomass fuels and compare the results obtained from control group women who cook relatively cleaner fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. METHODS Respiratory health was evaluated from Questionnaire survey, Clinical examination, haematology, sputum cytology culture and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels are investigated in biomass and control users. RESULTS A total of 150 women were approached, of which only 70 non-smoking women without any history of any major chronic illness in the past were selected for this study. CRP levels differ significantly in biomass exposure than control users. CONCLUSION From our study it is clear that with increasing duration of exposure to biomass fuel combustion. Women who used to cook with traditional biomass fuels had low haemoglobin & Red Blood Cells values, increased neutrophil and allergic manifestations. Sputum cytology of majority biomass users revealed bacterial infections & chronic inflammation.

  17. Effect of Air Staging Ratios on the Burning Rate and Emissions in an Underfeed Fixed-Bed Biomass Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Regueiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work studies a small-scale biomass combustor (5–12 kW with an underfed fixed bed using low air staging ratios (15%–30%. This document focuses on the influence of the operative parameters on the combustion process, so gaseous emissions and the distribution and concentration of particulate matter have also been recorded. The facility shows good stability and test repeatability. For the studied airflow ranges, the results show that increasing the total airflow rate does not increase the overall air excess ratio because the burning rate is proportionally enhanced (with some slight differences that depend on the air staging ratio. Consequently, the heterogeneous reactions at the bed remain in the so-called oxygen-limited region, and thus the entire bed operates under sub-stoichiometric conditions with regards of the char content of the biomass. In addition, tests using only primary air (no staging may increase the fuel consumption, but in a highly incomplete way, approaching a gasification regime. Some measured burning rates are almost 40% higher than previous results obtained in batch combustors due to the fixed position of the ignition front. The recorded concentration of particulate matter varies between 15 and 75 mg/Nm3, with a main characteristic diameter between 50 and 100 nm.

  18. Air pollution reduction with respect to the conversion of biomass into electricity and heat. Emission and cost indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.C.; De Weerd, G.; Van der Werff, T.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass conversion is considered to be a CO2-free method of producing electricity and heat other emissions have to be taken into account: SO2, NOx, HCl, HF, Hg, Cd, dusts, etc. The aim of the study on the title subject is to support the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) in the determination of feasible emission standards for bioconversion installations. The Centre for Energy conservation and clean technology (CE) compiled information on the costs for flue gas purification for different degrees of purification. Because of the fact that the composition of flue gases strongly depends on the biomass flow and the applied conversion technique, both biomass flows and conversion techniques must be distinguished. The following biomass conversion techniques were studied: large-scale combustion of wood wastes and sludges, large-scale gasification of wood wastes, cocombustion of wood wastes and sludges, small-scale combustion of wood wastes and chicken manure, small-scale gasification of wood wastes, and fermentation of wastes from vegetables, fruits and gardens. For each combination it is determined what the emissions are in case of a minimal flue gas purification, what the emissions are and how much additional costs are involved in case the regulations in the BLA (decree on air pollution of waste incineration) are taken into account, and what the emissions are and how much additional costs are involved for a number of levels in between the two fore-mentioned cases. refs

  19. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  20. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, C.; Gehring, U.; Walker, S.K.; Brunekreef, B.; Stigum, H.; Naess, O.; Nafstad, P.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations

  1. Light-weight extension tubes for compressed-air garden sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Charles E. Swett

    1967-01-01

    To hand-spray taller trees safely and efficiently, 8-, 12-, and 16-foot extension tubes for compressed-air garden sprayers were designed and built. These light-weight tubes have been used successfully for spraying white pine leaders for weevil control on the Massabesic Experimental Forest in Maine. Bill of materials and assembly instructions are included.

  2. Is it time to tackle PM(2.5) air pollutions in China from biomass-burning emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Cao, Fang

    2015-07-01

    An increase in haze days has been observed in China over the past two decades due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and energy consumptions. To address this server issue, Chinese central government has recently released the Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, which mainly focuses on regulation of indusial and transport-related emissions with major energy consumption from fossil fuels. This comprehensive and toughest plan is definitely a major step in the right direction aiming at beautiful and environmental-friendly China; however, based on recent source apportionment results, we suggest that strengthening regulation emissions from biomass-burning sources in both urban and rural areas is needed to meet a rigorous reduction target. Here, household biofuel and open biomass burning are highlighted, as impacts of these emissions can cause local and regional pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioprospecting for fast growing and biomass characterization of oleaginous microalgae from South-Eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Mauro; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Sanchez-Rizza, Lara; Echarte, María Mercedes; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    As part of pioneering efforts to assess the potential of native microalgae as biofuel feedstock in South-Eastern Buenos Aires, 34 monoalgal cultures (corresponding to the Phylum Chlorophyta) were established and 21 were selected for further growth and biomass composition characterization. Novel RNA sequences in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were identified. Some strains showed desirable traits as biodiesel feedstock such as (i) apparent maximal doubling times of 6h, (ii) lipids accumulation of up to 43% of their dry biomass, (iii) high ration of mono-unsaturated to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, (iv) high response to CO(2) supplementation, and (v) complete sedimentation in 4h. Data of the outdoors performance of some strains suggested they might represent valuable resources for future research towards the regional development of the technology for microalgae-based biofuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational exposure to indoor air pollution among bakery workers in Ethiopia; A comparison of electric and biomass cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, George S; van der Zwaag, Hugo P; Simons, Leon; Meliefste, Kees; Tefera, Yifokire; Carreon, J Rosales; Vermeulen, Roel; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-01

    The indoor air pollution (IAP) produced by the domestic combustion of solid fuels is responsible for up to 4 million deaths annually, especially among low and middle income countries. Occupational exposure within the food preparation industries of these nations remains underexplored. We investigated occupational exposure to the IAP produced during the commercial production of injera, a staple of the Ethiopian diet, from bakeries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Measurements of PM 2.5 , black carbon (via the proxy measure PM 2.5 absorbance) and CO were collected from 30 bakeries and their employees for an average of 4-h per working day. Measurements were compared between bakeries using biomass and electric cookstoves. Further, the respiratory health data of 35 bakery employees were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Personal exposure to PM2.5 from biomass cookstoves was double that of electric cookstoves (430 μg/m3 vs. 216 μg/m3), black carbon exposure was four times higher among biomass users (67 × 10-5m-1 vs. 15 × 10-5m-1), and CO exposure was twenty times higher among biomass users (22 ppm vs. 1 ppm). Mixed effect models indicated that the number of stoves in use and additional solid fuel usage (e.g. coffee brewing) also contributed to exposure levels. These findings indicate that the use of biomass powered cookstoves during commercial injera production significantly contributes to IAP and self-reported respiratory symptoms. As injera is the staple foodstuff of Ethiopia, a widespread conversion to electric cookstoves is likely to have a significant impact. However, as high levels of IAP were also observed within the electric bakeries, further identification of pollution sources is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  6. A Systematic Review of Innate Immunomodulatory Effects of Household Air Pollution Secondary to the Burning of Biomass Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Kinney, Patrick; Chillrud, Steve; Jack, Darby

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP)-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause 455,000 deaths and a loss of 39.1 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of HAP are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of all studies examining the mechanisms underlying the relationship between HAP secondary to solid fuel exposure and acute lower respiratory tract infection to evaluate current available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities. We conducted and report on studies in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In all, 133 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely study design and outcome, including in vivo versus in vitro and pollutants analyzed. Thirty-six studies were included in a nonexhaustive review of the innate immune system effects of ambient air pollution, traffic-related air pollution, or wood smoke exposure of developed country origin. Seventeen studies investigated the effects of HAP-associated solid fuel (biomass or coal smoke) exposure on airway inflammation and innate immune system function. Particulate matter may modulate the innate immune system and increase susceptibility to infection through a) alveolar macrophage-driven inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of barrier defenses; b) alterations in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing; and c) increased susceptibility to infection via upregulation of receptors involved in pathogen invasion. HAP secondary to the burning of biomass fuels alters innate immunity, predisposing children to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Data from biomass exposure in developing countries are scarce. Further study is needed to define the inflammatory response, alterations in phagocytic function, and upregulation of receptors important in bacterial and viral

  7. Modeling study of biomass burning plumes and their impact on urban air quality; a case study of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Rappenglück, B.; Rubio, M. A.; Lissi, E.; Gramsch, E.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    On January 4, 2014, during the summer period in South America, an intense forest and dry pasture wildfire occurred nearby the city of Santiago de Chile. On that day the biomass-burning plume was transported by low-intensity winds towards the metropolitan area of Santiago and impacted the concentration of pollutants in this region. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) is implemented to investigate the biomass-burning plume associated with these wildfires nearby Santiago, which impacted the ground-level ozone concentration and exacerbated Santiago's air quality. Meteorological variables simulated by WRF/Chem are compared against surface and radiosonde observations, and the results show that the model reproduces fairly well the observed wind speed, wind direction air temperature and relative humidity for the case studied. Based on an analysis of the transport of an inert tracer released over the locations, and at the time the wildfires were captured by the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the model reproduced reasonably well the transport of biomass burning plume towards the city of Santiago de Chile within a time delay of two hours as observed in ceilometer data. A six day air quality simulation was performed: the first three days were used to validate the anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and the last three days (during and after the wildfire event) to analyze the performance of WRF/Chem plume-rise model within FINNv1 fire emission estimations. The model presented a satisfactory performance on the first days of the simulation when contrasted against data from the well-established air quality network over the city of Santiago de Chile. These days represent the urban air quality base case for Santiago de Chile unimpacted by fire emissions. However, for the last three simulation days, which were impacted by the fire emissions, the statistical indices showed a decrease in

  8. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed: hot gas cleanup and upgrading with steam-reforming catalysts of big size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Caballero, M.A. [University Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J. [University of Saragossa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Several commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts were tested for tar elimination and gas upgrading in biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. The characteristic or novelty of this work is that the catalysts are not crushed or ground but are used in their commercial size and shape. Catalysts were tested at pilot scale in two fixed beds located in a slip flow downstream from the gasifier. The equivalence ratio used in the upstream gasifier and steam content in the flue gas have an important effect on the kinetics of the tar removal reaction. (author)

  9. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy; Pedersen, Marie

    2017-07-01

    Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term (TLBW, pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups. Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women and no statistically significant effect modification was evident for the risk of TLBW associated with ambient air pollution. The current epidemiologic evidence is scarce, but suggests that pregnant women who are smoking, being underweight, overweight/obese or having lower SES are a vulnerable subpopulation when exposed to ambient air pollution, with and increased risk of having a child with TLBW. The limited evidence precludes for definitive conclusions and further studies are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  10. Air pollution and low birth weight in an industrialized city in Southeastern Brazil, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno dos Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of several conditions that manifest earlier (as fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development and later in life such as chronic diseases. Air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Retrospective cohort study investigated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure to air pollutants in Volta Redonda city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006. Methods: Birth data was obtained from Brazilian Information System. Exposure information (O3, PM10, temperature and humidity was provided by Governmental Air Quality Monitoring System. Linear and Logistic models, adjusted for sex, type of pregnancy, prenatal care, place of birth, maternal age, parity, education, congenital anomalies and weather variables were employed. Results: Low birth weight (LBW represented 9.1% of all newborns (13,660. For an interquartile range increase in PM10 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10 and, in O3 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.01 - 1.04, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.04. The dose-response relationship and a reduction in birth weight of 31.11 g (95%CI -56.64 - -5.58 was observed in the third trimester of pregnancy due to an interquartile increase of O3. Conclusion: This study suggests that exposures to PM10 and O3, even being below the Brazilian air quality standards, contribute to risks of low birth weight.

  11. Understanding Air Quality in East Africa: Estimating Biomass Burning and Anthropogenic Influence with Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, L.; Gasore, J.; Rupakheti, M.; Potter, K. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is largely unstudied in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in a large gap in scientific understanding of emissions, atmospheric processes and impacts of air pollutants in this region. The Rwanda Climate Observatory, a joint partnership between MIT and the government of Rwanda, has been measuring ambient concentrations of key long-lived greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (CO2, CO, CH4, BC, O3) on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (1.586°S, 29.566°E, 2500 m above sea level) since May 2015. Rwanda is a small, mountainous, and densely populated country in equatorial East Africa currently undergoing rapid development. The location and meteorology of Rwanda is such that emissions transported from both the northern and southern African biomass burning seasons affect BC, CO, and O3 concentrations in Rwanda. Black carbon concentrations during Rwanda's two dry seasons are higher at Mt. Mugogo, a rural site, than in major European cities. Higher BC baseline concentrations at Mugogo are correlated with fire radiative power data for the region acquired with MODIS satellite instrument. Spectral absorption of aerosol measured with a dual-spot aethalometer also varies seasonally, likely due to change in fuel burned and direction of pollution transport to the site. Ozone concentration was found to be higher in air masses from southern Africa than from northern Africa during their respective biomass burning seasons. The higher ozone concentration in air masses from the south could be indicative of more anthropogenic influence as Rwanda is downwind of major East African capitals in this season. During the rainy seasons, local emitting activities (e.g., cooking, driving, trash burning) remain steady, regional biomass burning is low, and transport distances are shorter as rainout of pollution occurs regularly, which allows estimation of local pollution during this time period. Urban PM2.5 measurements in the capital city of Kigali and from the neighboring

  12. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G. Li; L. T. Molina

    2013-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were cons...

  13. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G. Li; L. Molina

    2012-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA...

  14. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale district in Kenya using short term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Svaro, Miroslav; Bodo, Jan; Taylor, Mark; Muendo, Redempta Malinda

    2015-09-01

    Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and explore the feasibility of routine monitoring in Kwale district, Kenya. We sampled 125 rural houses using short-term monitoring for levels of CO, CO2 and TSP. Additional exposure information was obtained using a checklist. Respiratory health was also assessed using a questionnaire, and electronic spirometer in 172 inhabitants. The overall median levels of CO in the sampled houses on all study sites ranged from 5.9 (IQR 3-14.5) to 10 (5.5-21.2) mg/m3, levels of CO2 ranged from 774 (IQR 724-846) to 839 (IQR 749-961) mg/m3) and the levels of TSP ranged from 295 (IQR 79-853 to 1384 (IQR 557-3110) µg/m(3) which indicates that safe levels recommended by WHO and USEPA could be exceeded. Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to public health problems in rural regions of East Africa, such as Kwale in Kenya, our findings create grounds for more detailed investigations of the problem and may provide motivation for community based interventions.

  15. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Attribution of the Main Sources of Biomass Burning in South East Asia that Impact on Air Quality in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. B.; Kendall, E.; Chew, B. N.; Chong, W. M.; Gan, C.; Hort, M. C.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in South East Asia causes intense haze episodes in Singapore, these are of major concern to the local government and the population exposed to the haze. Using a Lagrangian dispersion model we have studied haze in the seven most recent years (2010 - 2016) to gain a deeper understanding of intense haze in Singapore. In this study, modelled haze time-series at one eastern and one western monitoring station in Singapore are compared to local observed PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations. The haze time-series are broken down by season or month, source region, and monitoring location.The analysis, presented as time series and pie charts, illustrates the relative contribution to haze in Singapore from different regions, variations between seasons and the correlation of impact to the combined timing of burning activity and meteorological patterns. Air history maps, showing where air arriving in Singapore originates from and/or has travelled through, are used to isolate the meteorological dependence of impacts. These show a strong monsoonal variation and help explain the inter-annual differences between sources and actual concentrations of biomass burning PM in Singapore. For example, there is a strong correlation in 2013 between burning in Riau and haze in Singapore, but a weak correlation in other years when a significant part of haze originates from, e.g., Peninsula Malaysia, but emissions are seemingly negligible. We see that, in spite of the size of Singapore, there is significant difference in concentrations and major contributing source regions between the two monitoring stations, annually and seasonally. The differences at the two monitoring stations are seen in varying degrees in the years 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015, throughout different seasons. Although only biomass burning is considered in the simulations, our modelled results are in good agreement with local observations. We have identified the source regions with the biggest contributions to haze

  17. Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

  18. Socioeconomic position and low birth weight among mothers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP in São Paulo, Brazil.Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers' addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10. Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP.This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.

  19. The effect of air elevated [CO2] on crown architecture and aboveground biomass in Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana; Slípková, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 2-11 ISSN 1392-1355 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : thinning * secondary shoots * biomass allocation * long-term experiment * dendrometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2012

  20. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  1. Direct quantification of PM2.5 fossil and biomass carbon within the Northern Front Range Air Quality Study's domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinedinst, D.B.; Currie, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14 C) analyses of PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less) of both ambient and source samples from the Northern Front Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS) in Colorado were performed. The 14 C analyses were undertaken to provide direct fossil vs modern (biomass) carbon source discrimination data for a subset of summer and winter 1996--1997 samples collected within the Denver metropolitan area. Samples were prepared for 14 C accelerator mass spectrometry measurements using techniques specially developed for small samples, i.e., lt100 μg C. For the days and sampling periods analyzed the median and interquartile range of the winter blank corrected fraction of modern carbon was 23% (16--34%) at Welby and 27% (25--37%) at Brighton. The summer samples exhibited a more mixed signature with a median and interquartile range of 47% (9--70%). Source samples yielded 14 C signatures consistent with expectation. The authors conclude fossil-derived sources contribute substantially in both seasons and at both locations; however, the biomass carbon component dominates episodically in the summer

  2. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed: Reforming of the gas composition with commercial steam reforming catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Orio, A.; Aznar, P. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Four commercial catalysts for steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons (naphthas) and three for steam reforming of light hydrocarbons are tested for hot gas clean up and upgrading in biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. The catalysts used originate from four manufacturers: BASF, AG, ICI-Katalco, Haldor Topsoe a/s, and United Catalysts Inc. The work is performed in a small pilot plant (1--2 kg of biomass fed/h) with three reactors in series: gasifier, guard bed of dolomite, and full flow catalytic bed. Samples of gas are taken before and after the catalytic bed at different times-on-stream. It is shown how the H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and steam contents in the flue gas change because of the catalytic bed approaching contents near to the ones corresponding to the equilibrium state. Variations in the heating value of the gas and gas yield as a result of the catalytic bed are also reported.

  3. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  4. Predicting Weight Support Based on Wake Measurements of a Flying Bird in Still Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eric; Lentink, David

    2014-11-01

    The wake development of a freely flying Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) was examined in still air. The bird was trained to fly from perch to perch through the laser sheet while wearing custom-made laser safety goggles. This enabled a detailed study of the evolution of the vortices shed in its wake using high-speed particle image velocimetry at 1000 Hz in the plane transverse to the flight path. The measurement started when the bird was approximately 0.25 wingbeats in front of the laser sheet and stopped after it traveled 3.5 wingbeats beyond the laser sheet. The instantaneous lift force that supports body weight was calculated based on the velocity field, using both the Kuttta-Joukowski and the actuator disk quasi-steady model. During the first few flaps, both models predict an instantaneous lift that is reasonably close to the weight of the bird. Several flaps away from the laser sheet, however, the models predict that the lift steadily declines to about 50% of the weight of the bird. In contrast to earlier reports for bat wakes in wind tunnels, these findings for bird wakes in still air suggest that the predictive strength of quasi-steady force calculations depends on the distance between the animal and the laser sheet.

  5. Real-Time Secondary Aerosol Formation Measurements using a Photooxidation Reactor (PAM) and AMS in Urban Air and Biomass Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M.; Hayes, P. L.; Brune, W. H.; Hu, W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Bon, D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Sullivan, A. P.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent field studies reveal large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under urban polluted ambient conditions, while SOA formation in biomass burning smoke appears to be variable but sometimes substantial. To study this formation in real-time, a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) photooxidation reactor was deployed with submicron aerosol size and chemical composition measurements during two studies: FLAME-3, a biomass-burning study at USDA Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula in 2009, MT and CalNex-LA in Pasadena, CA in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling unprocessed and PAM-processed aerosol. The PAM reactor produces OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air, achieving equivalent aging of ~2 weeks in 5 minutes of processing. The OH intensity was also scanned every 20 min. in both field studies. Results show the value of PAM-AMS as a tool for in-situ evaluation of changes in OA concentration and composition due to SOA formation and POA oxidation. In FLAME-3, net SOA formation was variable among smokes from different biomasses; however, OA oxidation was always observed. The average SOA enhancement factor was 1.7 +/- 0.5 of the initial POA. Reactive VOCs such as toluene, monoterpenes, and acetaldehyde, as measured from a PIT-MS, decreased with increased PAM processing; however, formic acid, acetone, and some unidentified OVOCs increased after significant exposure to high oxidant levels suggesting multigenerational chemistry. Results from CalNex-LA show enhancement of SOA and inorganic aerosol from gas-phase precursors. This enhanced OA mass increase from PAM processing is maximum at night and correlates with trimethylbenzene concentrations, which indicates the dominance of short-lived SOA precursors in the LA Basin. A traditional SOA model with mostly aromatic precursors underpredicts the amount of SOA formed by about an order-of-magnitude, which

  6. On the Contribution of Biomass Burning to POPs (PAHs and PCDDs) in Air in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lammel, G.; Heil, A.; Stemmler, I.; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 20 (2013), s. 11616-11624 ISSN 0013-936X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Polyclic Aromatic-Hydrocarbons * Dibenzo-p-dioxins * persistent organic pollutants * Aerosol-climate model * Sout Atlantic transect * emission factors * heterogeneous reactivity * assimilation system * forest * fire Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.481, year: 2013

  7. The impact of large scale biomass production on ozone air pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, J.B.; Hendriks, C.; Tum, M.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone contributes to the removal of air pollutants from the atmosphere but is itself a pollutant that is harmful to human health and vegetation. Biogenic isoprene emissions are important ozone precursors, and therefore future changes in land use that change isoprene emissions are likely

  8. The impact of large scale biomass production on ozone air pollution in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beltman, Joost B.; Hendriks, Carlijn; Tum, Markus; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone contributes to the removal of air pollutants from the atmosphere but is itself a pollutant that is harmful to human health and vegetation. Biogenic isoprene emissions are important ozone precursors, and therefore future changes in land use that change isoprene emissions are likely to affect atmospheric ozone concentrations. Here, we use the chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS (dedicated to the regional modeling of trace gases in Europe) to study a scenario in which 5% of t...

  9. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  10. Biomass production of Artemia in air-water-lift raceway system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    . Continuous production of nauplii can be used directly as live feed, thus can minimise the quantity of cyst requirement. Different agricultural waste products such as rice bran, wheat bran, soya bean meal, and whey powder have been found to be good food...'s and (c) position of aeration tube in AWL-raceway system. The design and construction of AWL were according to Bossuyt and Sorgeloos (1980) for 3001 capacity tank. Fiber glasstank of30 x 60 x 80 em dimension was used (Fig. 1). An Elgi air compressor (Model...

  11. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi : Analysis of data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanzi, Edith B; Namacha, Ndifanji M

    BACKGROUND: Use of biomass fuels has been shown to contribute to ill health and complications in pregnancy outcomes such as low birthweight, neonatal deaths and mortality in developing countries. However, there is insufficient evidence of this association in the Sub-Saharan Africa and the Malawian

  12. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  13. Public Health Hotspots Of Exposure To Air Pollution From Biomass Burning In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; Defries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fire is one of the most significant instruments of land use change; forests and grasslands are burned to create and maintain agricultural fields or other anthropogenic landscapes. Although fire emissions have been studied for their climatic and atmospheric effects, less is known about their impact on global public health. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire emissions and atmospheric modeling to estimate exposure in Southeast Asia to particulate matter and ozone, which have a demonstrated detrimental health impact. Regional emissions can vary by a factor of twenty or more interannually due to the combined influence of prolonged drought conditions from El Nino, land use policies, and high fuel loads in tropical forests and peat. High fire years in the region, such as the 1997-1998 El Nino, can have a profound effect on global trace gas and aerosol loads. We conducted daily simulations of surface fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations for the 1997-2007 period using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) within two atmospheric models: Harvard’s GEOS-CHEM and the NASA GISS Global Climate Model. The results from each model are compared and validated by field-based and remote sensing datasets. The public health risk from each pollutant is assessed with current air quality regulations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that regions experiencing substantial fire activity can increase the percentage of days per year exceeding WHO air quality guidelines by more than 20%. These anomalies are localized in regions close to burning centers, and more so for heavier pollutants like particulate matter. In addition, the population exposed to particulate matter and ozone above WHO guidelines can increase during high fire years by up to 70% and 50% over the decadal mean, respectively. Our results implicate fires as a serious public health risk to cardiovascular diseases, which the WHO estimates are a

  14. Pinch technology in theory and its application to a biomass integrated gasification and humid air turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Pinch Technology has become a powerful tool for the optimization of the design of heat exchanger networks during the last 20 years. In this work, the different aspects of the methodology have been studied both in a theoretical way and in a practical approach. The first part of the work is a systematic analysis of the pinch technology: what it is, how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages. There is also a brief discussion about the pinch method and other methods which handle energy recovery problems. Once the philosophy of the pinch technology has been theoretically studied, the second part of the work is its application to two different processes. The first process analyzed is a relatively simple but realistically practical problem based on a two distillation columns system. The knowledge gained during the calculations of this process is used in the second and more complex one. This second process is an integrated biomass gasification and humid air turbine (IGHAT) which has been already optimized by a heat balance program. The application of the pinch technology to this process shows the huge potential for improvements that this technology can provide in order to save energy. All the calculations are handled by the pinch technology software program `SuperTarget`. This program is evaluated along the work. In spite of some shortcomings that have been noticed, the usefulness of the program can be claimed 26 refs, 28 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-10-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  16. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  17. Biomass gasification with air in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed. Effect of six operational variables on the quality of the produced raw gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, I.; Orio, A.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Aznar, M.P. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Biomass gasification with air in a bubbling fluidized bed is studied in a small pilot plant. Variables analyzed are equivalence ratio (from 0.20 to 0.45), temperatures of the gasifier bed (750--850 C) and of its freeboard (500--600 C), H/C ratio in the feed, use of secondary air (10% of the overall) in the freeboard, and addition (2--5 wt %) of a calcined dolomite mixed with the biomass used as the feedstock. Using advanced tar and gas sampling and analysis methods, the gas composition and tar content in the gas are determined and their variation with the operation parameters is given. A statistical analysis of the effects of the gasification variables is also here presented.

  18. An evaluation of the use of the dry-weight-rank and the comparative yield biomass estimation methods in paramo ecosystem research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofstede Robert G.M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the combination of the semi-destructive comparative yield method for overall biomass estimation and the non- destructive dry-weight-rank method for studying botanical composition on a dry weight basis in an undisturbed páramo vegetation in the Los Nevados national park (Colombian Central Cordillera was evaluated. These methods, developed for Australian production grasslands, were adapted for use in the páramo ecosystem. The average above ground biomass in the area was estimated as 2864 g dryweight. m-2 (sd.48, of which the bunchgrass Calamagrostis effusa contributed with ca 70%. When used with some adaptations, the comparative yield method seems suitable for biomass estimations in the páramo ecosystem. The here presented estimation of botanical eomposition with this method gave better results than dry-weight-rank method, which had too many shortcomings for use in the complex páramo grassland ecosystem.Se evaluó la aplicabilidad de una combinación de dos étodos para estimar la biomasa  general y la composición botánica, en una vegetación natural paramuna en el Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (Cordillera Central de Colombia. El primer método (ecomparative yield determina la biomasa general, destruyendo parcialmente la vegetación de los cuadrantes de muestreo y el segundo (dryweight rank determina la composición botánica con base en el peso seco, sin destruir la vegetación. Estos métodos, inicialmente desarrollados para pajonales forrajeros en Australia, se adaptaron para ser utilizados en el ecosistema paramuno. Como resultado se obtuvo una estimación de la biomasa aérea de 2864 g peso seco m2 (desviación stándard 48 en la cual, la gramínea Calamagrostis effusa contribuyó con el 70%. Puede concluirse que el método de producción comparativa es útil para estimar la biomasa en el ecosistema paramuno, siempre y cuando se utilicen las adaptaciones mencionadas. Por otra parte la estimación de la composición bot

  19. Spatial variability of the effect of air pollution on term birth weight: evaluating influential factors using Bayesian hierarchical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun

    2016-02-05

    Epidemiological studies suggest that air pollution is adversely associated with pregnancy outcomes. Such associations may be modified by spatially-varying factors including socio-demographic characteristics, land-use patterns and unaccounted exposures. Yet, few studies have systematically investigated the impact of these factors on spatial variability of the air pollution's effects. This study aimed to examine spatial variability of the effects of air pollution on term birth weight across Census tracts and the influence of tract-level factors on such variability. We obtained over 900,000 birth records from 2001 to 2008 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Air pollution exposure was modeled at individual level for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) using spatiotemporal models. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical non-linear models were developed to (1) quantify the associations between air pollution exposure and term birth weight within each tract; and (2) examine the socio-demographic, land-use, and exposure-related factors contributing to the between-tract variability of the associations between air pollution and term birth weight. Higher air pollution exposure was associated with lower term birth weight (average posterior effects: -14.7 (95 % CI: -19.8, -9.7) g per 10 ppb increment in NO2 and -6.9 (95 % CI: -12.9, -0.9) g per 10 ppb increment in NOx). The variation of the association across Census tracts was significantly influenced by the tract-level socio-demographic, exposure-related and land-use factors. Our models captured the complex non-linear relationship between these factors and the associations between air pollution and term birth weight: we observed the thresholds from which the influence of the tract-level factors was markedly exacerbated or attenuated. Exacerbating factors might reflect additional exposure to environmental insults or lower socio-economic status with higher vulnerability, whereas attenuating factors might indicate reduced

  20. Status Report of the EPA's Air Pollution Prevention & Control Division's Biomass-to Energy Development & Demonstration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purvis, C

    1996-01-01

    ...) is participating in research, development, and demonstration projects that will convert biomass energy to electrical power, resulting in waste utilization, pollution alleviation, and energy conservation...

  1. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  2. Evaluation of evapotranspiration on paddy rice using non-weighting lysimeters under the different air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D.; Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc), as a representative of crop water needs, is important for not only high crop productivity, but also improving irrigation water management. In farm lands crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of ETc to potential ET, is often used to simply estiamte ETc. However, the traits of Kc under the global warming condition will different with current one because plant transpiration and surface evaporaiton will be changed by the alternative crop growth and evaporative energy. In this study, Non-Weighting Lysimeter (NWL) was used to directly estimate ETc under the warmed condition, particularly for paddy riace which has one of lower water use efficiency. The different air t emperature (Ta) conditions for the NWL were provided by Temperature Gradient Chamber (TGC), which was formed gradually warmed conditions. The water body evporation and paddy rice evapotransipiration in the NWL were at the two places of ambient Ta (AT) and AT+3° in the TGC. In addition, we installed Infra-Red thermometer (IRT) to understand the surface energy balance. The result was shown that the different partitioning of evaporation and transpiration of paddy rice at the AT+3°, comparing at AT. Further, the water use efficiency, the ratio of yield to total ET, was also decreased in the warmed condition. These experiments for paddy rice ET in the warmed conditions during growth period will be useful to understand the effect of global warming on the hydrological cycle and manamge the irrigation schedule for more efficient water use.

  3. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelitz, Nadja; Machackova, Jirina; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Brennerova, Maria; Pieper, Dietmar H; Heipieper, Hermann J; Junca, Howard

    2009-03-01

    In order to obtain insights in complexity shifts taking place in natural microbial communities under strong selective pressure, soils from a former air force base in the Czech Republic, highly contaminated with jet fuel and at different stages of a bioremediation air sparging treatment, were analyzed. By tracking phospholipid fatty acids and 16S rRNA genes, a detailed monitoring of the changes in quantities and composition of the microbial communities developed at different stages of the bioventing treatment progress was performed. Depending on the length of the air sparging treatment that led to a significant reduction in the contamination level, we observed a clear shift in the soil microbial community being dominated by Pseudomonads under the harsh conditions of high aromatic contamination to a status of low aromatic concentrations, increased biomass content, and a complex composition with diverse bacterial taxonomical branches.

  4. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  5. Low birth weight and air pollution in California: Which sources and components drive the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Kleeman, Michael J; Bartell, Scott M; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but there is a need to clarify which sources and components are most likely responsible. This study investigated the associations between low birth weight (LBW, pollution by source and composition in California, over the period 2001-2008. Complementary exposure models were used: an empirical Bayesian kriging model for the interpolation of ambient pollutant measurements, a source-oriented chemical transport model (using California emission inventories) that estimated fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM0.1, respectively) mass concentrations (4km×4km) by source and composition, a line-source roadway dispersion model at fine resolution, and traffic index estimates. Birth weight was obtained from California birth certificate records. A case-cohort design was used. Five controls per term LBW case were randomly selected (without covariate matching or stratification) from among term births. The resulting datasets were analyzed by logistic regression with a random effect by hospital, using generalized additive mixed models adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, maternal age and household income. In total 72,632 singleton term LBW cases were included. Term LBW was positively and significantly associated with interpolated measurements of ozone but not total fine PM or nitrogen dioxide. No significant association was observed between term LBW and primary PM from all sources grouped together. A positive significant association was observed for secondary organic aerosols. Exposure to elemental carbon (EC), nitrates and ammonium were also positively and significantly associated with term LBW, but only for exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy. Significant positive associations were observed between term LBW risk and primary PM emitted by on-road gasoline and diesel or by commercial meat cooking sources. Primary PM from wood burning was inversely associated with term

  6. Effects on NOx and SO2 Emissions during Co-Firing of Coal With Woody Biomass in Air Staging and Reburning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Hodžić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing coal with different types of biomass is increasingly being applied in thermal power plants in Europe. The main motive for the use of biomass as the second fuel in coal-fired power plants is the reduction of CO2 emissions, and related financial benefits in accordance with the relevant international regulations and agreements. Likewise, the application of primary measures in the combustion chamber, which also includes air staging and/or reburning, results in a significant reduction in emission of polluting components of flue gases, in particular NOx emissions. In addition to being efficient and their application to new and future thermoblocks is practically unavoidable, their application and existing conventional combustion chamber does not require significant constructional interventions and is therefore relatively inexpensive. In this work results of experimental research of co-firing coals from Middle Bosnian basin with waste woody biomass are presented. Previously formed fuel test matrix is subjected to pulverized combustion under various temperatures and various technical and technological conditions. First of all it refers to the different mass ratio of fuel components in the mixture, the overall coefficient of excess air and to the application of air staging and/or reburning. Analysis of the emissions of components of the flue gases are presented and discussed. The impact of fuel composition and process temperature on the values of the emissions of components of the flue gas is determined. Additionally, it is shown that other primary measures in the combustion chamber are resulting in more or less positive effects in terms of reducing emissions of certain components of the flue gases into the environment. Thus, for example, the emission of NOx of 989 mg/ measured in conventional combustion, with the simultaneous application of air staging and reburning is reduced to 782 mg/, or by about 21%. The effects of the primary measures

  7. Body composition analysis by air displacement plethysmography in normal weight to extremely obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Anthony, Steven J; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-04-01

    To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m(2) ), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Fat-free mass (FFM, kg), fat mass (FM, kg), and body fat (BF, %) were analyzed with both technologies. All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.95, P < 0.001 for FFM, FM, and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P < 0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P < 0.001), and 37 and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P < 0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P < 0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P < 0.05 for all). Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Ozone visible symptoms and reduced root biomass in the subalpine species Pinus uncinata after two years of free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Schaub, Marcus; Bassin, Seraina; Volk, Matthias; Peñuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of ozone often exceed the thresholds of forest protection in the Pyrenees, but the effect of ozone on Pinus uncinata, the dominant species in subalpine forests in this mountainous range, has not yet been studied. We conducted an experiment of free-air ozone fumigation with saplings of P. uncinata fumigated with ambient O 3 (AOT40 May–Oct: 9.2 ppm h), 1.5 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 19.2 ppm h), and 1.8 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 32.5 ppm h) during two growing seasons. We measured chlorophyll content and fluorescence, visible injury, gas exchange, and above- and below-ground biomass. Increased exposures to ozone led to a higher occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 and a 24–29% reduction of root biomass, which may render trees more susceptible to other stresses such as drought. P. uncinata is thus a species sensitive to O 3 , concentrations of which in the Pyrenees are already likely affecting this species. - Highlights: ► We assessed sensitivity to O 3 in Pinus uncinata using a free-air O 3 fumigation system. ► Occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 correlated with exposure to O 3 . ► Increased O 3 reduced root biomass 24–29%. ► O 3 weakens P. uncinata, making it more susceptible to other stresses. ► Ambient [O 3 ] in the Pyrenees is thus likely to already be affecting P. uncinata stands. - Ozone concentrations similar to those in the Pyrenees affect Pinus uncinata by reducing root biomass and possibly increasing susceptibility to other stresses.

  9. Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-05-28

    SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.

  10. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Biomassa microbiana em amostras de solos secadas ao ar e reumedecidas Microbial biomass in air dried and rewetted soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Samarão Gonçalves

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade do condicionamento de amostras como terra fina secada ao ar (TFSA por curto período, para a determinação do carbono da biomassa microbiana (BMS-C, pelo método da fumigaçãoextração, e verificar a respiração microbiana basal (RB do solo. O condicionamento como TFSA, procedendo-se à fumigação para a análise da BMS-C imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento, proporcionou valores de BMS-C para os solos Podzólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Orgânico, semelhantes aos valores dos seus controles. Os solos Glei Pouco Húmico e Vertissolo apresentaram valores de BMS-C similares aos do controle a partir de 24 horas de incubação; o solo Planossolo arenoso apresentou valores similares aos do controle com 72 horas, e a Rendizina, com 168 horas de incubação. Na maioria dos solos, a RB determinada na TFSA apresentou valores maiores do que os do tratamento-controle, quando avaliada imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento a 60% da capacidade máxima de retenção de água, seguida de queda e manutenção em níveis semelhantes ao do controle nos períodos subseqüentes. O précondicionamento, de curta duração, como TFSA, é promissor para a determinação da BMS-C, quando níveis e períodos adequados de reumedecimento são adotados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of short term air dried soil samples in a determination of soil microbial biomass (SMB-C, by a fumigationextraction method, and soil microbial basal respiration (BR. Zero time or 24 hours rewetting incubation period before fumigation procedure gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for the Podzolic soils, Allic RedYellow Latosol and Organic soil. Low Humic Gley and Vertisol soils gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for periods of incubation equal or higher than 24 hours. Planosol (sandy soil and Rendzina soils gave values of SMB-C similar to the

  12. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  13. Indoor air pollution and health of children in biomass fuel-using households of Bangladesh: comparison between urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalequzzaman, Md; Kamijima, Michihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ebara, Takeshi; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Nakajima, Tamie

    2011-11-01

    Indoor air pollutants from biomass combustion pose a risk for respiratory diseases in children. It is plausible that distinct differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) exist between urban and rural areas in developing countries since the living environment between these two areas are quite different. We have investigated possible differences in IAQ in urban and rural Dhaka, Bangladesh and the association of such differences with the incidence of respiratory and some non-respiratory symptoms in children of families using biomass fuel. Indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), dust particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen dioxide were measured once in the winter and once in the summer of 2008. Health data on 51 urban and 51 rural children under 5 years of age from 51 families in each area were collected once a week starting in the winter and continuing to the summer of 2008. Mean concentrations of CO, CO(2,), dust particles, and major VOCs were significantly higher in urban kitchens than in rural ones (p urban children, the children in the rural area suffered significantly more from respiratory symptoms [IRR 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-1.64], skin itchiness (IRR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.7), and diarrhea (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4), while fewer experienced fever (IRR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6). No difference was observed for other symptoms. We found lower IAQ in the homes of urban biomass fuel-users compared to rural ones in Bangladesh but could not attribute the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among children to the measured IAQ. Other factors may be involved.

  14. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  15. An investigation of co-combustion municipal sewage sludge with biomass in a 20kW BFB combustor under air-fired and oxygen-enriched condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ravi Inder

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) with biomass (Guar stalks (GS), Mustard Husk (MH), Prosopis Juliflora Wood (PJW)) has been investigated in a 20kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor under both air-fired (A-F) and oxygen-enriched (O-E) conditions. The work presented is divided into three parts, first part cover the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), second part cover the experimental investigation of BFB combustor, and third part covers the ash analysis. TGA was performed with a ratio of 50%MSS/50%biomass (GS, MH, PJW) and results show that 50%MSS/50%GS has highest combustion characteristic factor (CCF). The experimental investigation of BFB combustor was performed for two different ratios of MSS/biomass (50%/50% and 25%/75%) and the combustion characteristics of blends were distinctive under both A-F and O-E condition. Despite 50%MSS/50%GS showing the highest combustion performance in TGA analysis, it formed agglomerates during burning in BFB. Due to this formation of large amount of agglomerates, de-fluidization was observed in the combustor bed after 65-75min in A-F conditions. The rate of de-fluidization increased under O-E condition. The de-fluidization problem disappeared when the share of MSS was reduced to 25%, but small amounts of the agglomerate were still present in the bed. With oxygen enhancement, the combustion efficiency of BFB combustor was improved and flue gasses were found within permissible limit. The maximum conceivable combustion efficiency (97.1%) for BFB combustor was accomplished by using 50% MSS/50%PJW under O-E condition. Results show that a ratio of 25%MSS/75%biomass combusted successfully inside the BFB combustor and extensive work is required for efficient utilization of significant share of MSS with biomass. SEM/EDS analyses were performed for agglomerate produced and for the damaged heater to study the surface morphology and compositions. The elemental heterogeneity of fly ash generated during MSS/biomass combustion

  16. Associations between maternal weekly air pollutant exposures and low birth weight: a distributed lag non-linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Jiang, Baofa; Zhu, Ping; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Zhong; Cui, Liangliang; Yang, Liping

    2018-02-01

    When discussing the association between birth weight and air pollution, previous studies mainly focus on the maternal trimester-specific exposures during pregnancy, whereas the possible associations between birth weight and weekly-specific exposures have been largely neglected. We conducted a nested 1:4 matched case-control study in Jinan, China to examine the weekly-specific associations during pregnancy between maternal fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter maternity and child care hospital of this city during 2014–2016. Individual exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 during pregnancy were estimated using an inverse distance weighting method. Birth weight for gender-, gestational age-, and parity-specific standard score (BWGAP z-score) was calculated as the outcome of interest. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were applied to estimate weekly-specific relationship between maternal air pollutant exposures and birth weight. For an increase of per inter-quartile range in maternal PM2.5 exposure concentration during pregnancy, the BWGAP z-score decreased significantly during the 27th–33th gestational weeks with the strongest association in the 30th gestational weeks (standard deviation units decrease in BWGAP z-score: ‑0.049, 95% CI: ‑0.080 ‑0.017, in three-pollutant model). No significant association between maternal weekly NO2 or SO2 BWGAP z-score was observed. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that maternal PM2.5 exposure during the 27th–33th gestational weeks may reduce the birth weight in the context of very high pollution level of PM2.5.

  17. Analysis of Biomass Burning Impacts on the Air Quality of El Paso, Texas in July 2016 using Ground Observations and NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odwuor, A.; Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Colley, B. E.; White, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    Texas (TX), U.S., is surrounded by areas prone to wildfire and agricultural burning (collectively referred to as biomass burning) and smoke plumes from these fires can be driven by meteorological conditions to travel across the state, depositing a variety of pollutants. These pollutants include aerosols, which exert several negative effects on the environment and human health and are especially harmful when deposited in highly-populated metropolitan areas. In El Paso, TX, elevated atmospheric concentrations of ozone and PM 2.5 occur when aerosol-carrying biomass burning smoke plumes reach the city. One such pollution episode was identified by El Paso UTEP (CAMS 12) ground monitor on July 16th, 2016. To identify the sources of this pollution episode, this study utilized NASA Earth Observations including Terra MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) and CALIPSO CALIOP calibrated and geo-located vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds to perform 3-D spatial temporal plume tracking. Thermal anomaly maps from Suomi NPP VIIRS were also used in conjunction with NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model trajectories. Results from these analyses indicated several potential source wildfires that could have contributed to the elevated pollutant concentration levels, of which the School and Black Range Complex Fires in the Gila Wilderness of New Mexico, U.S. and agricultural biomass burning in Guaymas, Mexico were identified as the main contributors. 3-D aerosol transport maps produced using Terra MODIS AOD data for the exceedance date and CALIPSO CALIOP vertical profiles for a date leading up to the exceedance further validated this result. The results of this study can be replicated for other dates in other locations where similar elevated pollutant concentration levels are observed via ground monitors. This analysis, which combined in situ data, trajectory models and remote sensing data, proves itself a valuable tool for studying air pollution

  18. The association between low level exposures to ambient air pollution and term low birth weight: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stieb David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in areas with relatively high levels of air pollution have found some positive associations between exposures to ambient levels of air pollution and several birth outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between LBW among term infants and ambient air pollution, by trimester of exposure, in a region of lower level exposures. Methods The relationship between LBW and ambient levels of particulate matter up to 10 um in diameter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ground-level ozone (O3 was evaluated using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and ambient air monitoring data from the Environment Canada National Air Pollution Surveillance Network and the Nova Scotia Department of Environment. The cohort consisted of live singleton births (≥37 weeks of gestation between January1,1988 and December31,2000. Maternal exposures to air pollution were assigned to women living within 25 km of a monitoring station at the time of birth. Air pollution was evaluated as a continuous and categorical variable (using quartile exposures for each trimester and relative risks were estimated from logistic regression, adjusted for confounding variables. Results There were 74,284 women with a term, singleton birth during the study period and with exposure data. In the analyses unadjusted for year of birth, first trimester exposures in the highest quartile for SO2 and PM10suggested an increased risk of delivering a LBW infant (relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 1.78 for SO2 exposure and relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.74 for PM10. After adjustment for birth year, the relative risks were attenuated somewhat and not statistically significant. A dose-response relationship for SO2 was noted with increasing levels of exposure. No statistically significant effects were noted for ozone. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure during the first

  19. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  20. A full-flow catalytic reactor at pilot scale for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J. [University Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Corella, J.; Martin, J.A. [University of Saragossa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    A new catalytic reactor for commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts has been calculated designed, constructed, set up and operated in a full flow mode downstream from a fluidized bed biomass gasifier. It contains 3.9 kg of a commercial catalyst in its full size and shape (rings) and is located in a bed of 75 mm internal diameter and 1.31 m length. Four tests with it has provided excellent results. (author)

  1. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  2. System and process for biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  3. STUDY ON APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION TO SUPPORT IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Mardiatmoko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A research to study biomass classification by using GIS has been conducted at forest area in Ambon, Province of Maluku. The aims of this research were to find out composition of forest vegetation with its distribution, to determine biomass potency distribution of vegetation and to make classification of biomass potency, air temperature and light intensity distribution. This research used survey method. The vegetation biomass was measured by using allometric and weighted scoring method. By using GIS, definite score can be formatted. The result showed that composition of forest vegetation could be determined, and its biomass potency could be measured and presented on digital map. The digital map of biomass potency, air temperatures and light intensity distribution can be arranged successfully with 3 classifications: low 0.15 ha (17%, moderate 0.31 ha (37% and high 0.39 ha (46%.

  4. Refined weighted sum of gray gases model for air-fuel combustion and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in utility boiler furnaces. Models for radiative properties play a vital role in reliable simulations of utility boilers and simulation-based design and optimization. The weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is one of the most widely used model...

  5. Association between PM10 air pollution and birth weight after full-term pregnancy in Krakow city 1995–2009 – trimester specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Merklinger-Gruchala

    2015-05-01

    PM10 air pollution at levels currently encountered in Krakow city adversely affect infant birth weight; however, the effect seems to be very small. The influence of particulate air pollution on foetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations for the results, but further research is needed to establish possible biological mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.

  6. Sensitivity of tropospheric ozone to chemical kinetic uncertainties in air masses influenced by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Cain, M.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S. R.

    2017-07-01

    We use a Lagrangian chemical transport model with a Monte Carlo approach to determine impacts of kinetic rate uncertainties on simulated concentrations of ozone, NOy and OH in a high-altitude biomass burning plume and a low-level industrial pollution plume undergoing long-range transport. Uncertainties in kinetic rate constants yield 10-12 ppbv (5th to 95th percentile) uncertainty in the ozone concentration, dominated by reactions that cycle NO and NO2, control NOx conversion to NOy reservoir species, and key reactions contributing to O3 loss (O(1D) + H2O, HO2 + O3). Our results imply that better understanding of the peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) thermal decomposition constant is key to predicting large-scale O3 production from fire emissions and uncertainty in the reaction of NO + O3 at low temperatures is particularly important for both the anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes. The highlighted reactions serve as a useful template for targeting new laboratory experiments aimed at reducing uncertainties in our understanding of tropospheric O3 photochemistry.

  7. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  8. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from fuels common in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern US. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) instrument and three different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the US Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana and were used as the basis for a number of emission factors reported by Yokelson et al. (2013). The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the three geographic fuel regions being simulated. Discrete emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 % ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 % × 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 41-54 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde

  9. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from temperate fuels common in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the 3 geographic fuel regions being simulated. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 ± 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 42-57 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde were the dominant potential SOA precursors. In addition, ambient air measurements of emissions from the Fourmile Canyon Fire

  10. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  11. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  12. Effects of lighting and air-conditioning systems on growth weight and functional composition of frill-lettuce produced in plant factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Okamura, Nobuya; Furukawa, Hajime; Myojin, Chiho; Moriuchi, Koji; Kinoshita, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop optimal air-conditioning systems for plant factories. To verify the effect of particular air-conditioning and lighting systems, cultivation experiments were performed with frill-lettuce for two weeks. In the present study, the relationship between the cultivation condition, the yield (i.e., increase in edible portion weight), and the functional components were discussed. Based on the measured data, increased photosynthetic photon flux density increased antioxidative activity and edible portion weight, possibly because high light intensities are stressful for frill lettuce. Antioxidative activity also increased under conditions of low CO2 concentration, weak and strong winds, and high air temperature because these conditions became stresses for the plants. However, a decrease in edible portion weight was observed under these conditions, implying there is a negative correlation between antioxidative activity and edible portion weight.

  13. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  14. Biomass burning in Indo-China peninsula and its impacts on regional air quality and global climate change-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Linthoingambi Devi, Ningombam; Li, Jun; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Zhang, Gan; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2017-08-01

    Although, many biomass burning (BB) emissions products (particulate matter and trace gases) are believed to be trans-boundary pollutants that originates from India and China (the two most populous countries in Asia), the information about BB emission and related contents is limited for Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) region. This motivated us to review this region pertaining to BB emission. The main objective of the review is to document the current status of BB emission in ICP region. In order to highlight the impact of BB on regional air quality and global climate change, the role of BB emission in ICP region is also discussed. Based on the available literature and modeling simulations studies, it is evidenced that ICP is one of the hotspot regional source for aerosols in terms of BB emissions. In addition, regional emissions through BB have significant implications for regional air quality especially in the neighboring countries such as China, Taiwan and India. Our assessment highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data and research studies addressing BB related issues in context of environmental and human health. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience and further research into these issues is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  16. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F.; Phillips, Michael J.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Everett, Kibri H.; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka. PMID:22690185

  17. Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Kleeman, Michael J; Wu, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW, pollution, but it is still unclear which sources or components of air pollution might be in play. The association between ultrafine particles and LBW has never been studied. To study the relationships between LBW in term born infants and exposure to particles by size fraction, source and chemical composition, and complementary components of air pollution in Los Angeles County (California, USA) over the period 2001-2008. Birth certificates (n=960,945) were geocoded to maternal residence. Primary particulate matter (PM) concentrations by source and composition were modeled. Measured fine PM, nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations were interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Traffic indices were estimated. Associations between LBW and air pollution metrics were examined using generalized additive models, adjusting for maternal age, parity, race/ethnicity, education, neighborhood income, gestational age and infant sex. Increased LBW risks were associated with the mass of primary fine and ultrafine PM, with several major sources (especially gasoline, wood burning and commercial meat cooking) of primary PM, and chemical species in primary PM (elemental and organic carbon, potassium, iron, chromium, nickel, and titanium but not lead or arsenic). Increased LBW risks were also associated with total fine PM mass, nitrogen dioxide and local traffic indices (especially within 50 m from home), but not with ozone. Stronger associations were observed in infants born to women with low socioeconomic status, chronic hypertension, diabetes and a high body mass index. This study supports previously reported associations between traffic-related pollutants and LBW and suggests other pollution sources and components, including ultrafine particles, as possible risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic determination of benzene in indoor air during the use of biomass fuels in cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Kulkarni, P K; Desai, N M; Shah, S H; Patel, G M; Mansuri, M M; Parikh, D J; Saiyed, H N

    2005-02-18

    A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic method in electron ionization (EI) mode with MS/MS ion preparation using helium at flow rate 1 ml min(-1) as carrier gas on DB-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. film thickness 0.25 microm) has been developed for the determination of benzene in indoor air. The detection limit for benzene was 0.002 microg ml(-1) with S/N: 4 (S: 66, N: 14). The benzene concentration for cooks during cooking time in indoor kitchen using dung fuel was 114.1 microg m(-3) while it was 6.6 microg m(-3) for open type kitchen. The benzene concentration was significantly higher (p analytical chemist dealing with GC-MS in confirmation and quantification of benzene in environmental samples with health risk exposure assessment.

  19. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  20. Evaluation of total aboveground biomass and total merchantable biomass in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; David R. Larsen; Charles D. Keating

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass weight rather than volume as the standard measurement of wood for buying and selling sawtimber. Therefore, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass of harvested trees as well as total standing biomass of live timber for...

  1. Assessing the influence of traffic-related air pollution on risk of term low birth weight on the basis of land-use-based regression models and measures of air toxics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Wilhelm, Michelle; Su, Jason; Goldberg, Daniel; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2012-06-15

    Few studies have examined associations of birth outcomes with toxic air pollutants (air toxics) in traffic exhaust. This study included 8,181 term low birth weight (LBW) children and 370,922 term normal-weight children born between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2006, to women residing within 5 miles (8 km) of an air toxics monitoring station in Los Angeles County, California. Additionally, land-use-based regression (LUR)-modeled estimates of levels of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were used to assess the influence of small-area variations in traffic pollution. The authors examined associations with term LBW (≥37 weeks' completed gestation and birth weight pollution in epidemiologic birth outcome studies.

  2. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  3. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests; Developpement d'un calorimetre a eau pour la dosimetrie au LNE-LNHB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autret, E. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France)

    2011-01-15

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers from a review of three field tests carried out between 2007 and 2009. 31 biomass boilers have been audited to cover the large diversity of sites under operation in terms of fuels, power, flue-gas cleaning devices.. Results are compared to actual and forecasted regulations. The review shows that fuel quality and operation are key issues to ensure low emissions of organic pollutants (OC, VOC, CnHm, PCDD/F, PAH, PCB, HCB), SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  4. Chemical composition of pre-monsoon air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new air quality facility and PTR-MS: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2014-06-01

    One seventh of the world's population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia, yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides are not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high-sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and a meteorological station, was used to quantify in situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (northwest IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the pre-monsoon season at the site were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May~2012 ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9 to 37.5 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulfur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one-minute in situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g., acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning caused massive increases (> 3 times the baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant

  5. Chemical composition of pre-monsoon air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new PTR-MS and air quality facility: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2013-12-01

    One seventh of the world population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia. Yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides is not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and meteorological station, was used to quantify in-situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (N. W. IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the pre-monsoon season at the site, were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 ranged from 1.2-1.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9-37.4 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulphur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one minute in-situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g. acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning activity caused massive increases (> 3 times of baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant source

  6. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana de Paula Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil.METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3 and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs.RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56. Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance.CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy.

  7. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Adam, Getachew; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Drack, Michael; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Leonat, Lucia; Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Groiss, Heiko; Scharber, Markus Clark; White, Matthew Schuette; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology requires light-absorbing materials that are highly efficient, lightweight, low cost and stable during operation. Organolead halide perovskites constitute a highly promising class of materials, but suffer limited stability under ambient conditions without heavy and costly encapsulation. Here, we report ultrathin (3 μm), highly flexible perovskite solar cells with stabilized 12% efficiency and a power-per-weight as high as 23 W g(-1). To facilitate air-stable operation, we introduce a chromium oxide-chromium interlayer that effectively protects the metal top contacts from reactions with the perovskite. The use of a transparent polymer electrode treated with dimethylsulphoxide as the bottom layer allows the deposition-from solution at low temperature-of pinhole-free perovskite films at high yield on arbitrary substrates, including thin plastic foils. These ultra-lightweight solar cells are successfully used to power aviation models. Potential future applications include unmanned aerial vehicles-from airplanes to quadcopters and weather balloons-for environmental and industrial monitoring, rescue and emergency response, and tactical security applications.

  8. Traffic-related air pollution, preterm birth and term birth weight in the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H.; Fischer, Paul; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background: Maternal exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Few studies took into account the spatial and temporal variation of air pollution levels. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on

  9. [A study concerning how much weight schoolchildren carry in their bags, involving four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíño, Fernando A; Santa María, Claudio J; Bazán, Nelio E; Mainero, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Determining the weight children carry in their bags to school (absolute and relative values) and the distance walked during home-school routes, involving students from four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The study involved 751 primary (4th to 6th grades) and secondary (1st to 3rd years) level students who were attending three private schools and one public one. Body and bag weights were measured and the children were asked about the distance (in blocks) they walked from school to home. The study involved a descriptive analysis and contrasted the students by gender, educational level, type of school and grade or year. Possible associations between variables were ascertained. The group was divided into those carrying bags weighing less than 10% of their body weight and those who carrying 10% (considered a critical value) and more; frequencies were calculated by the type of bag being used. 68% of the sample were carrying 10% or more of their body weight (P42=10.13%): 66% in male (P44=10.12%) and 60% in female children (P40=10.2%). Private school students carried more weight than public school children (p<0.05) and younger students carried a greater weight than older students (p<0.05) in both educational levels. Most children were carrying relative weights well above that recommended and female students were most affected. Younger students carried higher absolute and relative weights.

  10. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants.

  11. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  12. Associations between Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coull, Brent A.; Just, Allan C.; Maxwell, Sarah L.; Schwartz, Joel; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Wright, Rosalind J.; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure is linked to adverse birth outcomes. However, modifying effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) and infant sex remain virtually unexplored. Objectives We examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and birth weight differed by sex and maternal BMI in 670 urban ethnically mixed mother-child pairs. Methods Black carbon (BC) levels were estimated using a validated spatio-temporal land-use regression (LUR) model; fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was estimated using a hybrid LUR model incorporating satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth measures. Using stratified multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, we examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and calculated birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) z-scores varied by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Results Median birth weight was 3.3±0.6 kg; 33% of mothers were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m3). In stratified analyses, the association between higher PM2.5 and lower birth weight was significant in males of obese mothers (−0.42 unit of BWGA z-score change per IQR increase in PM2.5, 95%CI: −0.79 to −0.06) ( PM2.5 × sex × obesity Pinteraction=0.02). Results were similar for BC models (Pinteraction=0.002). Conclusions Associations of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and reduced birth weight were most evident in males born to obese mothers. PMID:25601728

  13. Association between PM10 air pollution and birth weight after full-term pregnancy in Krakow city 1995–2009 – trimester specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Merklinger-Gruchala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The results of epidemiological studies indicate that the higher maternal exposure to air pollution, especially with particulate matter during pregnancy, the lower the infant’s birth weight. The aim of this study was to estimate entire pregnancy and trimester-specific exposure of pregnant women in the city of Krakow, southern Poland, to fine particulate matter [≤10 µg (PM10], and to assess its effect on the birth weight of boys and girls separately. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 85,000 singleton, live, full-term births in Krakow city during a 15-year period (data from the birth registry. The mean concentrations of the pollutant for each month of gestation were estimated using continuous municipal monitoring data. Results. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the mean PM10 concentration during entire pregnancy was inversely associated with birth weight in girls and the group of boys and girls combined, after adjusting for maternal age, gestational age and year of birth; in boys the relationship was not statistically significant. Maternal exposure to PM10 during the first trimester was negatively associated with birth weight separately in girls and boys, and the group of boys and girls combined. However, the PM10 exposure during the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with birth weight. Conclusions. PM10 air pollution at levels currently encountered in Krakow city adversely affect infant birth weight; however, the effect seems to be very small. The influence of particulate air pollution on foetal growth in early gestation is one of several possible explanations for the results, but further research is needed to establish possible biological mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.

  14. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  15. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    reflections of plant species, tissue or organ types, genetic traits and environment. Effects of cultivar type, anatomical distribution, chemical composition, fertilizer level and growth year have been observed during in vitro and in vivo trials. A similar approach is here taken to further investigate: 1). How...... as an important parameter affecting the bio-degradability during enzymatic saccharification. The leaf fraction (leaf blade and sheath), which contributes up to 50 % of the whole wheat straw on a weight basis, is more degradable than the stem fraction via a biochemical process. Water was used to assess...... level of different biomasses. The knowledge on wheat straw biomass gained from this thesis work may be translated to more focused plant breeding research for 2G ethanol production, and the Copenhagen HTS platform is an ideal tool for screening large biomass sample set. The success of lignocellulosic...

  16. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  17. Desenvolvimento e construção de fornalha para biomassa com sistema de aquecimento direto e indireto do ar = Development and construction of a furnace for biomass with system of direct and indirect air heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma fornalha, com opção para aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, foiprojetada e construída para utilizar, como combustível complementar à lenha, biomassa particulada, resíduo agroindustrial abundante e desperdiçado em boa parte. No intuito de verificar o funcionamento da fornalha, na opção de aquecimento direto e indireto, foram realizados três testes preliminares utilizando somente lenha como combustível. Nestes testes, avaliaram-se as temperaturas do ar ambiente, do ar aquecido na saída da fornalha e depois do ventilador, fluxo de ar, poder calorífico inferior e eficiência térmica. Com os dados obtidos nos testes, nas opções de aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, a fornalha mostrou-se flexível na opção de aquecimento, de fácil construção e operação, não exigindo mão-de-obra qualificada.A furnace, with a system for direct and indirect air heating, was projected and constructed to use biomass, particulate biomass, abundant and largely wasted agroindustrial refuse, as complementary fuel to firewood. With the objective of verifying furnace operation, in the option of direct and indirect heating, three preliminaries tests were conducted using only firewood as fuel. In these tests, the following variables were monitored: room air temperature, heated air temperature at the exit of the furnace and after the fan; room air relative humidity; warm air flow; lower calorific power and thermal efficiency of the furnace. In the tests the results showed, for both direct and indirect air heating, the furnace was shown to be flexible in the heating option, of easy construction and operation, not requiring skilled labor.

  18. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  19. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co...

  20. The maximum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle effect on weight-dimensional characteristics of the NPP energy blocks with air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The cycle maximum temperature effect on the properties of individual apparatuses and total NPP energy blocks characteristics has been investigated. Air, nitrogen, helium and chemically reacting system N 2 O 4 +2NO+O 2 have been considered as coolants. The conducted investigations have shown that maximum temperature of thermodynamical cycle affects considerably both the weight-dimensional characteristics of individual elements of NPP and total characteristics of NPP energy block. Energy blocks of NPP with air cooling wherein dissociating nitrogen tetroxide is used as working body, have better indexes on the majority of characteristics in comparison with blocks with air, nitrogen and helium cooling. If technical restrictions are to be taken into account (thermal resistance of metals, coolant decomposition under high temperatures, etc.) then dissociating nitrogen tetroxide should be recommended as working body and maximum cycle temperature in the range from 500 up to 600 deg C

  1. Maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight: A multi-country evaluation of effect and heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvand, P.; Parker, J.; Bell, M.L.; Bonzini, M.; Brauer, M.; Darrow, L.A.; Gehring, U.; Glinianaia, S.V.; Gouveia, N.; Ha, E.-H.; Leem, J.H.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Jalaludin, B.; Jesdale, B.M.; Lepeule, J.; Morello-Frosch, R.; Morgan, G.G.; Pesatori, A.C.; Pierik, F.H.; Pless-Mulloli, T.; Rich, D.Q.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Seo, J.; Slama, R.; Strickland, M.; Tamburic, L.; Wartenberg, D.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Woodruff, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth

  2. Non-Destructive Lichen Biomass Estimation in Northwestern Alaska: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa “community” samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m−2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  3. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Rosso

    Full Text Available Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144 at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count, among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4% using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2. Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska.

  4. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  5. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  6. A Thermogravimetric Study of the Behaviour of Biomass Blends During Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Jiříček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ignition and combustion behavior of biomass and biomass blends under typical heating conditions were investigated. Thermogravimetric analyses were performed on stalk and woody biomass, alone and blended with various additive weight ratios. The combustion process was enhanced by adding oxygen to the primary air. This led to shorter devolatilization/pyrolysis and char burnout stages, which both took place at lower temperatures than in air alone. The results of the ignition study of stalk biomass show a decrease in ignition temperature as the particle size decreases. This indicates homogeneous ignition, where the volatiles burn in the gas phase, preventing oxygen from reaching the particle surface.The behavior of biomass fuels in the burning process was analyzed, and the effects of heat production and additive type were investigated. Mixing with additives is a method for modifying biofuel and obtaining a more continuous heat release process. Differential scanning calorimetric-thermogravimetric (DSC-TGA analysis revealed that when the additive is added to biomass, the volatilization rate is modified, the heat release is affected, and the combustion residue is reduced at the same final combustion temperature.

  7. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  8. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Design and construction of a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a source of thermal storage, for cassava drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Torres-Gallo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of designing, building and validation a hybrid system of heating air by combustion of biomass and solar radiation, using phase change material (PCM as a thermal storage source, for cassava drying, a small scale. The dryer consists of a centrifugal fan, two solar collectors, a fuel burner solid (rice husk and a tray dryer. System validation was performed drying up Yucca. The PCM allowed to follow the drying process, even when the solar radiation was below 116,22 ± 31,94 W / m2, being able to maintain drying air temperatures in the two solar collectors at 46 ± 4, 29 ° C and 51 ± 4.08 ° C for an additional 45 min. The drying time was 10 h and 45 min, the efficiency of the solar collectors was 43.91 % and the rice husk burner of 36.72 %.

  10. Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Bond, T.; D'Angiola, A.; Gon, H.D. van der; Frost, G.J.; Heil, A.; Kaiser, J.W.; Kinne, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kloster, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liousse, C.; Masui, T.; Meleux, F.; Mieville, A.; Ohara, T.; Raut, J.-C.; Riahi, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Smith, S.J.; Thompson, A.; Aardenne, J. van; Werf, G.R. van der; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Several different inventories of global and regional anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are assessed for the 1980-2010 period. The species considered in this study are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black carbon. The inventories considered include the ACCMIP historical

  11. Emission of nanoparticles during combustion of waste biomass in fireplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastichová, Vendula; Krpec, Kamil; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Kubesa, Petr; Martiník, Lubomír; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Holubčík, Michal

    2014-08-01

    Contamination of air by solid particles is serious problem for human health and also environment. Small particles in nano-sizes are more dangerous than same weight of larger size. Negative effect namely of the solid particles depends on (i) number, (ii) specific surface area (iii) respirability and (iv) bonding of others substances (e.g. PAHs, As, Cd, Zn, Cu etc.) which are higher for smaller (nano-sizes) particles compared to larger one. For this reason mentioned above this contribution deals with measuring of amount, and distribution of nanoparticles produced form combustion of waste city biomass in small combustion unit with impactor DLPI.

  12. Use of Residual Biomass from the Textile Industry as Carbon Source for Production of a Low-Molecular-Weight Xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Caetano Duarte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pretreated dirty cotton residue (PDCR from the textile industry was used as an alternative carbon source for the submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae and the production of xylanases. The filtered culture supernatant was fractionated by ultrafiltration followed by three chromatographic steps, which resulted in the isolation of a homogeneous low-molecular-weight xylanase (Xyl-O1 with a mass of 21.5 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE co-polymerized with 0.1% oat spelt xylan. Enzyme catalysis was the most efficient at 50 °C and pH 6.0. The Km values (mg·mL−1 for the soluble fraction of oat spelt and birchwood xylans were 10.05 and 3.34, respectively. Xyl-O1 was more stable in the presence of 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT, l-cysteine or β-mercaptoethanol, which increased the rate of catalysis by 40%, 14%, 40% or 37%, respectively. The enzyme stability was improved at pH 7.0 in the presence of 20 mM l-cysteine, with the retention of nearly 100% of the activity after 6 h at 50 °C. Xyl-O1 catalyzed the cleavage of internal β-1,4 linkages of the soluble substrates containing d-xylose residues, with a maximum efficiency of 33% for the hydrolysis of birchwood xylan after 12 h of incubation. Identification of the hydrolysis products by high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD indicated the predominance of the hydrolysis products X2-X6 during the first 12 h of incubation and the accumulation of higher xylooligomers after the elution of the last xylooligomer standard, xylohexaose.

  13. In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution promotes adverse intrauterine conditions, resulting in weight gain, altered blood pressure, and increased susceptibility to heart failure in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad S Weldy

    Full Text Available Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM₂.₅ is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM₂.₅ during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE air pollution, a major source of urban PM₂.₅, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (≈300 µg/m³ PM₂.₅, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week from embryonic day (E 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE 'reprograms' the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental

  14. Biomass gasification with air in a fluidized bed: Effect of the in-bed use of dolomite under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.; Caballero, M.A.; Martin, J.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Corella, J.

    1999-11-01

    The performance of a biomass gasifier, fluidized-bed type, is improved by in-bed use of calcined dolomite. Tar contents in the raw flue gas below 1 g/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained by using a bed with a percentage between 15 and 30 wt% of dolomite (the rest being silica sand). The work is carried out at small pilot-plant scale (10 kg of biomass/h) with equivalence ratios (ER) between 0.20 and 0.35 and temperatures of 800--840 C in the gasifier bed. To replace the eroded and elutriated dolomite (from the gasifier bed), an amount of dolomite (0.40--0.63 mm) is continuously fed, mixed with the biomass at 3 wt%. When the results obtained with in-bed dolomite are compared to the ones gained in a gasifier bed without dolomite, change of the following variables is reported: gas composition and its corresponding heating value, gas and char yields, apparent thermal efficiency, and tar contents. Once the usefulness of the in-bed use of dolomite is established, three main operation variables (ER and temperature of the gasifier bed and freeboard) are studied in the improved gasifier. Carryover of solids from the gasifier also increases when calcined dolomite is used because of its softness. Elutriation rate constants are calculated for several operational parameters.

  15. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  16. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Ostry, Aleck; Chan, Hing Man; Arbour, Laura

    2016-07-16

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs) were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM 2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased levels of maternal smoking. Maternal smoking had a

  17. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  18. A tree biomass and carbon estimation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily B. Schultz; Thomas G. Matney; Donald L. Grebner

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate forest management decisions for the developing woody biofuel and carbon credit markets require inventory and growth-and-yield systems reporting component tree dry weight biomass estimates. We have developed an integrated growth-and-yield and biomass/carbon calculator. The objective was to provide Mississippi’s State inventory system with bioenergy economic...

  19. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabelitz, N.; Macháčková, I.; Imfeld, G.; Brennerová, Mária; Pieper, D. H.; Heipieper, H. J.; Junca, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 565-577 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : btex * air sparging * bioremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  20. STAR Measurements and Modeling for Quantifying Air Quality and Climatic Impacts of Residential Biomass or Coal Combustion for Cooking, Heating and Lighting Kick-off Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR grantees and EPA scientists will discuss progress on their projects which aim to quantify the extent to which interventions for cleaner cooking, heating, or lighting can impact air quality and climate, which in turn affect human health and welfare

  1. Residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight: the roles of air pollution, heat, noise, and road-adjacent trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Ostro, Bart; Figueras, Francesc; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Valentín, Antònia; Martinez, David; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Jerrett, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-07-01

    Maternal residential proximity to roads has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no study investigating mediators or buffering effects of road-adjacent trees on this association. We investigated the association between mothers' residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight (LBW), while exploring possible mediating roles of air pollution (PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10), PM(2.5) absorbance, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides), heat, and noise and buffering effect of road-adjacent trees on this association. This cohort study was based on 6438 singleton term births in Barcelona, Spain (2001-2005). Road proximity was measured as both continuous distance to and living within 200 m from a major road. We assessed individual exposures to air pollution, noise, and heat using, respectively, temporally adjusted land-use regression models, annual averages of 24-hour noise levels across 50 m and 250 m, and average of satellite-derived land-surface temperature in a 50-m buffer around each residential address. We used vegetation continuous fields to abstract tree coverage in a 200-m buffer around major roads. Living within 200 m of major roads was associated with a 46% increase in term LBW risk; an interquartile range increase in heat exposure with an 18% increase; and third-trimester exposure to PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM10 with 24%, 25%, and 26% increases, respectively. Air pollution and heat exposures together explained about one-third of the association between residential proximity to major roads and term LBW. Our observations on the buffering of this association by road-adjacent trees were not consistent between our 2 measures of proximity to major roads. An increased risk of term LBW associated with proximity to major roads was partly mediated by air pollution and heat exposures.

  2. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. Hot gas cleanup with selected commercial and full-size nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, M.A.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.

    2000-05-01

    Three selected commercial, full-size steam-reforming catalysts for naphthas, BASF G1-50, ICI 46-1, and Topsoee R-67, are tested at pilot-scale level for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification in a fluidized bed. Gas composition and tar content in the flue gas are measured before and after the catalytic bed. Variations of the catalytic bed in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O contents are reported for different operating conditions. Tar conversions and an apparent first-order kinetics constant for the overall tar removal reaction are calculated. Tar contents at the exit of the catalytic reactor as low as 10 mg/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained in a test of 50 h-on-stream without noticeable catalyst deactivation. Important variations in tar conversion with space time in the catalytic bed, with H{sub 2}O/C* in the flue gas, and with the equivalence ratio in the upstream gasifier are observed. These results obtained at the pilot-scale level and with the use of full-sized commercial catalysts are an important forward step in demonstrating the technical feasibility of the overall biomass gasification process.

  3. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  4. Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Rosa, D.; Lima, L.; Santana, J.L.; Olivares, S.; Martin, R.; Garcia, M.

    2003-01-01

    Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

  5. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    With the ending of one-child policy since 2015, the number of newborns are expected to increase in China, where people are surviving from pool air quality. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5 have been confirmed as a top risk factor to cause birth defects including low birth weight (LBW). Motivated by the increasing demands of the newborns for cleaner air in China, we conducted the first national risk assessment study on LBW cases caused by PM2.5. We combined county-level PM2.5 concentrations in 2013-2015 and demographic data (including population counts, birth rates and etc.), province-level baseline incidences of LBW and multiple reference safety concentrations (0 μg/m3, WHO air quality guidelines and interim targets) to estimate the number of PM2.5-associated LBW in 31 provinces. The uncertainty was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on our results, in 2013 among 334,781 (95% CI: 313,024-344,568) cases of LBW, 122,684 (95% CI: 53,153-173,846, account for 37% of the total LBW) were attributed to PM2.5, when assuming the reference safety concentration as 0 μg/m3; while 53,917 (95% CI: 22,851-82,195, account for 16% of the total LBW) cases of LBW could have been protected, if the air quality met WHO WHO interim target-3, 35 μg/m3. Among 31 provinces, PM2.5-associated LBW were mostly distributed in Hebei (12.99%, 95% CI: 12.42%-17.30%), Henan (9.75%, 95% CI: 9.11%-13.50%) and Guangdong (8.60%, 95% CI: 6.98%-9.42%). During 2013 to 2015, air quality in China was reported to be improved by implement of emission-reduction policies. Similarly, we found significantly decreasing trends of infants weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in most heavily polluted areas, which protected 12,201 (95% CI: 4,749-20,503) and 24,637 (95% CI: 9,619-39,821) PM2.5-associated LBW in 2014 and 2015, account for 3.64% (95% CI: 1.46%-6.21%) and 7.36% (95% CI: 2.93%-12.07%) of that in 2013, respectively. The uncertainty of this study was mainly contributed by that in epidemiology

  6. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  7. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  8. The FireWork air quality forecast system with near-real-time biomass burning emissions: Recent developments and evaluation of performance for the 2015 North American wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Anderson, Kerry; Moran, Michael D.; Beaulieu, Paul-André; Davignon, Didier; Cousineau, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environment and Climate Change Canada’s FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian wildfire season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS) as an input to the operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS). To demonstrate the capability of the system we analyzed two forecast periods in 2015 (June 2–July 15, and August 15–31) when fire activity was high, and observed fire-smoke-impacted areas in western Canada and the western United States. Modeled PM2.5 surface concentrations were compared with surface measurements and benchmarked with results from the operational RAQDPS, which did not consider near-real-time biomass burning emissions. Model performance statistics showed that FireWork outperformed RAQDPS with improvements in forecast hourly PM2.5 across the region; the results were especially significant for stations near the path of fire plume trajectories. Although the hourly PM2.5 concentrations predicted by FireWork still displayed bias for areas with active fires for these two periods (mean bias [MB] of –7.3 µg m−3 and 3.1 µg m−3), it showed better forecast skill than the RAQDPS (MB of –11.7 µg m−3 and –5.8 µg m−3) and demonstrated a greater ability to capture temporal variability of episodic PM2.5 events (correlation coefficient values of 0.50 and 0.69 for FireWork compared to 0.03 and 0.11 for RAQDPS). A categorical forecast comparison based on an hourly PM2.5 threshold of 30 µg m−3 also showed improved scores for probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI), and false alarm rate (FAR

  9. Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Pengmei; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wu, Chuangzhi; Ma, Longlong; Chen, Yong; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2007-01-01

    A promising application for biomass is liquid fuel synthesis, such as methanol or dimethyl ether (DME). Previous studies have studied syngas production from biomass-derived char, oil and gas. This study intends to explore the technology of syngas production from direct biomass gasification, which may be more economically viable. The ratio of H 2 /CO is an important factor that affects the performance of this process. In this study, the characteristics of biomass gasification gas, such as H 2 /CO and tar yield, as well as its potential for liquid fuel synthesis is explored. A fluidized bed gasifier and a downstream fixed bed are employed as the reactors. Two kinds of catalysts: dolomite and nickel based catalyst are applied, and they are used in the fluidized bed and fixed bed, respectively. The gasifying agent used is an air-steam mixture. The main variables studied are temperature and weight hourly space velocity in the fixed bed reactor. Over the ranges of operating conditions examined, the maximum H 2 content reaches 52.47 vol%, while the ratio of H 2 /CO varies between 1.87 and 4.45. The results indicate that an appropriate temperature (750 o C for the current study) and more catalyst are favorable for getting a higher H 2 /CO ratio. Using a simple first order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, the apparent activation energies and pre-exponential factors are obtained for nickel based catalysts. The results indicate that biomass gasification gas has great potential for liquid fuel synthesis after further processing

  10. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA; Friend, Julie [Claymont, DE; Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Hames, Bonnie [Westminster, CO

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  11. Shorea robusta: A sustainable biomass feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biomass feedstock needs to be available in a manner that is sustainable as well as renewable. However, obtaining reliable and cost effective supplies of biomass feedstock produced in a sustainable manner can prove to be difficult. Traditional biomass, mainly in the form of fallen leaves, fuel wood or dried dung, has long been the renewable and sustainable energy source for cooking and heating. Present study accounts for the biomass of fallen leaves of Shorea robusta, also known as sal, sakhua or shala tree, in the campus of BIT Mesra (Ranchi. These leaves are being gathered and burnt rather than being sold commercially. They contain water to varying degrees which affects their energy content. Hence, measurement of moisture content is critical for its biomass assessment. The leaves were collected, weighed, oven dried at 100oC until constant weight, then dry sample was reweighed to calculate the moisture content that has been driven off. By subtraction of moisture content from the initial weight of leaves, biomass was calculated. Using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC the heat content of the leaves was calculated and the elemental analysis of leaf was done by CHNSO elemental analyser. Further, total biomass and carbon content of Sal tree was calculated using allometric equations so as to make a comparison to the biomass stored in dried fallen leaves

  12. Long term analysis of the biomass content in the feed of a waste-to-energy plant with oxygen-enriched combustion air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Zellinger, Günter; Rechberger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Thermal utilization of municipal solid waste and commercial wastes has become of increasing importance in European waste management. As waste materials are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, a part of the energy generated can be considered as renewable and is thus subsidized in some European countries. Analogously, CO(2) emissions of waste incinerators are only partly accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. A novel approach for determining these fractions is the so-called balance method. In the present study, the implementation of the balance method on a waste-to-energy plant using oxygen-enriched combustion air was investigated. The findings of the 4-year application indicate on the one hand the general applicability and robustness of the method, and on the other hand the importance of reliable monitoring data. In particular, measured volume flows of the flue gas and the oxygen-enriched combustion air as well as corresponding O(2) and CO(2) contents should regularly be validated. The fraction of renewable (biogenic) energy generated throughout the investigated period amounted to between 27 and 66% for weekly averages, thereby denoting the variation in waste composition over time. The average emission factor of the plant was approximately 45 g CO(2) MJ(-1) energy input or 450 g CO(2) kg(-1) waste incinerated. The maximum error of the final result was about 16% (relative error), which was well above the error (<8%) of the balance method for plants with conventional oxygen supply.

  13. Impact of the biomass burning on methane variability during dry years in the Amazon measured from an aircraft and the AIRS sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; de Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues; Medeiros, Adan Sady; Guimarães, Patrícia Costa; Barbosa, Cybelli G G; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Martin, Scot T; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2018-05-15

    The present study examines the spatiotemporal variability and interrelations of the atmospheric methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and biomass burning (BB) outbreaks retrieved from satellite data over the Amazon region during the 2003-2012 period. In the climatological context, we found consistent seasonal cycles of BB outbreaks and CO in the Amazon, both variables showing a peak during the dry season. The dominant CO variability mode features the largest positive loadings in the southern Amazon, and describes the interannual CO variations related to BB outbreaks along the deforestation arc during the dry season. In line with CO variability and BB outbreaks, the results show strong correspondence with the spatiotemporal variability of CH 4 in the southern Amazon during years of intense drought. Indeed, the areas with the largest positive CH 4 anomalies in southern Amazon overlap the areas with high BB outbreaks and positive CO anomalies. The analyses also showed that high (low) BB outbreaks in the southern Amazon occur during dry (wet) years. In consequence, the interannual climate variability modulates the BB outbreaks in the southern Amazon, which in turn have considerable impacts on CO and CH 4 interannual variability in the region. Therefore, the BB outbreaks might play a major role in modulating the CH 4 and CO variations, at least in the southern Amazon. This study also provides a comparison between the estimate of satellite and aircraft measurements for the CH 4 over the southern Amazon, which indicates relatively small differences from the aircraft measurements in the lower troposphere, with errors ranging from 0.18% to 1.76%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Uncertainties in African Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Modeling Global Air Quality, Long Range Transport and Tropospheric Chemical Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R. van der Werf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the troposphere in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere (SH is significantly influenced by gaseous emissions released from African biomass burning (BB. Here we investigate how various emission estimates given in bottom-up BB inventories (GFEDv2, GFEDv3, AMMABB affect simulations of global tropospheric composition using the TM4 chemistry transport model. The application of various model parameterizations for introducing such emissions is also investigated. There are perturbations in near-surface ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO of ~60–90% in the tropics and ~5–10% in the SH between different inventories. Increasing the update frequency of the temporal distribution to eight days generally results in decreases of between ~5 and 10% in near-surface mixing ratios throughout the tropics, which is larger than the influence of increasing the injection heights at which BB emissions are introduced. There are also associated differences in the long range transport of pollutants throughout the SH, where the composition of the free troposphere in the SH is sensitive to the chosen BB inventory. Analysis of the chemical budget terms reveals that the influence of increasing the tropospheric CO burden due to BB on oxidative capacity of the troposphere is mitigated by the associated increase in NOx emissions (and thus O3 with the variations in the CO/N ratio between inventories being low. For all inventories there is a decrease in the tropospheric chemical lifetime of methane of between 0.4 and 0.8% regardless of the CO emitted from African BB. This has implications for assessing the effect of inter-annual variability in BB on the annual growth rate of methane.

  15. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  16. Homologous series of low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, benzoic acid and hydroxyacids in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols over the Bay of Bengal: Influence of heterogeneity in air masses and formation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bikkina, Srinivas; Sarin, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (LMW monoacids) are most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and often act as important contributors to the acidity of precipitation in addition to inorganic acids. However, there is a large uncertainty in the sources and secondary formations of these acids in the atmosphere. This study reports homologous series of LMW monoacids, including normal (C1-C10), branched chain (iC4-iC6), aromatic (benzoic acid) and hydroxyacids (lactic and glycolic acids) in the fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols collected over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during a winter cruise (December 2008 to January 2009). The samples were associated with two distinct continental air masses arriving from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP-outflow) and Southeast Asia (SEA-outflow). The molecular distributions of organic acids are characterized by the dominance of formic acid (C1) followed by acetic acid (C2) and nonanoic acid (C9) in the IGP-outflow, whereas dominance of C1 or C9 was observed in the SEA-outflow followed by C2. Formic-to-acetic acid (C1/C2) ratios were higher than unity (mean: 1.3 ± 0.3) in the IGP-outflow, whereas they were less than unity (0.9 ± 0.5) in the SEA-outflow. These results suggest that secondary formation of organic acids is largely important in the IGP-outflow whereas primary emission is a major source of organic acids in the SEA-outflow. Based on the correlation coefficient matrix analysis and C1/C2 and C4/C3 ratios, we consider that the sources of C1 are probably associated with the secondary formation via the oxidation of biogenic VOCs, while C2 has both primary and secondary formations associated with anthropogenic sources in the IGP-outflow. On the other hand, C1 and C2 have similar sources (both primary and secondary) originated from biomass burning and bacterial activities via long-range atmospheric transport in the SEA-outflow, as inferred from the MODIS fire spot data, significant concentrations of isovaleric

  17. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  18. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  19. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  20. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  1. Durability of Biomass Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaķītis, A.; Nulle, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main resources for biomass agro-ecotechnologies are cereal straw residues, energy crops and emergent vegetation from wetlands. The herbaceous biomass is a material of low density (20 – 60kg/m3) therefore new mobile equipment and technologies for biomass comminution and densification have to be worked out. To guarantee the quality of biomass briquettes in the handling and usage process, sufficient durability of briquettes should be provided. National Standards of biomass briquettes should ...

  2. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  3. Stakeholder preferences towards the sustainable development of CDM projects: Lessons from biomass (rice husk) CDM project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate stakeholder preferences towards sustainable development (SD) priorities in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The CDM's contribution to SD is explored in the context of a biomass (rice husk) case study conducted in Thailand. Quantitative analysis ranks increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority, followed by employment and technology transfer. Air pollution (dust) is ranked as the most important problem. Preference weights expressed by experts and local resident are statistically different in the cases of: employment generation; emission reductions; dust; waste disposal; and noise. Qualitative results, suggest that rice husk CDM projects contribute significantly to SD in terms of employment generation, an increase in usage of renewable energy, and transfer of knowledge. However, rice husk biomass projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. In order to ensure the environmental sustainability of CDM projects, stakeholders suggest that Thailand should cancel an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) exemption for CDM projects with an installed capacity below 10 MW and apply it to all CDM projects. - Highlights: → Stakeholders rank increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority. → Biomass (rice husk) CDM projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. → Rice husk CDM projects cannot give an extra income to farmers. → Preference weights expressed by experts and local residents are statistically different.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen and Desferal Treatments on CROTALARIA's (Crotalaria juncea Roth) Biomass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    920-920 individual plants. Experimental datas were estimated by MANOVA of SPSS. The most important results can be summarised as follows: a., As the N supplies improved the root length (cm), plant height (cm), mean scores (1-5), fresh root weight (t ha-1), green straw+leaf weight (t ha-1), total green biomass weight (t ha-1), air dry root weight (t ha-1), air dry straw+leaf weight (t ha-1), and total air dry biomass weight (t ha-1) increased with an 1.4, 1.3, 4.3, 1.3, 1.8, 1.6, 2.1, 1.9 and 2.0 times compared to the control by the start of flowering. b., As the N doses rised the root length, plant height, mean scores, fresh root weight, green straw+leaf weight, total green biomass weight, air dry root weight, air dry straw+leaf weight and total air dry biomass weight reaching 34.3 cm, 168.0 cm, 4.3, 14.8 t ha-1, 51.7 t ha-1, 66.5 t ha-1, 7.4 t ha-1, 16.5 t ha-1 and 23.9 t ha-1. c., About three-fourth of the total green biomass and total air dry biomass production at harvest was given by the straw+leaf yield, which ranged between 29.0-51.7 t ha-1 and 8.7-16.5 t ha-1, depending on the N-treatment applied. d., The root length, plant height, mean scores, fresh root weight, green straw+leaf weight, total green biomass weight, air dry root weight, air dry straw+leaf weight and total air dry biomass weight was increased in average with an 14, 15, 21, 157, 30, 63, 102, 28 and 51% by N+Desferal treatments compared to mean of N doses effects. e., By N+Desferal treatments the root length, plant height, mean scores, fresh root weight, green straw+leaf weight, total green biomass weight, air dry root weight, air dry straw+leaf weight and total air dry biomass weight achieved 37.0 cm, 173.3 cm, 4.3, 37.8 t ha-1, 64.4 t ha-1, 102.2 t ha-1, 13.8 t ha-1, 19.3 t ha-1 and 33.1 t ha-1. f., Approximately two-third of the total green biomass and total air dry biomass production at harvest was given by the straw+leaf yield, which ranged between 44.7-64.4 t ha-1 and 24.1-33.1 t ha-1

  5. Microscale modelling of ambient air concentrations resulting from the increased combustion of biomass firing systems within the 1{sup st} Ordinance for the Implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act (1. BImSchV); Modellrechnungen zu den Immissionsbelastungen bei einer verstaerkten Verfeuerung von Biomasse in Feuerungsanlagen der 1. BImSchV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbach, Guenter; Struschka, Michael; Juschka, Winfried; Carrasco, Maria; Ang, Keng Been; Hu, Lupin [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD); Baechlin, Wolfgang; Soergel, Christine [Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH und Co. KG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    By means of a detailed emissions modelling with subsequent highly resolved ambient air pollutant dispersion modelling an assessment method has been developed. This method is a tool for city planners to assess the effects of an increased usage of biomass in heating firings on the air quality situation in different residential areas. Emission simulations have been carried out for the combustion of wood pellets, log wood, wood chips and grain residues as well as for natural gas and heating oil. The emissions depend on the ambient temperature, the building and user specific heat demand and on the operation conditions of the firing. For the operation conditions different emission factors have been set for nominal and partial load as well as for unsteady conditions like boiler start or for shutdown of the firing. The following firings have been considered for burning the above mentioned fuels: Central heating boilers, decentralised heating networks with pellet and wood chip boilers, single stoves for additional heating and grain residue furnaces. Dependent on the ambient temperature for different regions of Germany and for a reference year of the Deutsche Wetterdienst annual emission time series with 1h resolution have been calculated for the different firing fuel combinations. Using these modelled emission data dispersion modelling was carried out for different meteorological and building specific frame conditions. A rural and an urban model area have been investigated. The emissions time series which were calculated for the individual buildings with 1h time resolution were spatially allocated and each single chimney was simulated as point source. For modelling the flow field coined by the building structure the flow model MISKAM has been applied. For dispersion simulation the model AUSTAL2000 has been used. Simulations have been carried out with three different wind and dispersion class distributions typical for many regions of Germany. A further parameter variation

  6. Health effects of biomass exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.; Husain, Tanveer

    1993-01-01

    Biomass fuels such as coal, wood, crop residues, kerosene oil and dung-cakes meet the energy needs in the household sector in India and other developing countries. Crop residues and dung-cakes are largely used in rural areas, whereas wood forms the major source of fuel in urban as well as rural areas. Combustion of these fuels produces various kinds of poisonous gases such as CO, smoke, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable particulates. These gases are released in the domestic environment and they pollute the indoor air. The women and children are the one who suffer most from this air pollution. This results into a variety of health problems principally pertaining to respiratory system among the women and children. Studies on this aspect are reviewed. They point towards the positive relationship between biomass smoke and various health effects, particularly respiratory diseases. Need for research on the ways to prevent pollution due to biomass and resultant health hazards is emphasised. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Root biomass production in young birch stands planted at four spacings on two different sites

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of trees above ground influences on the amount of root biomass and a low root biomass might decrease the total biomass production. The amount of biomass for fractions and distribution of downy and silver birch root systems was studied including the root distribution in cardinal points. The allometric relationship between stump diameter (DSH) and stump weight and between DSH and root weight and length for the two species was quantified. The 12-year-old trees had been g...

  8. Proportion of U.S. Civilian Population Ineligible for U.S. Air Force Enlistment Based on Current and Previous Weight Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Mello, Tiffany A; Yamane, Grover K

    2007-01-01

    .... Until recently, gender-specific weight standards based on height were in place. However, in June 2006 the USAF implemented a new set of height-weight limits utilizing body mass index (BMI) criteria...

  9. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  10. Biomass Cookstoves Technical Meeting. Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-05-01

    In regions where biomass is a traditional fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves can enhance indoor air quality, personal health, livelihoods, and the environment—while substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although ongoing efforts have successfully disseminated improved stoves that achieve many of these benefits, substantially greater emissions reductions are needed to comply with international guidelines for indoor air quality and to limit GHG emissions like black carbon.

  11. Factors Contributing to Use of Biomass as Domestic Fuel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass energy dominates household cooking energy in developing countries and Nigeria is not exceptional. However, a number of implications such as indoor air pollution, environmental degradation and social burden have been associated with the use of biomass energy. The paper discusses factors that determine the ...

  12. Limitations of ATP as a measure of microbial biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limits the use of ATP as a measure of microbial biomass. S. AIr. J. Zool. 1982, 17: 93 - 95. Beraming van die totale .... only micro-organisms present in the experimental culture, but these were later succeeded by a large ... a value of 49: I by the last day of the experiment. Estimates of the total living biomass of the heterotro-.

  13. Comparative Chemistry and Toxicity of Diesel and Biomass Combustion Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution includes a complex mixture of carbonaceous gases and particles emitted from multiple anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning sources, and also includes secondary organic components that form during atmospheric aging of these emissions. Exposure to these mixture...

  14. Biomass valorization; La valorisation de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, M. [Groupe d' Analyse Thematique (France)

    2006-09-15

    Biomass is the photosynthesis product of carbon dioxide and water, made by the solar energy capture by plants (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + solar energy hydrocarbons). It is this carbon which, at the end of the cycle, after fossilization, gives petroleum, gas and coal. But before being in this state, the biomass deposits are diversified and available all over the world. (O.M.)

  15. Increased biomass production and glycogen accumulation in apcE gene deleted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ancy; Aikawa, Shimpei; Sasaki, Kengo; Matsuda, Fumio; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biomass production of the apcE-deleted strain under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions was 1.6 times higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (1.32 ± 0.01 versus 0.84 ± 0.07 g cell-dry weight L(-1), respectively) after 15 days of cultivation. In addition, the glycogen content of the apcE-deleted strain (24.2 ± 0.7%) was also higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (11.1 ± 0.3%). Together, these results demonstrate that antenna truncation by deleting the apcE gene was effective for increasing biomass production and glycogen accumulation under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  16. The effect of different nutrient sources on biomass production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various organic, inorganic and complex compounds on the biomass production (mycelial dry weight) of Lepiota procera, a Nigerian edible higher fungus was investigated. Among the seventeen carbon compounds tested, mannose enhanced the best biomass yield. This was followed in order by glucose, ...

  17. A regression-adjusted approach can estimate competing biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating above-ground herbaceous and woody biomass on competition research plots. On a set of destructively-sampled plots, an ocular estimate of biomass by vegetative component is first made, after which vegetation is clipped, dried, and weighed. Linear regressions are then calculated for each component between estimated and actual weights...

  18. Assessing the potential for biomass energy development in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tim O. Adams; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for developing a sustainable biomass energy industry in South Carolina was conducted. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥1-inch diameter at breast height, and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and understory...

  19. Estimating aboveground biomass of mariola (Parthenium incanum) from plant dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Villalobos

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of plant biomass in space and time are important properties of rangeland ecosystem. Land managers and researchers require reliable shrub weight estimates to evaluate site productivity, food abundance, treatment effects, and stocking rates. Rapid, nondestructive methods are needed to estimate shrub biomass in semi-arid ecosystems. Shrub...

  20. Torrefaction of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and understand some of the basics of the process of torrefaction and explore the true characteristics of this new type of solid biomass fuel. Tests with torrefaction of different biomass have thus been conducted in both laboratory scale as well as bench scale investigating samples from milligram up to >100 kg. Test in TGA-FTIR and a lab scale pyro-ofen was used to understand the basic chemistry of the influence of torrefaction temperature on the kinetics of the process as well as the condensable gases leaving the process. The results reveal a process that above 250 deg. C is exothermic and that the major condensable gases consist mainly of methanol, acetic acid and water. Significant amounts of methyl-chloride were detected in the condensable gases and do thereby suggest that a certain amount of corrosive Cl could be reduced from the fuel by means of torrefaction. It was also concluded that great care has to be taken during and after production as the torrefied material was seen to self-ignite in an air environment at temperatures above 200 deg. C. The grindability of the material (energy consumption during milling) is indeed significantly improved by torrefaction and can be reduced up to 6 times compared to raw biomass. The results from test in bench scale as well as in lab scale mills suggested that in order to reach grindability similar to coal a torrefaction temperature above 240 deg. C is required for wood chips and above 290 deg. C for wood pellets. These figures will however differ with the type of biomass torrefied and the particle size of the material torrefied and milled. Moisture uptake in torrefied materials is decreased compared to raw biomass. However, due to formation of cavities in the material during torrefaction, the full effect is met first after densification. The hydrophobicity of the material increases with higher torrefaction temperature, but still a rather significant moisture uptake is

  1. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...... soot. Increasing excess air ratio from 0.25 to 0.50 gave no significant change in the producer gas yield, but the yields of H2, CO, and soot decreased, the CO2 yield increased, and the molar ratio of H2/CO decreased. Moreover, wood and straw gasification provided similar product compositions. At 1350°C...

  2. Mathematical Modelling of the Fixed-Bed Biomass-Coal Co-Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers mathematical modelling of downdraft fixed-bed gasification process of the mixtures of woody biomass and coal. Biomass/coal ratio, biomass moisture content and air equivalence ratio are varying parameters. Boundaries of the efficient gasification regimes are estimated.

  3. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  4. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    waste heat and better documentation of potential of carbon credits, would also improve the economic outlook. Analysis of baseline operational conditions indicated that a reduction in methane emissions and other greenhouse gas savings resulted from implementation of the project. The project results indicate that using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-methane from agricultural biomass is a promising source of electricity, but that significant challenges need to be addressed before dairy-based biomass energy production can be fully integrated into an alternative energy economy. The biomass energy facility was found to be operating undercapacity. Economic analysis indicated a positive economic sustainability, even at the reduced power production levels demonstrated during the baseline period. However, increasing methane generation capacity (via the importation of biomass codigestate) will be critical for increasing electricity output and improving the long-term economic sustainability of the operation. Dairy-based biomass energy plants are operating under strict environmental regulations applicable to both power-production and confined animal facilities and novel approached are being applied to maintain minimal environmental impacts. The use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrous oxide control and a biological hydrogen sulfide control system were tested at this facility. Results from this study suggest that biomass energy systems can be compliant with reasonable scientifically based air and water pollution control regulations. The most significant challenge for the development of biomass energy as a viable component of power production on a regional scale is likely to be the availability of energy-rich organic feedstocks. Additionally, there needs to be further development of regional expertise in digester and power plant operations. At the Fiscalini facility, power production was limited by the availability of biomass for methane generation, not the designed

  5. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  7. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  8. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  9. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  10. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  11. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg).

  12. Evaluation on Microalgae Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, L. M.; Lee, K. T.; Chan, D. C. J.

    2017-06-01

    The depletion of energy resources has triggered worldwide concern for alternative sources, especially renewable energy. Microalgae biomass offers the most promising feedstock for renewable energy because of their impressive efficient growing characteristics and valuable composition. Simple cell structure of the microalgae would simplify the pretreatment technology thus increase the cost-effectiveness of biofuel production. Scenedesmus dimorphus is a carbohydrate-rich microalgae that has potential as biomass for bioethanol. The cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus under aeration of carbon dioxide enriched air resulted 1.47 g/L of dry biomass with composition of 12 w/w total lipid, 53.7 w/w carbohydrate and 17.4 protein. Prior to ethanolic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, various pre-treatment methods were investigated to release and degrade the complex carbohydrate in cell biomass thus obtaining the maximal amount of digestible sugar for ethanolic yeast. In this study, sulfuric acid was used as hydrolysis agent while amyloglucosidase as enzymatic agent. Dried biomass via hydrothermal acidic hydrolysis yielded sugar which is about 89 of total carbohydrate at reaction temperature of 125 °C and acid concentration of 4 v/v. While combination of organosolv treatment (mixture of methanol and chloroform) with enzymatic hydrolysis yielded comparable amount of sugar with 0.568 g glucose/g treated-biomass. In this study, the significant information in pre-treatment process ensures the sustainability of the biofuel produced.

  13. The Effects of Usual Intervention Versus Usual Intervention Plus Knowledge of Measured Resting Energy Expenditure on Body Weight and Body Fat in Active Duty Air Force Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    ...: 25.2-36.2, enrolled in a Weight and Body Fat Management program Statistical Analysis: Descriptives, 2-sample t-tests, multiple linear regression, and ANOVA for mean differences between groups and time...

  14. Robust tissue-air volume segmentation of MR images based on the statistics of phase and magnitude: Its applications in the display of susceptibility-weighted imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiping P; Jin, Zhaoyang

    2009-10-01

    To develop a robust algorithm for tissue-air segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the statistics of phase and magnitude of the images. A multivariate measure based on the statistics of phase and magnitude was constructed for tissue-air volume segmentation. The standard deviation of first-order phase difference and the standard deviation of magnitude were calculated in a 3 x 3 x 3 kernel in the image domain. To improve differentiation accuracy, the uniformity of phase distribution in the kernel was also calculated and linear background phase introduced by field inhomogeneity was corrected. The effectiveness of the proposed volume segmentation technique was compared to a conventional approach that uses the magnitude data alone. The proposed algorithm was shown to be more effective and robust in volume segmentation in both synthetic phantom and susceptibility-weighted images of human brain. Using our proposed volume segmentation method, veins in the peripheral regions of the brain were well depicted in the minimum-intensity projection of the susceptibility-weighted images. Using the additional statistics of phase, tissue-air volume segmentation can be substantially improved compared to that using the statistics of magnitude data alone. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Allometric Biomass Equations for 98 Species of Herbs, Shrubs, and Small Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Gary J. Brand

    1983-01-01

    Biomass regression coefficients from the literature for the allometric equation form are presented for 98 species of shrubs and herbs in the northern U.S. and Canada. The equation and coeffients provide estimates of grams of biomass (oven-dry weight) for foliage, woody stem and total biomass.

  16. Additivity in tree biomass components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao P. Carvalho; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    In tree biomass estimations, it is important to consider the property of additivity, i.e., the total tree biomass should equal the sum of the components. This work presents functions that allow estimation of the stem and crown dry weight components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees. A procedure that considers additivity of tree biomass...

  17. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm 3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm 3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Claire E.; Duffney, Parker F.; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, an...

  19. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  1. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  2. Deashing macroalgae biomass by pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arthur; Sack, Martin; Israel, Alvaro; Frey, Wolfgang; Müller, Georg; Golberg, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Among all biomass constituents, the ashes are major hurdles for biomass processing. Ashes currently have low market value and can make a non-negligible fraction of the biomass dry weight significantly impacting its further processing by degrading equipment, lowering process yield, inhibiting reactions and decreasing products qualities. However, most of the current treatments for deashing biomass are of poor efficiency or industrial relevance. This work is the first report on the use of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) to enhance deashing of biomass from a high ash content green marine macroalga, Ulva sp., using hydraulic pressing. By inducing cell permeabilization of the fresh biomass, PEF was able to enhance the ash extraction from 18.4% (non-treated control) to 37.4% of the total ash content in average, significantly enhancing the extraction of five of the major ash elements (K, Mg, Na, P and S) compared to pressing alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  5. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  6. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  7. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  8. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  9. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  10. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  11. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  13. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  14. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  15. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity in the US has increased considerably over the last few decades and continues to increase. To monitor the progress of patients enrolled in weight management programs, clinicians need accurate methods of detecting changes in body composition ...

  16. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The City of Mount Gambier upgraded its boiler in September after analysis showed that biomass was still the optimal energy option. The Mount Gambier Aquatic Centre was built by the local city council in the 1980s as an outdoor pool facility for the public. The complex has three pools — an Olympic-sized, toddler and a learner pool — for a total volume of 1.38ML (including balance tanks). The large pool is heated to 27-28°C, the smaller one 30-32°C. From the very beginning, the pool water was heated by a biomass boiler, and via two heat exchangers whose combined capacity is 520 kW. The original biomass boiler ran on fresh sawdust from a local timber mill. After thirty years of dedicated service the original boiler had become unreliable and difficult to operate. Replacement options were investigated and included a straight gas boiler, a combined solar hot water and gas option, and biomass boilers. The boiler only produces heat, not electricity. All options were subjected to a triple bottom line assessment, which included potential capital costs, operating costs, community and environmental benefits and costs. The project was also assessed using a tool developed by Mount Gambier City Council that considers the holistic benefits — the CHAT Tool, which stands for Comprehensive Holistic Assessment Tool. “Basically it is a survey that covers environmental, social, economic and governance factors,” the council's environmental sustainability officer, Aaron Izzard told WME. In relation to environmental considerations, the kinds of questions explored by the CHAT Tool included: Sustainable use of resources — objective is to reduce council's dependence on non-renewable resources; Greenhouse emissions — objective is to reduce council's contribution of GHG into the atmosphere; Air quality — objective is to improve local air quality. The conclusion of these analyses was that while a biomass boiler would have a higher capital cost than a

  17. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  18. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  19. A high-resolution open biomass burning emission inventory based on statistical data and MODIS observations in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Fan, M.; Huang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Open biomass burning which has adverse effects on air quality and human health is an important source of gas and particulate matter (PM) in China. Current emission estimations of open biomass burning are generally based on single source (alternative to statistical data and satellite-derived data) and thus contain large uncertainty due to the limitation of data. In this study, to quantify the 2015-based amount of open biomass burning, we established a new estimation method for open biomass burning activity levels by combining the bottom-up statistical data and top-down MODIS observations. And three sub-category sources which used different activity data were considered. For open crop residue burning, the "best estimate" of activity data was obtained by averaging the statistical data from China statistical yearbooks and satellite observations from MODIS burned area product MCD64A1 weighted by their uncertainties. For the forest and grassland fires, their activity levels were represented by the combination of statistical data and MODIS active fire product MCD14ML. Using the fire radiative power (FRP) which is considered as a better indicator of active fire level as the spatial allocation surrogate, coarse gridded emissions were reallocated into 3km ×3km grids to get a high-resolution emission inventory. Our results showed that emissions of CO, NOx, SO2, NH3, VOCs, PM2.5, PM10, BC and OC in mainland China were 6607, 427, 84, 79, 1262, 1198, 1222, 159 and 686 Gg/yr, respectively. Among all provinces of China, Henan, Shandong and Heilongjiang were the top three contributors to the total emissions. In this study, the developed open biomass burning emission inventory with a high-resolution could support air quality modeling and policy-making for pollution control.

  20. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  1. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  2. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and birth order of child were the significant confounders factors in our adjusted models. Conclusions. We observed reduced birth weight in children whose mothers used high pollution fuels suggesting a negative effect of maternal exposure to biomass fuels on birth weight of the child. However, this reduction was not ...

  3. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  5. Biomass: a growing role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Rosillo-Calle, F.; Woods, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, an article in the journal Renewable Energy World discussed the sustainability of biofuels, their potential to contribute to the global energy demand, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and their impact on biodiversity and land use. The essence of the present paper is to contribute to the aforesaid discussion under the sub-headings of (a) biomass production potentials and the importance of technological development and crops to satisfy this potential; (b) critical aspects for the development of biomass on a large scale for energy production; (c) overview of current developments to ensure the environmentally-friendliness of biomass through the development of safeguards and (d) sustainable international bioenergy trade as a driver to develop the potential of biomass. (author)

  6. Modeling and experiments of biomass combustion in a large-scale grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    is inherently more difficult due to the complexity of the solid biomass fuel bed on the grate, the turbulent reacting flow in the combustion chamber and the intensive interaction between them. This paper presents the CFD validation efforts for a modern large-scale biomass-fired grate boiler. Modeling......Grate furnaces are currently a main workhorse in large-scale firing of biomass for heat and power production. A biomass grate fired furnace can be interpreted as a cross-flow reactor, where biomass is fed in a thick layer perpendicular to the primary air flow. The bottom of the biomass bed...... is exposed to preheated inlet air while the top of the bed resides within the furnace. Mathematical modeling is an efficient way to understand and improve the operation and design of combustion systems. Compared to modeling of pulverized fuel furnaces, CFD modeling of biomass-fired grate furnaces...

  7. 2007 Biomass Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Program is actively working with public and private partners to meet production and technology needs. With the corn ethanol market growing steadily, researchers are unlocking the potential of non-food biomass sources, such as switchgrass and forest and agricultural residues. In this way, the Program is helping to ensure that cost-effective technologies will be ready to support production goals for advanced biofuels.

  8. Water hyacinth biomass production in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Bigeriego, M. (INIA Dpto de Produccion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Madrid (ES)); Guardiola, E. (Ciudad Univ., Madrid (ES). Dpto de Quimica Industrial)

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the production of biomass of the water hyacinth in Madrid. The production of biomass at ambient temperature during the warm months (from May to October) was 215 t wet wt ha{sup -1}{center dot}year{sup -1} equivalent 10.7 t dry wt{center dot}ha{sup -1}{center dot}year{sup -1}. In the greenhouse, the production of biomass was 791 t wt ha{sup -1}{center dot}year{sup -1} equivalent 39.5 t dry ha{sup -1}{center dot}year{sup -1}. During August the increase in weight was 361 kg{center dot}m{sup -2} at ambient temperatures and in the greenhouse the greatest production was in September with 677 kg{center dot}m{sup -2}. To evaluate the nutritive value of the water hyacinth the biomass was fractionated to obtain a liquid fraction with 23.78% protein and a solid fraction with 5.61% protein. For animal food, it is necessary to use both fractions, solid and liquid. The protein content is 21.14% (dry weight), which is higher or at least equal to normally used green fodder. (author).

  9. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  10. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  11. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  12. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  14. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  15. New Correlations for Coal and Biomass Pyrolysis Performances with Coal-Biomass Type Number and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Bindar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of coal and biomass is generally reported as the mass yield of released chemicals at various temperatures, pressures, heating rates and coal or biomass type. In this work, a new coal-biomass type number, NCT, is introduced. This number is constructed from the mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ultimate analysis. This number is unique for each coal or biomass type. For 179 different species of coal and biomass from the literature, the volatile matter mass yield can be expressed by the second order polynomial function ln(NCT. This unique correlation allows the effects of the temperature and heating rate on the volatile yield YVY for coal and biomass to be empirically correlated as well. The correlation for the mass fraction of each chemical component in the released volatile matter correlation is obtained from the YVY correlation. The weight factor for some of the components is constant for the variation of NCT, but not for others. The resulted volatile matter and yield correlations are limited to atmospheric pressure, very small particles (less than 0.212 mm and interpreted for wire-mesh pyrolysis reactor conditions and a nitrogen gas environment.

  16. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  17. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  18. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  19. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  20. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  1. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  3. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  4. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    sources of biomass for energy purposes in the European Union. Estimation of European biomass resources is associated with significant uncertainty, and it is not sure if the European Union can meet its 2020 energy policy targets with biomass produced in the EU, although some countries hold sway over...... a total production of residues from these six crops of ~3.7 billion tonnes dry matter annually. North and South America; Eastern, South-Eastern and Southern Asia and Eastern Europe each produce more than 200 million tonnes dry matter annually. The theoretical energy potential from the selected crop......, where bio-ethanol production is integrated with combined heat and power production may improve the energy balance with about 30 % point and reach energy efficiencies almost comparable to those seen for conversion of petroleum into gasoline. Minimisation of GHG emissions from bioenergy production...

  5. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Biomass and Lipid Production under Ambient Carbon Dioxide Vigorous Aeration and 3% Carbon Dioxide Condition Among the Lead Candidate Chlorella Strains Screened by Various Photobioreactor Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoko [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Barnes, Austin [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Jensen, Travis [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Noel, Eric [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Andlay, Gunjan [Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Julian N. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oyler, George A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella species from the UTEX collection, classified by rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis, were screened based on biomass and lipid production in different scales and modes of culture. Lead candidate strains of C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 and C. vulgaris UTEX 395 and 259 were compared between conditions of vigorous aeration with filtered atmospheric air and 3% CO2 shake-flask cultivation. We found that the biomass of UTEX 1230 produced 2 times higher at 652 mg L-1 dry weight under both ambient CO2 vigorous aeration and 3% CO2 conditions, while UTEX 395 and 259 under 3% CO2 increased to 3 times higher at 863 mg L-1 dry weight than ambient CO2 vigorous aeration. The triacylglycerol contents of UTEX 395 and 259 increased more than 30 times to 30% dry weight with 3% CO2, indicating that additional CO2 is essential for both biomass and lipid accumulation in UTEX 395 and 259.

  7. Biomass living energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  8. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  9. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  10. Aviary heating: control of air temperature heated by a set biomass gasifier-combustor in a co-current flow, using a frequency inverter; Aquecimento de aviarios: controle da temperatura do ar aquecido por um conjunto gaseificador-combustor de biomassa de fluxo concorrente, utilizando um inversor de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, William Rosario dos [Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos (UNIPAC), Ponte Nova, MG (Brazil); Silva, Jadir Nogueira; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Martins, Marcio Aredes; Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: jadir@ufv.br, delly@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, jofran.oliveira@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    One of the problems with using the gasifier for heating purposes in poultry facilities is the waste of energy during the day, once the equipment does not have control of the thermal and power generated. During this period, the difference in temperature between the air and the standard for the birds inside the building is lower than when compared with the nocturnal period. During the day, the temperature inside the poultry house is controlled by curtains, which occurs without diminishing the biomass burning. Another way to control the temperature is the shutdown of the system, which requires the constant attention of the operator. In this way, there is a potential for energy savings if the thermal power could be controlled according to the demand, which can be represented by the temperature gradient. The purpose of this study was to control the temperature of exhaustion air from a set combustor-gasifier (down draft), based on the model developed by Martin et al. (2006), through the control of speed of the fan engine and also controlling the flow contributions of primary and secondary air in the combustor. The experiment was carried out in the Energy and Pre-processing of Agricultural Products areas, at the Department of Agricultural Engineering - Federal University of Vicosa. (author)

  11. A fluidized bed furnace fired with biomass waste to supply heat for a spray dryer in a plant producing floortiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Andre, R.; Mendes, J.; Monteiro, A.; Cabrita, I. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1993-12-31

    This project has been implemented at a factory producing floortiles for domestic use. The project consists of a fluidized bed combustion system burning coal or wood or a mixture of both to produce hot combustion gases to provide heat for spray drying process. The system was designed by INETI for a maximum output of 8 MW thermal energy and all the engineering calculations were carried out to dimension the furnace to provide this amount of heat. Shallow bed concept was used for complete burning of the biomass particles which contained volatiles up to 75% by weight. The sand bed was used as a flame stabilizer for the combustion of volatiles. The combustion of volatiles in the freeboard was mainly controlled by mixing ashes and other impurities. The combustion temperature had to be maintained in the range 700--800{degrees}C to achieve combustion efficiencies of 85% or more. The combustion efficiency (1) did not increase substantially above 90% of excess air although levels of up to 120% were used during combustion and (2) was found to increase through air staging in the order of 20 to 25%, by simply adding 45 to 55% of the air required to the freeboard zone. No SO{sub 2} was observed in flue gases when burning only biomass but there was some NO{sub x} formed and the level of conversion of fuel-N to NO{sub x} was found to be about 25--30%.

  12. An advanced extruder-feeder biomass liquefaction reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Don H.; Wolf, D.; Davenport, G.; Mathews, S.; Porter, M.; Zhao, Y.

    1987-11-01

    A unique method of pumping concentrated, viscous biomass slurries that are characteristic of biomass direct liquefaction systems was developed. A modified single-screw extruder was shown to be capable of pumping solid slurries as high as 60 weight percent wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms, as compared to only 10 to 20 weight percent wood flour in wood oil in conventional systems. During the period August, 1985 to April, 1987, a total of 18 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using white birch feedstock. Good operability with feed rates up to 30 lb/hr covering a range of carbon monoxide, sodium carbonate catalyst, pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350 C to 430 C was achieved. Crude wood oils containing 6 to 10 weight percent residual oxygen were obtained. Other wood oil characteristics are reported.

  13. [Compatible biomass models for main tree species with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8.

  14. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  15. Pyrolysis of chitin biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The thermal degradation of chitin biomass with various molecular structures was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and the gaseous products were analyzed by connected mass spectroscopy (MS). The chemical structure and morphology of char residues collected at 750°C using the model...

  16. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  17. Energy from aquatic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic biomass is considered as a second (or third) generation option for the production of bio fuels. The best utilization for energy purposes is not its direct combustion. Several technologies are available for the extraction of compounds that may find application for the production of gaseous fuels (biogas, dihydrogen) or liquid fuels (ethanol, bio oil, biodiesel). [it

  18. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  19. Biomass yield and biomass functions for plantation grown Nauclea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents biomass yield and functions for estimating total above ground biomass (TAGB), stem, branch and foliage biomass for even-aged plantations of Nauclea diderrichii (Opepe) in Nigeria. Data were obtained from 81 trees, harvested from stands of different ages. TAGB of Opepe ranged from 32.5 t ha-1 (5 ...

  20. Field and laboratory measurements of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust using a PTR-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderSchelden, Graham Samuel

    The Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) is a powerful tool for analyzing organic compounds in air and has been applied in field and laboratory applications to assess emissions from biomass burning and vehicles. Biomass burning is an important source of air pollution globally in the form of wild fires, burning of crop stubble, and combustion of organic material for home energy. In the United States, residential wood combustion combined with low inversion heights in winter time has caused air quality problems. Through field deployment of the PTR-MS in Xi'an China during August of 2011, it was determined that 27%, 16%, 26%, and 12% of ambient carbon monoxide (CO), acetaldehyde, benzene, and toluene could be attributed to biomass burning. The PTR-MS was also deployed to Yakima, Washington in January of 2013, finding that residential wood combustion was a substantial source of air toxics and PM. Residential wood combustion contributed 100%, 73%, 69%, 55%, 36%, 19%, 19%, and 17% of organic PM1, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, black carbon, benzene, toluene, C2-alkylbenzenes, and CO respectively. Diesel vehicles are becoming a larger fraction of the vehicle fleet and can be held responsible for a substantial fraction of air pollution emissions from on and off road mobile sources. Diesel engines are a source of low volatility products that are difficult to measure and are thought to be important in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This work focuses on measuring important diesel exhaust compounds with the PTR-MS and assessing oxidation processes of these compounds. When the PTR-MS was deployed to the field along with a thermal desorption pre-concentration system, we estimated that diesel vehicles were about 3-15% of the vehicle activity influencing our study site in Yakima, WA using the ratio of m/z 157 to m/z 129. SOA yields of diesel exhaust compounds were assessed and about 48% of the SOA was attributed to compounds measured by the PTR

  1. Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?—A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

  2. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  3. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  5. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  6. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Sa, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reports on the latest developments of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuels. The primary focus is on the role of catalysts in the process, namely, their influence in the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  9. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  10. Multi-functional biomass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share of biomass applications in Europe is their often-high production costs, among others due to the relatively low availability of

  11. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  12. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  13. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  14. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  15. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  16. Mathematical modelling and optimization of biomass-plastic fixed-bed downdraft co-gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoy, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Co-gasification of woody biomass and polyethylene is studied using mathematical modeling. The gasification process is downdraft fixed-bed. Comparison of modeling results with some experimental data is made. Influence of biomass/plastic ratio and air equivalence ratio on gasification efficiency is investigated.

  17. Mathematical modelling and optimization of biomass-plastic fixed-bed downdraft co-gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of woody biomass and polyethylene is studied using mathematical modeling. The gasification process is downdraft fixed-bed. Comparison of modeling results with some experimental data is made. Influence of biomass/plastic ratio and air equivalence ratio on gasification efficiency is investigated.

  18. Biofuel from biomass via photo-electrochemical reactions: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Minggu, L. J.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass is attracting a great deal of attention as a renewable energy resource to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Converting biomass from municipal, agricultural and livestock into biofuel and electrical power has significant environmental and economic advantages. The conversion of biomass into practical energy requires elegant designs and further investigation. Thus, biomass is a promising renewable energy source due to its low production cost and simple manufacturing processes. Biofuel (hydrogen and methanol) from biomass will be possible to be used for transportation with near-zero air pollution, involves efficient uses of land and major contribution to reduce dependence on insecure source of petroleum. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions study has potential pathway for producing fuel from biomass and bio-related compound in the near future. This review highlights recent work related to the PEC conversion of biomass and bio-related compounds into useful biofuels and electricity. This review covers different types of photochemical reaction cells utilizing various types of organic and inorganic waste. It also presents recent developments in photoelectrodes, photocatalysts and electrolytes as well as the production of different types of fuel from PEC cells and highlights current developments and problems in PEC reactions.

  19. Biomass derived porous nitrogen doped carbon for electrochemical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived porous nanostructured nitrogen doped carbon (PNC has been extensively investigated as the electrode material for electrochemical catalytic reactions and rechargeable batteries. Biomass with and without containing nitrogen could be designed and optimized to prepare PNC via hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis, and other methods. The presence of nitrogen in carbon can provide more active sites for ion absorption, improve the electronic conductivity, increase the bonding between carbon and sulfur, and enhance the electrochemical catalytic reaction. The synthetic methods of natural biomass derived PNC, heteroatomic co- or tri-doping into biomass derived carbon and the application of biomass derived PNC in rechargeable Li/Na batteries, high energy density Li–S batteries, supercapacitors, metal-air batteries and electrochemical catalytic reaction (oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, hydrogen evolution reaction are summarized and discussed in this review. Biomass derived PNCs deliver high performance electrochemical storage properties for rechargeable batteries/supercapacitors and superior electrochemical catalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction and evolution, as promising electrodes for electrochemical devices including battery technologies, fuel cell and electrolyzer. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen doped carbon, Batteries, Fuel cell, Electrolyzer

  20. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  1. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1999-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  2. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  3. Biomass sustainability and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanan, Krishna C; Bosch, Roeland A; Cornelissen, Rob; Philp, Jim C

    2013-07-01

    The major challenges for humanity include energy security, food security, climate change, and a growing world population. They are all linked together by an instinctive, and yet increasingly complex and evolving concept, that of sustainability. Industrial biotechnology is seen as part of the overall solution, principally to combat climate change and strengthen energy security. At its beating heart is a huge policy challenge - the sustainability of biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  5. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  6. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-09-03

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experimental technique using quartz capillary batch reactors has been developed, allowing determination of the yields of gas, liquid and solid products, and their subsequent analysis. The study was performed using glucose, a biomass model compound, and complex feedstocks, wood and pyrolysis oil. Important HTC features have been studied such as, undesired char formation, deoxygenation, and mechanism and kinetics of formation of different lumped product classes. Special attention is also given to products of the initial glucose decomposition and the kinetics of their formation. Complete mass and elemental balances obtained in this work significantly complement the literature findings on the reaction mechanism of HTC. Two distinct mechanisms of char formation are identified and two mechanisms of deoxygenation (dehydration and decarboxylation) are discussed. The observed trends in the product formation rates and yields are used to obtain an engineering reaction model for decomposition of glucose, which can be adapted for the use with complex feedstocks. Finally, a bench scale continuous reactor setup for HTC is proposed and several features of the setup have been tested separately in cold-flow, such as, feeding of biomass water slurries with a piston autoclave and a lifting fluidized bed, heat transfer, fluid bed operation and state of mixing of liquid and solid phases in continuous operations.

  7. Gasification technologies for heat and power from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, AACM; Maniatis, K; Kaltschmitt, M; Bridgwater, AV

    1997-01-01

    A critical review is presented of biomass gasifier systems presently commercially available or under development. Advantages and possible problem areas are discussed in relation to particular applications. Both large and small scale technologies are reviewed. Catalysed by the EC JOULE and AIR

  8. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  9. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  10. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  11. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  12. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329 Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329 by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc. showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  13. Grain and biomass yield reduction due to Russian wheat aphid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticide treated and untreated plots were compared for biomass and grain yield, damage, days to heading and maturity. Diuraphis noxia reduced wheat grain yield by 67.7% and biomass by 51.6%. Weight per 1000 seeds declined by 20%. Heading and maturity were generally delayed. Fenitrothion 50 EC, a contact ...

  14. Assessing tree and stand biomass: a review with examples and critical comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1999-01-01

    There is considerable interest today in estimating the biomass of trees and forests for both practical forestry issues and scientific purposes. New techniques and procedures are brought together along with the more traditional approaches to estimating woody biomass. General model forms and weighted analysis are reviewed, along with statistics for evaluating and...

  15. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. Optimization of sub-merged culture conditions for biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the series of complex sugars and sugar alcohols, mannitol supported the highest biomass yield with mycelial dry weight of 130.0 mg/30 cm3, followed closely by dextrin with 123.3 mg/30cm3 while the least value was obtained with arabitol. Tryptophan and alanine enhanced moderate vegetative growth with values, which ...

  17. Electron transport system activity of microfouling material: Relationships with biomass parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Tulaskar, A.; Wagh, A.B.

    Microfouling material developed on aluminium panels immersed in surface waters of the Dona Paula Bay, Goa India was analysed for biomass (measured as dry weight, organic crabon, protein and chlorophyll @ia@@) and electron transport system actitity...

  18. New technologies shaping the biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Technology is becoming an increasing important piece of the biomass burning industry, as emission regulations and standards become tighter. New, smart technology available to the industry improves combustion efficiency and decreases emissions. Features such as variable speed pumps, blowers, and motors for fuel and air delivery and ash removal, oxygen sensors for feedback to fine-tune the air to fuel ratio and apps to offer remote control and alerts sent to smartphones and tablets are now available in the US. With smarter controls, the unit can run independently, adjust for a variety of conditions including fuel quality, and notify the user ahead of time of situations before they become a problem, such as adding more fuel. Furthermore, diagnostics aid in quick and efficient solutions, saving consumers and manufacturers’ time and money. (full text)

  19. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  20. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trossero, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  2. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  3. Biomass Energy Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Edward [Cedar Falls Utilities, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The Municipal Electric Utility of the City of Cedar Falls (dba Cedar Fals Utilities or CFU) received a congressionally directed grant funded through DOE-EERE to run three short (4 hour) duration test burns and one long (10 days) duration test burn to test the viability of renewable fuels in Streeter Station Boiler #6, a stoker coal fired electric generation unit. The long test burn was intended to test supply chain assumptions, optimize boiler combustion and assess the effects of a longer duration burn of biomass on the boiler.

  4. Analysis on using biomass lean syngas in micro gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărculescu, C.; Cenuşă, V. E.; Alexe, F. N.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis on small systems for converting biomass/wastes into power using Micro Gas Turbines (MGT) fed with gaseous bio-fuels produced by air- gasification. The MGT is designed for burning various fossil liquid and gas fuels, having catalogue data related to natural gas use. Fuel switch changes their performances. The present work is focused on adapting the MGT for burning alternative low quality gas fuel produced by biomass air gasification. The heating values of these gas fuels are 3 to 5 times lower than the methane ones, leading to different air demand for the stoichiometric burning. Validated numerical computation procedures were used to model the MGT thermodynamic process. Our purpose was to analyze the influence of fuel change on thermodynamic cycle performances.

  5. Torrefaction study for energy upgrading on Indonesian biomass as low emission solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, R.; Siregar, N. C.; Hasanah, F.

    2017-05-01

    Torrefaction is a pyrolysis process with low heating rate and temperature lower than 300°C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a low emission solid fuel with relatively high energy. Through the torrefaction process biomass can be altered so that the end product is easy to grind and simple in the supply chain. The research was aimed at designing torrefaction reactor and upgrading energy content of some Indonesian biomass. The biomass used consist of empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB), cassava peel solid waste, and cocopeat (waste of coconut fiber). These biomass were formed into briquette and pellet form and were torrified with 300°C temperature during 1.5 hours without air. The results of terrified biomass and non-torrefied biomass were compared after burning on the stove in term of energy content and air emission quality. The result shows that energy content of biomass have increased by 1.1 up to 1.36 times. Meanwhile emission air resulted from its combustion was met with Indonesian emission regulation.

  6. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  7. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  8. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  9. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  10. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  11. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries. Yet, few studies have examined the mechanisms of dung biomass smoke-induced inflammatory responses in human lung cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dung biomass smoke causes inflammatory responses in human lung cells through signaling pathways involved in acute and chronic lung inflammation. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were exposed to dung smoke at the air-liquid interface using a newly developed, automated, and reproducible dung biomass smoke generation system. The examination of inflammatory signaling showed that dung biomass smoke increased the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in SAECs through activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. We propose that the inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed to dung biomass smoke contribute to the development of respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  13. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  14. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  15. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  16. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  17. Vegetal and animal biomass; Les biomasses vegetales et animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combarnous, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert, UMR CNRS ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation concerns all types of biomass of the earth and the seas and the relative implicit consumptions. After an evaluation of the food needs of the human being, the author discusses the solar energy conversion, the energetic flux devoted to the agriculture production, the food chain and the biomass. (A.L.B.)

  18. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing Yang

    2006-01-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm...

  19. Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. In the first of three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and plant properties is examined. In the second paper, energy conversion technologies are reviewed, with emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to generate electricity. The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers particular gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification.

  20. Detailed modelling of biomass pyrolysis: biomass structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.; Faravelli, T.; Ranzi, E.

    2007-01-01

    The research routes followed in the field of numerical modelling development for biomass devolatilization are here summarised. In this first paper a wide introduction concerning the description of the chemical nature of the main classes of compounds which constitute biomasses is reported, it is the starting point for the subsequent description of the developed models, described in the companion paper [it

  1. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  2. Allometric equations for estimating standing biomass of Avicennia marina in Bushehr of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important to use of ecological indicators, such as biomass for recognizing the special status of ecosystems, such as mangrove forests and also monitoring and evaluating changes through a specific period. Because using the direct method of evaluating biomass would be destructive, it is common in all similar area to use determine exact Allometric equations by using the statistical relationship between the structural characteristics of trees and their biomass and use these equations to estimate the biomass of trees. The aim of this study is estimate the aboveground biomass of mangroves and determine Allometric models for Nayband area in Bushehr, located in southern Iran. A number of mangrove trees were randomly selected. Collar diameter, crown diameter and tree height of standing trees were measured. After logging and weighing fresh weight, dry weight, trunk and branches were obtained in laboratory and biomass of components was calculated. The relationship between quantities feature of trees and biomass for determination of allometric equation was studied by using linear, power and exponential regression. The equations were compared with each other based on the different modeling parameters. The highest significant correlation was found between crown diameters and dry weight (R > 0.90. The best equations were obtained by means of an exponential and power regression models (R2adj> 0.90. The models were obtained from explained factor, suggests that there might be a relationship between the characteristics of mangrove trees and biomass.

  3. Hydrogen rich gas production by thermocatalytic decomposition of kenaf biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmak, Sibel; Oeztuerk, ilker [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Adana 01330 (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a well known energy crop and an annual herbaceous plant grows very fast with low lodging susceptibility was used as representative lignocellulosic biomass in the present work. Thermocatalytic conversions were performed by aqueous phase reforming (APR) of kenaf hydrolysates and direct gasification of solid biomass of kenaf using 5% Pt on activated carbon as catalyst. Hydrolysates used in APR experiments were prepared by solubilization of kenaf biomass in subcritical water under CO{sub 2} gas pressure. APR of kenaf hydrolysate with low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of the reforming catalyst produced more gas compared to the hydrolysate that had high molecular weight polysaccharides. APR experiments of kenaf biomass hydrolysates and glucose, which was used as a simplest biomass model compound, in the presence of catalyst produced various amounts of gas mixtures that consisted of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The ratios of H{sub 2} to other gases produced were 0.98, 1.50 and 1.35 for 150 C and 250 C subcritical water-treated kenaf hydrolysates and glucose, respectively. These ratios indicated that more the degraded organic content of kenaf hydrolysate the better selectivity for hydrogen production. Although APR of 250 C-kenaf hydrolysate resulted in similar gas content and composition as glucose, the gas volume produced was three times higher in glucose feed. The use of solid kenaf biomass as starting feedstock in APR experiments resulted in less gas production since the activity of catalyst was lowered by solid biomass particles. (author)

  4. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  5. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  6. Investigations in gasification of biomass mixtures using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781 039, Assam (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasifiers with power generation capacities exceeding 1 MW have large biomass consumption. Availability of a single biomass in such large quantities is rather difficult, and hence, mixtures of biomasses need to be used as feed-stock for these gasifiers. This study has assessed feasibility of biomass mixtures as fuel in biomass gasifiers for decentralized power generation using thermodynamic equilibrium and semi-equilibrium (with limited carbon conversion) model employing Gibbs energy minimization. Binary mixtures of common biomasses found in northeastern states of India such as rice husk, bamboo dust and saw dust have been taken for analysis. The potential for power generation from gasifier has been evaluated on the basis of net yield (in Nm3) and LHV (in MJ/Nm3) of the producer gas obtained from gasification of 100 g of biomass mixture. The results of simulations have revealed interesting trends in performance of gasifiers with operating parameters such as air ratio, temperature of gasification and composition of the biomass mixture. For all biomass mixtures, the optimum air ratio is {approx} 0.3 with gasification temperature of 800oC. Under total equilibrium conditions, and for engine-generator efficiency of 30%, the least possible fuel consumption is found to be 0.8 kg/kW-h. As revealed in the simulations with semi-equilibrium model, this parameter shows an inverse variation with the extent of carbon conversion. For low carbon conversions ({approx} 60% or so), the specific fuel consumption could be as high as 1.5 kg/kW-h. The results of this study have also been compared with previous literature (theoretical as well as experimental) and good agreement has been found. This study, thus, has demonstrated potential of replacement of a single biomass fuel in the gasifier with mixtures of different biomasses.

  7. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  8. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    reflections of plant species, tissue or organ types, genetic traits and environment. Effects of cultivar type, anatomical distribution, chemical composition, fertilizer level and growth year have been observed during in vitro and in vivo trials. A similar approach is here taken to further investigate: 1). How......This thesis is about the use of an agricultural residue as a feedstock for fermentable sugars to be used for second generation (2G) bioethanol. The main focus of this thesis work is upon the recalcitrance of different anatomical fractions of wheat straw. Biomass recalcitrance is a collective...... recalcitrance or degradability varies between leaf and stem as found in different wheat cultivars. 2). Chemical, physical and structural differences between wheat straw leaf and stem which may be responsible for observed differences in their bio-degradability. As a tool to assess the variation...

  9. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  10. Biomass resource assessment for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jingjing; Zhou Aiming [Energy Research Institute of State Planning and Development Commission (China)

    1999-07-01

    This paper calculated and assessed the biomass resource availability in China, especially straw and stalk, domestic animal excreta and municipal solid waste. The assessment showed that biomass energy will be a rich and sustainable resource in China, important for developing the social economy and improving the environment in the future. (author)

  11. Woody biomass logistics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Keefe; Nathaniel Anderson; John Hogland; Ken Muhlenfeld

    2014-01-01

    The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material is often quite low, sometimes near zero. However, the cost of harvesting, collection, processing, storage, and transportation from the harvest site to end...

  12. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  13. Forest biomass sustainability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Skog; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a synthesis of information on potential supply of forest biomass given needs for sustainable development of forestry. Sustainability includes maintenance of water supply, biodiversity, and carbon storage as well as timber products, community development, and recreation. Biomass removals can reduce fire hazard and insect and disease attack, restore...

  14. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  15. Poluição do ar e baixo peso ao nascer no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2002 Air pollution and low birth weight in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Leite Junger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da poluição do ar sobre o peso ao nascer de recém-nascidos a termo e de gestação única no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O desenho deste estudo foi o de corte transversal tendo como base o ano de 2002. Os dados sobre os nascimentos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (SINASC do Ministério da Saúde. Baixo peso foi definido como menos de 2.500g. A exposição das mães foi estimada como a média do poluente para cada trimestre de gestação. Razões de odds (RO ajustadas foram estimadas para cada fator de risco em potencial. Para PM10, CO e NO2 foram encontrados aumentos não significativos. Para SO2, a RO do quarto intervalo interquartil de exposição no terceiro trimestre de gestação foi 1,149 (IC95%: 1,016;1,301. Para o O3, a RO estimada foi 0,830 (IC95%: 0,750;0,987. Quando a variável de exposição foi introduzida no modelo como uma medida contínua, as RO para PM10, CO e SO2 no terceiro trimestre foram não significativas e iguais a 1,089, 2,223 e 1,259, respectivamente.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air pollution on low birth weight in full term singleton newborns in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study adopted a cross-sectional design based on the year 2002. Data on live births were obtained from the Live Birth Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. Maternal exposure to air pollution was defined as the mean for a given pollutant over each trimester of pregnancy and was assessed taking birth date into account. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were estimated for each potential risk factor. For PM10, CO, and NO2, no significant increases were detected. For SO2, the OR of the fourth interquartile range of exposure in the third trimester of pregnancy was 1.149 (95%CI: 1.016-1.301. For O3, the estimated OR was 0.830 (95%CI: 0.750-0.987. When exposure variable was

  16. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  17. Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Significance to Air Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Modise Wiston

    2017-01-01

    Background. Air pollution is an important issue in developed and industrialized countries. The most common sources of air pollution are anthropogenic activities such as construction dust, vehicular emissions and mining. For low- and middle-income countries, biomass burning and indoor heating are the leading sources of air pollution. As more of the world undergoes development and human populations increase, industrialization is also increasing, along with the potential for air pollution. Ob...

  18. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  19. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  20. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  1. Biomass as a modern fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.

    1994-01-01

    Case studies are presented for several developed and developing countries. Constraints involved in modernising biomass energy and the potential for turning them into entrepreneurial opportunities are discussed. It is concluded that the long term impacts of biomass programmes and projects depend mainly on ensuring sustainability, flexibility and replicability while taking account of local conditions and providing multiple benefits. Implementation of biomass projects requires governmental policy initiatives that will internalise the external economic, social and environmental costs of conventional fuel sources so that biomass fuels can become competitive on a ''level playing field''. Policies are also required to encourage R and D and commercialisation of biomass energy programs in close co-ordination with the private sector. (author)

  2. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  3. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  4. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  5. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  6. Experimental Constraints on Iron Mobilization into Biomass Burning Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A. M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herckes, P.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) can limit marine primary productivity and, therefore, carbon dioxide uptake. Recent modeling studies suggest that biomass burning aerosols may contribute a significant amount of soluble Fe to the surface ocean. To address this hypothesis, we collected foliage samples from species representative of several biomes impacted by severe fire events. Existing studies of burn-induced trace element mobilization have often collected both entrained soil particles along with material from burning biomass, making it difficult to determine the actual source of aerosolized trace metals. In order to better constrain the importance of biomass vs. entrained soil as a source of trace metals in burn aerosols, we conducted burn experiments using soil-free foliage representative of a variety of fire-impacted ecosystems. The resulting burn aerosols were collected in two stages (PM > 2.5 μm and PM < 2.5 μm) on cellulose filters using a high-volume air sampler equipped an all-Teflon impactor. Unburned foliage and burn aerosols were analyzed for Fe and other trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results show that 0.06-0.86 % of Fe in plant biomass is likely mobilized as atmospheric aerosols during biomass burning events, depending on the type of foliage. We used these results and estimates of annual global wildfire area to estimate the impact of biomass burning aerosols on total atmospheric Fe flux to the ocean. We estimate that biomass-derived Fe likely contributes 3% of the total soluble Fe flux from aerosols. Prior studies, which implicitly included both biomass and soil-derived Fe, concluded that biomass burning contributed as much as 7% of the total marine soluble Fe flux from aerosols. Together, these studies suggest that biomass and fire-entrained soil probably contribute equally to the total fire-derived Fe aerosol flux. Further study of solubility differences between plant- and soil-derived Fe is needed

  7. Biomass energy development in California: Accomplishments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The recent and rapid growth of biomass power development in California has created the largest contiguous biomass fueled electrical generating capacity in U.S. This growth has been fostered by resource availability, federal (PURPA) incentives, and the entrepeneurial response of independent power producers. California's environment has benefited from reduced air emissions, wildfire suppression, landfill reduction and the sequestering of carbon. The state has benefited economically through capital investment, employment for several thousand, and the generation of over $100 million in state and local tax revenues. Along with the benefits have come serious challenges brought about largely due to changes in the utility and regulatory environment. These changes threaten the continued existence and economic viability of the developed biomass power industry in California and threatens to establish national precedents. Specific issues are identified and recommended actions are presented

  8. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  9. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  10. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  11. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P.; McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S.; Biberacher, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  14. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  15. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  16. IV. International Slovak Biomass Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the conference dealing with use of biomass for energy production. The main conference topics are focused on the following scopes: Session 1: Strategies, politics, legislation tools, implementation issues; Session 2: Bioenergy market and business; Session 3: Biomass resources and fuel production; Session 4: Combustion and boiler system, technology; Session 5: Utilisation of biomass, practical examples (CHP, WWTP, DH, Central heating, Stakeholders); Session 6: Application of R + D in praxis in the short term horizont. In these proceedings 44 contributions are included

  17. Plankton composition and biomass development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H.H.; Jepsen, P.M.; Blanda, E.

    2016-01-01

    Plankton food web dynamics were studied during a complete production season in a semi-intensive land-based facility for rearing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. The production season was divided into three production cycles of 3–5 weeks. Phytoplankton biomass (using chlorophyll a as biomass...... proxy) peaked in each production cycle. However, the maximum biomass decreased from spring (18 μg chlorophyll a L−1) to fall (ca. 7 μg chlorophyll a L−1), simultaneous with a decline in the concentration of dissolved nitrogen in the inoculating water. During the three production cycles, we observed...

  18. Biomass catalysis and solvents; Biomasse catalyse et solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioch, D. [CIRAD-AMIS, programme Agro-Alimentaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Pouilloux, Y.; Barrault, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS UMR 6503), ESIP, Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, 86 - Poitiers (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    How to develop new technics and products and at the same time to respect the environment? The biomass seems to be an interesting domain in this framework and this document allows the selection of performing products obtain by biomass. Among these products the solvents economic and environmental advantages or consequences are discussed. A great part is also devoted to the voc emissions, bound to the solvents.

  19. Energy densification of animal waste lignocellulose biomass and raw biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pahla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce carbon emissions has encouraged more research into use of biomass energy in place of coal. Biomass is carbon neutral; its use can therefore lower net emissions. Biomass can be upgraded to a fuel similar to coal by torrefaction. Different biomass have been torrefied but there is limited research in possible use of lignocellulose biomass from animal waste. This study aims to compare extent of energy densification of torrefied cow dung, corn cob and pine wood. They were dried, ground and sieved. Proximate and ultimate analysis was conducted. The samples were then torrefied at 200, 250 and 300 °C at 10 °C/min for 40 min. The resulting biochar were characterized using mass yield, higher heating value, energy yield and density. Biochar obtained at 250 °C were analyzed for elemental composition. Results were compared to Anglo bituminous coal and other torrefied biomass in literature. Corn cob and pine wood reached a maximum of 25.98 MJ/kg and 20.90 MJ/kg in heating value respectively whilst cow dung only increased to a maximum of 18.60 MJ/kg. Increase in heating value for corn cob was attributed to reduction in oxygen due to release of volatiles as well as water. This lowered the O/C ratio thereby densifying the fuel. The O/C and H/C ratio for corncob and wood moved towards that of bituminous coal unlike that of cow dung. Cow dung had a high inorganic composition so its heating value could not be upgraded as much as the other 2 biomass. Its use as a torrefaction raw material was therefore discouraged. Keywords: Torrefaction, Biomass, Temperature, Cow dung, Corn cobs, Pine wood

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  1. Genetic selection of American sycamore for biomass production in the mid-south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, S. B., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Biomass prediction equations were developed to examine genetic, site, and propagule effects on above stump biomass. Accuracy and precision of subsampling procedures which utilized green weight ratios were high for stem wood and bark, slightly less for limb components, and poorest for the leaf component. The best predictor variables for stem biomass equations were DBH2, (DBH), and (DBH)2, and DBH)2 times height. Crown width, crown surface area, and (DBH)2 times the crown length/tree height ratio were more appropriate predictors for limb of leaf biomass. Specific gravity and moisture content varied within the tree, among sites, and among families within seed sources, but not among sources. Survival, biomass per tree, and biomass per hectare were lowest for trees established from seedling top cuttings, higher for top pruned seedlings, and highest for whole seedlings. Site differences were very large for biomass production, with the best site having nearly as much stem plus limb dry weight per hectare at age five as three other sites combined. Geographic seed sources from south of each planting site produced more biomass per hectare than sources from north of the site. Family differences within sources were significant, as were site-by-family interactions.

  2. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Koruba Dorota; Piotrowski Jerzy Zbigniew; Latosińska Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a...

  3. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...... environment and public health problems. Increasing demand of bioethanol for transportation sector and higher bioethanol prices than gasoline require utilization of cheap and unlimited raw materials in order to become bioethanol economically competitive with gasoline. Such alternative raw materials...

  4. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  5. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J H [Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China); Mo, L-F [School of Information Engineering, Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin' an 311300, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ.

  6. Washington State biomass data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs

  7. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  8. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.

    2008-02-01

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  9. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  10. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  11. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  12. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... Several weight-loss medicines are available. About 5 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) can be lost by ...

  13. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  14. Biomass Gasification Behavior in an Entrained Flow Reactor: Gas Product Distribution and Soot Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Lin, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis were studied in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of operating parameters and biomass types on the syngas composition were investigated. In general, the carbon conversion during biomass gasification was higher than 90......% at the optimal conditions of 1400 °C with steam addition. The biomass carbon that was not converted to gas in the gasification process only appeared as soot particles in the syngas in all of the experiments, except for the two experiments performed at 1000 °C, where a very small amount of char was also left....... In comparison to pyrolysis, lower yields of soot, H2, and CO were produced during gasification. The yield of soot could be reduced by a longer residence time, larger feeder air flow, lower oxygen concentration, higher excess air ratio, higher steam/carbon ratio, and higher reactor temperature. Changes...

  15. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  16. A Simultaneous Density-Integral System for Estimating Stem Profile and Biomass: Slash Pine and Willow Oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; Charles E. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In the wood utilization industry, both stem profile and biomass are important quantities. The two have traditionally been estimated separately. The introduction of a density-integral method allows for coincident estimation of stem profile and biomass, based on the calculus of mass theory, and provides an alternative to weight-ratio methodology. In the initial...

  17. Biomass statistics for the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Gerhard K. Raile

    1984-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service now estimates biomass during periodic resource inventories. Such biomass estimates quantify more of the forest resource than do traditional volume inventories that concentrate on tree boles. More than 48 percent of the aboveground tree biomass in the northern United States can be found in woody material outside of the boles. Tree biomass in the...

  18. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  19. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  20. Upgrading Fuel Properties of Biomass by Torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Holm, Jens Kai

    , higher heating value, better grindability, and less moisture absorption. However, severe torrefaction conditions were found not necessary in order to save energy during grinding, since strain energy and grinding energy decreased tremendously in the first 5 - 25% anhydrous weight loss. By correlating...... the heating value and mass loss, it was found that wheat straw contained less heating value on mass basis than the other two fuels, but the fraction of energy retained in the torrefied sample as a function of mass loss was very similar for all three biomass. Gas products formed during torrefaction of three...... at 300 ÛC for 1 h were compared, and water was found to be the dominant product during torrefaction. The degradation kinetics of wheat straw was studied in TGA by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking the mass loss during the initial heating period into account. The model and parameters...

  1. Flowthrough Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Stone, Michael L.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as a leading biomass fractionation and lignin valorization strategy. Here, flowthrough reactors were used to investigate RCF of poplar. Most RCF studies to date have been conducted in batch, but a flow-based process enables the acquisition of intrinsic kinetic and mechanistic data essential to accelerate the design, optimization, and scale-up of RCF processes. Time-resolved product distributions and yields obtained from experiments with different catalyst loadings were used to identify and deconvolute events during solvolysis and hydrogenolysis. Multi-bed RCF experiments provided unique insights into catalyst deactivation, showing that leaching, sintering, and surface poisoning are causes for decreased catalyst performance. The onset of catalyst deactivation resulted in higher concentrations of unsaturated lignin intermediates and increased occurrence of repolymerization reactions, producing high-molecular-weight species. Overall, this study demonstrates the concept of flowthrough RCF, which will be vital for realistic scale-up of this promising approach.

  2. Production of Spirulina biomass in closed photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torzillo, G.; Pushparaj, B.; Bocci, F.; Balloni, W.; Materassi, R.; Florenzano, G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of six years investigation on the outdoor mass culture of Spirulina platensis and S. maxima in closed tubular photobioreactors are reported. On average, under the climatic conditions of central Italy, the annual yield of biomass obtained from the closed culture units was equivalent to 33 t dry weight/ha per year. In the same climatic conditions the yield of the same organisms grown in open ponds was about 18 t/ha per year. This considerable difference is due primarily to better temperature conditions in the closed culture system. The main problems encountered relate to the control of temperature and oxygen concentration in the culture suspension. This will require an appropriate design and management of the photobioreactor as well as the selection of strains specifically adapted to grow at high temperature and high oxygen concentration. 8 references.

  3. Methane and fertilizer production from seaweed biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzer, P.R.; Humm, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was demonstrated that several varieties of abundant benthic algae indigenous to Tampa Bay (Gracilaria, Hypnea, and Ulva) were readily degradable via anaerobic digestion to methane. The energy yield per unit weight biomass degraded was higher than any previously reported. Given the large masses of readily degradable plants which are annually produced in and around Tampa Bay, the resource is estimated to be at least equivalent to several million gallons of gasoline.

  4. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  5. Seaweed and Biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiradze, K. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Black Sea has a sensitive ecosystem, vulnerable to the potential impacts by climate, water quality, pollution and etc. Successfully restoring and sustaining healthy Black Sea aqua cultural farming will require concreted action by private sector, civil society, farmer organizations and other stakeholders. But to achieve agri-environmental goals at scale, well-organized policy goals, framework and strategy for Sea Agriculture Green energy, Algae Biomass, Sapropel Production, aquacultures farming are essential for Georgian Farmers. But we must recognizes the most sustainable and at least risky farming systems will be those that build in aqua cultural, environmental, and social management practices resilient to climate ch ange and other risks and shocks evident in Georgia and whole in a Black Sea Basin Countries. Black Sea has more than 600 kinds of seaweeds; these species contain biologically active substances also present in fish - vitamins and omega fatty acids. The task is to specify how Black Sea seaweeds can be used in preparing nutrition additives, medicines and cosmetic products. As elsewhere around the world, governments, civil society, and the private sector in Georgia should work together to develop and implement `Blue Economy' and Green Growth strategies to generate equitable, sustainable economic development through strengthening Sea Agriculture. We are very interested to develop Black Sea seaweed plantation ad farming for multiply purposes fo r livestock as food additives, for human as great natural source of iodine as much iodine are released by seaweeds into the atmosphere to facilitate the development of better models or aerosol formation and atmospheric chemistry. It is well known, that earth's oceans are thought to have absorbed about one quarter of the CO2 humans pumped into the atmosphere over the past 20 years. The flip side of this process is that, as they absorb co2, oceans also become more acidic with dramatic consequences for sea life

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  7. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Ugursal, V.I.; Fung, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discussed a proposed biomass-based district heating system to be built for the Pictou Landing First Nation Community in Nova Scotia. The community centre consists of 6 buildings and a connecting arcade. The methodology used to size and design heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, as well as biomass district energy systems (DES) were discussed. Annual energy requirements and biomass fuel consumption predictions were presented, along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the system with that of a conventional oil fired system was also conducted. It was suggested that the design and analysis methodology could be used for any similar application. The buildings were modelled and simulated using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP), a detailed 2-in-1 software program which can be used both for HVAC system sizing and building energy consumption estimation. A techno-economics analysis was conducted to justify the viability of the biomass combustion system. Heating load calculations were performed assuming that the thermostat was set constantly at 22 degrees C. Community centre space heating loads due to individual envelope components for 3 different scenarios were summarized, as the design architecture for the buildings was not yet finalized. It was suggested that efforts should be made to ensure air-tightness and insulation levels of the interior arcade glass wall. A hydronic distribution system with baseboard space heating units was selected, comprising of a woodchip boiler, hot water distribution system, convective heating units and control systems. The community has its own logging operation which will provide the wood fuel required by the proposed system. An outline of the annual allowable harvest covered by the Pictou Landing Forestry Management Plan was presented, with details of proposed wood-chippers for the creation of biomass. It was concluded that the woodchip combustion system is economically preferable to the

  8. Quantification of protein biomass of individual foraminifers using nano-spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movellan, A.; Schiebel, R.; Zubkov, M. V.; Smyth, A.; Howa, H.

    2012-06-01

    The ecological role of foraminifers has been largely unknown partly owing to difficulties in determining their individual biomass, although foraminifers are abundant in surface marine sediments. The present study provides a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of the protein content of hard-shelled foraminifers as a measure of biomass while preserving the tests for later analyses (e.g., morphometry, stable isotopes) using nano-spectrophotometry. The protein biomass, size, and shell weight of Ammonia tepida are significantly correlated (n = 102, p mass (i.e., test weight). In turn, knowing the size- and species-specific biomass of foraminifers adds valuable information on the trophic and ecologic conditions of modern and ancient marine environments, in particular on the reconstruction of the regional paleoproductivity and flux of organic matter.

  9. Protein biomass quantification of unbroken individual foraminifers using nano-spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movellan, A.; Schiebel, R.; Zubkov, M. V.; Smyth, A.; Howa, H.

    2012-09-01

    The ecological role of foraminifers has been largely unknown partly owing to difficulties in determining their individual biomass, although foraminifers are abundant in surface marine sediments. The present study provides a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of the protein content of hard-shelled foraminifers as a measure of biomass while preserving the tests for later analyses (e.g. morphometry, stable isotopes), using nano-spectrophotometry. The protein biomass, is significantly correlated with size, and shell weight of Ammonia tepida (n = 102, p mass (i.e. test weight). In turn, knowing the size- and species-specific biomass of foraminifers adds valuable information on the trophic and ecologic conditions of modern and ancient marine environments, in particular on the reconstruction of the regional palaeoproductivity and flux of organic matter.

  10. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  11. Modeling and experiments of biomass combustion in a large-scale grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    is exposed to preheated inlet air while the top of the bed resides within the furnace. Mathematical modeling is an efficient way to understand and improve the operation and design of combustion systems. Compared to modeling of pulverized fuel furnaces, CFD modeling of biomass-fired grate furnaces...... is inherently more difficult due to the complexity of the solid biomass fuel bed on the grate, the turbulent reacting flow in the combustion chamber and the intensive interaction between them. This paper presents the CFD validation efforts for a modern large-scale biomass-fired grate boiler. Modeling...... quite much with the conditions in the real furnace. Combustion instabilities in the fuel bed impose big challenges to give reliable grate inlet BCs for the CFD modeling; the deposits formed on furnace walls and air nozzles make it difficult to define precisely the wall BCs and air jet BCs...

  12. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  13. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  14. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  15. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    From the introduction: The following natural conditions enable agriculture development: surface configuration, climatic conditions including insolation, temperature, rainfalls, winds and frost periods, soil conditions (fertility), water conditions. Water conditions are determined by sum of rainfalls, evaporation quantity and water transpiration by plants. Climatic conditions and soil conditions are decisive factors for agricultural land use. They determine plants selection for crop and expected yield level. Non-natural conditions are also important for agriculture development. The following factors belong to them: labour force, structure of the land ownership, farms size, fertilization, herbicides utilisation, farm mechanisation, education and skills of a farmer, EU and state agricultural policy. EU and Polish agricultural policy is characterized by protectionalism. It means a financial support system and preferential credits with implementation of other means for agricultural market protection. Poland lies in the sphere of clashes between influences of continental climate (with quite dry summers and cold winters) and moderate Atlantic climate. These clashes are reason of unstable conditions for agricultural production. The annual average air temperature varies from 6.0 to 8.8 degrees Celsius. The length of the thermal vegetation period is about 220 days and only in South-West part of Poland exceeds 230 days. The annual sum of rainfall is about 500-600 mm on lowlands, 600-700 mm on highlands and it is above 1000 mm in mountains. Central Poland (Masovia, Great Poland, Kuyavia) belongs to European regions with the smallest rainfall sum which not exceeds 550 mm. Atlantic Ocean significantly influences on Polish climate from west side of Poland and Asia continent from east side of Poland. Rainfall is another significant factor. Western Europe has significantly higher rainfall in comparison with Poland. Polish agriculture is featured by: high amount of smallest farms in

  16. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  17. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  18. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  20. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  1. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  2. Woody biomass production in a spray irrigation wastewater treatment facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.; Lea, R.; Milosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Application of municipal wastewater to deciduous tree plantations offers a viable opportunity to dispose of nutrients and pollutants, while protecting water quality. Production of woody biomass for energy or pulp mill furnish, using wastewater if feasible and markets exist in may parts of the world for this biomass. Plantations of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), have been established in Edenton, North Carolina for application of municipal wastewater. Research describing the dry weight biomass following the fifth year of seedling growth is presented along with future estimates for seedling and coppice yields. Ongoing and future work for estimating nutrient assimilation and wastewater renovation are described and discussed

  3. Estimation of lichen biomass with emphasis on reindeer winter pastures at Hardangervidda, S Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland; Sylvi M. Sandvik; Dag K. Bjerketvedt; Linn L. Myrvold

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of lichen abundance is important for management of reindeer populations. We measured dry lichen biomass in 876 micro plots (16.5 cm × 16.5 cm) systematically sampled within 219 vegetation plots (2 m × 2 m) from 7 different areas in S Norway. Lichen biomass was quantified as: (a) dry weight in g m-2, (b) lichen height in cm, (c) lichen cover, and (d) lichen volume (lichen height × lichen cover). Lichen biomass decreased with increasing precipitation and increasing altitude. On l...

  4. Analysis of Operation Parameters in a Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier Integrated with a Biomass Rotary Dryer: Development and Application of a System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Puadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system model was developed in UniSim Design for a dual fluidized bed (DFB biomass gasifier and a rotary biomass dryer using a combination of user-defined and built-in unit operations. A quasi-equilibrium model was used for modelling biomass steam gasification in the DFB gasifier. The biomass drying was simulated with consideration of mass and energy balances, heat transfer, and dryer’s configuration. After validation using experimental data, the developed system model was applied to investigate: (1 the effects of gasification temperature and steam to biomass (S/B ratio on the gasification performance; (2 the effect of air supplied to the fast fluidized bed (FFB reactor and feed biomass moisture content on the integrated system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies. It was found that gasification temperature and S/B ratio have positive effects on the gasification yields; a H2/CO ratio of 1.9 can be achieved at the gasification temperature of 850 °C with a S/B ratio of 1.2. Consumption of excessive fuel in the system at higher biomass feed moisture content can be compensated by the heat recovery such as steam generation while it has adverse impact on exergy efficiency of the system.

  5. Energy from biomass and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides a review of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Energy Demonstration Programme in the sector of Energy from biomass and waste, and examines the current status of the energy technologies associated with the sector, in relation to projects supported under the Programme, those included under various national programmes and by reference to the published literature. Detailed overviews of five sub-categories represented in the Energy from biomass and waste sector are presented to illustrate their relative significance in terms of estimated energy potential, technological and economic status and the nature of future research, development and demonstration needs. Finally the potential role of the biomass and waste energy technologies in meeting the energy needs of the developing world is discussed. 33 refs; 2 figs; 11 tabs

  6. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...

  7. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2017-07-01

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Income tax credits and incentives available for producing energy from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's the US became interested in the development of energy from biomass and other alternative sources. While this interest was stimulated primarily by the oil embargoes of the 1970's, the need for environmentally friendly alternative fuels was also enhanced by the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act, two prominent pieces of environmental legislation. As a result, Congress created several tax benefits and subsidies for the production of energy for biomass. Congress enacted biomass energy incentives in 1978 with the creation of excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, in 1980 with the enactment of the IRC section 29 nonconventional fuel credit provisions and the IRC section 40 alcohol fuel credits, and recently with the addition of favorable biomass energy provisions as part of the Comprehensive National energy Policy Act of 1992. This article focuses on the following specific tax credits, tax benefits and subsidies for biomass energy: (1) IRC section 29 credit for producing gas from biomass, (2) IRC section 45 credit for producing electricity from biomass, (3) Incentive payments for electricity produced from biomass, (4) Excise tax exemptions for alcohol fuels, (5) IRC section 40 alcohol fuels credits, and (6) IRC section 179A special deduction for alcohol fuels property

  9. Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Fuel Oxygenate Production from California Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E. (Ecobalance Inc.); Forrest, L. H.; Jacobson, W. A. (TSS Consultants); Simeroth, D. C. (California Air Resources Board); Blackburn, W. J. (California Energy Commission); Nehoda, K. C. (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection)

    1999-05-20

    Historically, more than 90% of the excess agricultural residue produced in California (approximately 10 million dry metric tons per year) has been disposed through open-field burning. Concerns about air quality have prompted federal, state, and local air quality agencies to tighten regulations related to this burning and to look at disposal alternatives. One use of this biomass is as an oxygenated fuel. This report focuses on quantifying and comparing the comprehensive environmental flows over the life cycles of two disposal scenarios: (1) burning the biomass, plus producing and using MTBE; and (2) converting and using ETBE.

  10. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  11. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  12. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardette, Yves-Marie; Dieckhoff, Lea; Lorne, Daphne; Postec, Gwenael; Cherisey, Hugues de; RANTIEN, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  13. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswaran, R.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollut...

  14. Cogasification of Coal and Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Brar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been significant research interest in cogasification of coal and various types of biomass blends to improve biomass gasification by reducing the tar content in the product gas. In addition, ash present in biomass catalyzes the gasification of coal. However, due to the fibrous nature of biomass and the large difference in gasification temperature of coal and biomass, cogasification in existing systems presents technical challenges. This paper documents research studies conducted on the cogasification of various types of coal and biomass using different types of gasifiers under various sets of operating conditions. In addition, the influence of cogasification on upstream and downstream processing is presented.

  15. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  16. A method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina platensis cultivated on a solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizer, Lúcia Helena; Moraes, Iracema de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the biomass of Spirulina cultivated on solid medium with sugarcane bagasse as a support, in view of the difficulty in determining biomass concentrations in bioprocesses, particularly those conducted in semi-solid or solid media. The genus Spirulina of the family Oscillatoriaceae comprises the group of multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green microalgae). Spirulina is used as fish feed in aquaculture, as a food supplement, a source of vitamins, pigments, antioxidants and fatty acids. Therefore, its growth parameters are extremely important in studies of the development and optimization of bioprocesses. For studies of biomass growth, Spirulina platensis was cultured on solid medium using sugarcane bagasse as a support. The biomass thus produced was estimated by determining the protein content of the material grown during the process, based on the ratio of dry weight to protein content obtained in the surface growth experiments. The protein content of the biomass grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on surface medium was examined daily to check the influence of culture time on the protein content of the biomass. The biomass showed an average protein content of 42.2%. This methodology enabled the concentration of biomass adhering to the sugarcane bagasse to be estimated from the indirect measurement of the protein content associated with cell growth.

  17. ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir M Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

    2000-01-01

    high efficiency of biomass in reburning are low fuel-N content and high content of alkali metals in ash. These results indicate that the efficiency of biomass as a reburning fuel may be predicted based on its ultimate, proximate, and ash analyses. The results of experimental and kinetic modeling studies were utilized in applying a validated methodology for reburning system design to biomass reburning in a typical coal-fired boiler. Based on the trends in biomass reburning performance and the characteristics of the boiler under study, a preliminary process design for biomass reburning was developed. Physical flow models were applied to specific injection parameters and operating scenarios, to assess the mixing performance of reburning fuel and overfire air jets which is of paramount importance in achieving target NO(sub x) control performance. The two preliminary cases studied showed potential as candidate reburning designs, and demonstrated that similar mixing performance could be achieved in operation with different quantities of reburning fuel. Based upon this preliminary evaluation, EER has determined that reburning and advanced reburning technologies can be successfully applied using biomass. Pilot-scale studies on biomass reburning conducted by EER have indicated that biomass is an excellent reburning fuel. This generic design study provides a template approach for future demonstrations in specific installations

  18. ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

    2000-10-01

    high efficiency of biomass in reburning are low fuel-N content and high content of alkali metals in ash. These results indicate that the efficiency of biomass as a reburning fuel may be predicted based on its ultimate, proximate, and ash analyses. The results of experimental and kinetic modeling studies were utilized in applying a validated methodology for reburning system design to biomass reburning in a typical coal-fired boiler. Based on the trends in biomass reburning performance and the characteristics of the boiler under study, a preliminary process design for biomass reburning was developed. Physical flow models were applied to specific injection parameters and operating scenarios, to assess the mixing performance of reburning fuel and overfire air jets which is of paramount importance in achieving target NO{sub x} control performance. The two preliminary cases studied showed potential as candidate reburning designs, and demonstrated that similar mixing performance could be achieved in operation with different quantities of reburning fuel. Based upon this preliminary evaluation, EER has determined that reburning and advanced reburning technologies can be successfully applied using biomass. Pilot-scale studies on biomass reburning conducted by EER have indicated that biomass is an excellent reburning fuel. This generic design study provides a template approach for future demonstrations in specific installations.

  19. Biomass Demand-Resources Value Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Hsion; Lam, Hon Loong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce DRVT supply chain modelling approach to consider underutilised biomass. • Advantages of the novel DRVT biomass supply chain approach. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the improvement of the system. - Abstract: With the global awareness towards sustainability, biomass industry becomes one of the main focuses in the search of alternative renewable resources for energy and downstream product. However, the efficiency of the biomass management, especially in supply chain is still questionable. Even though many researches and integrations of supply chain network have been conducted, less has considered underutilised biomass. This leads to the ignorance of potential value in particular biomass species. A new Demand-Resources Value Targeting (DRVT) approach is introduced in this study to investigate the value of each biomass available in order to fully utilise the biomass in respective applications. With systematic biomass value classification, integration of supply chain based on biomass value from biomass resources-to-downstream product can be developed. DRVT model allows better understanding of biomass and their potential downstream application. A simple demonstration of DRVT approach is conducted based on biomass resources in Malaysia

  20. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the

  1. Plant biomass degradation by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the

  2. Torrefied biomass-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied almond shells and wood chips were incorporated into polypropylene as fillers to produce torrefied biomass-polymer composites. Response surface methodology was used to examine the effects of filler concentration, filler size, and lignin factor (relative lignin to cellulose concentration) on...

  3. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  4. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  5. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  6. Plant population and row spacing on biomass sorghum yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Biomass sorghum is one of the most promising crops for the production of electricity through the burning in high-pressure boilers, due to its high calorific value, high yield, seed propagation, short cycle, and to the possibility of full mechanization of its agricultural processes. However, there is still a lack of information about its cultural practices. To this end, this research aimed to evaluate the influence of row spacing and plant population on the yield performance of biomass sorghum. The experimental design was a randomized block, in factorial scheme of 4 x 4, with four row spacings (0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1m, and four plant populations (80,000; 100,000; 120,000 and 140,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of tillers per plant, fresh weight per plant and biomass. Total biomass yield was greatly influenced by the row spacing, showing a sharp reduction when row spacing increased, in the two years of study, changing from 180.27 to 114.42t ha-1 in the 2012/13 crop year, and from 146.50 to 102.56t ha-1 in the 2013/14 crop year, for 0.5 and 1.1m between rows, respectively. The lowest yields observed in the second year of the study were due to unfavorable weather conditions in the period.

  7. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  8. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  9. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  10. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  11. Comparison of in vitro toxicological effects of biomass smoke from different sources of animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography. There are currently neither standardized experimental systems for dung biomass smoke research nor studies assessing the health impacts of different types of dung smoke. Here, we used a novel reproducible exposure system to assess outcomes related to inflammation and respiratory infections in human airway cells exposed to six different types of dung biomass smoke. We report that dung biomass smoke, regardless of species, is pro-inflammatory and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and JNK transcription factors; however, dung smoke also suppresses interferon responses after a challenge with a viral mimetic. These effects are consistent with epidemiological data, and suggest a mechanism by which the combustion of animal dung can directly cause lung diseases, promote increased susceptibility to infection, and contribute to the global health problem of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva for algal biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3 and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m(-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day(-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0 ± 8.8 g dry weight m(-1 (228.7 ± 115.4 g fresh weight m(-1 was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5 ± 7.3 g dry weight m(-1 (120.2 ± 71.8 g fresh weight m(-1 over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

  13. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    appropriate feedstocks and deployment scenarios that match hydrogen to the local markets. Co-production opportunities are of particular interest for near-term deployment since multiple products improve the economics; however, co-product development is not covered in this report. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric CO2 during growth, it can have a small net CO2 impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges. There are no completed technology demonstrations. The yield of hydrogen is low from biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to being with (approximately 6% versus 25% for methane) and the energy content is low due to the 40% oxygen content of biomass. Since over half of the hydrogen from biomass comes from splitting water in the steam reforming reaction, the energy content of the feedstock is an inherent limitation of the process . The low yield of hydrogen on a weight basis is misleading since the energy conversion efficiency is high. However, the cost for growing, harvesting, and transporting biomass is high. Thus even with reasonable energy efficiencies, it is not presently economically competitive with natural gas steam reforming for stand-alone hydrogen without the advantage of high-value co-products. Additionally, as with all sources of hydrogen, production from biomass will require appropriate hydrogen storage and utilization systems to be developed and deployed. The report also looked at promising areas for further research and development. The major areas for R,D and D are: feedstock preparation and feeding; gasification gas conditioning; system integration; modular systems development; valuable co-product integration; and larger-scale demonstrations. These are in addition to the challenges for any hydrogen process in storage and utilization technologies.

  14. Trading biomass or GHG emission credits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Global biomass potentials are considerable but unequally distributed over the world. Countries with Kyoto targets could import biomass to substitute for fossil fuels or invest in bio-energy projects in the country of biomass origin and buy the credits (Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint

  15. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  16. Economics of multifunctional biomass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignaciuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 2 focuses on the competition between traditional agricultural production and growing demand for biomass plantations. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the effects of various energy policies, aimed at both reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing the share of bioelectricity, on the production of biomass and agricultural commodities. A partial equilibrium model is developed to illustrate some of the potential impacts of these policies on greenhouse gas emissions, land reallocation and prices of food and electricity. A partial framework is used, because it provides a transparent and consistent structure and enables to concentrate on only the relevant economic sectors (agriculture, biomass, conventional electricity, and bioelectricity). In the model, GHG emissions depend on land use patterns and fossil fuel use. The innovative element of this model is that it integrates two distinct analyses, namely an analysis of substitution mechanisms between energy from biomass and from fossil fuels, and an analysis of the effects of changes in demand for biomass on land use and GHG emissions. Chapter 3 deals with the impact of climate policies on land use and land cover change and possible impacts on reestablishment of semi-natural areas, mainly forestry and willow plantations. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the impact of climate policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of promoting biomass and bioelectricity. In this context, the analysis is performed on how these policies might affect production of agricultural commodities and trade patterns of biomass and bioelectricity. To this purpose, an applied general equilibrium model (AGE) is developed with special attention to biomass and agricultural crops for a small open economy, with an Armington specification for international trade. Chapter 4 focuses on the multiproductivity issues of agriculture, biomass, and forestry sectors resulting in additional production inputs

  17. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  18. Effect of UV-B radiation on biomass production, pigmentation and protein content of marine diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several species of marine diatoms were grown at + 18 0 C and + 22 0 C under normal air conditions (0.035 vol.% CO 2 ) at a light/dark alteration of 14.8 h. Intensity of white light was 1 mW (approx.= 5000 lux). An artifical nutrient solution of 35per mille salinity was used. Algae - harvested during exponential growth - were exposed to different intensities of UV-B radiation (439, 717 and 1230 J m -2 m -1 ) for 2 days. UV-B radiation depressed the growth of all tested marine diatoms. Low levels of UV-B resulted in a slight increase of the biomass production (dry weight) compared to not UV-B treated cells. Enhanced UV-B doses caused a diminution of the primary productivity in all species. Algae exposed to UV-B stress showed a marked decrease in the protein and pigment content (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 1 + c 2 and carotenoids). In + 22 0 C grown cells of Lauderia annulata and Thalassiosira rotula were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than those cultures grown at + 18 0 C. Bellerochea yucatanensis cells grown at + 22 0 C were less affected after UV-B exposure than at + 18 0 C grown algae. The UV-B sensibility and growth of the individual species varied in a mixture of several marine diatoms. Results were discussed with reference to the UV-B effect on metabolic processes. (orig.)

  19. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  20. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.